Lesson 02- Food & HEalth | Dietary Fiber | Nutrition

2 Food and its Nutrients

2.1 Introduction
Food is one of the important needs of all living beings. You need food to live. Without food you will not be able to live long. You eat different kinds of foods such as roti, rice, dal, chuntney, papad etc. Can you name some others foods that you eat? You also take liquid foods like milk, soups and fruit juices. Whatever may be the food, it is made up of small units which keep you healthy and fit. Hence you should eat food which gives you all the nutrients and keeps you healthy. In this lesson you will know all about the nutrients and why our body needs them.

2.2 Objective
After reading this lesson you will be able to do the following: define "food" and list the functions of food; define "nutrition" and "nutrients"; enumerate the functions and sources of nutrients; explain the importance of water in the body; explain the need for a variety of foods in the diet; define the term "deficiency diseases"; relate the symptoms caused by the deficiency to the respective nutrient.

Now the second question is. Food gives the strength to fight against disease germs You fall sick when the disease germs enter your body. eating. You need energy for walking. This is my favorite food. which we get from the food we eat. Let us see what these other things are. Food helps not only to grow but also to do the repair work. These and many other processes are regulated with the help of food. etc. But have you ever thought of what is food? Why do you need to eat? Let us answer these questions. Sometimes cells die or are damaged due to injury. You get this energy from the food that you eat. the lungs are breathing in air. circulation. excretion. etc. Food gives energy to do work Everybody needs energy to do work. the stomach is digesting food. Lots of new cells are added to these to help the body to grow. it also helps the body to do a number of things. Can you tell why? The different organs inside your body are always working: the heart is pumping blood. Food helps in the growth and repair of tissues Do you know how a small child grows into an adult? The body is made up of thousands of small cells. Food helps in making the body function normally Do you remember various functions that occur on their own inside the body? Yes. why do we need to eat food? Our body is made up of many materials. You need food for the formation of new cells. digestion. That can be the dhal that you ate or can be beans subji or an idli or can be a bamboo pickle or can be jaggery or sugar that you used in your tea or milk. These are respiration. 2. This can change. The food that you eat gives you strength to fight the disease germs and get well again. Food not only fills up the stomach. working in the house or outside and for many other activities. Blood may have increased or . 3. You need some energy even when you are resting.3 What is food? We are always thinking about food. They also need energy and food provides that energy. I will eat this today. you are right.Food And Its Nutrients :: 15 2. Your blood has a certain composition. What is food? Any thing that we eat and is beneficial for our body is food. 1. New cells take the place of dead cells and thus the damage is repaired. 4.

So we can say that nutrients are invisible chemicals in the foods which are necessary for keeping the body healthy.e. 5. You can yourself recall a situation where eating has given you a lot of satisfaction. Food satisfies hunger When you eat food it fills your stomach and you feel mentally and psychologically satisfied. The food that we you contains many chemical substances. etc. so when the food is eaten your body gets a mixture of nutrients. Food helps in doing that. These chemical substances are known as nutrients.) must also be regular.4 Nutrients and Nutrition What is nutrition? Have you ever thought what happens to the food when you eat it.16 :: Home Science decreased level of sugar/salt which has to be brought back to normal. These nutrients have different names. The excretion of waste products from the body (carbon dioxide. 2. All these are regulated by food that you eat. 72 beats/minute. Water Fibre/Roughage Fats Minerals NUTRIENTS Carbohydrate Proteins Animal Proteins PlantProteins Vitamins Water Soluble Fat Soluble . or how do you get energy from the food? The science of nutrition deals with it. faeces. Most of the food contains a mixture of different nutrients. Each nutrient has a role to play in keeping the body healthy. Your heart must beat at a particular rate i. Hence we can define nutrition as a science which tells us about what happens to the food when it enters our body and thereafter.

