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keep in mind the following three types of perspective systems and implement the one most appropriate for your drawing. even if it is not readily apparent. This is easy: draw the horizon line in your composition and then consider the line of sight—the exact direction that the viewer’s eye is meant to go. 1) Vanishing Point Horizon Line Figure 1: One-point Perspective This and Opposite page: Interior of the Cathedral of st. the roofline of a building. the artist must simply ensure that all lines that recede into the distance on a parallel to the viewer’s line of sight—be it a row of trees. Perspective is the visual effect that makes a square wall into a parallelogram and makes train tracks meet in the far distance—in your mind’s eye. To make a convincing space. 19¼ x 14. These lines are called convergence lines. the moulding along a ceiling. The intersection of these two lines is the vanishing point. (See Fig. The simplest way to ensure proper perspective is to adhere to a one-point perspective. pen and brown ink and gray wash over graphite. squared for transfer in red chalk. or rows of grapevines—intersect at the vanishing point. Bavo. Once the vanishing point is established. New York. New York. circa 1648. Collection the Metropolitan Museum of Art. a character somehow senses that something unidentifiable is very wrong as soon as he or she steps into a room. A surefire way to get a similarly unpleasant effect in a drawing is to be careless in handling perspective. Saenredam. Haarlem by Pieter Jansz.f u n d a m e n ta l s Perspective Basics Drawing Logic: by Bob Bahr I Convergence LInes n scary films. The viewer will know something is wrong. 3 .
come last. when drawing. T he STAgeS of development in a drawing parallel the same sequence as sculpting in clay. from The Artist’s Complete Guide to Drawing the Head. A drawing is approached in the exact same sequence. Once the shape is achieved. and shoulders. NY 10003. When sculpting. CarbOthello pastel pencils: caput martuum red 9 (No. do not begin a drawing with the features. By carving out and applying clay.drawIng people Sculpting the Head in Drawings by William Maughan Learn how to capture the general shape of the head and achieve correct proportions for accurate portrait drawings. 5 . Watson-guptill Publications. Above: The materials used to make the drawings reproduced in this article: X-Acto knife. the best practice is to move from the general to the specific. neck. Strathmore velvet gray charcoal paper. All rights reserved. always striving to maintain it. © 2004 by William Maughan. is drawn in value. The slight forward and side tilt of a head. The gesture drawing is your first attempt at placing the model’s most general characteristics on paper. like all the drawings in this article. You must begin with the sitter’s gesture and never lose sight of it. Lit from above. or air. neck. the gesture should always be captured first. and a kneaded eraser. if any. Opposite page: This portrait. is body language and communicates expression. 645) and titanium white (No. Since. The details. sand pad. You would never begin by sculpting the features first and then attempt to build a clay head around them. The structure is made visible through light and shadow. New York. 770 Broadway. by William Maughan. it appears three-dimensional as though sculpted in clay. including hair. This cannot be achieved later as you develop the drawing. with permission. The text and illustrations in this article are excerpted. 100). It is the tilt of the head— forward and backward. which makes both sculpture and drawing come alive. exact proportions are measured. you begin by applying clay to form the general shape. as well as side to side—and the placement of the hair. Likewise. the forms take shape. and shoulders. or gesture. Gesture gesture is what makes the sitter’s pose interesting and captures the sitter’s attitude. the angle at which the hair falls.
” she explains. below: ripe point of View 2004. above: sincerely Yours 2006. Reno. Nevada. 91⁄2 x 11. colored pencil. iewers are often puzzled upon first seeing a drawing by Alyona Nickelsen. So I eliminate some elements. do another photo session. Opposite Page. she takes hundreds of photos. “Is it the roundness of the orange? The curling peel? And I have to make sure the colors are working together. then seeks out the subjects. “What medium is this?” they invariably ask. 131⁄2 x 12. V Above: Curve appeal 2005. colored pencil.” Later she can combine photos or modify them in Photoshop to achieve the composition she has in mind.” she says. most are surprised to learn Nickelsen’s medium is colored pencil. Attracted to vibrant color and painterly effects—but adverse to the odor of turpentine and the inconvenience of oil—the artist devised a technique in which she carefully blends some 20 to 30 layers of colored pencil and uses gamblin gamsol odorless mineral spirits to dissolve some of the pigment in the process. Like many still-life artists. Courtesy Art Source gallery. luminous color. colored pencil. Collection the artist. working eight to nine hours a day. Opposite Page. “Most of the photos are useful. Nickelsen finds her subjects in her everyday life: at the market or in her own kitchen. Once she has collected and assembled all the items for a setup.drawIng wItH Color Painterly Effects with Colored Pencil by Lynne Moss Perricelli California artist Alyona Nickelsen uses odorless mineral spirits to dissolve some of the pigment in her colored pencil drawings. Using her Nikon 8800 digital camera. “I first have to figure out what I want to show. The result yields the luscious color and forms of the fruits and flowers that first caught the artist’s eye. 7 . eliminating the pencil strokes and creating rich. that there is enough contrast. she conducts numerous photo sessions over the course of several weeks. With the brilliant color and smooth surface of the drawings. using different light effects and points of view. change the light. This part of the process can take about a week. 81⁄2 x 111⁄2. Collection the artist. First she envisions the painting.
american artist magazine has been a widely read and well-respected resource for over 70 years. tips. 144 pages ISBN 978-1-59668-266-5. pen and ink. and more. every issue is filled with step-by-step demonstrations. • Key building blocks to successful drawing. including using light values. this helpful guide offers the fundamentals of the fine art of drawing.contents materials: • Drawing Logic: The Right Tool for the Job • graphite: The Drawer’s humble Tool • Ink: Along and Around the Form fundamentals: • Drawing Fundamentals: The Cylinder • Drawing Basics: The Cube • Drawing Logic: Perspective Basics • Modeling with Light drawing people: • Sculpting the head in Drawings • Understanding Anatomy: The Nose • Understanding Anatomy: The Brow • Understanding Anatomy: The ear • Understanding Anatomy: The Lips • Seven Steps to Creating expert Figure Drawings drawing with Color: • Painterly effects with Colored Pencil • Creating Textures with Colored Pencil advanced drawing Concepts: • Using Values to Create Dramatic Drawings • The Benefits of Sight-Size Drawing • Clothing as Texture. texture. • Step-by-step workshops for understanding anatomy and the principles of portrait and figure drawing. American Artist Guide to Drawing shares the techniques. • guided exercises for exploring the structure of a figure. Jon DeMartin. and drypoint. and perspective basics. charcoal. value. conte crayons. Clothing as Symbol Draw distinctive and dramatic pieces with the guidance of top artists! C ollecting the best drawing artist-instructors of American Artist magazine in one volume. and Kristy Kutch. American Artist Guide to Drawing provides the instruction and inspiration necessary to become proficient in the art of drawing. Featuring pros such as Steven Weiss. including how to create expressive portraits with accurate proportion. and painterly effects. an essential tool for artists. Paperback. and tricks you need to know to create amazing artwork. colored pencil. drawing shapes. Bob Bahr. Inside you’ll find: • The importance of using the right drawing tools and surfaces for the desired effect. $22. including graphite. technical Q&A. in-depth artist profiles. From materials and basic steps to working with color and texture. 8½ x 10¼. both professional and beginner.95 Available September 2010 . David Jon Kassan. • Tutorials on color.
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