Prof.Meenakshi Gupta Dept. of Humanities & Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Powai Mumbai

Basic Communication Skills Profile
________________________________________________ Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught

____________________________________________ Listening Speaking Reading Writing First Second Third Fourth First Second Third Fourth Fourth Third Second First

• • • • • • Listening Is With The Mind Hearing With The Senses Listening Is Conscious. An Active Process Of Eliciting Information Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions Interpersonal, Oral Exchange

prejudice.Fallacies about Listening           Listening is not my problem! Listening and hearing are the same Good readers are good listeners Smarter people are better listeners Listening improves with age Learning not to listen Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker Talking when we should be listening Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said Not paying attention ( preoccupation. self-centeredness. stero-type)  Listening skills are difficult to learn .

Stages of the Listening Process • • • • • • Hearing Focusing on the message Comprehending and interpreting Analyzing and Evaluating Responding Remembering .

Types of Listening  Informative Listening Vocabulary  Concentration  Memory   Relationship Listening Attending  Supporting  Empathizing   Appreciative Listening Presentation  Perception  Previous experience  .

Types of Listening (Cont.)  Critical Listening  Ethos  Logos  Pathos  Discriminative Listening  Hearing Ability  Awareness of Sound Structure  Integration of non-verbal cues .

Barriers to Active Listening • Environmental barriers • Physiological barriers • Psychological barriers  Selective Listening  Negative Listening Attitudes  Personal Reactions  Poor Motivation .

How to Be an Effective Listener  What You Think about Listening ?      Understand the complexities of listening Prepare to listen Adjust to the situation Focus on ideas or key points Capitalize on the speed differential  Organize material for learning .

How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)  What You Feel about Listening ?       Want to listen Delay judgment Admit your biases Don’t tune out “dry” subjects Accept responsibility for understanding Encourage others to talk .

How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)  What You Do about Listening ?       Establish eye contact with the speaker Take notes effectively Be a physically involved listener Avoid negative mannerisms Exercise your listening muscles Follow the Golden Rule .

Improving Listening Comprehension • Listening comprehension is the act of understanding an oral message • It involves speech decoding. and oral discourse analysis . comprehending.

recognising the way sounds combine to form syllables and utterances) .Speech Decoding • Sound Perception and Recognition (Recognising sounds and sound patterns accurately.

Speech Decoding (Cont. recognising the way words are used un context. understanding the definitions of the words being use.. identifying attention signals) .) • Word recognition ( Recognising words accurately.

Speech Decoding (Cont. hesitations ) .) • Accent recognition ( recognise stress. identify pauses..

• Concentrate and understand long speeches • Identify the level of formality • Deduce incomplete information • Deduce unfamiliar vocabulary . main ideas and supporting details.Comprehending Comprehending a verbal message involves the ability to: • Identify the central theme.

Oral Discourse Analysis • Is the process of identifying relationships among different units within the speech or oral message: • Critical skills • Attitude analysis • Inferential skills .

knowing your speaker • Predicting about the content of a verbal message • Using background knowledge • Intensive listening .Listening to structured talks • Pre-listening analysis-determining the purpose.

Intensive Listening 1. Listening to the introduction? • What is the position. experience of the speaker? • What is his credibility? • What is the overall purpose of the talk? • What is the central idea or theme? • What is the overall structure? • What does the speaker intend to do? • What are the main points of the talk? . background. knowledge.

Intensive listening (Cont…) 2. Listening to the Body • Contains the main message-pay attention • Concentrate on verbal signposts • Recognise main supporting details of the oral message • Concentrate on visual aids .

.) 3. or remember . Listening to the conclusion • Understand the main themes of the verbal message • Recognise the speaker`s focus of the talk • Concentrate on what the speaker wants the listener`s to do.Intensive Listening ( Cont.

I`d like to talk about….. What I am going to discuss is… If we critically examine the situation..Signal Phrases Purpose of the speaker Signal phrases * Introduces a topic Today. The most significant point is… I am sure you will agree with me... I`d * Develops an idea * Emphasises a point .

