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(PRAGATI POWER AND RAJGHAT POWER PLANTS)
NAME ROLL NO
B.TECH 5TH SEMESTER ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTITUTE DETAILS
5 Weeks training from 13.6.2011 to 30.7.2011
S. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 TOTAL
TRAINING CENTRE RAJGHAT POWER PLANT GAS TURBINE POWER STATION PRAGATI POWER PLANT-1 PRAGATI POWER PLANT BAWANA HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT FINANCE and O & M
NO OF DAYS 5 9 9 4 3 3 33 DAYS
I have a pleasure in thanking Mr. NAME, the head of the Electrical and Electronics department at INSTITUTE.Without whose active support and work at this Industrial training could never have been possible. During 5 weeks at Rajghat Power House and PPCL, New Delhi, I had the best opportunity to see and know working of different plants and instrument used in actual practice. I will be always thankful to all the individuals who helped me to make this industrial training a great success. Especially I would like to thank Ms Swati Upadhyay (A.M. HR) to allow me to take the training. I am thankful to all who made this training successful. The technicians are working hard to make these plants running without any trouble.
PART 1-POWER PLANT TECHNIQUES
Company Profile Introduction Layout Components of Thermal Power Plant
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
Coal Handling Plant Steam generator Boiler and its Auxiliary Draught system Auxiliary systems Steam turbine-driven electric generator Turbine and its Auxiliaries Condenser and Regenerative system Feed water system Auxiliary systems Electrical System Motors Synchronous Generator(Electric Generator) Transformers Generated Voltage Transmission Other systems Cooling Towers Monitoring and alarm system Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication
PART 2- NON TECHNICAL
Human Resources Finance and O & M (Operations and Management)
PART 1-POWER PLANT TECHNIQUES
RAJGHAT POWER HOUSE is situated at Rajghat, located in the heart of Delhi, having installed capacity of 135 MW with its two units of 67.5 MW. It is a coal
based thermal power plant which was commissioned in 1989 .The coal is supplied by NCL/BINA. IPGCL/PPCL has the generation capacity of 994.5 MW and demand varies from 2200-3000 MW at present. To meet the total demand of Delhi, there is a need to purchase bulk of its requirement from northern grid. Station Rajghat Power Thermal Station 135 2×67.5 Gas Turbine Pragati Power Pragati Power Power Station Thermal Bawana (Gas Station turbine) 282 6×30(GT) + 330 2×104(GT) + 1500 2x750
Station Capacity(MW) Units
1989-90 Year of Commissioning Central and Beneficiary North Delhi Areas
3×34(WHRU) 1×22(WHRU) 1986 & 1996 2002-2003 2007 NDMC-WIP, DMRC NDMC, South (UNDER Delhi CONSTRUCTION)
Introduction to Thermal Power Plant
Thermal power plants convert the heat energy into Electrical energy. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which either drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated.
Almost all coal. geothermal. IP turbine. nuclear. The cycle used is “Ranking Cycle" modified to include super heating of steam. the average temperature at which heat is added. is increased and. The main equipments in a thermal plant consist of boiler. By returning partially expanded steam. the initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased. if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed. For regenerative system. as well as many natural gas power plants are thermal. by expanding this reheated steam to the remaining stages of the turbine. steam turbine and alternator. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. nos. the exhaust wetness is considerably less than it would otherwise be conversely. Basic Power Plant Cycle The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour + liquid) phase cycle. the effect being to increase the average temperature at which heat is added to the cycle. to a reheat. regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam. it becomes economical to increase the cycle efficiency by using reheat. thus improving the cycle efficiency. General Layout of Thermal Power Plant Components of Thermal Power Plant . solar thermal electric and waste incineration plants. of non-regulated extractions is taken from HP. which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. On large turbines. Regenerative heating of the boiler feed water is widely used in modern power plants.
¨ These coal rakes are to be unloaded in given free time normally 12-14 hrs. 1.Coal Handling Plant Extent of work: . This is the responsibility and duty of the CHP and its staff. Vibrating Feeders 3. from the time of receipt of coal rakes.per ton per hour.1/. By Railway (80-90% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way) 2. Coal Crushers . Conveyor Belts 4. Receipt of Coal:Normally Thermal Power Station receives the coal by three modes of transportation. ¨ If coal rake is not unloaded in given free time the demurrage shall be charged on complete capacity (approx. By Arial ropeways ¨ Arial ropeway is available only to the power stations which are near the coal mines ¨ Cost of coal transportation by road is much higher than that for rail transport hence most of the coal requirement of the power stations is fulfilled by railway transport. Wagon Tipplers 2.In brief we can say that receipt of coal from coal mines. weighing of coal. Major auxiliaries of CHP:1. Demurrage calculations on coal Rakes:We receive the coal wagons in the form of rakes (55-60 wagons in each rake). 3300 metric ton) of coal rake at the rate of Rs. 1/per ton per hour. ¨ Rate of demurrage is Rs. crushing it to required size and transferring the quanta of coal to various coal mill bunkers. ¨ Free time is calculated from the receipt of written intimation of coal rakes from the railway and written intimation of empty rake formation from MSEB to railway. By Road ( if required 5-10% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way ) 3.
Wagon Tipplers:These are the giant machines having gear boxes and motor assembly and are used to unload the coal wagons into coal hoppers in very less time (e. . Dust Extraction System:This system is provided in CHP for suppression of coal dust in coal handling plant. 20 wagons/hr. Trippers:These are the motorized or manually operated machines and are used for feeding the coal to different coal bunkers as per their requirement.g. Coal Crushers:We receive the coal in the form of odd shaped lumps. 7. or more). Crusher reduces size of coal from 200 mm (initially) to 20mm.5. Conveyor Belts:These are the synthetic rubber belts which move on metallic rollers called idlers and are used for shifting of coal from one place to other places. Dust extraction systems 8. This equipment is used for controlled removal of coal from coal hoppers. Electromagnetic Separators:Electromagnets are used for removing of Iron and magnetic impurities from the coal. Trippers 6. Vibrating Feeders:These are electromagnetic vibrating feeders or sometimes in the form of dragging chains which are provided below the coal hoppers. These lumps are crushed by coal crushers. Electromagnetic Separators. These lumps are to be crushed to required size. Gas Extractor.
3. Payment of Coal:Payment of coal is made to the coalmines as per the weighing of coal carried out at their premises. Weight of loaded wagon is taken. Normal Bunkering Cycle:Shifting of coal received from coal wagons directly to coal bunkers is normal bunkering cycle. If quantum of stone shells is beyond minimum limit the cost of the coal is recovered from the coal mines against the quantity of stone shells received from them. Reclaiming Cycle. This is stacking cycle. Stacking Cycle:When there is no coal requirement at coal bunkers even then CHP has to unload the received coal which is stacked at open ground called yard. Weighing of Coal:Weighing of coal is carried out at wagon tippler. weight of empty wagon is taken the difference of the two will give the weight of the coal (normally 55-60 metric ton of coal come in each wagon). 2. if any dispute arises regarding weighing of coal same is to be settled by the committee of both the parties. Normal Bunkering cycle. Reclaiming Cycle:As and when coal wagons are not available the requirement of coal bunkers is fulfilled from the stacked coal this is reclaiming cycle. Operational Cycles:1.Gas Extractors:Gas extractors are provided at the bunker level to remove all types of poisonous and non poisonous gases from the working area. Stacking cycle. However. Stone shells:Sometimes stone shells are received along with coal same has to be removed from the coal before bunkering and is done sometimes manually or by different type of machines. Chemical Analysis of Coal:Sample of coal is randomly collected from each rake by concerned MSEB staff . after unloading the coal.
