This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The International Anarchist Archives: A Report on Conditions and a Proposal for Action Andrew Hoyt1
Historians spend great amounts of time searching archives for a flake or fragment of the past that will illuminate a story or provide evidence of what someone thought or did. Because historians encounter the past through these collections, the archives themselves hold great sway over how histories are written. In this way, archives influence the narratives which give our lives meaning, impacting how the past is remembered and even how contemporary identities are formed. Yet, archival collections are often found lacking; particularly when it comes to material that informs groups who stood outside the mainstream or elite sectors of society, such as anarchists. Anyone familiar with anarchist groups knows quite well the volume, diversity and creativity of their cultural production. However, due to underfunding and the absence of anarchist produced materials in the majority of state and public archives, very little material created by anarchists has ever been preserved or made available to researchers. This situation limits historians’ ability to research anarchist history and thus to fully understand the cultural and historic impact of the anarchist movement; additionally it hinders contemporary radical critique, identity formation, and tactical evolution. [Article copies available for a fee from The Transformative Studies Institute. E-mail address: email@example.com Website: http://www.transformativestudies.org ©2012 by The Transformative Studies Institute. All rights reserved.] KEYWORDS: Anarchism, History, Archives. Historians spend great amounts of time searching archives for a flake or fragment of the past that will illuminate a story or provide evidence of what someone thought or did. Because historians encounter the past through these collections, the archives themselves hold great sway over
Address correspondence to: Andrew Hoyt, Department of History, University of Minnesota, PO Box 89108 Honolulu, HI 96830; e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org. 1937-0229 ©2012 Transformative Studies Institute 30
’”5 The preservation of material produced by radical groups is particularly illustrative of this point. consequently. This has important implications for both researchers and activists. very little material created by anarchists has ever been preserved or made available to researchers. Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg assert that archives can affect not only “how the past is shaped and represented but how it is linked to the future…archives help to structure (or ‘write’) what the future will be like. organized. As Steve Lubar. As Blouin and Rosenburg point out. states. anyone familiar with anarchist groups knows quite well the volume.Theory In Action how histories are written. “the ways in which records are acquired. appraised. For example. archives have also played an important role in centralizing governmental power and shaping citizens’ ties to nation-states and economic systems. “what goes on in an archive reflects what individuals. archival collections are often found lacking.”1 Silence in the archive impacts not only researchers but also activists. not as recorders of power. This situation limits historians’ ability to research anarchist history and thus to fully understand the cultural and historic impact of the anarchist 31 .”3 It is therefore no wonder that groups who stand in active opposition to the state and capitalism have received marginal coverage in mainstream archival records and have been relegated to a subaltern position on the periphery of public memory. In this way. and societies imagine themselves to have been. and cataloged clearly help to determine what historians and others will be able to explore about the past and how. However. institutions. impacting how the past is remembered and even how contemporary identities are formed. not passive. as well as what they imagine themselves becoming. Blouin and Rosenburg argue that. diversity and creativity of their cultural production.4 To understand the significance of this problem. In order to shape history in a way that benefits their own narrative. archives influence the narratives which give our lives meaning. they do the work of culture. comments. as sites of power. Archives don’t simply record the work of culture. due to underfunding and the absence of anarchist produced materials in the majority of state and public archives. one must understand the political nature of archives and history in general. a scholar at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History.”2 Since the French Revolution. organizers. and revolutionaries involved with ongoing struggles. “we must think of archives as active. the past can be ‘produced. particularly when it comes to material that informs groups who stood outside the mainstream or elite sectors of society. states don’t need to cover anything up as much as exclude it from the conversation. Yet.
