Lecture 2 Hazardous Waste Regulations and Hazardous Materials

Hazardous Waste
Superfund adopts lists from RCRA, CAA, CWA, TSCA RCRA characteristic wastes:
Ignitability Reactivity Corrosivity Toxicity

RCRA listed wastes:
For example: F001 – waste halogenated solvents

Units of contaminant measurement
“Parts-per” concentration Parts per million (ppm) Parts per billion (ppb) Parts per trillion (ppt) Water concentration mg/L
milligrams per liter

Soil concentration mg/kg µg/kg

micrograms per liter

nanograms per liter

Contaminants of concern
Alkanes – straight- or branched-chain single-bonded hydrocarbons Usually identified as “Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons” (TPH)
Example: hexane, C6H14

Aromatic compounds (BTEX)
CH3 C2 H5

Benzene CH3 CH3

Toluene CH3 CH3

Ethyl benzene CH3

CH3 Para-xylene



Chlorinated methanes Carbon tetrachloride Cl Cl C Cl Cl Cl Chloroform Cl C H Cl Methylene chloride or dichloromethane Cl Cl C H H Methyl chloride Cl H C H H .

1.1-dichloroethane (1.Chlorinated ethanes 1.1-trichloroethane (1.1-TCA) Cl Cl C Cl H C H H 1.1-DCA) Cl H C Cl H C H H .1.

2-dichloroethane (1.2-DCA) H Cl C H Cl C H H C H H H chloroethane H Cl C H .Chlorinated ethanes 1.

trichloroethylene (TCE) Cl Cl H C C Cl . perchloroethylene (PCE or “perc”) Cl Cl Cl C C Cl Trichloroethene.Chlorinated ethenes Tetrachloroethene. tetrachloroethylene.

cis-1.Chlorinated ethenes cis-1.2-dichloroethene.2-DCE) H Cl H Cl H H C C H C C vinyl chloride Cl . trans-1.2-dichloroethene.2-DCE) Cl H C C Cl H trans-1.2-dichloroethylene (cis-1.2-dichloroethylene (trans-1.

Ketones Acetone O C CH3 CH3 O C C2 H5 CH3 C3 H7 CH3 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 2-butanone Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) 2-pentanone O C .

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs or PNAs) Naphthalene Phenanthrene Pyrene Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) .

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) X X X X X X X = possible Cl site X X X X Congener – specific PCB molecule Homologs – molecules with same chemical formula Aroclor – mixture of PCBs of certain percentage chlorine .

FUEL ADDITIVES MTBE Methyl tertiary butyl ether CH3 CH3 O C CH3 CH3 .

FUEL ADDITIVES Tetraethyl lead CH3 CH2 CH3 CH2 Pb CH2 CH3 CH2 CH3 Br EDB Ethylene dibromide H C H H C H Br .

Cadmium (Cd). Chromium (Cr). Mercury (Hg) Cyanide CN . Lead (Pb).Inorganics Metals: Arsenic (As).

Explosives and propellants CH3 O NO3 NO3 NO3 NO3 N O O Cl O NO3 N N NO3 Perchlorate – ClO4 TNT RDX .

ethanol. trace metals Gasoline – mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (plus additives: tetraethyl lead. monoaromatic hydrocarbons.Mixtures Aroclor – mixture of PCBs Coal tar and creosote – PAHs. EDC in leaded gasoline MTBE. EDB. other oxygenates in unleaded) .

4 and 5 Fuel oil (Bunker B and C) Waste oil .Hydrocarbon Mixtures Other petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures: Diesel fuel Jet fuel (kerosene) Mineral spirits (Stoddard solvent) Hydraulic fluid (possibly with PCBs) Lubricating oils. 2 Fuel oil (home heating oil) No. cutting oils No.

.Second Edition. Merck & Co. CRC Press. Inc.. . Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1996. Florida. Groundwater Chemicals Desk Reference .Sources of Information on Chemicals The Merck Index. J. Boca Raton. Inc.. Montgomery. K. New Jersey. 1983. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. Rahway. New York.. Verschueren.. H.

Major US Hazardous Waste Laws CERCLA or Superfund RCRA Comprehensive Environmental Response. and Liability Act of 1980 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 “Super” fund was $1.6 billion. Compensation. later increased to $8.5 billion .

