P. 1
Das+&+Ferbel +Introduction+to+Nuclear+and+Particle+Physics+(World+Scientific +2003)

Das+&+Ferbel +Introduction+to+Nuclear+and+Particle+Physics+(World+Scientific +2003)

4.0

|Views: 81|Likes:
Published by Sadiq Nawaz Khan

More info:

Published by: Sadiq Nawaz Khan on Oct 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/23/2014

pdf

text

original

We have argued that quarks are confined within hadrons. However, in-
creasing the temperature of our hadronic system, and thereby the random
thermal motion of its constituents, could eventually lead to a complete
disintegration of the hadron into free quarks and gluons, defining a new
transformed kind of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma phase. This
phase is quite similar to the plasma state of charged particles that exists
inside the sun and the stars, where electrons and protons from ionized
hydrogen atoms move about freely. The best theoretical evidence that a
transition between the confined and the deconfined phase of quarks takes
place as the temperature increases, comes from extensive computer simu-
lations based on QCD. This kind of a quark-gluon plasma phase of matter
was likely to have existed right after the Big Bang, when the temperature in
the universe was very high. The phase is characterized by a large number of
rapidly moving charged quarks that scatter and therefore radiate photons,
leading to enhanced direct single-photon production. In addition, because
of the high temperatures (or high energies), the production of quarks would
not be limited to just low-mass flavors, but would also increase the produc-

Standard Model I

343

tion of quarks with more exotic flavors, such as strangeness and charm.
Experimental verification of such signals in high-energy interactions is an
interesting area of research, and is being pursued in heavy-ion collisions at
the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Labo-
ratory. These collider experiments study interactions of large-A nuclei, each
with energies of several hundred GeV per nucleon. The energy and matter
densities in these experiments are expected to be large enough to observe
the transformation of normal nuclei into free quark-gluon systems. The at-
tempts to test such ideas are quite challenging. The expected properties of
the quark-gluon plasma phase are not as yet completely formulated, and,
furthermore, the experimental signatures for the presence of the quark-
gluon plasma are also not entirely clear. In spite of this uncertainty, or
perhaps because of it, it is exceedingly interesting to learn whether such
states of matter can be produced in the laboratory.

Problems
13.1
Prove that Eq. (13.49) follows from Eq. (13.48).

13.2 According to the quark model, wave functions of baryons are antisym-
metric in color. Construct a wave function for the A++ that is explicitly
antisymmetric under the exchange of any two of its quark constituents in
color space.

Suggested Readings

Aitchison, I. J. R., and A. J. G. Hey, Gauge Theories in Particle Physics:
A Practical Introduction, IOP (2003).

Prauenfelder, H., and E. M. Henley, Subatomic Physics, Prentice-Hall

(1991).

Griffiths, D., Introduction to Elementary Particles, Wiley (1989).
Jackson. J. D., Classical Electrodymanics, Wiley (1999).
Kane, G., Modern Elementary Particle Physics, Addison-Wesley (1993).
Perkins, D. H., Introduction to High Energy Physics, Cambridge Univ.
Press (2000).
Williams, W. S. C, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Oxford Univ. Press

(1997).
Also, see standard texts on quantum mechanics, e.g., Das, A., and A. C.
Melissinos, Quantum Mechanics, Gordon & Breach (1986).

Chapter 14

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->