Structural Steel Design Flexural Members

Dr. Seshu Adluri

Beams in Buildings

Hibbeler

Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Beams in Bridges

Hibbeler; Wallarah Creek Bridge; eastbound on I-64, approaching I-295 overpasses

Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Beams in Bridges

/I64-I295-Interchange Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Beams in Bridges

http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/prefab_bridges/chapter_two_c.htm

Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri

Seshu Adluri . Docklands East India Beam footbridge (curved beam) Cascade Creek valley Flexural members -Dr.Beams in Bridges Canary Wharf.

New York.Beam construction! Then [engineering necessity] Now [Television (CSI) vanity] ! The high-flying cast of 'CSI: NY's' fourth season 2007 Construction workers take a lunch break on a steel beam atop the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center. Seshu Adluri . 29. Sept. 1932. In the background is the Chrysler Building Flexural members -Dr.

Seshu Adluri . Lewis Hine (two workers) Building the Empire State. 1930. Lewis Hine (two workers) Flexural members -Dr.Beam construction! Building the Empire State. 1930.

August 21. 1934 Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .Beams! Acrobats Jarley Smith (top). and Jimmy Kerrigan (right) perform a delicate balancing act on a ledge of the Empire State Building in Manhattan. Jewell Waddek (left).

Seshu Adluri .Beams! The new telephone company skyscraper at Vesey Street and the North River under construction. Photo shows the iron workers perched on a girder twenty stories in the air and enjoying their lunch -New York Flexural members -Dr.

Beam construction! Construction workers eat their lunches atop a steel beam 800 feet above ground. 1930’s Flexural members -Dr. at the building site of the RCA Building in Rockefeller Center. Seshu Adluri .

Beam installation Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Beam profiles Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Beam geometry Stand alone beams Frame beams Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Beam Loading Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Beam diagrams Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

Seshu Adluri .Bending moment diagrams Flexural members -Dr.

Seshu Adluri .Flexure Plane section remains plane Strain varies linearly Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

Seshu Adluri .Bending stress Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

Stress for yield moment MY Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Yield moment MY If the stress due to applied moment is at or below the yield. S=(bh2/6) Section modulus is listed for other sections Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. C=T =(bh/2)(σy/2) MY=C*(lever arm)=C*(2h/3)=(bh2/6)σy =Sσy Elastic section modulus for rectangle. Seshu Adluri . the stress distribution is linear Max moment for which the stress is linearly varying is the yield moment MY.

Seshu Adluri .Stress for moment M>MY Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

Progression of stress with load increase ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Mp=C*(lever arm)=(bh2/4)σy Plastic modulus for rectangle c/s. Z=bh2/4 Plastic modulii are listed in Section properties tables Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri . C=T=(bh/2)σy Moment.Plastic moment MP > MY The maximum moment that the c/s can take occurs when the entire c/s is yielded in compression or tension.

Seshu Adluri .Moment curvature relationship ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.

Moment curvature relationship ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Plastic hinge ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Plastic hinge ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.

Beams in Shear Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Shear Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Shear Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Shear flow Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Shear flow Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Shear flow Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Shear centre Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

Shear flow effect Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Shear centre Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

Seshu Adluri .Shear centre Hibbeler Flexural members -Dr.

MY Plastic moment.Bending terminology Moment of inertia I x = ∫ y A Parallel axis theorem Flexural stress Average shear stress Yield moment. Z 2 dA I x′ = I x + A x 2 σ= =Vf/hw My I Elastic Section modulus. Girder (load from beams) Flexural members -Dr. S Beam (slab load) vs. MP Plastic section modulus. Seshu Adluri .

5.4 Local buckling check: Clause 11 (Table 2) Special provisions: Clause 14 Deflection limits: Appendix D Flexural members -Dr. etc.Beams and Girders Steel flexural members Beams in building frames Elements carrying lateral loads Equipment. Useful in pure bending as well as in beam-columns Design Clauses: CAN/CSA-S16 Bending strength as per Clauses 13. 6 & 7 Shear strength as per Clause 13. Seshu Adluri .

ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .Lateral-Torsional Buckling Instability due to buckling of compression half of the beam (perpendicular to the plane of loading).

ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.LateralTorsional Buckling Instability due to buckling of compression half of the beam (perpendicular to the plane of loading). Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Lateral-Torsional Buckling ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.

Lateral-Torsional Buckling Lateral support Characteristic length. Lu Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri . Lu ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.Lateral-Torsional Buckling Lateral support Characteristic length.

Seshu Adluri . ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.Beam plastic hinge mechanisms Capacity is much higher than that predicted by simple section analysis (max. moment in the structure < moment capacity of the section) Only possible if the sections allow plastic hinge formation and redistribution beyond the initial plastic hinge formation.

Model of Behaviour M Moment Resistance Plastic moment on full section fy Local buckling Rotation Capacity M M pl 1 Sufficient Class Classification of beams Mpl 1 φrot φpl 1 φ Plastic moment on full section fy Mpl 1 Local buckling φ φ pl M M M pl Limited 2 1 φ Elastic moment on full section fy Mpl Mel Local buckling 1 Mal Mpl φ φ pl M M M pl None 3 1 φ Elastic moment on effective section fy Mpl Mel Local buckling 1 φ φ pl M M M pl None 4 1 ESDEP φ φ φ pl Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Class 4 – Not even MY will develop. Section will buckle after that.Classification of beams Class 1 –Full plastification and redistribution are allowed Class 2 –Full plastification is allowed but no redistribution More curvature will result in section buckling Class 3 –Only MY is allowed to be developed. Seshu Adluri . Section will fail in elastic lateral-torsional buckling Flexural members -Dr.

Plate buckling Different types of buckling depending on b/t ratio Webs and flanges have different limits end conditions for plate segments Use Table 2 for beams and beam-columns ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Local (Plate) buckling of Flange Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Local (Plate) buckling of Web Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Web buckling Flexural members -Dr.

Real beams Factors for consideration Residual stresses in Hot-rolled shapes (idealized) Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Seshu Adluri .Real beams Factors for consideration Residual stresses in Hot-rolled shapes Idealized Measured ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.

Seshu Adluri .Beam columns ESDEP Flexural members -Dr.

Plate Girders Slender webs buckle easily due to shear or bending ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Plate Girders Slender webs buckle easily due to shear or bending Use reduced effective c/s or Use reduced capacity ESDEP Flexural members -Dr. Seshu Adluri .

Milford Haven bridge over the River Cleddau in the UK Flexural members -Dr.Stiffeners are Important June 1970. Seshu Adluri .

htm http://www.gov.istructe. The text and some of the figures are done by the instructor.nsw.C.html www.org/tmspages/switch.org/technical/db/index.htm http://www.uk/bridges/bridge-types/bridge-types-beam.wtc7.fhwa.rta.htm http://911research.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S010073862001000400003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es http://www.com/I64-I295-Interchange-Mod.dot.org/members/samplecourse/toc.org.scielo.show&id=4305021 http://international.longtain.bardaglea.monorails.ce.net/mirrors/guardian2/fire/SCI.gov/prefab_bridges/chapter_two_c.html http://www. No copy right for pictures that have been obtained from other sources is claimed or implied by the instructor. 7th Ed.com/en/2_prod/tech. R.playlsi.jhu. Seshu Adluri.asp?page=281&bhcp=1 Most of the pictures in the preceding were gathered from various sources.au/cgi-bin/index.roadstothefuture.wtc7.com/rg/bridges/stl_tres/stl_tres.html http://911research.References Hibbeler.edu/steel/lecture/compression/res_stress_1. Prentice Hall http://www. Flexural members -Dr. To the extent possible. the source has been indicated at the bottom of the slides.jpg http://www.galinsky.html http://ghostdepot.br/scielo.. Dr. Seshu Adluri .cgi?action=heritage.htm http://www.esdep.htm http://www.com/buildings/savill/index.htm http://www. The material is for class room instruction only.com/Products/SportsandFitness/CurvedBalanceBeam/ http://www. Mechanics of Materials.net/mirrors/guardian2/fire/SLamont.

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