Major US Hazardous Waste Laws CERCLA or Superfund RCRA Consultant’s Early Retirement and Comfort for Life Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 .

Timeline of Major Legislation 1970 1972 1974 1976 1976 1977 1980 1986 Clean Air Act Federal Water Pollution Control Act Safe Drinking Water Act RCRA TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) Clean Water Act Superfund EPCRA (Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act) .

CERCLA Timeline 1980 CERCLA Established $1.5 billion Created more stringent cleanup requirements .6 billion “Superfund” and rules for hazardous waste site identification and cleanup 1986 SARA – Superfund Reauthorization and Amendments Increased fund to $8.

Provisions of CERCLA • Established National Priorities List (NPL) of sites to be cleaned up • EPA to revise National Contingency Plan • EPA can conduct/require “removals” • EPA can conduct/require site “remedies” • Remedies must attain “applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements” (ARARs) • EPA can recover from Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) (also called the “Polluter Pays Principle”) -with treble damages! .

CERCLA Removal Actions Short-term cleanup actions Designed to address emergencies Limited in: cost (<$2 million) duration (<12 months) .

Office of Research and Development. Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center. 1984 Source: Maine DEP files. Union Chemical Company. May 1988..CERCLA Removal Action Union Chemical Superfund Site. Bureau of Remediation and Waste Management. D. 1988. Hope. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory. Environmental Protection Agency. Warrenton.S. Virginia. Maine. South Hope. . See also: McDonald. B. TS-PIC88072. U. Courtesy of The Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Used with permission. Maine Sept. Site Analysis.

Bureau of Remediation and Waste Management. Courtesy of The Maine Department of Environmental Protection.CERCLA Removal Action Drum grappler Drum overpack Source: Maine DEP files. . Used with permission.

CERCLA Removal Action – Drum Consolidation Source: Maine DEP files. . Used with permission. Courtesy of The Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Bureau of Remediation and Waste Management.

. Courtesy of The Maine Department of Environmental Protection.CERCLA Removal Action – Drum Consolidation Source: Maine DEP files. Used with permission. Bureau of Remediation and Waste Management.

ARARs (Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) Example of applicable: RCRA regulations for off-site disposal of site soils Example of relevant and appropriate: Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) set under Safe Drinking Water Act are used as clean-up levels for ground water .

corporations. landlords .PRP Liability Includes any of: • Current facility owner or operator • Owner or operator when site was contaminated • Those who arranged to treat or dispose waste at facility • Transporters of waste to facility • Generators of waste • May include individuals. corporate officers.

joint and several liability” Strict: Government does not need to prove intent or negligence Joint and several: Each and every PRP at Superfund site can be held liable for entire cleanup cost Government has flexibility to find PRPs with “deep pockets” .“Strict.

Superfund and Litigation Government can pursue some or all PRPs in court PRPs can sue other PRPs for contribution PRPs are also subject to citizen suits for health or property damage PRPs can sue for insurance coverage .

or disposed of hazardous substances must report unless covered by RCRA .Identifying Superfund Sites Spills in excess of “reportable quantity” of hazardous substances must be reported Facilities that treated. stored.

http://www.Superfund Reportable Quantities Substance Arsenic Benzene Coal tar residuals Dichlorobenzene Methyl ethyl ketone Naphthalene Tetrachloroethylene Trichloroethylene Reportable Quantity (pounds) 1 10 1 100 5000 100 100 100 Source: U. 1996.rivermedia. 2003. Hazardous substances release: reporting triggers. . September 30. EPA.S.htm. Accessed February 9.com/consulting/er/triggers/haztrigs/rqover. 1996.

Superfund Process Preliminary Investigation Site Investigation Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Hazard Ranking System Identification Record of Decision (ROD) Public Comment NPL Remedial Design Remedial Action Delisting .

EPA. EPA. DC. . CERCLA Section 301(a)(1)(C) Study. December 1984. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.S. Extent of the Hazardous Release Problem and Future Funding Needs. 1984.Superfund Sites: Resource Contaminated GROUND WATER 75% SURFACE WATER 56% AIR 20% Statistics from U. Washington.S. U.

