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volume 6 | issue 1 | Jan/Feb 2012
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World Economic Forum Technology Pioneer 2011 Award Winner Tianjin, China, September 13-15, 2010
4 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER
Qubad talabani by Steve Lutes 6 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 7 . Joseph nye Harvard University by Quentin Cantu 50 Kimberly reed IFIC Foundation by Chrisella Sagers 82 Dr. by Chrisella Sagers energy Security by Kotonika & Johnson 70 Breaking past the clichés on energy Security by Quentin Cantu SummitrY 86 renewed urgency for regional integration at the african union by Nasos Mihalakas BooK reVieW 91 peasants come last by Hanna Trudo 76 the Sun also rises in latin america by Oscar Montealegre 78 Building a Viable afghan Security force by Fulcher. hussein hassouna League of Arab States by Mehrunisa Qayyum featureS 40 feeding a growing World by Dan Glickman 42 the 7 Billion Belly ache by Hanna Trudo gallerY 28 Women and Water Security Photos by Akanksha Mehta Essay by Chrisella Sagers 44 Building new models to nourish 7 Billion by Dr. James McGann 62 hanging in the Balance: global fight against tB by Chrisella Sagers 64 the united nations’ millennium Dilemma by Casey Coombs 66 corporations to adjust 68 eurasia & global to Demographic changes by Kyle Thompson-Westra 16 g20 think tanks moving up in the goto index by Dr. Klaus Kraemer healthy physical & economic future by Lisa Gable 46 healthy Weight for a Diplomatic life 92 international crisis group: In Pursuit of Peace Awards by Casey Coombs Honoring Brent Scowcroft by Hanna Trudo 48 public-private partnerships for health & Development by Seth Berkley 54 a poor man’s field: crisis on the north china plain by Paul Nash 96 atlantic council: Evening 58 Keeping up with an urbanizing World by Michele Acuto Special 12 the 2012 global think tank index by Dr. Richard Rousseau focuS 24 Voa at 70 by Chrisella Sagers 84 art and the War on terror by Eliza Garnsey Diplomatic profile 88 Krg representative. James McGann moment 98 end of an era NASA’s Last Fligth by Chrisella Sagers 18 oped: the global think tank that Does by Margery Kraus eDitor’S note 8 forecasting for a World of 9 Billion by Ana C.table of contents interVieWS 72 irakli alasania Georgia Free Democrats Party by Hanna Trudo 20 Dr. Higgins & MacKenzie 80 the guld cold War by Dr. Rold coVer StorY 10 how Davos is moving the World’s leaders into the future.
When those children—the Class of 2025—walk across their graduation stages. Dr. the Center for Strategic and International Studies had already launched an initiative. a humanitarian initiative committed to fighting malnutrition. and non-profits? Public-private partnerships are the key. If the world in 2050 will reach nine billion and if agricultural output needs to double by then to feed a growing world.750 nominations for think tanks in all of the 31 categories were received last year—a testament to the success of the program and the popularity that the rankings have received by peers worldwide. and Dr.S.S. Ana C. and energy security are not the only three of the focus areas in this issue. and a milestone that had us magazine editors striving for the best headline: 7 billion. How we prepare for a world of nine billion inhabitants will require collaboration across many other sectors. what solutions can we muster as academics. It is an ambitious project spearheaded by Dr. Rold Editor-in-Chief ETH Zurich International Relations and Security Network Information Just a click away 8 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER www. It is not. says CEO of the GAVI Alliance. James McGann say that “think tanks think so governments can do. It is important to recognize the work that Think Tanks do when it comes to forecasting and offering solutions.ethz. think tanks worldwide. He is joined by many others in offering solutions for food. food security. In a speech at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace I heard Dr. Ambassador Lisa Gable.” He joked about how forecasting sounded a lot like fortune telling. health. And he is one of the best at it. 2008. which studies seven critical trends that would change or revolutionize the future. The question today has not changed: what will the world look like for the graduate of 2025? Will it look as grim as the graduate of 2011 who found himself/herself unable to find gainful employment? Will 2012 make or break the Presidential Candidate who has the right formula for job-creation? Before anyone else realized it was cool. and 15 top non-U. practitioners.isn. and nutrition—former Agriculture Secretary Dan Glickman. These three—and a few others—make for the focus of our January issue. The system of rankings has evolved over the years to include multiple stakeholders. The year before was marked by revolutions. It is an arduous project as well. McGann. We are also particularly proud to give our readers a sneak preview of the Global Think Tank rankings. rising debt.editor’s forecasting for a World of 9 Billion note ISN i n a commentary titled “Making America More Competitive” on August 3. Klaus Kraemer. We are honored to have Dr. water.ch 9 . They know we owe to the class of 2025 as well as the generation graduating in 2012.” Think tanks have always been influential actors. Director of Sight and Life. Seth Berkley. Diplomatic Courier Advisory Board member Erik Peterson said: “children born in the United States this year will graduate from high school in 2025. and energy. a better world. Switzerland this month know too well their responsibility. McGann author an article about the rise of think tanks in the G20 and BRICS countries this year. will they wonder why they have fewer opportunities than the last generation?” The year 2008 marked the start of a global financial crisis that has shown no signs of easing in 2012. among them food. Erik engaged in what we call in the field “strategic forecasting. At the time. Water security. An amazing 11. featuring the 15 top U. The leaders gathering at the World Economic Forum in Davos. governments.