The dyke filled up earlier is left open for drying out the moisture. When one dyke is filled up the pipelines are shifted to other dykes. we have two units of 62. And as just mentioned the ash contained are about 40%. we have to separate the ash of about 600 MT per unit for 24 hours from the gases coming out from the boiler. After coal burning smoke is formed.and detailed chemical analysis. calculation of calorific value is carried out and is confirmed whether it is as per agreement with the coal mines or not. COAL AND ASH CYCLE As already mentioned earlier for forming steam we have to burn oil and coal in the boiler furnace with help of primary and secondary air. After some time the layer of about one to one and half feet is spread over the dykes and on this upper surface of ash dyke plantation is done. From the boiler. After this from outlet/discharge side the flue gases enter to ESP (Electrostatic Precipitator). Here the ash particles contained in the flue gases are separated out and pure smoke with the help of I. From the hoppers the ash collected is brought to the ash plant with the help of vacuum & here in ash plant the ash is mixed with water and the slurry is formed. This is known as flue gases. These flue gases are coming out from the boiler contains co2 so2 and huge quantity of ash particles as the quality of the coal what we are getting is of very inferior quality and contains about 40% ashes. As already mentioned in a coal cycle daily for generating power to about 62. Total capacity of Coal Handling Plant is 2500 MT per bunker Steam Generation . The ash particles separated out in ESP falls in the bottom hoppers of ESP with the help of rapping mechanism.D fans is thrown to the atmosphere through a chimney.5 MW each. From the boiler 1st the flue gases are coming to economizer. 1500 metric tones per unit fuel consumption for 24 Hrs.5 MW/ Unit. Here the flue gas's temperature is utilized for heating primary and secondary air. 5-Bunkers per Units (Storage for Coal). This slurry is then pumped to big dykes through the pipeline. There after the flue gases are coming to air preheaters. Here the feed water is heated up by condition method. We need coal to about 1500 MT per unit fuel consumption for 24 hours.
superheaters. With the advantage of water-cooled furnace walls. air heaters and economisers. The heat generating unit includes a furnace in which the fuel is burned. Boiler is designed to transmit heat from an external combustion source (usually fuel combustion to a fluid) contained within the boiler itself. Boiler Drum: The function of steam drum is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid . processing or heating purposes. the term 'steam generator’ was evolved as a better description of the apparatus. Following operations are done on boilers: Pre-commissioning operation Initial start-up operation – first Commissioning operation o Alkali boil out o Chemical cleaning o Steam boiling o Safety valve floating Trial runs Stabilization operation Regular operation o Cold start-up o Warm start-up o Hot start-up o Shutting down Normal Emergency Operation for guarantee run Various parts of Boiler: 1.BOILER and its auxiliaries Boiler and its auxiliaries with all its connection Boiler is a device for generating steam for power.
All the nozzles of the burners are inter linked and can be tilted as a single unit from +30° to -30°. Each elevation has four oil burners and ignitors. The drum is located on the upper front of boiler. Burners: There are total 16 pulverised coal burners for corner fired type boiler and 1 oil burners provided. 5.contents of the steam to below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm. Economiser: The purpose of economiser is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduced into the steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. There are two ignitor air fans supply air for combustion of ignitor oil. The first stage consists of horizontal superheater of convection mixed flow type with upper and lower banks located above economiser assembly in the rear pass. The time of commencing of all the operational sequences is properly matched. The upper bank terminates into hanger tubes. The economiser is continuous unfinned loop type and water flows in upward direction and gas in the downward direction. Ignitors are used for lighting the main oil gun.P. The third stage supherheater pendant spaced is of convection parallel flow type. These elevations are normally known as AB elevation.The burner are located at three elevations. Super Heater: There are three stages of superheater besides the side walls and extended sidewalls. 3. . which are connected to outlet header of the first stage superheter. 4. The oil burners are fed with heavy fuel oil till boiler load reaches to about 25%.units . The pulverised coal burners are arranged in such a way that six mills supply the coal the burners at 4 corners. The control system is properly tuned with ignitor operation. The second stage superheater consists of pendant platen which is of radiant parallel flow type. Igniters: The atomizing airs for ignitors are taken from plant air compressors at 7Kg/cm (gauge). of the furnace. 2. The outlet temperature and pressure of the steam coming out from the superheater is 540°C and 157 Kg/Cm respectively for H. The economiser is located in the boiler rear gas pass below the rear horizontal superheater. BC elevation and D elevation.
A cold oil gun and hoses cause quenching of oil temperature and may lead to an unsuccessful start. A plugged oil gun tip may result in an unsuccessful start. warming up by scavenging prior to start is necessary.It may become necessary to close the air behind the ignitors. generally reduced to a fine ness such that 70-80% passes through a 200 mesh sieve. during the light off period for reliable ignition. at different intervals. Pulverizer or Mills: Pulverised fuel firing is a method whereby the crushed coal. In the modern boilers used for power generation feed water heaters were used to increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed water temperature and hence the relative size of economiser is less than earlier units. The following facts must be born in mind to understand the ignitors and the system clearly: The spark rod life will be drastically reduced if left for long duration in the advanced condition when the furnace is hot. In such cases. The Coal from the RC bunker falls on a platform. Earlier the economisers were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in flue gas that leaves the boiler and provision of this additional heating surface increased the efficiency of steam generation. This is a good proposition as the heat available in boiler exit flue gas can be economically recovered using airheater which is essential for pulverised fuel fired boilers. On this chain. . Economiser: The function of an economiser in a steam generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue gases and add this as sensible heat to the feed water before the water enters the evaporative circuit of the boiler. This must be established during the commissioning of the equipment and proper sequences must be followed. 7. This type of chain feeders is called scraper feeders. saving in fuel consumption. 6. A minimum discharge of 300 Kg/hr of oil is essential for a reliable ignition. is carried forward by air through pipes directly to burners or storage bins from where it is passed to burners. Too much retraction of spark rod inside the guide tube will interfere with nozzle tilts and may spoil the guide tube. thus the name “Economiser " . MS plates are connected which are called as scrapers. In chain type of feeders a continuous chain is moving round the sprockets in which a sprocket is driven by a variable speed DC motor and the other sprocket is a ret urn sprocket.