The majority of these volunteer archives exist outside of traditional institutions or structures of knowledge production. Almost every aspect of a typical archival project. While there are of course some very notable collections in both state and university collections. And today. and tactical evolution. archives demonstrate both the negative implications of power as evidenced by the exclusion of anarchist materials from mainstream archives and the self-affirming potential of community-based archival projects which preserve anarchist materials. For as Terry Cook reminds us. researchers can still find large bodies of preserved cultural production housed in repositories that are anarchist in their structure as well as content. stand the test of time and reflect as few biases as possible. Experienced archivists in particular can lend valuable support by sharing their knowledge of how to create and maintain archives that will reach wide audiences. identity formation.”6 The independent anarchist archives discussed here face a series of real world problems. from the costs of rent and acid-free folders to the expertise 32 . It is virtually impossible to maintain an archive on passion and dedication alone. preserved by the people who participated in the very struggles that are being documented. In the following pages I will report on the general characteristics and status of a number of these anarchist archives. The work that they have undertaken is tremendous and projects such as these deserve the attention and support of both activists and scholars.Andrew Hoyt movement. A number of independent “anarchist archives” began as the personal collections of activists and others were formed as community members came forward with a desire to preserve local anarchist history. despite the attempts of various states to erase anarchism from historic memory through archival silence and scholarly invisibility. additionally it hinders contemporary radical critique. The spirit of self-reliance embodied in the anarchist movement meant that it never looked for support or approval from wealthy benefactors or governmental bodies. ANARCHIST ARCHIVES In the context of the anarchist movement. A passion for history and a belief in the importance of the stories held in the archive characterize these autonomous spaces. “The major act of historical interpretation occurs not when historians open boxes but when archivists fill the boxes. the majority of anarchist materials remain in the hands of the producing communities.
the Archiv Soziale Bewegungen (ASB) in Germany. Often. they are often tied to highly energetic and active communities: providing an opportunity to expand research material and do archival outreach simultaneously. the Biblioteca Libertaria “Armando Borghi” (BLAB) and the Centro Studi Libertari-Archivo Giuseppe Pinelli (AGP) in Italy. leading to the loss of material and historic consciousness. Additionally. Other times. STATUS OF THE ARCHIVES For this article I contacted a number of archives that house material created by anarchists and asked them about the challenges they face. between archivist and historian.8 Several of the archives I spoke with are community-run anarchist archives while others are better described as anarchist collections housed within more traditional archival settings.9 The origin-stories of most of these archives are similar: most archival collections that are in large part devoted to anarchist material have some form of direct connection to radical social movements active during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.Theory In Action required to produce finding aids and or oversee digitization projects presents an obstacle for these archives. the Working Class Movements Library (WCML) in England. many volunteer anarchist archives manage to embody the values of the social movement they are documenting. the archival collections hibernate in an attic or basement awaiting a new surge in activism to reawaken popular interest in the material. I asked each group about the history of their collections. Archives that responded to my survey included the Centre International de Recherches sur l’Anarchisme (CIRA) in Switzerland.”7 By avoiding the kind of formalized power dynamics that exist in most institutional archives. This is true for the largest and most 33 . the horizontal organization of most anarchist archives offers an alternative to the largely authoritarian character of modern archives that scholars such as Eric Ketelaar have characterized as “panoptical. they are obstacles the archive’s community cannot overcome. and between the production and the preservation of culture. In addition to being self-run. However. and their policies concerning access. volunteer powered anarchist archives also possess several unique and significant strengths. blurring the line between activist and academic. the International Institute for Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam. I also asked them about what conservation issues they faced and about their major ongoing dreams or nightmares. the training of their workforce.
the seed came from a single individual. These independent archives face the same range of issues as major archival institutions. most collections of anarchist created material are stored in unstable conditions without temperature or humidity control. Unfortunately. Biblioteca Libertaria “Armando Borghi” (BLAB) dropped out of existence from the 1920s to the 1970s due to political strife. For example. but have a fraction of the funding. photographs. For example. both in terms of preservation and access. Different activist archives gather different kinds of material. but has been greatly expanded over the decades.Andrew Hoyt established archives as well as the smallest and most ephemeral. Some archives have even spent time stored in illegally-occupied buildings along with the squatters who helped revive the anarchist traditions. that are degrading daily. Some function as social centers and gear their collections towards a reading audience. In the case of the Labadie collection. Joseph Labadie. audio recordings. from a complex range of materials in need of preservation to the demands of serving the public. the heart of the collection came from the Library of the Second International. from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in particular. Storage of material is a major issue. Over the years many of these archives have moved or gone underground either for financial or political reasons. This is a situation that demands attention from concerned archivists. due to lack of funds. and so on. I do not say this to criticize the heroic efforts of independent archives attempting to protect and present this material to the public. The job they face would be intimidating even with ample 34 . oral histories. others collect periodicals and material objects along with manuscripts. collections such as the Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan or the International Institute of Social History (IISH) Collection in Amsterdam started out in the hands of activists and only later came to be held by larger state-affiliated institutions. there are large collections of fragile material. which was started by Edmund Frow and Ruth Haines. In the case of the IISH. who started the collection. The Archiv Soziale Bewegungen (ASB) in Freiberg was born during the anti-nuclear power movement of the 1980s and both the Biblioteca Libertaria “Armando Borghi” (BLAB) and the Centro Studi Libertari-Archivo Giuseppe Pinelli (AGP) in Italy rose out of the 1970s anarchist scene and have deep community support networks. This is similar to the Working Class Movement Library (WCML). As a result. Fear of eviction is one of the biggest concerns among the independent archives I contacted.