the world has a chance to see new and innovative ideas bring about solutions for which humans have been searching for generations. Since 2008. sequestration. but the faster we recognize that the old models that we have operated under are passing. the political. Except. As globalization picks up pace. and economic models that have shaped our world for the past century are failing. as disenfranchised groups turn to violence and terrorism to gain attention on the international stage and bring legitimacy to their ideas. based on the concept of sovereign statehood since 1648 when the Peace of Westphalia was signed. leaving behind the old models of the past. from the hyperlocal to the global scale. It will not last forever.apsia. and there will always be new ways of bringing about that conflict. we have the chance to create a global society that leaves behind divisive labels and focuses on talent and ideas. the sooner the world will be able to optimize the new models and new opportunities that have been presented to us. we need to search for more ways to cooperate. The Enlightenment. all of the upheavals are similar to the ones of past paradigm shifts.org ASSOCIATION OF 11 PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS . In these times of great upheaval all had a common. These groups are increasingly empowered by the voice they have found through mobile technology and the Internet and have more ability than ever before to accomplish their goals regardless of national boundaries. alongside other such red-letter years as 1789. it is no wonder that some of the world’s most influential ideas have emerged from the five-day summit. underlying thread: a massive societal paradigm shift to which established socio-economic structures failed to adapt. Social media. economic. rather. If you think about your life 10 years ago. and cultures in an increasingly connected world. “The key to mitigating a catastrophic situation is to provide young people with the capability to create their own jobs: to move from the pure concept of unemployment to the concept of microentrepreneurship. moving from capitalism to “talentism. public and non-proﬁt sectors. Switzerland each January. 1848. The fourth area of change is the very model of economics and growth that the capitalistic world focuses on today. the Napoleonic Wars. without ever addressing the root cause. as globalization brings new ideas to all corners of the earth at nearly the same time. With hundreds of side events hosting academics. and the vast flows of information available on the Internet are radically reshaping the way we live our lives. The second point is the social impact of globalization and the new wave of technological innovation. Failing to find a way to incorporate the voices of these groups into the global discourse and decision-making will lead only to conflict.” what he terms “collaborative power” will be needed to integrate these newcomers into a global arena that previously only gave credence to states or the organizations states participate in. and politicians alike. depressions. yet with a much strong global reverberation through the information networks that tie our world together. religious leaders. he argues that the economy should begin to prioritize ideas and talent. as more voices are brought into the discourse. 1868. and crises. social. 10 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER Professor Schwab suggests that rather than “hard power” or “soft power. the Vietnam War—all movements in which a new philosophical model of politics or economy began to grip people’s lives and clash with the old establishment. the urbanization of western society. leaders plan to regain control of the discourse and look to the future with the declared theme. technology has changed every little habit. and the Occupy movement to the collapse of the Eurozone and U. Learn more about your options for professional graduate study at: www. and exclusivity. Today’s upheavals can be attributed to the restructuring of our global society in the midst of the Information Revolution and Information Economy. Email drew the world together. laid out four areas in which the global order is changing dramatically and could be points of conflict.S. The first of his points is that the international political structure. the Industrial Revolution. The globalization of ideas could be a huge opportunity for improving the world. The leaders gathering in snowy Davos this January must recognize the changes that face the world.” The world is in a state of upheaval. Unlike ever before in human history. They have been two steps behind the sea change.COvER sTORy | Davos PRevieW how Davos is moving the World’s leaders into the future t | By ChRIsELLA sAgERs | he world as we know it is fundamentally changing. mobile technologies. the American labor movement. and be willing to give the future their full attention. The year 2011 will go down in the history books as a year of revolutions and riots. and the new paradigm of open information.” World Economic Forum founder. Professor Klaus Schwab. the transformation is happening simultaneously all around the world. as the economy and social structure struggled to adapt to the new paradigms and demands shaping the markets. as it was during the Egyptian revolution of 2011. Rather than a world that operates from a basis of capital and investment. the whole thing could explode. From the Arab Spring to the Tea Party. 