etc.6 Carbohydrates What it does in our body gives energy helps to make the food tasty increases the bulk of your food spares the protein to perform other functions Some foods give carbhoydrates to your body in the form of starch like cereals. honey. rice.5 Proteins What it does in our body needed for making new cells in the body helps in repairing old and damaged cells. honey. maize Potatoes. liver. cereals.. . potatoes.fats are the concentrated sources of energy From where do we get Milk. cheese. coconut oil. fried foods. Can you now calculate the amount of protein you would require for yourself? For others in your family? 2.Food And Its Nutrients :: 17 2. An adult needs 1 gm of protein for every kilogram of body weight. sweet potato. One gram of protein gives 4 kcal. bajra. eggs. meat. paneer The protein from animal sources is known as animal protein and the protein from plant sources is known as plant protein. enzymes and hormones also give energy to do the work. groundnuts and nuts From where do we get Animal sources: Meat. helps in healing wounds needed for making blood. while some other foods give carbohydrates in the form of sugar like sugar. butter. ghee. poultry. One gram of carbhoydrate gives 4 kcal. soyabean. An adult person needs 400-420 gms of carbohydrates everyday. egg. milk. peas. jaggery. groundnut oil. curd. jam. From where do we get Cereals – like wheat. etc. sweet potatoes. Plant sources: All pulses. vanaspati. jaggery 2.7 Fats What it does in our body gives energy. arbi Sweets like sugar. fish.

to provide energy for growth and repair for making the food tasty for increasing weight. INTEXT QUESTIONS 2. When fats are eaten in large amounts. liver and also provide padding on our skeleton and muscles. Fats which we get from plants are called plant fats. they make you fat. Although fats give you more energy than carbohydrates. Animal fats increase the chances of heart related diseases. you eat very little fats and hence fats are not the major sources of energy in your body. Choose the correct alternative: The main use of proteins in the body is (a) (b) (c) (d) 3.1 1. One gram of fat gives you 9 kcal. D. Food containing large amount of fat can cause stomach upsets. K help to keep our body warm make the food tasty provide protection to delicate organs like heart. List the functions of food.etc. Like proteins.18 :: Home Science help in the utilization of fat soluble vitamins like A. choclates. Potatoes Jaggery Wheat Egg Sweet potato Mustard oil Name the main nutrient present in the following: (a) Fish liver oil (h) (b) Butter (i) (c) Vanaspati (j) (d) Cheese (k) (e) Dal (l) (f) Meat (m) (g) Milk . An adult needs only 50-60 gms of fat everyday. 2. E. fats which we get from animals are called animal fats.

Calcium and Phorphorus are known as macro or major minerals. You must have noticed that after some time the blood stops flowing and a hard crust is formed. Iron and Iodine are found in the body in smaller quantities. you bleed. (ii) Green leafy vegetables like spinach.Food And Its Nutrients :: 19 2. coriander leaves are also good sources of calcium. 2.8 Minerals Minerals are present in all body tissues and fluids. Minerals have two special characteristics: Minerals do not provide energy Minerals are not destroyed during food preparation. (i) (ii) (iii) CALCIUM Calcium helps your bones to grow and become strong. It is needed for making red blood cells in your blood. Iron is a mineral which is found in blood as a part of the red pigment haemoglobin. It helps the blood to clot. 1. curry leaves. (i) IRON Iron is a very important mineral. It also helps in the movement of muscles. Functions (iv) Sources You get calcium from (i) Milk and its products like butter and ghee. Functions . as they are present in the body in large amounts specially in bones and teeth. Minerals occur in food as salts. hence are known as micro minerals. General functions of minerals areMaintenance or control of water balance in the body Contraction of muscles Normal functioning of nerves Clotting of blood. These are the best sources of calcium. This is called clotting of blood for which calcium is needed. It makes your teeth grow healthy and strong. When you get hurt. The minerals calcium and phosphorus are found in bones and teeth. There are many minerals which are necessary but we will be studying only a few of them in this lesson.

that is.2 1. Sources You get iodine from (i) (ii) (iii) Sea foods like fish and sea weeds. Choose the correct alternative: Iron is found in plenty in (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Iodised salt Milk Leafy vegetables Wheat 2. INTEXT QUESTIONS 2. Calcium makes the bones and teeth strong. and are essentials for proper functioning of the body. Calcium improves the taste of food. heart. Milk is a rich source of calcium. Plants which grow in iodine rich soil. . kidney and egg yolk are full of iron. Calcium helps the blood to clot.20 :: Home Science Sources You get iron from (i) (ii) (iii) Green leafy vegetables like spinach. 3. iodised salt. mint. therefore must be supplied by the diet.9 Vitamins These are the substances which occur in very small amounts in foods. Gur/jaggery You must include iron rich foods in your daily diet. Salt which has iodine in it. etc. Liver. Vitamins cannot be manufactured by the body. Pick the odd one out: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2. IODINE Functions (i) Iodine is needed so that the thyroid gland in your body can work properly.