Coal air ducts. however. Primary Air System The primary air (P. two directing air into the primary air preheater for heating.) draught plant supplies hot air to the coal mills to dry and convey pulverized coal to the burners. two Steam Coil Air Preheaters (SCAPH) and two regenerative type primary air preheaters.which is below the scraper feeder. The actual fuel bed thickness carried by the scrapers will be more. discharge through a SCAPH into a common bus duct that has four outlets. and over fire air to minimize the production of nitrous oxides (NOX) The secondary air system.A. ensure that the primary air preheaters combined cold end temperature (gas leaving temperature plus air entering temperature) does not below the specified minimum to avoid 'Cold End Corrosion'. two direct cold air straight to the pulverising mills. Secondary Air System The secondary air draught plant supplies the balance of air required for pulverised coal combustion. are included in the system to regulate mill temperature and seal mill components against any ingress of coal dust. Combustion is completed as the gases spiral up in the furnace.D. To restrict this height regulating plate is provided so that height of fuel scraped by the scraper can be controlled. The pulverized coal and air streams entering the furnace are initially ignited by a suitable ignition source at the nozzle exit.A. comprises two forced draft (F. Fans. The SCAPHs located in the fan discharge ducts. Each fan.A. two steam coil air preheaters (SCAPH) and two regenerative type secondary air preheaters.) fans. When the scraper moves it will scrap the coal and at the end of the table or platform the coal falls into the pulverizer. Above a predictable minimum loading condition the ignition becomes self sustaining. The P. system comprises two P. Draught System Fully preheated secondary air for combustion enters the furnace around the pulverized coal nozzles and through the auxiliary air compartments directly adjacent to the coal nozzle compartments. . which is of sufficient rating to support 60% MCR load. air for fuel oil combustion.
There are four different steps in the process of precipitation: i) Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles. Flue Gas Handling System The flue gas handling plant draws hot flue gases from the furnace anddischarges. During its passage to the chimney. and through four electrostatic precipitators to keep dust emission from chimney within prescribed limits. the electrostatic precipitators and induced draught (I. It then passes through the primary and secondary air preheaters. them to atmosphere through the chimney. control dampers at the outlet of the air preheaters are provided to regulate the gas flow through these streams to get same gas outlet temperature. electrostatic precipitator finds wide application because of its inherent advantage over all other devices. flue gas is passed through a feed water economiser and four regenerative air preheaters to improve boiler efficiency.Each fan. and relatively easy removal of the collected particulates. .) fans to the chimney. ii) Migration of the particle to the collector. which is of sufficient rating to support 60% boiler MCR load. high efficiency for small particles size. Electrostatic precipitators can handle large volume of gases from which solid particulates are to be removed. Their technical superiority lies in low pressure drop. Auxiliary Systems Electrostatic Precipitator WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR Of all the devices used for solid-gas separation. discharges through a SCAPH into a common bus duct that has two outlets each directing air through a secondary air preheater.D. Flue gases travel upward in the furnace and downward through the rear gas pass to the boiler outlet (boiler rear gas pass below the economiser). Hot air from secondary air preheater is sent to wind boxes at each side of the boiler furnace for proper combustion as secondary and over fire air. Since primary and secondary streams are provided with separate bisector-regenerative air heaters.
Casing The precipitator casing is designed for horizontal gas flow. This roof is walk able and is an ideal surface for maintenance work. The casing remain perfectly aligned. The high electric field in the vicinity of the emitting electrodes creates „corona discharge‟ ionising the gas molecules. To provide for heat expansion. the casing is supported by roller bearing supports the precipitator internals are suspended in the roof panels. The insulation thickness is determined from case to case based on gas temperature. The casing is usually insulated with mineral wool and covered with aluminum/G.c. source of the order of 25-100kV. It is an all-welded steel construction. These loads are then transferred through the side panel columns and roller bearings to the support structure.‟ The major fundamental parts of the electrostatic precipitator consist of the following. 1. acid dew point and prevailing ambient temperatures. Hoppers The hoppers are of pyramidal type also rough type and flat-bottom precipitators with scraper conveyors are available for some applications. The collected material is dislodged by knocking the electrode by a process called „rapping. which also carry all the equipment on top of the roof. one in the form of Thin wires called discharge or emitting electrodes and other set called collecting electrodes in The form of pipes or plates. The top insulation is covered by a checker plate roof. The electrostatic precipitator essentially consists of two sets of electrodes. assembled from prefabricated wall and roof panel using panel construction. Each electrical section is available for inspection and maintenance through suitably located doors. The dust particles entrained in the gas acquire negative charge and experience a force which drives them toward the collecting electrodes where they get deposited. This assures better tolerance and quality control. This insulation must cover the entire casing including hoppers and side columns.iii) Deposition of charged particles on the collecting surface. Therefore excessive flexing of the casing must be avoided. 2. The collecting electrodes are connected to the positive polarity of the source and grounded. The gas pressure and temperature and the wind load will cause the casing structure to flex. The casing design philosophy is to minimize distortion rather than using the maximum allowable stress in the steel. iv) Dislodging of particles from the collecting surface. The emitting electrodes are placed in the centre of pipes or midway between two plates and are connected usually to negative polarity of high voltage d. The valley angle of the hoppers (angle between hopper corner and horizontal) is never less then 550 . lagging. The main part of the fabrication is done in the workshop.I.
which is securely guided by the shock bar arrangement.The screens are of modular design and hang within a frame work in the precipitator casing inlet.and offer more to ensure easy dust flow down to the feed out flange. In order to assure the most rigid construction. thereby preventing any swinging tendencies. adjusted and welded to its final position inside the casing. It is therefore essential that the precipitator has arrangements to give an even gas distribution over its entire cross sectional area. which makes it possible to obtain and maintain highly accurate electrode spacing. 3 Gas Distribution Screen The gas velocity in the precipitator is approximately 1 /10th of the velocity in the ducting before the precipitator. which are hung from support angles welded to the roof structure . The upper portions of the two adjacent hoppers have a reinforced ridge to support the hoppers across the precipitator width. . Rigidity is the main purpose for the special design of the collecting plate edges. To ensure free flow of ash into the disposal system lower portions of the hoppers are provided with electrical heaters with thermostatic control. Collecting System The „G ‟ profiled collecting electrode is based on the concept of dimensional stability.The lower edge of each plate has a shock receiving plate. The upper edge of the collecting plates are provided with hooks. A good gas distribution cannot be achieved solely through the design of the ducts. In order to maintain the collecting efficiency at the design level it is essential that the emitting and collecting systems are dimensionally stable. 5. taller collecting plates (10m) are connected to one another by transverse guides. This results in a stable collecting system similar to the emitting system. The emitting framework is thoroughly braced and forms a rigid box-like structure The frame is assembled. All hoppers have gas baffles.6 mm steel plate and shaped in one piece by roll forming. A maximum of 20% standard deviation can be tolerated for the velocity distribution in the precipitator. During the final checking of the gas flow pattern additional deflector plates are added on to the screens. The collecting plates are made of 1. Special gas distribution screens are therefore located at the inlet of the precipitator . it necessary. Emitting System The emitting system is an important part of the precipitator. 4.