with a staff of ten full-time trained archivists. Several other archives have one or two paid positions but none compare to the 35 . Funding is the second-greatest source of stress. training and funding. Both because of their cost and their transparency. although some archives are attempting to remove the staples from their pamphlets. the bulk of the work is done by volunteers with limited archival training. which has been digitizing and organizing over 25.Theory In Action materials. There are also often scholars in the community who are able to lend a hand. Often. The archives often lack basic archival supplies such as acid-free folders to say nothing of the kind of hardware required to make collections accessible to a larger audience such as digital scanners. CIRA in Switzerland. Many anarchist archives have volunteer staffs which include trained librarians or archivists. there is a strong tendency within these communities to use open-source software. it does have the luxury of residing in climate controlled facilities. However.000 items on a shoe-string budget from the local city government. hardware at the anarchist archives is limited. the funding situation at different archives varies greatly. is supported by the Dutch Academy of Sciences and is in a league of its own. including cooperatives which provide funds for the building maintenance. They also offer the anarchist archives a unique chance to place themselves on the forefront of emergent information technologies. The IISH. Ability to repair materials in the collections is extremely limited. The Italian archives have support from a large and active community. expressed by the archives I contacted. This is a particular problem for archives like the Archiv Soziale Bewegungen. depends on voluntary donations and support from readers. Either way. copy machines are available for researchers use. Perhaps the two are fundamentally intertwined. Interestingly. This is just one area in which the anarchist archives offer educational opportunities for the larger archival community. It is also rare to find complete temperature or humidity control systems in these independent archives. In general. architectural and financial limitations restrict what can be done. the grandfather of radical archives. although occasionally this work is only done by a member of the staff. and to do this work without these basics tools is a herculean task. these platforms mesh well with anarchist praxis. However. While most archives do attempt to address these concerns. Projects like these face the same issues concerning hardware and software standards that complicate all digitization efforts. after fear of eviction.
Most of these archives do not have separate reading rooms. In general. volunteer run archives do not follow the archival norm. Many of the more community-rooted archives are informal with their collections. but then there is much less monetary motivation for theft and a greater community based peer-pressure preventing antisocial behavior. The ASB and others have reported calling on the international anarchist community for support in times of crisis. For example. there is a great deal more openness and trust in the anarchist archive community than in most professional archives. Most of the anarchist archives receive several hundred users a year and continue accepting donations of material.Andrew Hoyt IISH. Eric Ketelaar comments that. obviously a different situation then one finds at a place like the Huntington Library in California. and discipline serve to maintain the power of the archives and the archivist. In addition.”10 Typically most anarchist. This has disturbing implications. the IISH follows all the access protocols a major state archive or private institution would follow. Several of the archives reported being part of larger archival groups of some kind. “the surveillance and discipline in archives are ingrained in the archivist’s professional distrust of anyone other than the archivist using the archives. be they informal networks or official bodies such as the Fédération Internationale des Centres d’études et de Documentation Libertaires and the International Association of Labour History Institutions (IALHI). As if confirming the idea that more funding and connections to official organizations lead to a more controlled use of space. and some allow researchers to have direct access to the stacks. Most are also connected to the large anarchist movement. The rituals. the ASB in Freiburg will give a key to the building to a few trusted researchers. but do supply a sense of a larger community. for example AGP in Milan has members directly involved with preventing the eviction of another long-time anarchist community center in the city. despite sizable back-logs. candidate to gain access to collections. The distrust is the psychotic shield to protect the fetish from being stained by the noninitiated.D. surveillance. The ASB recalled receiving money not only from local community members but from distant groups in foreign 36 . none of the other archives have anywhere near the kind of security and control practice used by the IISH. Additionally. where one must be a Ph.11 Most of these connections seem to be limited in their ability to help the archives financially. many of the archives do not distinguish between academic researchers and interested travelers who stop by for a visit. These archives are not isolated from each other.