1911. so many people learned about the death of Osama bin Laden on one of those platforms that it became the primary source of several news articles in the following days.” Professor Schwab writes. constant connectivity. in Davos. Students receive substantive research and policyoriented training and education to launch careers in the private. To take an approach such as Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations will merely increase antagonism. this time. Facebook and Twitter have revolutionized the way we consume news. the dialogue at Davos has been dominated by crisis containment of the various political. That may be changing at Davos. is failing to account for a multitude of non-state actors. There will always be conflict. global leaders have only responded by reacting to individual clashes as they arise. ethnicities. His third area of attention is the increased interaction between different religions. and mobile technology kept us constantly connected to that email account. and 1968. This year however. however. but if this trend is fought. sending ideas and products across the globe at lightning speed. INTERNATIONAL FOCUS? Interested in pursuing a career with an GRADUATE SCHOOL the next step in your professional development? MAKE IT AN APSIA SCHOOL APSIA member schools are the most competitive and well-established graduate schools of international aﬀairs around the world. These times of upheaval were also marked by another phenomenon: economic panics. because focusing on what divides the world will only lead to further schisms. in an introductory statement to the summit. economy. and financial challenges the world has faced. The World Economic Forum holds its annual meeting with a dedicated mission of addressing the future of the world and improving it. and a public space truly open to all is clashing with old socio-economic models of top-down information. “The Great Transformation: Shaping New Models. So far.
The rankings are generated by means of a threestage process in which an international panel of peers and experts. For the 2011 Index. Although not formally linked to any of the think tanks included in the Global Go-To Report.800 think tanks in 152 countries.” The Institute’s budget of slightly over $3 million is derived largely from two substantial annual government grants—one from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). and education. law. has research programs that focus on economics. China. public and private donors. the G20 represents twothirds of the world’s population and 80 percent of global trade. With this goal in mind. India’s Integrated Research and Action for Development. Despite efforts to highlight institutions from non-G7 countries. which is intended to recognize non-G7 think tanks is noteworthy. and financial crisis recovery. Today. The top think tank in the 2010 Latin America and the Caribbean category was Fundacao Getulio Vargas. journalists. this year’s index focuses more specifically on the increasing role of tions were acknowledged for their efficacy despite limited budgets. jAMEs MCgAnn | S ince its founding in 1989 a the Foreign Policy Institute in Philadelphia. Historically. and the other from the International Development Research Centre. which it uses to track key trends in policy research organizations. Latin America. 20 out of the top 25 think tanks worldwide (including the United States) were based in G20 countries. Western nations have been disproportionally represented in the top tier of the Index. The dominance of a G7 think tank even in this category. India. think tanks in BRICS states have been noted for their exemplary work. China’s Unirule Institute of Economics. while Russia and South Africa saw only incremental increases. In the 2011 edition of the Index. including international growth policies. These organizations research a variety of global issues. which made a rapid rise to the top from its seventh place rank in 2008. over 11. The addition of this category serves to recognize the important contributions that smaller organizations provide to the global policy research environment. Altogether. Russia. In Brazil. categories in which it has also received top 12 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 13 . located in Rio de Janeiro. Brazil and India’s think tank numbers doubled. That is to say that an increase in numbers of non-G7 think tanks does not necessarily imply an increase in recognition of influence in the global realm of think tanks. In 2010. and health. society and politics. Every year. and South Africa—the large developing BRICS countries. and think tank executives and scholars from 120 countries who provide nominations and rankings of think tanks in each category. The group meets once a year to discuss a wide range of economic issues. Centro Brasiliero de Relacaoes