Logical Connectors and Transitional Signals Purpose of the speaker Adds a point compares contrasts Shows segmentation Logical connectors Moreover. And. in addition Similarly. Right. That`s all Exemplifies In other words. For instance . OK. However. likewise In contrast. Now.

you don't remember .Effective Note Making  Note making is essential in college:  For lectures. which are a highly condensed methods of passing on information  For reading. because what you don't write down.

Effective Note Making (Cont. which involves effort .)  Note making is a skill:     Most people feel deficient It can be learned This takes understanding of what you're doing It takes practice.

)  Note making is difficult because:      Spoken language is more diffuse than written Speaker's organization is not immediately apparent Immediate feedback seldom occurs Spoken language is quickly gone This makes analysis difficult .Effective Note Making (Cont.

Five purposes for note making: Provides a written record for review Provides a definite. which aids understanding • • • • . limited learning task Forces you to pay attention Requires organization. and active effort on the part of the listener • Listener must condense and rephrase.

Sequence Listen and focus on meaning Evaluate what is being said Is it relevant to your purpose? What are the high points? Record the information Make use of it • • • • • .

Physical factors  Seating  Near the front and center . and topic clearly labeled .doorways. use dividers  Course. wide-lined. easy-eye paper. friends.easier to see and hear  Avoid distractions . glare. foes  Materials  Loose leaf notebook: lies flat . windows.organization and additions are easier  Two pens. date.

PREVIEW • Prepare yourself mentally .Before taking notes .What do you need to get out of this? • Review notes from last time and homework. Nail your attention down tight. • Review the outline from your reading assignment • Think through what has happened in the class to date • Generate enthusiasm and interest     Increased knowledge results in increased interest A clear sense of purpose on your part will make the course content more relevant Acting as if you are interested can help Don't let the personality or mannerisms of a speaker put you off • Be ready to understand and remember • Anticipate the next step and compare what you've guessed with what happens .

 Look for emerging patterns  Write questions in margins to be answered later ... look.Get Involved! • Tune-in. listen for clues:  Tone or gesture of Professor  Repetition. cue words: "remember!" • Notice what conflicts with your current opinions  They are harder to understand and remember • Keep thinking.

implications. etc. • Be accurate Organization aids memory Organization indicates gaps when they occur . etc. fill in later Listen carefully to what is being said Pay attention to qualifying words like: sometimes. Notice signals that a change of direction is coming: but. usually. however. on the other hand . rarely.While taking notes  Don't try for a verbatim transcript   • Leave plenty of wide space for later additions underscore or star major points • Note speaker's organization of material      Get all of the main ideas Record some details.

~) • Develop a shorthand of your own   • Try to get the hang of listening and writing at the same time. not a passive.&. use symbols: +. Look for implications beyond what is being said.While taking notes (Cont. Jot down words or phrases.) • Be an aggressive. use contractions and abbreviations Leave out small service words. listener     Jot questions in your notes Do you believe what you're hearing? What do you believe? Seek out meanings. Relate the material to your other classes and your life outside of school. It can be done  You may practice listening to the news on TV and taking notes . =.

POST VIEW: Don't move .go over notes at once!  Review and reword them as soon after class as possible          Build review time into your schedule Don't just recopy or type without thought "Reminiscing" may provide forgotten material later Rewrite incomplete or skimpy parts in greater detail Fill in gaps as you remember points heard but not recorded Arrange with another student to compare notes Find answers to any questions remaining unanswered Write a brief summary of the class session Formulate several generalized test questions based on the material .

Memorize that which must be memorized. . Compare the information in your notes with your own experience don't swallow everything uncritically Don't reject what seems strange or incorrect. Check it out. Build a good "thought map" of the ideas.go over notes at once! (Cont. two days later.POST VIEW: Don't move . But relearning is rapid if regular review is used. another 25% is gone. Explain it to anyone who'll listen.)  Use your notes as a learning tool        Review at spaced intervals it is more effective than the same effort spent cramming We forget 50% of what we hear immediately. Be willing to hold some seeming inconsistencies in your mind over a period of time.

Remove Distractions. Put The Talker At Ease. Be Patient. Stop Talking! . Hold Your Temper. Empathize With Him. Show Him That You Want To Listen.THE TEN COMMANDMENTS – KEITH DAVIS • • • • • • • • • • Stop Talking. Ask Questions. Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism.

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