Starting in the fall of 2009.Theory In Action countries as well. England. Perhaps anarchist organizing principles can be used to help support the anarchist archives. FAIL-SAFE: A PROPOSED RESPONSE With this tactic in mind. Perhaps new people can be brought into the community. work being done on translation. thus reaffirming their connection to the activist community while addressing their own individual needs. This also means that the large activist community. but the communities they hope to study. an informal group of scholars working in the burgeoning field of anarchist studies has begun discussing how to help preserve the evidence of anarchism’s history. issues of funding and people-power. but the original producers of that material and the future generations who will attempt to look back and ask questions of the past. that is to say that the dreams of the archivists can remedy their own nightmares. and preservation of archival material and historic monuments was put forward as the basis for a future working group. an extra dimension can be added to the dialog. at both the Anarchist Studies Network (ASN) conference in Nottingham. and the greatest hopes of the archives focused on including new people in the archival project and the increased access to collections via the internet. This mutual aid potential seems largely untapped at this time. In this way. which benefits from the existence of the archives. and the inaugural conference of the North American Anarchist Studies Network (NAASN) in Hartford. digitization. The greatest worry reported by these groups concerned the loss of funding or rental space. Connecticut. several scholars have taken up the acronym FAIL37 . should be mobilized to help preserve anarchist history. benefiting not only the people working to preserve source material. along with access and preservation. can be addressed holistically. The drive to share their anarchist history and the stubborn refusal to give up in the face of economic and physical exhaustion makes the work of these archives inspirational and suggests that helping these archives would not only benefit historians and researchers. As of now. By involving historians and the professional archival community. This kind of reciprocal relationship is in alignment with many of the academic values within the traditions of oral history and ethnography and presents the historian with an opportunity to address some of the problematic powerrelationships which have previously existed between the researcher and the subject of study. where they can volunteer in the archives.
If the art. Somewhat humorously called the “Federation of Archivists and International Librarians Saving Anarchism’s Forgotten Evidence. By involving printers. historians. and build an organic network of trained library professionals. However. garner support for their projects. the activist community. which would mean making the material in the archives seem relevant to activists. the poems. The potential here is demonstrated by the Insituto de Martino and the Circolo Gianni Bosio. is unlikely to throw any benefit concerts. conferences.Andrew Hoyt SAFE as a moniker for this project. archivists. but rather to raise awareness of the anarchist archives. the example of the Instituto de Martino shows us what is possible if we bridge the chasm between the archivist and activist anarchist communities. a productive synergy can be produced which benefits everyone involved. and anarchist organizers in a mutual-aid network. the propaganda and the lessons of the past can find their way off the shelves and into the contemporary movement.” the group was officially proposed at the January Los Angeles Anarchist Book-Fair and at the NAASN conference in Toronto in 2011. and because the anarchists have a long 38 . and convergences which the activist community already uses to support itself and spread its base. archivists. non-orthodox Marxists and religious utopists. The archive is not a separate institution where tapes are held in custody but rather a wheel within wheels of cultural. then both the archives and anarchist movement will benefit. researchers. which supports groups like FoodNotBombs or the Anarchist Black Cross (both with similar structures to the purposed FAIL-SAFE). publishers. This would mean actively putting forward archival issues for discussion at the many anarchist book-fairs. FAIL-SAFE would need to access the support of the larger activist community. The idea of FAIL-SAFE is not to start a centralized organization bent on maintaining a canon of anarchist literature or an official anarchist history. Volunteer energy and archival skills can be exchanged using the social networks which already exist throughout the international anarchist community and require little bureaucratic overhead or financial capital. artistic. For them “music was a vehicle that helped generate public use of the collection through records and concerts. and anarchist activists. Since most of the material is free of copyright laws. and political creation and organization ranging from concerts to record production to scholarly research to grass-roots organizing. one of the largest oral history centers in Italy and an archive for dissident groups including anarchists.” 12 This suggests that as long as archives remain solely a place for academics.