Internacionais and the USP Research Center for Public Policy.750 nominations for think tanks in all of the 31 categories were received. G20 member states that are not in the G7.sPECIAL | global think tanks g20 think tanks moving up global think tank index | By DR. many of the global economic solutions discussed in G20 meetings draw upon research done by these organizations. but it is important to point out that a number of G20-based organiza- Think Tanks Worldwide. a set of rankings of the world’s top think tanks in a number of functional and geographic categories. counter-terrorist measures. none were included in the 2010 Top 25 the Academy of Social Sciences in China was represented among 2010’s Top 25 Global Think Tanks. business. Due to the growth in the number and influence of think tanks outside the traditionally preeminent countries in academic and policy research. the environment. ranging from energy and climate change to urban infrastructure and poverty alleviation. globalization and governance. Argentina’s Consejo Argentino de Relaciones Internacionales. only In 2006. financial market regulation. and Brazil’s two representatives. the program presented the first Global Go-To Think Tank Index. Southeast Asia. and the Middle East. the category “Best Think Tank with an Annual Operating Budget of Less Than $5 Million” was added in order to highlight the rise to prominence of think tanks that lie within the G20 but are outside of the traditionally dominant G7. the number of think tanks more than doubled between 2008 and 2011 from 419 to 985. out of which 19 also belonged to the G7. parliamentarians. Despite their recognition in this category. in addition to research conducted by the group’s members. think tanks from approximately 125 countries received enough nominations in the first round to be included in the rankings. of the top G20 think tanks with annual operating budgets of less than $5 million listed above. Regionally and thematically. it maintains a database of over 6. including over 1500 policymakers. especially in traditionally underrepresented regions such as Africa. the categories included in the Index are revised in order to generate the most relevant and up-to-date analysis. the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP)—now located at the University of Pennsylvania—has developed a series of global initiatives to bridge the gap between knowledge and policy in critical disciplines such as international peace and security. however. All in all. The value of the Index lies in its ability to highlight the important contributions that think tanks make to governments and civil societies around the world. Despite the large increase in think tank numbers in BRICS countries. Top non-G7 think tanks in this category include South Africa’s Economic Policy Research Center. Canada’s North-South Institute ranks first in the 2011 category “Best Think Tank with an Annual Operating Budget of Less than $5 Million. This think tank. international economics. the 2011 Index seeks to highlight the growing importance of think tanks in states with traditionally less international power and influence.
S. As one might expect. Although Russian think tanks have received regional and affiliation-based recognition. think tanks outside of the United States and Western Europe will be increasingly important to future international policy research and policy making. The Academy was also the only G20 but non-G7 think tank to be included in the “Top 25 Think Tanks Worldwide—U. the Re- sPECIAL | global think tanks public of Korea. In general. there has also been an increase in the number of think tanks included in the Index.sPECIAL | global think tanks honors. and security research in particular. global recognition of think tanks in these countries is lacking. with one fifth of the 25 ranked think tanks being Chinese. which was ranked the top think tank in the “Top 25 Think Tanks in Central or Eastern Europe” category. In the Latin American region. including resource management. international development. though the rest of the “Top 25 Think Tanks in Sub-Saharan Africa” list was comprised of think tanks from a variety of non-G20 countries on the continent. Regardless of this increase in numbers. though three such think tanks were included in the “Top 50 Think Tanks Worldwide– Non-U.” and “Best Government Affiliated Think Tanks. development and domestic economic policies have not been shown to be a priority for Indian think tanks. whose presence in the rankings increased in number by over 100 percent between 2008 and 2011. Australia.” in which only one Indian think tank. in research on health policy and transparency and good governance. the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO). and Non-U. As in China and India. has been nominated for the 2011 Index. Such organizations received minimal attention in “Best Think Tank with an Annual Operating Budget of Less Than $5 Million. no Saudi think tanks were ranked in any category and just three Turkish think tanks were ranked in two categories. as well as the “Top 50 14 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER only four