leafy vegetables. Vitamin A How it works in the body Your eyes need Vitamin A to see in dim light Foods it can be found in Vegetables. eggs yolk. sprouted grams. Main function is in blood clotting process. etc. liver green leafy vegetables It makes your skin healthy Necessary for normal growth and development Provides resistance to infection. Guava and amala are the richest sources. rice. fruits (especially yellow ones). Fruits. Oily fish. We need all these vitamins in small amounts daily. Whole pulses and cereals Green leafy vegetables Pulses. butter. These are Vitamins of B Group and C. These are Vitamins A. ghee. for the body to work properly. cheese. D Works with minerals phosphorus and calcium to make teeth and bones strong. potatoes. whole grains cereals – wheat. B Complex Helps the body to use energy Keeps the digestive system healthy All the body cells need Vitamin C because it helps to hold cells together. Let us see what each of these vitamins does in our body and where do we get them from.Food And Its Nutrients :: 21 These are classified into two groups on the basis of their solubility in fats and water. D. milk. cheese. C E K . butter. etc. Those vitamins which are soluble in fats are known as fat soluble vitamins. E. and K. It also keeps our teeth and gums healthy. Prevents tissue breakdownit is an antioxidant. Our body can make Vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. ghee. milk. Those Vitamins which are soluble in water are known as water soluble vitamins.

extra heat is removed when you sweat. (iv) The vitamin which makes us feel hungry is…………….3 1. Fibre is present in foods of plant origen only. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) It helps the body cells to do their work. Water helps to remove the waste products from your body in the form of urine.. also known as roughage. 2. In front of each write down the Vitamin they contain: (i) Amla (vii) Sprouted pulses (ii) Carrot (viii) Sunlight on skin (iii) Cereals (ix) Milk (iv) Eggs (x) Butter (v) Fish oil (xi) Pumpkin (vi) Green leafy vegetables (xii) Liver Fill in the blanks: (i) Vitamin D can be produced by the ……………… in the presence of …………… (ii) One function of Vitamin A is to keep our……………. In summer. 2. 3. healthy. (iii) To keep our gums and teeth healthy we must take ………………. It helps you to digest your food and takes the nutrients from the food to the different cells of your body. There are many types of fibre.10 Water Water is not a nutrient.22 :: Home Science INTEXT QUESTIONS 2. These can be . Everybody must drink at least 7-8 glasses of water everyday. Tick mark (√) the fat soluble vitamins from the choices given: (a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin B (c) Vitamin C (d) Vitamin D Here are some food items. yet it is very important for you. 2. is the undigestible carbohydrate present in food.11 Dietary Fibre Dietary fibre. Water also helps to keep your body temperature constant.

High fibre diet helps in the prevention ofConstipation Haemorrhoids Cancer of the large bowel Diabetes mellitus Obesity Foods rich in fibre are: whole wheat atta. But the rice which you eat is white rice. the rice has undergone processing and the brown coat is removed. what happens is that you remove the wheat bran which is fibre and the atta becomes refined. Fibres perform many essential functions in the body. lobia. Yes.banana pulses. Some people have the habit of sieving the atta and then making chapaties out if it.4 State whether the following statements are true or false: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Fibre is not essential in the diet Bananas are rich in fibre We must remove the outer skin of apples before eating Fibre helps in the prevention of cancer .Food And Its Nutrients :: 23 water soluble or water insoluble. cauliflower. foods which contain fibre require more chewing and thus have a high degree of satiety. Can you think of some other examoples? Wheat atta is something you use everyday. rajmah. they increasse the bulk and softness of the stool. thus making it easier to pass. beans. rice has a brown covering over it and is known as brown rice. So also is the fibre and some Vitamins. But in the process. green leafy vegetables. Can you think of some such foods? Let us see. When foods are processed it may remove the fibre as also the vitamins and minerals. pineapples. dalia (porridge) fruits such as guava. When this refined flour is eaten it is not so beneficial for your health. whole dhals vegetables such as peas. carrots. dhals. INTEXT QUESTIONS 2. apples.