“the institute generated a network of organization and projects that included a record label… (and) a publishing outfit… these groups were instrumental in creating the independent and antiburecratic spirit… that led to the 1968-69 uprising. in some ways.”14 39 . FAIL-SAFE’s approach would not be to rebuild the already existing network but to call for a federation of individuals with an affinity towards all things archival. The idea of allowing the rich record of the anarchist movement to slowly be lost to time is simply unacceptable. the archive decides “what is remembered and what is forgotten. Yet. this means that the archives already contain the best possible means of their financial support.”13 Creating such symbiotic relationships between archives and activists should be the goal of FAIL-SAFE. air-conditioner repair. who in society is visible and who remains invisible. Most activists and anarchists are aware of the tactical and strategic lessons that the past has to offer anyone involved large-scale social conflict. In the case of the Instituto de Erneso Martino. CONCLUSION Anarchist archives face a unique set of challenges due to their exclusion from the mainstream economic and the political system. archival preservation and grassroots fundraising and who would be interested in making in kind contributions. preservers and consumers of anarchist history. The goal is to connect the archives with people who have useful skills in areas as far ranging as art conservation. they remain rich in social and cultural capital and as such are capable of drawing on centuries of print material and an international community of dedicated volunteers. Most historians and archivists are aware of the link between remembered history and possible futures. The potential for unlocking community support and for releasing the educational power of the archives is.Theory In Action tradition of reprinting old tracts. stunning. the association between groups usually remains at the institutional level. FAIL-SAFE seeks to address the current crisis in conservation and access in the anarchist archives by bringing together the producers. These are conditions that we should embrace. computer programming. After all. who has a voice and who does not. While there are some loose networks of radical archives.
postgraduates and professors. There are some exceptions from this regionalism: books and magazines are not limited to Baden. a café. funded projects and some sales. who wanted to learn for their current struggles from the past. flyers. The first task was to determine some sort of catalogue. Financing is very tough. which should serve to bring the materials in an order to make it usable for the prospective users of the archive. an old coal merchant’s premises. the so-called “Systematik”. but with more space for the archive. Starting point was a then published critique of the peace movement from an antimilitaristic viewpoint. Approximately two thirds of our meager budget is provided by the City of Freiburg. Most of the current users have now a scholarly background. so the archive moved to the “Grethersche Fabrik”—a similar project like the Spechtpassage. so the idea was born to found an archive of the social movements. audio tapes and films from the history of independent social movements after the Second World War in the region of Baden (the south east corner of Germany). From members of the movements themselves it shifted to students of the university (which often had a background in the movements). then in an increasingly number to graduate students. to provide a 40 . posters. and they do not just come from the local university but also from other parts of Germany or abroad. magazines. brochures. The first rooms were in the so called “Spechtpassage”. although the actual rooms changed sometimes. first undergraduates. While assembling this critique the members of these groups discovered that it wasn’t very easy to gather authentic publications from the history of the peace movement. photos. There it remained for nearly 20 years. a print shop etc.Andrew Hoyt APPENDIX Selected Survey Responses Archiv Soziale Bewegungen History of the Archive: The archive was founded in the early 80s from leftist members of the anti nuclear power movement and the then very active squatter movement. the rest by donations. But the archive kept growing and there wasn’t enough room at the Spechtpassage. The users changed heavily from the days of the beginning. which was bought by members of the squatters’ movement and where there was already a book shop. Material: We collect leaflets. Then the users were primarily thought of as members of the movements themselves.
Each of these points is subdivided in sub-points. squatters etc. None of us has a formal training as archivist. He is supported by volunteers—at the time being there are three constantly active volunteers.de/asb/systematik/systindex. which supports the archive.Theory In Action broader context for the other materials.uni-freiburg.) The archive is officially open two days a week (Wednesday from 10 am to 3pm and Thursday from 11 am to 6pm). well. women’s lib. Since we have a good reputation most materials are provided by the activists themselves. So it is easy to find what you are looking for. It is possible to work for up to 6 people simultaneously.unifreiburg.de/asb/zeitsch/index. The reading room is. It is build up like a tree. I think. not in Freiburg has meanwhile had official training as an archivist—we hope he will return soon to Freiburg. so we have to make compromises. (That is not completely true: One of us who is at the moment not active. We get most of the material in our collection from members of the movements themselves. because he lives in Berlin. the sub-points again and so on until you reach such a fine granularity that a point corresponds to a folder in the shelves. because most of the time there will be someone there on the other days.html and http://www. Magazines and brochures are catalogued in a database. You will find it on the internet at http://www. there are also two computers for the users to access digitized materials. We have approximately 200 visitors a year. but also some diaries) and are starting to build a collection of photographs in digitized form.de/asb/brosch/index. from local students to postgraduates from the USA or Japan. what exactly you want to know. Access: As mentioned above there is the infamous “Systematik”. At the root you have approximately twenty movements like students’ movement. there are approximately 25000 digitized items in our own Alexandria database.html. but in recent years we have begun actively to seek out known activists and ask them for their treasures.uni-freiburg. There is always more work to be done than all of us can handle. We regularly try to attend the “Workshop der 41 . I don’t know.soziologie. We use this database to create CDs to special themes and sell them.soziologie. We have manuscripts (mostly protocols of meetings.soziologie. We do a lot of digitizing.html. You may also find them under http://www. But it is also possible to make appointments or just try your luck on the other days. At the moment. We do not collect books and we do not collect materials from political parties. nice. The Workers: At the moment there is one (meagerly) paid person who does most of the day to day tasks.