Indian think tanks were included in 2008’s Index. Chinese think tanks have received regional recognition in the “Top 25 Think Tanks in Asia” category. Despite the increasing presence of think tanks which are in non-G7.S. and even these were only in the “Top 25 Think Tanks in Asia” category. In 2010.S. Though there has been some movement in the think tanks that achieve top honors in the category. have long been dominant in the category that ranks Sub-Saharan African think tanks. The most frequently cited Russian think tank is the Carnegie Moscow Center. but this changed in 2010 when China’s Institute of World Economics and Politics was ranked in the “Top 25 International Economic Policy Think Tanks” category. the two countries in this category in the Middle East and North Africa region have historically been notably absent from the Index—and it appears that 2011’s Rankings will be no exception to that rule.” “Top 25 Think Tanks with the Most Innovative Policy Ideas and Proposals. The remainder of the G20 countries (excluding G7 members and BRICS states)—Argentina.” At the very least. In 2010. which was also ranked in “Top 50 Think Tanks Worldwide— Non-U. two Brazilian think tanks have received recognition so far in 2011 in the category of “Best Think Tanks with an Annual Operating Budget of Less than $5 Million” top ranked 2010 think tanks Centro Brasileiro de Relacaoes Internacionais and 2011 newcomer to TTCSP.S. Very few think tanks emerged in Turkey and Saudi Arabia between 2008 and 2011 (the number of think tanks in Turkey increased from 21 to 27 and in Saudi Arabia from three to four think tanks over this period). which is not included in the G20 or BRICS group. Based on the current rankings. a BRICS country. Chinese think tanks’ near universal government affiliation may help to explain their dominance in policy research on domestic issues due to the additional government funding they receive on programs of particular national interest. Russia has experienced the slowest growth in think tank development among the BRICS countries.” and “Transparency and Good Governance” categories. growing from 107 to 121 think tanks between 2008 and 2011. Additionally. the second place think tank in 2010 was Centro de Estudios Publicos. the group had a combined 278 think tanks in the index. 15 G20. it was ranked in the “Top 50 Think Tanks Worldwide—Non-U. Saudi Arabia.S. research as a high priority. South African think tanks represented all seven of the top seven think tanks in the region. with some increasing prioritization placed upon environmental issues. think tanks throughout the G20 have made considerable advances in the Global Go-To Think Tank Index. The 2010 dominance of South African think tanks in Sub-Saharan Africa is not new. With more than 425 think tanks within its borders. its university-affiliated think tank.” “Health Policy. Additionally. was noted in 2010 for its exemplary work in the Central and Eastern Europe category as was the government-affiliated think tank Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO).” In 2010. indicating that the research and policy focus in China remains on economics and security. think tanks in Russia have not received recognition for using the Internet or social media to engage the public and communicate programs and research outside of the institution. and the Korea Development Institute in the Republic of Korea. the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. it is important to note that Chinese think tanks received relatively few nominations in the “Social Policy. Indian think tanks appear to have increased their efforts to address a number of pressing environmental concerns. Centro de Análisis e Investigación (FUNDAR) in Mexico. perhaps due in part to recent international criticism of Chinese environmental policy. though this increase has been less notable than in the BRICS countries. the absence of Russian think tanks in other categories indicates that they continue to lack impact on a global policy level. the University of Sao Paulo USP Research Center for Public Policy. As discussed above. especially in the categories of “Security and International Affairs” and “Domestic Economic Policy. such as domestic economics. from four to nine.” and “Top 25 Think Tanks in Latin America. These think tanks have made significant contributions to transparency and governance. and Non-U. China has the second-most think tanks in the world—coming in behind the United States alone. seven of the top 10 think tanks in 2008’s “Top 25 Think Tanks in Sub-Saharan Africa” were located in South Africa. Notably. In 2010. Additionally. Although they still have significant progress to make before reaching parity with the traditionally preeminent think tanks of the G7.S. Indonesia. Integrated Research and Action for Development. Traditionally the BRICS countries have been thought to be dominant in the G20 outside the G7 category. Chinese think tanks received more nominations than think tanks from any other Asian country in the “Top Twenty Asian Think Tanks” category in the 2010 Index. security and international development. In fact.” Unlike South