Insulator Housing Each electric bus section is supported from four insulators located in insulated compartments. with one hammer for each shock bar. Rapping Mechanism for Collecting System Each collecting plate has a shock receiving plate at its lower end. A screen tube is installed immediately below Find in connection with the support insulator. Shock bar. Prefabricated sub frames. hitting its associated shock bar. which makes it possible to suspend the emitting system from a temporary jacking hook if the insulator must be exchanged electric heaters are provided in each insulator compartment. 7. thus maintaining the required spacings. It prevents fouling of the insulator by dust. The spiral electrodes are sent to the erection site as closely wound coils with one hook mounted at each end. The shock bar transmits the blow simultaneously to all of the collecting plate in one row because of their direct contact with the shock bar. The emitting electrodes are spiralized from semi-hard stainless steel wire. In this manner the highest possible energy is transferred to the collecting plate when the” tumbling hammer” hits the corresponding.The frame work has a four point suspension effectively taking care of the expansion when hot gas is entering. Each collecting plate is hung on an eccentric positioned hook to ensure that the shock receiving iron of the collecting plate is constantly resting against the shock bar. the coils are stretched and attached by means of a special stretching device between top and bottom holders in each stage of the frame work. A review of the plate rapping system is as follows: The system employs “tumbling hammers” which are mounted on a horizontal shaft in a staggered fashion. suitably sized for shipment provide the most economical design at highest quality. As the shaft rotates slowly each of the hammers in turn over balances and tumbles. The plates in one row Of each field are interfaced to one another by these shock receiving irons resting in slots in the shock bar. At the erection. There is special tooling arrangement for each insulator compartment. A uniform rapping effect is provided for all collecting plates in one row. . All sharp edges and ends of frame parts are rounded to avoid excessive flash overs. These compartments are provided with top opening covers to make easy access to the insulators for inspection and service. The shock bars are kept in alignment with guides located at the front and rear of each shock bar. 6.
So we have to purify this water by water softening DM plant. . Water contains so many impurities as having dissolved gases and salts as well as minerals and undisclosed and suspended solid materials. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. The driving arrangement for the rapping mechanism is located either on the roof or on the side wall of the precipitator. Rapping System for Emitting Electrodes During electrostatic precipitation. due to heat it will convert into carbonates in soft sludge. It is therefore necessary to rap the emitting electrodes occasionally. In which different layers of sand stones are given here. Due to these impurities it creates certain effects like scale formation in boiler tubes. First of all. corrosion priming and carryover.8. which is adjusted to optimum conditions at the time of commissioning. Bottom ash storage and disposal At the bottom of the furnace. of all make up water or raw water which is taken from the Yamuna and bowels enters into the big sump of DM plants and gone to the PSF (Placific sand filter). This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. This rapping is done with a rapping system employing “Tumbling Hammers” Which are mounted on a horizontal shaft in a staggered fashion (These hammers hit specially designed shock beams to which the intermediate part of the emitting frame of each duct is attached. Subsequent adjustments can easily be carried out during operation. One rapping mechanism is provided per electrical bus section. The operation of the gear motor for the rapping mechanism is controlled by a programmed relay. a fraction of the dust will be collected on the emitting electrodes and the corona will gradually be suppressed as the dust layer grows. Then water enters into the portable sump through the centrifugal pump from PSF. should operating conditions vary. In this manner the shock energy generated by the hammer is transmitted to the emitting electrodes. Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage o o o o DM water is an essential thing for boiler. As we take the water directly from Yamuna river. Now here big and undisclosed particles removed from water. As per having calcium and magnesium bicarbonates.
Then it goes to the activation carbon filter. Thus they neutralize Steam turbine-driven electric generator TURBINE and its Auxiliaries: Large turbines use both impulse and reaction blading. Then water enters into the degasser tower in which carbon dioxide is removed from water. Exchanger system water collects in the fixed bed. Now wastage of cat ion and an ion exchange is collected into the N-pit. If any impurity is there in water after the process of caterer. and reaction blading at the low. Here both of resins are presents to remove if having any impurity of cat ion. This tower is situated at a somewhat higher elevation to the cat ion exchange. Now water is pure 100 of dissolved particles and it is taken to the boiler drum through a feed pump. These combination turbines usually have impulse blading at the high-pressure end. o o o o o Now to remove different dissolved ions or particles from water we have the process named as DEMINERALIZING CATEXERANEXER water treatment system. In which cat ion and ions which are separated from their corresponding exchangers mixed with each other.pressure end. From degasser tower water enters into the ion exchange. Here different resins are used to remove positive or an ion like calcium and magnesium ions. annexure each other and makes water which in the ash handling system of hydraulic type by giving high pressure water to the ash making slurry of ash. Blade rows require seals to . The blade length and size increases throughout the turbine to use the expanding steam efficiently. First of all water enters into the cat ions exchange in which different resins are used to remove the impurities of negative ions like chloride. So we have to purify this water softening plant. florid ions. Here impurities of carbon particles are removed.
3. Seals for impulse blading are located between the rotor the diaphragm to stop leakage past the nozzle. Emergency Stop Valves and Control Valves : Turbine is equipped with emergency stop valves to cut off steam supply and with control valves regulate steam supply. The top and bottom halves of the casing are secured together at the flange joint by heat tightened studs to ensure an effective seal against steam leakage. ESV remains either fully open or fully close. 2. Bearings are usually forced lubricated and have provision for admission of jacking oil. Nozzle boxes and steam chests are also made of creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel castings. Control valves are actuated by the governing system through servomotors to regulate steam supply as required by the load. Emergency stop valves (ESV) are provided in the mainstream line ad Interceptor valves (IV) are provided in the hot reheat line. The steam chests accommodate four control valves to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine according to the load requirement. two on top and two on sides are welded to the nozzle boxes. Bearings: Journal bearings are manufactured in two halves and usually consist bearing body faced with anti-friction tin based habiting to decrease coefficient of friction. Emergency stop valves are actuated by servomotor controlled by the protection system.prevent steam leakage where the pressure drops. Bearing body match with adjustable seating assembly in the pedestal. HP TURBINE 1. Four steam chests. Seals for reaction blading are located at the tips of both the fixed and moving blades.Molybdenum-vanadium (Cr-Mo-V) steel casting. . High Pressure Casing: The high pressure casing is made of creep resisting Chromium. which in turn are welded to the casing at the middle bearing end. Valves are either single seat type or double seat type Single seat type valves are preferred though these required higher force for opening or closing.
passes horizontally thru’ the brass tubes to the water box at the other end. while the rest are journal bearings. passes thru' the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the front water box. cooling of its inner elements continues for many hours.W. resulting in upper half of turbine beings at a higher temperature. The primary function of the barring gear is to rotate the turbo-generator rotors slowly and continuously during start-up and shut down periods when changes in rotor temperature occur. Condenser: There is one condenser entered to the exhauster of the H. rotor rear coupling. 4. The bearing between the HP and IP rotors is of this type. distortion of rotor begins almost immediately. Ejectors: The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other non-condensing gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers.P. takes a turn. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles thru' which condensate .Thrust bearing is normally Mitchell type and is usually combined with a journal bearing.P. When a turbine is shut down. Condenser and Regenerative system: 1. housed in spherically machined steel shell. than lower half. If the rotor is allowed to remain stand still during this cooling period. This also results in maintenance of minimum inter stage sealing clearances with higher operating efficiency. This distortion is caused by flow of hot vapours to the upper part of casings. Hence to eliminate the possibility of distortion during shut-down. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C. Barring Gear : The barring gear is mounted on the L. barring gear is used to keep the rotor revolving until the temperature change has stopped and casings have become cool. Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box.P. pump thru' the inlet pipe. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser. 2. the air and pressure zone. turbine. cooling water leaves the condenser thru' the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct. rear bearing cover to mesh with spur gear on L. It is surface type condenser with two pass arrangement. From these.