S. 1984. EPA. DC. December 1984. Extent of the Hazardous Release Problem and Future Funding Needs. U.S. EPA.Superfund Sites: Chemical Contaminants TCE Lead Toluene 33% 30% 28% Benzene PCBs Chloroform 26% 22% 20% Statistics from U. . CERCLA Section 301(a)(1)(C) Study. Washington. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

U. OTHER MANUFACTURING RECOVERY AND RECYCLE TRANSPORT AND TREATMENT DISPOSAL STORAGE Statistics from U. = 2% OF SITES . TANKS. CERCLA Section 301(a)(1)(C) Study. December 1984.Superfund Sites: Site Use LANDFILLS.S. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. EPA.S. Washington. EPA. 1984. DC. Extent of the Hazardous Release Problem and Future Funding Needs.

Estimated NPL Cleanup Expenditures Source of funds PRP cleanup costs Superfund tax General revenue PRP transaction costs Insurer transaction costs Total Annual expenditure $1. Litan. D. R. 1995. N. Footing the bill for Superfund Cleanups. .560 million $1. Washington.920 million Probst. The Brookings Institution and Resources for the Future..C. Fullerton. Protney. R.330 million $250 million $420 million $360 million $3. Who Pays and How. and P. E. K. D.

. The Brookings Institution and Resources for the Future. Fullerton..C. Footing the bill for Superfund Cleanups. Who Pays and How. Litan. N. Protney. Washington. R.ESTIMATED AVERAGE SITE CLEANUP COSTS Site type Chemical manufacturing Drum recycling Landfill Waste oil Leaking tank Cost ($ million) 41 19 29 32 34 Site type Surface impoundment Plating Mining Wood treating Manufacturing Cost ($ million) 25 14 170 41 14 Probst. 1995. R. D. D. K. and P. E.

Other Models for Site Cleanup United Kingdom – makes site identification and cleanup enforcement a local responsibility with recovery from responsible parties Denmark – negligence standard through 2000. strict liability thereafter Netherlands – cleanup standard depends on use. “Dutch list” cleanup standards used by many countries Poland – remediation negotiated as part of privatization Japan – negligence standard .

individuals in companies not liable Government permit-issuing authorities may be liable .g. operators only or other parties. proportional liability rather than joint and several) Lenders.European Union Principles Polluter Pays under strict liability Cleanup standard is use-dependent No retroactive liability Countries have the option of how to enforce liability (e.

RCRA Timeline 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act 1970 Resource Recovery Act 1976 RCRA Established “cradle to grave” system for tracking hazardous waste 1984 HSWA (Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments) Established “Corrective Action” .

Underground Storage Tanks . Resource and Recovery F. State or Regional Solid Waste Plans E. Development.RCRA Subtitles A. Demonstration and Information I. General Provisions B. Hazardous Waste Management D. Miscellaneous Provisions H. Office of Solid Waste C. Research. Federal Responsibilities G.

RCRA Corrective Action Superfund Process Preliminary Assessment/ Site Investigation (PA/SI) Remedial Investigation (RI) Feasibility Study (FS) Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) RCRA CA Process RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) Corrective Measures Study (CMS) Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) .

Laws and Regulations Law or statute – general statement of intent passed by U. 40 CFR 300) Policies and guidance – informal rules issued by EPA .g. Congress Regulation – specific rules written by EPA for carrying out law (e.S..

html .gpo.access.http://www.gov/nara/cfr/cfrhtml_00/Title_40/40cfr258_00.

state.fl.us/ State 2-letter abbreviation Example: Florida .http://www.FL .





SOURCES OF GROUND-WATER CONTAMINATION Designed discharges On-site wastewater disposal Injection wells Land application Transport and transmission Pipelines Materials transport Storage. treatment and disposal Landfill Open dumps Residential disposal Surface impoundments Waste tailings Waste piles Material stockpiles Graveyards Animal burial Aboveground storage tanks Underground storage tanks Containers Open burning and detonation Radioactive disposal Activities with incidental releases Irrigation Pesticide application Fertilizer application Animal feeding operations De-icing salt application Urban runoff Atmospheric deposition Mining and mine drainage Activities altering flow patterns Oil and gas production wells Other wells Excavation Natural sources Surface-water interaction Natural leaching Salt-water intrusion .

USEFUL WEB RESOURCES EPA Wastes Home Page EPA Wastes Publications EPA Wastes Topics EPA Superfund Publications EPA RCRA Corrective Action EPA Federal Register Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix CLU-IN Cleanup Information Ground Water Remediation Technologies TechDirect Newsletter .

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