Africa though. Fundacao Getulio Vargas was often accompanied by fellow Brazilian think tank Centro Brasileiro de Relacoes Internacionais. and ecosystem preservation.” “Top 20 Transparency and Good Governance Think Tanks.S. despite the pervasive poverty throughout India.S. but the 2010 Global Go-To Think Tank Index’s repeated recognition of prestigious think tanks such as the Lowy Institute. and Turkey—have also enjoyed an increase in the number of their think tanks in the Index between 2008 and 2011.” None were featured in any of the policy-specific lists in 2008. and have claimed four spots in the “Best Government-Affiliated Think Tanks” category and one in the “Best Party-Affiliated Think Tanks” category. In 2008. In fact. Chinese think tanks were dominant among think tanks in the G20 countries. like China. Chinese think tanks are increasing their prominence in the Asian category where they have traditionally competed for Asian recognition with their G7 Japanese counterparts. Think tanks based in South Africa. Interestingly. have historically received few nominations in any categories of the Global Go-To Think Tank Index. Still. including 2010 rankings in the categories of “Top 25 International Economic Think Tanks. The trend of a growing number of think tanks in G20 nations outside the G7 is remarkable given the traditional dominance of Western European and American think tanks. since 2008 Indian think tanks have been recognized in other categories.” where it was ranked third. which has been included consistently since 2008 as one of the world’s top think tanks. “Top 25 Think Tanks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)” and “Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program. particularly in environmental policy and.” category. South Africa is the only country on the African continent that is a member of the Think Tanks Worldwide—Non-U. Similar to South Africa. no think tanks from any of these seven countries were included in the 2010 “Top 25 Think Tanks Worldwide–U. located in Chile. The most highly and commonly ranked Indian think tank is the Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses. Indian think tanks.” category. G20 member states. particularly in the fields of economics. in 2010. challenge this reputation for BRICS states’ dominance. Fundación Pensar in Argentina. compared to 314 in 2011. climate change. the think tanks’ recognition in these thematic categories indicates the global reach of their work. Mexico.” category: the Lowy Institute for International Policy and the Center for Independent Studies—both in Australia—and the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Indonesia. including the top-ranked institution.” category. The preeminence of this government-affiliated think tank indicates that the Indian government sees security .
gotothinktank. Dc. all questions about this article or the index and rankings should be directed to Dr.S. The Best-Run Businesses Run SAP www.the global think tank index Who Made the List in 2011? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Top 15 U. James g. harvard university 13 national Bureau of economic research 14 pew research center 15 center for american progress Congratulations to the Brookings Institution and all of the Top 15 Think Tanks! We share your passion for helping the world run better. . Think TankS Top 15 non-U.com.S.com 17 SAP and the SAP logo are the registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries. mcgann. 16 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 16 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER the Diplomatic courier will host the official launch of the 2012 global think tank index at the national press club on January 18 in Washington. Think TankS chatham house UniTed kingdom Stockholm international peace research institute Sweden amnesty international UniTed kingdom international institute for Strategic Studies UniTed kingdom transparency international germany center for european policy Studies BelgiUm international crisis group BelgiUm adam Smith institute UniTed kingdom Bruegel BelgiUm european council on foreign relations UniTed kingdom friedrich ebert foundation germany french institute for international relations France carnegie moscow center rUSSia chinese academy of Social Sciences china german institute for international & Security affairs germany 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Brookings institution council on foreign relations carnegie endowment for international peace center for Strategic and international Studies ranD corporation cato institute Woodrow Wilson international center for Scholars heritage foundation 9 american enterprise institute 10 peterson institute for international economics 11 hoover institution center for international 12 Development. the complete index—along with prior editions—and detailed information on the methodology and ranking process can be found at www. the Diplomatic courier will launch a special ipad app on itunes with this year’s complete index.sap. the index will be also presented later that day at the united nations’ headquarters in new York city.