L. 5.P. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure. 4. designed for continuous heavy duty. wet-pit.03 atm.P. Gland steam & Gland steam Cooler: Steam from deaerator or from auxiliary steam header is supplied to the end seal of the H. 6.01 to 1. Pumps: The pumps which Supply the cooling water to the condensers are called circulating water pumps. from . C. special arrangements have been made for providing sealing. rotor generally at a pressure of 1. 3. mixed flow type. Heaters: Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions which are utilized for heating the condensate. Condensate Pumps: The function of these pumps is to pumps out the condensate to the deaerator thru' ejectors. gland steam cooler.W. It consists of nozzle thru' which the working steam expands: the throat of the nozzle is connected to the air pipe from the condenser. and L. n addition to the main ejectors there is a single stage starting ejectors which is used for initial pulling of vacuum upto 500mm of Hg. heaters. This steam supplied to the end seals is extracted by the gland steam cooler by the action of single stage steam ejector.P. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the action of the second nozzle. There are two such pumps for each unit with requisite capacity. abs. suitable for water drawn through an open gravity intake channel terminating in twin-closed ducts running parallel to the main building. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere thru' the outlet. so as to prevent ingress of atmospheric air into the turbine thru' the end clearances.is flowing and gets condensed thus further aiding the formation of vacuum. These pumps are normally vertical.
depending upon the individual circumstances. Boiler Feed Pumps: This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric motor through a hydraulic coupling. Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to as low a valve as is possible or desirable. dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore. residual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified is 0. This chapter describes the various auxiliaries under this system starting from Boiler Feed Pump to Feed Regulating Station Via HP heaters. carbon-di-oxide and ammonia. There are 2 low pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used. whose function is to remove dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen. particularly at elevated temperatures. Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump.005/litre or less.turbine bleed steam. 7. principally oxygen. The highpressure boiler feed pump is very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. Deaerator: The presence of certain gases. Auxiliary systems . Feed Water System This system plays an important role in the supply of feed water to the boiler at requisite pressure and steam I water ratio. All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value. The safety in operation and efficiency of the feed pump depends largely on the reliable operation and maintenance. This is achieved by embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit.
It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. The generator also uses water cooling. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. the bearing and seal oil systems. Generator Heat Dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. Oil System An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. the governing control valves. Demineralized water of low conductivity is used. This system requires special handling during start-up. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. in an oil-sealed casing. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system. larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 22 kV and water is conductive. Hydrogen gas cooling. They . The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Generator high voltage system The generator voltage ranges from 11 kV in smaller units to 22 kV in larger units.
Industrial electric motors can be broadly classified as induction motors. These motors drive pumps. The 3-phase induction motor has three winding search connected to a separate phase of the power supply. The 3-phase squirrel cage motor is the workhorse of industry. SPECIFICATION : R. FAN MOTR -2B INDUCTION MOTOR 1. direct current motors or synchronous motors. and is far the most common motor type used in industry. it is rugged and reliable. In induction motors. This induced rotor current produces a second magnetic field.D.F 1S 325 . bearings. All motor types have the same four operating components: stator (stationary windings). and frame (enclosure). Induction Motors: Induction motors are the most commonly used prime mover for various equipments in industrial applications.are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. rotor (rotating windings).E. the induced magnetic field of the stator winding induces a current in the rotor. conveyers and production lines. blowers and fans. which tries to oppose the stator magnetic field. compressors. and this causes the rotor to rotate. The generator high voltage channels are connected to stepup transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 115 kV to 520 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. Various induction motors used at RPH: F. Electrical system Motors Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy by the interaction between the magnetic fields set up in the stator and rotor windings.
E. RPM 6. FREQUENCY 11. ROTOR Amp 15.T. W. KW 5. PHASE 10. ROTOR VOLTS 8. FAN MOTOR INDUCTION MOTOR 1. SPECIFICATION 2. DUTY 4. STATOR Amp 14. : ILA 75-666HF702Z : CONTINOUS : 400 : 989 : 6600 : 6600 :F :3 : 50 : ST-λ -R.F 1S 325 : ILA 75-666HF702Z . STATOR VOLTS 7. INSULATION CLASS 9.D. FRAME 3. CONNECTION 12. YEAR 17.2. AMBIENT TEMP 13.T : 50 ºC : 48 : 48 : BHOPAL : 1987 : 1300 KG I. FRAME : R. DIVISION 16.
DIVISION 16. INSULATION CLASS 9. FREQUENCY 11. STATOR Amp 14.F 1S 325 .3. STATOR VOLTS 7. RPM 6.A. DUTY 4. PHASE 10. SPECIFICATION : R. YEAR : CONTINOUS : 400 : 741 : 6600 : 6600 :F :3 : 50 : ST-λ-R. ROTOR Amp 15.E. CONNECTION 12.T : 50 ºC : 48 : 48 : BHOPAL : 1987 P. ROTOR VOLTS 8. FAN MOTOR INDUCTION MOTOR 1. KW 5. AMBIENT TEMP 13.
T : 50 ºC : 20.2. i.e. RPM 6. : ILAS-508-4HE 702 : CONTINOUS : 190 : 1489 : 6600 : 6600 :F :3 : 50Hz : ST-λ-R. ROTOR VOLTS 8. CONNECTION 12.. DUTY 4. rpm is less than the synchronous speed. STATOR VOLTS 7. KW 5. W. PHASE 10. the RPM is same as the .6 : 20. The rotor magnetic field locks onto the stator rotating magnetic field and rotates at the same speed. The rotor is fed by DC from a separate source.e. DIVISION 16.6 : BHOPAL : 1989 : 3500 KG Synchronous Motors: AC power is fed to the stator of the synchronous motor. FREQUENCY 11. INSULATION CLASS 9. ROTOR Amp 15. i. AMBIENT TEMP 13 STOTOR Amp 14..T. the synchronous motor rotate with no slip. While induction motors rotate with a slip. YEAR 17. The speed of the rotor is a function of the supply frequency and the number of magnetic poles in the stator. FRAME 3.
filtered.or steam-turbines and designed for power ranges up to 1800 MVA per unit. Two-pole turbo-alternators with round rotor are used as generator to be driven by gas. D. Generator or alternator is based upon the principle of electromagnetic induction and consists generally of a stationary part called stator and a rotating part called rotor. Modern generators are two pole. the (stretched) rotor is modelled as solid steel cylinder.C. which is slotted only at 2/3 of the total circumference.m. the lines of magnetic flux (via magnetic field) cut through the stator windings. a number of pole-pairs up to p=30 is usual. General description of generator and its connection Solidly coupled to main turbine at one end and to the generator exciters at the other. hydrogen & water cooled machines. End turns of the concentric exciter windings are held on their position with non-magnetic caps. Exciter windings are arranged on solid poles similar to typical DC machine arrangements. Stator and rotor in machines designed for high power applications are directly cooled with water or hydrogen.f. Current supply is realized slip-ring-less as stationary field exciter machine with revolving rectifiers.C. A power range up to 800 MVA per unit is achieved with this type of rotors. demineralised water through the generator stator winding a hydrogen gas system ensures that heat is removed from the generator rotor . voltage is applied to the field windings through slip rings. The slip energy is provided by the D. The latter leads to wide armature diameters and short iron lengths.synchronous speed governed by supply frequency and number of poles. This induces an electromagnetic force (e. Salient-pole rotor synchronous machines with distinctive single poles are either utilized for generators at low speed such as water turbine applications or as lowspeed motor in the field of material handling and conveying. In order to accommodate with high centrifugal stress. a water system circulates cooled. three phase.) in the stator windings. Damper windings are implemented as conductive slot-cotters and pole-caps. The stator housed the armature windings. The A. Synchronous Generator (Alternators): The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy is carried out by the Generator.C. Damper windings appear as pole-grids. The rotor houses the field windings. excitation power. When the rotor is rotated.