Conservation: In cardboard-box folders. but the funding was not abolished altogether. which helped somewhat. We had to suffer a severe cut in the funds. I for my part would like to do a lot more research than just keeping the archive going. Just from donations we wouldn’t even be able to afford the rent—the archive no occupies three stories. But the resources we need most are young people who are interested in what we are doing and who want to keep up what we have started. but ask one of us to give him or her. So the biggest problem we will face apart from funding in the next 10 to 20 years is to find successors. Nightmares: Biggest nightmare is that the City of Freiburg is withdrawing their support (like they threatened some years ago). if we feel. First thing. We also have some loose connections to some anarchist archives in France. serve themselves. We would like to publish a lot more CDs or DVDs with material from our collections. And it wouldn’t be able to survive in a decent fashion if we couldn’t afford to pay at least one person for the work. That does not apply to scholars who work for some week or months. We fight with so much underfunding that we didn’t dare to dream in the last years. Dreams: That’s difficult to say. these may. we can really trust such a person. we will give them a key to the archive. so they can work if nobody of us is there. When the City threatened to cut our funds we could mobilize quite some people not alone in Freiburg but also abroad (especially in the USA) to send letters to the mayor. And yes. Next there are a lot of digitizing projects that are kept on hold. if we trust them. the party archive of Die Grünen—the green party). but we ask the users not to go to the shelves themselves. Help: I don’t know. There are no strict security precautions. Such kind of support may be helpful. a biannual meeting of activist archives in Berlin (it is hosted be the Archiv Grünes Gedächtis.Andrew Hoyt Archive von unten”. 42 . Monitoring temperature and humidity? Are you kidding? That’s way beyond our budget. Sometimes. if we had the money. we would probably pay decent wages. what he or she wants. I am 45 now and I am clearly the youngest of the current activists.
Nello Garavini. The material mostly comes from donations by friends and comrades. The library worked up to the rise of fascism. South America and USA. photographs. 43 . so we have two anarchist archives very close. Gianpiero Landi. Ravenna and Bologna. and on local anarchists. The members from Imola are members of ASFAI (Historical Archive of the Italian Anarchist Federation) that is based in Imola. Organizzazione Anarchica Forlivese.Theory In Action Biblioteca Libertaria “Armando Borghi” . posters. Spain. Part of the material is reproduced from the originals preserved in historical archives. supported by public regional institution for library preserve. others live in Imola. We preserve several funds: Armando Borghi’s archive. a few paintings and memorabilia. Part of the catalogues are organized by professionals. Luce and Luigi Fabbri’s archive. Leda Rafanelli. anti-militarism. This town is only 10 km far from Castel Bolognese. The buildings of our library were enlarged and renewed in 2006. re-organized a new libertarian library in the house owned by Aurelio Lolli. We are specialized on Armando Borghi (Castel Bolognese 1882 – Roma 1968). The library also preserves (but does not own it) the Professor Carlo Doglio’s archive. Emma Neri Garavini. The reviews dates back to 1880. one of the founders. and part of it comes from Italian emigrants. including documents on Saverio Merlino. leader of USI (Italian anarchist trade-union). Aldo Venturini. In 1973 three comrades who participated into the founding of the first library. UK. The reviews are mostly from Italy.Castel Bolognese History: In 1916 a group of young anarchists founded a libertarian library hosted in the Anarchist “Circolo Anarchico” of Castel Bolognese. 800 reviews. The library owns about 7000 books. Four of them live in Castel Bolognese. history of the trade-union and workers movement. Maria Rossi Molaschi. anti-clericalism. Material: The library focuses on the history of the thought and of the anarchist and libertarian movements. partially trained. together with the new generation of anarchists. but also from France. Since 1985 the library is owned and administrated by a cooperative of 22 comrades. history of the political and social movements as well as thought. Giuseppe Mascii. Forlì. Workers: The workers are volunteers. Portugal. pedagogy. audio and video recordings. sociology and economy. Domenico Girelli. The cooperative supports the financial cost of the library.