the symptoms of the disease start disappearing. Can you now define the term deficiency disease? See the following box. 1. The deficiency is casused due to absence of the nutrients in daily meals and the deficiency disappears when you start eating the missing nutrients. Deficiency disease is a condition which occurs in the body when a particular nutrient in daily meals has been missing for a prolonged period. do you know what will happen? Yes. This is of two types(1) When the protein is deficient but calories or energy from carbohydrates is sufficient. The body will not be able to function properly and you will fall sick. the condition known as Kwashiorkor occurs.12 Deficiency Diseases You have now seen that each nutrient in the food does some specific work in your body which helps the body to keep healthy. . Proteins and Carbohydrates When there is lack of proteins and carbohydrates in the diet for a long time the deficiency disease known as Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) occurs.24 :: Home Science (v) (vi) Consuming fibre leads to obesity Fibre is found in tomatoes and grapes (vii) Fibre increases bulk of the food (viii) You will lose weight if you do not eat fibre 2. a deficiency diseases occurs only when a particular nutrient has been missing from your diet for a very long time. Interestingly. This deficiency occurs mainly in children below 5 years of age. This is the reason why such diseases are called deficiency diseases. If you do not eat these nutrients. We hope you have also understood that a deficiency disease can be cured by adding the absent nutrient into the diet once again. The deficiency symptoms start showing only after a while. Remember. Let us now study exactly what happens when you do not eat foods which contain the following nutrients. if you start eating the foods with the missing nutrients. you are right.

the lack of this vitamin results in the stunted growth. Deficiency of Vitamin A also leads to dryness of conjunctiva (the white portion of the eye). There is a loss of weight. pregnant women and preschool children. the supply of oxygen to the cells is . Improvement in the condition can occur if a diet rich in Vitamin A is taken. Then the person loses weight and becomes thin. Iron deficiency anaemia Iron deficiency anaemia is another major nutritional problem in our country. i. In our country PEM is widely prevalent in children under 5 years of age belonging to poor and underprivileged communities. When the child is suffering from PEM. Hook worm infestation mainly found in young children and adults. The cornea (black part of eye) may also become cloudy. therefore. At this stage the problem of night blindness sets in. especially from low income groups. Excessive blood loss during child birth or due to accidental injury. often diarrhoea and other infections also occur due to low body resistance to diseases. This is the condition mostly found in the well-to-do families or in the affluent class of society. What may happen in Iron deficiency – There is not enough hemoglobin in blood. 2. In the adults there is often a lack of carbohydrates in the diet. At a later stage the conjunctiva may become wrinkled. There is a feeling of tiredness and restlessness. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3. If there is excess of carbohydrates in the diet then the person becomes obese or fat. Vitamin A deficiency When you do not have enough fats in your body: Vitamin A deficiency is also found mainly in children. the child does not grow to full potential. Fats Fat soluble vitamins do not get used up properly. Pregnant women are also susceplible to this deficiency. In both these conditions there is growth failure. the child cannot see in dim light. The major causes of anaemia in our country areInadequate intake of dietary iron or its poor absorption. Proteins start being used up to give energy to the body.e. The age groups affected are women (in the reproductive age of 15-45 years). 4. Since Vitamin A is required for the growth and development.Food And Its Nutrients :: 25 (2) When protein and energy both are insufficient for a prolonged period then a disease condition known as marasmus occurs.

Some accompanying symptoms like diarrhoea and dysentry may also occur.26 :: Home Science reduced. is very essential for the proper functioning of the body. One does not feel hungry and has difficulty in digesting food. mental retardation and deaf-mutism. bones and teeth become weak. This deficiency is no longer seen now. Vitamin C deficiency Earlier Vitamin C deficiency disorder known as scurvy was endemic to people who did not eat fresh fruits and vegetables. Common symptoms of vitamin B complex deficiency are sore mouth. restless and fatigued. deficiency of Vitamin C occurs. The foothills of Himalays and the areas where there are frequent floods are the most goiter prone areas. Bihar. In India there are certain goitre prevalent areas. 6. 5. The only solution is to include fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet. Maharastra. redness of the tongue and cuts at the angles of mouth. 7. specially sailors and soldiers. Goitre is generally seen among adolescents. . When this happens. Iodine deficiency disorders Iodine. Gums swell up and start bleeding. The gums. Madhya Pradesh. Gujrat. In the absence of fresh fruits and vegetables. Persons who are suffering from deficiency diseases must be given the deficient nutrient in their diet so that they get well soon. also have goitre pockets. A severe deficiency of iodine during prenatal life may lead to Cretinism (severe mental retardation). Therefore you cannot work to your full potential. sore tongue. Vitamin B Complex deficiency Low intake of Vitamin B through diet is the main cause of this deficiency. The wounds also do not heal fast. In earlier times the disease known as Beri Beri was quite prevalent in areas where polished rice was the staple food. Deficiency of iodine leads to a number of disorders like goitre. The Government has banned the used of non-iodised salt. cretinism. you feel tired all the time. young adults and school age children. More females than males are affected. But recent surveys have shown that areas in Andhra Pradesh. Kerala. The only solution to this problem is to eat iodised salt.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 3. (i) (ii) less water absence of a nutrient absence of exercise presence of disease germs medicine fruits and vegetables cereals missing nutrients Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Iodine prevent night blindness keep the skin healthy prevent anemia prevent constipation scurvy anemia goitre night blindness bones eyes A person suffering from a deficiency disease gets well if she takes Scurvy is caused by the deficiency of The function of Vitamin A is to Deficiency of iron causes Calcium is required in the body for healthy . 1. Deficiency diseases are those that occur in your body because of (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 5.Food And Its Nutrients :: 27 INTEXT QUESTIONS 2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 6.5 Put a tick mark (√) against the right answer.