Generator seal oil system The purpose of seal oil system is to maintain a seal between generator rotor as it passes through stator casing. Stator has a three phase double layer short chorded bar type winding having two parallel paths. Rotor is a cast chromium. a hydrogen purity meter is fitted for checking purity of hydrogen a hydrogen dryer contains alumina as desiccating agent to remove moisture from hydrogen generator is purged of hydrogen by introduction of buffer gas usually carbon dioxide a relief valve is provided to limit casing pressure . The stator is the component that embodies the armature core and armature winding. The rotating rectifier is permanently coupled to the end of exciter shaft. Seal oil would be supplied from turbine generator shaft mounted oil pump. The generator rotor forms the poles and provides the magnetic field. nickel. For start up. shut down and emergency conditions ac and motor driven pumps are provided. Generator hydrogen cooling system Hydrogen gas under pressure is used to cool the rotor windings and stator core. molybdenum and vanadium steel ingot. Water cooled terminal bushing are housed in the lower part of the stator on the slip ring side. Generator excitation system the main exciter is a three phase rotating armature ac generator directly coupled to generator the exciter is air cooled by its own closed circuit ventilation system the ac output from rotor is rectified by diodes mounted on rotating rectifier The pilot exciter rotor is directly coupled to main exciter. The dc supply for field coils is connected to a terminal bolt on either side of exciter bed plate. The seal oil system is interlocked with electric turning gear and jacking oil pumps so that shaft can’t be rotated unless seal oil system is in service.
KW : 67. Rotor Volt : 37-304 7. Division : HYD 16.8 lagging 3. In smaller units. Amp : 4. Insulation Class : B 14. Type : TARI 932/36/P 15. Phase : 3 11. Power factor : 0. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. two 50% duty coolers. This transformer is used to step-up the generating voltage about 15KV to the grids voltage. Rotor Amp : 218-601 8. RPM : 3. a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 11 kV bus system. which connects with winding water inlet manifold. .375 4. the system also provide cooling for main terminal & their copper bus bars Unit will trip if water flow drop below 80% of rated flow. Rating of Alternator used at RPH 1.500 2. KVA : 84. a duplex strainer and a hydrogen detraining tank. Coolant : Air 13. Connection : Star-Delta 12. the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit.639 6.500 5. Stator water system Consists of closed circuit incorporating two 100% circulating pumps. generating at 11 kV.The generator is connected to their transformer by means of isolated bus-duets. Manufacturer : BHEL Transformers: Major transformers in the power station Generator transformer. Excitation Voltage : 10.000 9. Frequency : 50Hz 10. Cooling water enters the generator frame via an insulating pipe. Thus.
then transformer impedance has to be reduced. Total KVA capacity of UAT required can be determined by using auxiliary motor load. For large units. Station Transformer.It is needed to feed the different utilities of the power station o Construction of Station Transformer 1. Unit Auxiliary transformer. It is usually safe and desired to provide 30% access capacity than calculated to provide for miscellaneous auxiliaries and possible increase in the auxiliary load. By selecting UAT capacity one thing is to be taken care of is that the percent impedance of transformer for the proposed unit should satisfy the following conditionsa.Unit auxiliary transformer draws its input from the main bus duct connecting the generating transformer secondary. the consequent increase in the short circuit duty may require the use of higher rated switchgear. such arrangement normally provide separate bus sections fed by separate auxiliary transformer with bus section breakers. usually boiler feeder pump should remain within acceptable limits. it has become necessary to use more than one auxiliary transformer. b. If the voltage drop is higher than the permissible limits. This to create balance to use more than one auxiliary transformer. Maximum short circuit current on the auxiliary bus should be limited with in the maximum switchgear rating available. Core Type b. Maximum permissible voltage drop while starting the largest single auxiliary motor. Core and windingTwo types of arrangement are provided a.Maximum voltage drop permitted on starting largest motor is about 15-20%. Shell Type .
If Buchholz relay id not working then to protect the transformer from any instantaneous fault . 3. More over. An indicator on the surface of the conservator can monitor the level of the oil. The dry silica gel will be blue in color. Outside air is drawn into the conservator through the breather every time. Buchholz relayIt is employed for the protection against formed inside the transformer due to heating (CO2. After sometime the silica gel gets saturated with moisture completely very important to replace when it turns pick in color. if the level of the oil rises.In the core type. the internal pressure may build up to a very high level. while in the central leg of a three legged core. the air is pushed out to maintain the pressure. It maintains the level of oil in the conservator through the breather. 4. The old silica gel can be reconditioned and used again by heating up to 150-200 C in an oven to drive out all the absorbed moisture. 5. which consists of silica gel. This arrangement also ensures that surface area of the transformer oil exposed to the atmosphere is limited to prevent fast oxidation and consequent deterioration of insulating properties of the oil. The breather is filled with silica gel. Conservator – It is a small tank placed on the top of main tank. the transformer cools down. It can protect the transformer against both incipient and sudden faults. which may result in an explosion of the tank. contained in the air passing through it there by making the air quite dry. Silicon Gel BreatherA breather is provided to prevent the contamination of the transformer oil in the conservator by the moisture present in the air weltering the conservator. which has the property of absorbing all water vapour. 2. the winding’s is wounds around the two leg of the rectangular magnetic core. DiaphragmIn case of a severe fault in the transformer. CO) and other resource such as presence of unwanted materials inside the transformer.
a diaphragm is connected to the transformer’s main tank.The position of tap’s in this changer can be changed only after removing load from the transformer. on-load tap changers are preferred. The circulation of oil and air can be both natural and forced. Off Load Tap Changer.The position of tap’s in this tap changer can be changed when the transformer is running of load. 6. Th e different cooling types are: a. ONAF-Oil Natural Air Forced c. In others. This is used in the larger transformers only.Oil Natural Air Natural b. OFAF-Oil Forced Air Forced 7. ONAN. Cooling SystemIt consists of Radiator. pump. Tap ChangerTap changers are used to compensate for the variation of grids voltage. Oil Gauge MeterOne gauge meter is employed at the conservator tank for showing the oil level in the conservator and another at the bottom to show the circulating pressure of oil. which provides insulation as well as cooling. The oil is circulated outside the transformer tank in radiators to cool it. ON Load Tap Changer. Rising Gas pressure breaks the thin membrane of backlit sheet of an opening through a bent pipe and formed gases escape out. Air circulated between the radiators fins cools the oil. 8. They are connected to HV side of the transformers. . fans. b. There are two types of tap changersa. This type of changer can only be used in small in small and medium size transformers. The assembly circulated oil in the transformer.