Help: We are taking part in the project of putting all the catalogues of the FICEDL libraries on-line in a common database.racine. The archive owns the building. without humidity. A few documents are stored in acidfree folders.ra. Readers have access to the stacks. We are removing staples from documents. 44 .it). and we held events to raise funds. Items are mainly inside folders. whose fund we host. The reviews are also on the on-line national catalogue of reviews (http://acnp. Other few students consult regularly our library. We have a few security precautions: fire extinguisher in every room. We have to face additional work in order to encounter earthquake-proof standards for security. We have a photocopier .Andrew Hoyt We have plenty of work ongoing. Photos are not yet organized. The library has two rooms open to the public and one for the archive (about 100m2) (not to mention a large cave).provincia. We need time and people to accomplish the work. We have also a web site for the library: http://blab. The library participates in the FICEDL. mainly since the renovation of the buildings. Conservation: The rooms are heated in winter and warm all year long. We look for financial support.unibo.it/ Items are partially catalogued and available on the on-line national librarian system (http://opac.cib. Currently we have three people writing PhD theses and Master theses on Professor Carlo Doglio. We aim to put all items in folders.it/SebinaOpac/Opac). A few are digitalized.ra. The library is open to the public for 12 hours per week. Access: We are open now only on reservation.
2 Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg.” in Archives. Documentation. ed. “The Panoptical Archive. Archives. ed. Documentation. 179. “Remembering the future: appraisal of records and the role of archives in constructing social memory. 2007). Archives. “Remembering the future: appraisal of records and the role of archives in constructing social memory.. Alessandro. Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. “Notes on Sources: a preliminary survey of material relating to the history of the anarchist movement in Britain” Labor History Review 56. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.” In Archives. 45 . Archives. Documentation. ed. 169-181 Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press..” In Archives. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. Documentation. Italy: editore Veccheirelli. Documentation. Cook. 2007). 3 Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg. “Remembering the future: appraisal of records and the role of archives in constructing social memory. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. no. 1219-224. Terry. ed. “Lookin’ for a Home: independent oral history archives in Italy. edited by Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg. Luigi. 2007. Francis and William Rosenburg. edited by Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg. 2007. Documentation. 2007). 2. Documentation. Archives. Blouin. ix. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Martyn. Documentation.2 (1991): 41-50. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.” In Archives. Portelli. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 2007. 4 A notable exception to this is police files. 2007). ed. 2007. where anarchists are very well represented indeed. 144-150. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 2.. archive e centri di Documentazione. Ketelaar. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Fragili carte: Il movmento anarchic nelle biblioteche. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Eric. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. 2009. 5 Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg. Everett. edited by Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg.Theory In Action WORKS CITED Balsamini.” in Archives. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. Documentation. 6 Terry Cook. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. NOTES 1 Terry Cook. ed.
10 Eric Ketelaar. 2007).” in Archives. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 14 Terry Cook. 2007). Documentation. Documentation. “Remembering the future: appraisal of records and the role of archives in constructing social memory.” Eric Ketelaar. ed.Andrew Hoyt Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. “Lookin' for a Home: independent oral history archives in Italy. 46 . Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. The findings of this survey are not statistically representative nor do they reflect all anarchist archives.” in Archives. ed. Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. 220. “The Panoptical Archive. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 170. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 171. 13 Alessandro Portelli. of each and every ‘inmate’ of the search room. ed. 148.ialhi.” in Archives.org/ 12 Alessandro Portelli. Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. “The Panoptical Archive. ed. Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Documentation. Francis Blouin and William Rosenburg (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.” in Archives. 144. Documentation. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 2007). 9 See appendix 2 for surveys approved for inclusion in this article by specific archives. and Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar. 2007). ed. 222. 7 “…The archivist on duty is seated on an elevated platform from which he or she has a panoptic view. “Lookin’ for a Home: Independent Oral History Archives in Italy. 8 See appendix 1 for the questionnaire. Documentation. 11 http://ficedl.” in Archives. global and individualizing. 2007).info/ and http://www. 2007).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.