You also know what happens when these nutrients are missing in your diet. You must therefore eat a variety of foods so that your body gets all the nutrients in the . some give vitamins and some give minerals. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) skin lips Proteins Vitamin A Calcium Fats night blindness marasmus scurvy goitre Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Iron Vitamin A Vitamin B Calcium Vitamin C Deficiency of carbohydrates in food leads to deficiency of The disease caused by deficiency of carbohydrates is called If you want to improve digestion you must take For healthy gums you must take 2.28 :: Home Science (iii) (iv) 7. So what should you do to remain healthy? You should eat food which gives you all the nutrients. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 9. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 10. there is no one food which gives you all the nutrients. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 8. some give you carbohydrates. Some foods give you proteins. As you have seen.13 Need for Eating a Variety of Food Now you know the different nutrients and also the functions they perform in your body.

Hence. Terminal Exercises What are the main reasons for eating food? Write down the names of the various nutrients found in your food. health based on just diet is Arogya . mental and social well being and not just the absence of disease". NUTRIENTS CARBOHYDRATES Give energy for work VITAMINS PROTEINS Build and repair tissues FATS Give energy for doing work MINERALS Fat Soluble Vitamin A(prevents night blindness) Vitamin D (prevents rickets) Water soluble Vitamin B group (prevents beri-beri) Vitamin C (prevents scurvy) Calcium makes strong bones and teeth Iron Prevents anemia Iodine Prevents goitre 2.15 1. 2. to be healthy in the real sense.14 What You Have Learnt In order to make it easy for you to remember here are the main points of the lesson.Food And Its Nutrients :: 29 required amounts and you do not suffer from deficiency diseases. Write the names of any five deficiency diseases and one main symptoms of each. Relationship between nutrition and health Knowledge of nutrition helps you to know the type and quantities of different foods to be taken in the diet in order to maintain good health. According to ancient Indian concepts. Write the definition of ‘deficiency disease’. 3.The World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined health as"the state of complete physical.the state of no disease. 2. . one must not only eat right but also have a healthy mental and social outlook.

1 2. 7. 4. Vit D (viii) Vit D (xi) Vit A (ii) eyes (iii) Vit B (vi) VitA.3 1.16 Answers to Intext Questions 1. Vitamin B Vitamin C Vitamin D Calcium Iron Iodine Water 2.30 :: Home Science 4.3 2. three of its important sources and the deficiency disease resulting by its absence in the food. (i) body. 6. 5. (i) 2. sunlight (iv) vitamin B 2. (a) and (d) 2. Vit D 3. MAIN FUNCTION SOURCES 1 2 3 DEFICIENCY NAME OF NUTRIENT 1.4 2. (b) 3. (xii) Vit A (iii) Calcium (vi) T (vii) T (viii) F (4) (i) (9) (ii) (5) (ii) (10) (iv) (b) Fats (c) Fats (d) Protein (f) Protein (g) Proteins. Vit B (vii) Vit C (x) Vit A. (a) Fats (e) Protein 2. fats (h) Carbohydrates (j) Carbohydrates (k) Protein (l) Carbohydrates (m) Fats (iii) F (iv) T (v) F (3) (iii) (8) (ii) .2 2. Fill the table below with one main function of the nutrient.5 (i) F (ii) F (1) (ii) (6) (i) (2) (iv) (7) (i) (ii) Vit A (v) Vit A. Vit B (ix) Vit A. (iii) 1. 3. Please refer to section 2. (i) Vit C (iv) Vit A. 2.

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