Rating HV(MVA) : 85 59. Case and winding(Kg) : 20000 11. Class of Insulation : B 6. Type of cooling : OFAF ONAF ONAN 2. Un tanking weight(Kg) : 20000 o Ratings of Generator transformer 1. Temperature rise in Oil : 56 C 7.65 5. Total Weight(Kg) : 41000 13. No Load HV(KV) : 33.5 15 3.5 LV(MVA) : 85 59.5 33. Type of Cooling : ONAN ONAF 2.67 270. Phase : 3 8. Oil Quantity(L) : 9300 14. No Load HV(KV) : 32 10.65 1238. Transport weight(Kg) : 33000 15. Rating HV(MVA) : 10.5 10.5 42.5 10. Connection Symbol : Y ynod 11 10.o Ratings of Station Transformer used at RPH 1.5 LV(KV) : 10.5 42.5 .5 33.5 MV(KV) : 7 7 LV(KV) : 7 7 4.5 3. Frequency : 50Hz 9.5 15 LV(MVA) : 10.95 LV(A) : 867. Line Current HV(A) : 189. Weight of Oil(Kg) : 8250 12.
Temp.7 5. Line Current HV(A) : 495.4. rise of Oil : 50 C 8. Type of cooling : ONAN 2. Rating(MVA) : 9 3. Connection Symbol : Y Nd 11 11. Oil quantity(L) : 24336 15. Line Current HV(A) : 1466. Temp. Phase : 3 9.8 4.5 LV(KV) : 6.46 LV(A) : 765.3 LV(A) : 4679. % Impedance at NTAP HV-LV : 13.7 2339. Transport weight(Kg) : 730000 16. Phase : 3 9. Class of Insulation : B 7. No Load HV(KV) : 10. Frequency : 50Hz 10. Un tanking weight(Kg) : 62300 Ratings of Unit Auxiliary Transformer 1.05 5. Case and winding(Kg) : 62300 12. Frequency : 50Hz 10. Total weight(Kg) : 110000 14. Case and winding(Kg) : 14000 .3 3275. Weight of Oil(Kg) : 21650 13. rise of Oil : 50 C 8. Vector symbol : Dyn1 6.7 733.7+ 15 6.7 1026. Class of Insulation : B 7.
which operates the switch. a circuit-breaker and another isolator . Un tanking weight(Kg) : 14000 Generated voltage transmission EHV (Extra High Voltage) Transmission and Switching The electricity is usually produced in the stator windings of large modem generators at about 25. either by powerful electrical coils or mechanically by springs the arc is quickly extinguished by the oil. These isolate the circuit. The circuit-breaker. Each generator in a power station has its own transformer.220000 or 400000 volts.and then to another circuit-breaker with its associated isolators. Circuit-breakers work like combined switches and fuses but they have certain special features and are very different from the domestic switch and fuse. an arc is created between them. is used to switch off the current flowing to the transmission lines. and at the same time 'blows out' the arc. before being fed to the Grid . Once the current has been interrupted the isolators can be opened. At the voltage used in the home. One type of circuit breaker has its contacts immersed in insulating oil so that when -the switch is opened. Maintenance or repair work can then be carried out safely.000 volts and is fed through terminal connections to one side of a generator transformer (1) that steps up the voltage to 132000. Oil quantity(L) : 6150 14. .breaker being applied to its terminals.conductors which run the length of the switching compound . Transport weight(Kg) : 22000 15. From the circuit-breaker the current is taken to the busbars . Total weight(Kg) : 28100 13. this arc is very small and only lasts for a fraction of a second but at the very high voltages used for transmission. When electrical current is switched off by separating two contacts. the size and power of the arc is considerable and it must be quickly quenched to prevent damage. Another type works by compressed air. circuit-breaker and associated isolators but the electricity generated is fed into a common set of busbars. which is a heavy-duty switch capable of operating in a fraction of a second.11. From here conductors carry it to a series of three switches comprising an isolator. Weight of Oil(Kg) : 5470 12.
however. . To maximize the return on this outlay. The outdoor bus bars are either rigid aluminum tubes supported on post insulators or flexible ACSR conductors supported on strain insulators. Here engineers monitor the output of electricity. supervising and controlling the operation of generating plant and high voltage switch gear and directing power to the Grid system as required. is that the power system should operate in a safe manner at all times. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very great. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economy. the system must be utilized as much as possible within the applicable constraints of security supply. The provision of adequate protection to detect and disconnect elements of the power system in the event of fault is therefore an integral part of power system design. it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time – some tens or hundreds of milliseconds. Switchyard Switchyard Layout The Outdoor switchyard in a subtraction has several 3Φ equipments and 3-Φ bus bars. Each bay has several equipment connected in certain well defined pattern. and these faults may represent a risk to life and/or property. Even away from the fault arc itself. heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds. The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate and supply electrical energy to consumers. Only by so doing can the objectives of the power system be met and the investment protected. Instrument on the control panels show the output and condition which exits on all the main plant and a miniature diagram indicates the precise state of the electrical system. No matter how well designed. and so the complete power system represents a very large capital investment. Many items of equipment are very expensive. More fundamental. faults will always occur on a power system.Three wires are used in a 'three-phase' system for large power transmission as it is cheaper than the two wire 'single-phase' system that supplies the home. The centre of the power station is the control room.
F COIL :A . XV. REL. The protection Zones should overlap and cover the circuit breaker. XI. Current transformers are provided for measurement and protection. XX. COIL :V O. XII. XVIII. V. X. XVI. XIII. Isolator is provided for measurement and protection. II. XIX. at incoming feeder.INTERPRETER : VS12014 TYPE : VM3AF SPECIFICATION : IS-2516/IEG56 DIVISION : BHOPAL SERIAL NO. as the first apparatus and also at the terminal of transformer. : BP9033113 YEAR : 1987 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SF6 GAS I. Surge arrestors (lightning arrestors) are connected phase to ground.F WITHSTAND : 27KV IMPULSE : 60KVP SHUNT TRIP COIL : 220DCV SPRING REL COIL : 220DCV UV.Circuit breakers Circuit breakers are connected between the bus bar and each outgoing and incoming circuit. IV. VI. MOLECULAR WEIGHT MELTING POINT : 146.07 : -50. for diverting lightning surges to the group. VII.C.2 KV FREQUENCY : 50 Hz NORMAL CURRENT : 630 A SYSTEM BREAKING CAPACITY : 25 KV SHORT TIMA CURRENT : 25 KV DURATION : 3 SEC MAKING CAPACITY : 64 KAP P. Voltage transformers are connected generally to bus bars and incoming line side. IX. VOLTAGE : 7. III. II. XIV. VIII. XVII. SF6 Circuit breakers specification used at RPH: I.7C . etc. COIL :A E.
Earthing Switch Earthing switch is connected between line conductor and earth. They are used in addition to circuit breakers and are provided on each side of circuit breaker to provide isolation and enable maintenance.3 b. Normally. the isolator is closed first and then the circuit breaker. X.III. Generally.73G/CM2 DIELECTRIC CONSTANT AT 25 C 1ATM : 1.2 c. AT 10KGF/CM²-G : 75. AT 1KGF/CM²-G : 12. Isolators are necessary on supply side of circuit breaker to ensure isolation of circuit breaker from live parts for the purpose of maintenance. When the line is disconnected. AT5KGF/CM²G : 38.002 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AT 30 C : 3.003 CRITICLE PRESSURE : 38. earthing switches are mounted on the frame of the isolators.25GM/LIT a.547+.0 Isolators Isolators (disconnecting switches) are switches which operate under no load conditions. AT 15 KGF/CM²-G : 119. circuit breaker is opened First and then the Isolator. VII. IX. it is open. VI.6 d.07 DENSITY AT 25 C AT 0KGF/CM²-G : 6.36X10-5 SPECIFIC HEAT RATIO : 1. SUBLIMATION TEMPERATURE : -63. While opening a circuit. Insulators Provision of adequate insulation in a sub-station layout is of primary importance from the point of view of reliability of supply and safety of personnel. The following are the considerations to be made: The dielectric strength of the insulating material should he high It should possess high mechanical strength It should posses high resistance to temperature changes . V. the earthing switch is closed so as to discharge voltage trapped on the line.8C CRITICLE TEMPERATURE : 45. VIII. While closing a circuit.55KGF/CM³ CRITICLE DENSITY : 0. IV.
The leakage current (to the earth) should he minimum to keep the corona loss and radio interference within reasonable limit. in that this quantity may depart from the sinusoidal waveform. The wave trap is normally installed at the line entrance Lightning Arrestors A sub-station has to be shielded against direct lightning strokes by provision of overhead shield wire/earth wire or spikes (masts). The insulator material should not he porous and should be free from impurity and cracks. The most important and costly equipment in a sub-station is the transformer and the normal practice is to install lightning arrestors as near to the transformer as possible. relaying and telemeter is connected to tile line through high frequency cable. Besides protecting the transformer. The resulting effect on instrument performance is usually negligible. or both. coupling is made through transformers. this is made possible by the high efficiency of the transformer. or a transient component that persists for an appreciable period. the equipments should be protected against traveling waves due to lighting Strokes on tile lines entering the sub-station. This is done by lightning arrestor. Such 'measuring' transformers are required to produce a scaled down replica of the input quantity to the accuracy expected for the particular measurement. Current and Voltage Transformers Whenever the values of voltage or current in a power circuit are too high to permit convenient direct connection of measuring instruments or relays. The performance of measuring transformers during and following large instantaneous changes in the input quantity is important. Besides direct strokes. Rating of Current Transformer used at RPH . The deviation may consist of a step change in magnitude. although for precision metering a persistent change in the accuracy of the transformer may be significant. the lightning arrestor also provides protection to the equipment on the bus side located within certain distances. Carrier Equipment The carrier equipment required for communication. coupling capacitor and the wave trap.
Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. 7. 5. 8.1. 3. 3. Standard : 15/2705 2. 4. power stations and building cooling. 6. 5. chemical plants. 6. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid . Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. Insulation level : 75/170KV Voltage : 33000/√3 & 110/√3 VA : 50 CL : 1 & 3 Phase Frequency : 50Hz Single phase earthed outdoor Others systems Cooling Towers: Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Highest System Voltage : 36KV 2.5/3 (sec/kA) Rated current : 800A/1A Division : JHANSI Manufacturing Year : 2000 Rating of Potential Transformer 1. 4. 7. Highest system voltage : 36KV Insulation level : 70/170kvp Frequency : 50Hz Short time current : 31.
turbine lube oil pumps. and emergency lighting. This is essential for a safe. damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation. However.NON TECHNICAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT . Thus. at times. the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range. communication systems. to essential items such as the power plant's control systems. Smaller towers are normally factory-built. manual intervention may be required. Monitoring and alarm system Most of the power plant operational controls are automatic. Battery supplied emergency lighting and communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power. or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. when needed. PART 2.structures that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter. while larger ones are constructed on site.
payments and increments to the employees Performance appraisals To ensure trainings and workshops if required To stop increments due to violations of company rules Departmental promotions and shifting Relations with peers and colleagues . o This is a part of probationary period DOCUMENTATION OF EMPLOYEES o Keeping view of behavior and regularity of employees o Deciding the promotions according to the effectiveness of the respective jobs o Keeping updated information of the employee and the family o Introducing new laws and policies for the benefit of employees o Looking after the establishment of candidate o Postings of the candidate at the plant (work area) VIGILANCE DEPTT o o o o To check accuracy and work To see whether no employee is underperforming To ensure transparency in procedures of the company To ensure the rules and regulations are followed HUMAN RESOURCES o o o o o o Looking after uniforms. Detailed information is provided at the website o Verification of documents o Conducting entrance tests o Interviews and medical tests INDUCTION TRAINING o After recruitment candidates go through a training of 2 days to 3 weeks to familiarize the candidate with company rules and operations.RECRUITMENT OF STAFF o Advertisement in local newspaper: deciding the size of ad according to minimum required information and costing.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS o o o o o o o Ensure labour laws Ensure discipline Factories act 1948 Regulations of worker unions and associations.3 crores/ MW This is compared to other estimations in line to present data for power generations IMPLENTATION OF PLANS only 1027 crores were used equity-323. private funding is allowed Also escalation of cost has to kept in mind during the implementation FUND RAISING Equity and debt Government has allowed atleast 30% equity .1 crore debt-680 crore When returns are coming late. their demands To prevent strikes Checking complaints Gratuity (after 5 years of service consecutively in the same company) FINANCE Financial management for technocrats COST ESTIMATIONS FOR STARTING OF PLANTS PPCL-I Estimated cost 1077 crores (330 MW) Cost per MW = 1077/330 = 3.
40 Margin is approx 30-40% The fixed cost is given by DERC and variable by the company Cost cycle is made . which further distributes to sub stations of NDPL. Accordingly. it is invested in banks (12 nationalized banks) Quotations and tenders are issued It is not advisable to draw loans unnecessarily as the lending rate of interest is more than the return on investments Till the plant starts operating.soil testing and excavation i. the bill is raised The electricity generated is transmitted to companies like DELHI TRANSCO LTD. The ratio should be 30:70 POWER FINANCE COOPERATION.formed to ease the lending with low rates of interest. civil work If extra money if realized. BSES etc. Money is borrowed step by step with bank loans First erection.75% cost is utilized in freight as machines are heavy and not necessarily made near the site labor cost and manufacturing costs have to be kept in mind PROFIT AND CAPITAL GENERATION A 30 days report is made. Then. the bank loan’s interest also has to be given When the plant starts functioning the repayment of the principle amount also starts Normally 10 year loans are given to the plant TRANSPORTATION AND INSURANCE about 1. to our houses Tariff is fixed for realization of profits If bill is paid within first 2 days then a discount of 2% is given DERC ( Delhi Electricity Regulating Commission) fixes the tariff Cost of 1 unit is approx Rs 1 and 90 paisa Charges are levied and distribution cost is Rs 2.e.
6. 3. MATERIAL PLANNING WORK POLICY PURCHASE OF MATERIALS CONTRACTS ISSUING TENDERS STANDARDISATION SCRAP DISPOSAL PHOTOS . 2. 4.OPERATIONS AND MATERIALS OBJECTIVES 1. 7. 5.
Bawana power plant Energy transmission Rajghat power plant .
Coal handling plant .
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