and execute a successful strategy. A think tank that does is an indispensible asset for our times. act not only for its own profit but also operate with a social purpose. and increasingly knowledgeable about the policies and politics of their markets. and employment. a diplomatic corps for business is a useful tool on which business can rely to assess the trends and expectations of a market and come up with meaningful actions and relationships that further the business opportunities in that given market. Some of the strategies and operating practices of the past need to be re-evaluated in light of changed circumstances which require a deep understanding of the environment in which these businesses are operating. we need to have the right resources to provide services in a new economy. services. As a result. This was the thinking behind the formation of APCO’s Global Political Strategies (GPS) group. This is precisely why we built our own research company. Although APCO has been at this for the past 28 years. Aligned with the empowerment of the Internet is a changed expectation about the role that companies can and should play in the markets in which they work. The new multinationals are often well-endowed and very much linked to the nationalism and newfound efficacy of their home government. nimble. senior people whose life experiences enrich the quality of the counsel they offer. They need advisors who can understand their business. Fundamental to the ability to deliver high-quality analysis and impactful interactions is having a corps of experienced. which applies some of the same methodologies of a political campaign to business and the needs of business. What exactly does this mean. and governments—to change the way they interact with corporations. Business diplomacy is built on the notion that global companies have more to offer than goods. require that business and its leaders have both the skills of good business people and the ability to conduct what we call business diplomacy in the markets in which they operate.OP-ED | think tank the think tank that Does a | By MARgERy KRAUs | nyone involved in global business knows that the world is changing at lightning speed. and business consulting for major multinationals. Margery Kraus is the founder and CEO of APCO Worldwide. This team of former elected officials and senior statesmen provide the analysis and broad overview that only experience can bring. and public relations activities. The new expectation is that companies engage in a dialogue with these stakeholders and listen as much as talk. identifying alternative markets for growth. and those resources need to be organized in ways that combine first-rate analysis with the ability to act with agility and deliver quality interactions at all levels. opportunities and actions. considering the replenishment of the resources it uses and the good it can do in the creation of its products and services. it is only recently that the marketplace has seen this as an exciting new trend. it is the new norm around the world. and generally helping the company outline a course of action that accounts for the various stakeholders with whom they work. combined with the increasingly unpredictable political dynamics of the world stage. Companies and their leaders are seeking ways to “see around the corner” and are looking for help in making fundamental choices which affect their future. It is thus important for business to understand the underlying interests and concerns of the places where they do business and operate in a way that is consistent with these values. Companies have to be smart. While some organizations continue to rely on think tanks to follow trends and shore up their knowledge of a given region of the world. It is not about broad trends but about specific things that enable a given company to sharpen its strategy and its messages and build the reputational equity needed to succeed with important stakeholders in a given market or markets. This is not a phenomena linked only to Western markets. This requires the tenacity of a business executive combined with the finest skills of a diplomat. These realities of today’s marketplace. Research continues to play an important role. it is the convergence of the best analysis with the ability to execute in a nimble fashion that has become an important tool in a 21st century corporate arsenal. a global consulting firm specializing in public affairs. Time horizons have shrunk in the era of 24-hour news cycles and instant information. either. Competition for the iconic brands of the past is coming from places where it never has come before. They also offer innovation and resources that enrich local and national economies while creating a successful business. It is assumed that business will gist and financial manager. Businesses that wish to compete globally with these new brands in markets that are new to them need a nimbleness that sometimes is missing in some of the ponderous ways of large companies. and research shows that these stakeholder groups are no longer satisfied to receive information about a company from an annual report. We believe this combination of thought and action is vital to the future of any business looking to navigate between and among markets and turbulent political and economic times. customers. economic. these businesses need the same resources available to them as governments have developed through their embassies: the linking of political. and why has it become a centerpiece of corporate attention? As technology has blurred boundaries. but the research that supports this approach is also actionable. supported by on-the-ground teams around the world that manage and carry out strategic projects. They are looking for actionable counsel that leverages regional knowledge by fostering relationships. many other companies are seeking support that goes beyond analysis. So while think tanks will always have their role. The CEO is now the ambassador for the company as well as its chief strate- As consultants to these companies. it has also empowered many stakeholders—particularly NGOs. communications. 18 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 19 . You cannot have a successful business in a failed world. To be a leader in this complex web of expectations. Both analysis and action— thinking and doing—are necessary. provide a political context to their needs. APCO Insight.
But even the relations among states are affected by the other power shift—diffusion from states to non-state actors. both East and West. In Libya. At the same time. such as the aforementioned power diffusion to non-state actors. Qaddafi was isolated from the Arab League and lacked support in the UN. There is not now a reasonable prospect of success. Polls also showed impressive increases in American soft power after the Obama election in all regions except the Middle East and Pakistan. and Palestine. We live in a global information age in which cheap information technology enables transnational economic systems to flourish and often complicates efforts to states to maintain control. why are attitudes towards the United States in the Middle East and South Asia actually declining from where they were in the Bush administration? [Jn]: Polls showed a dramatic decline in American soft power in many parts of the world after the invasion of Iraq. including Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics and most recently. Nye laid the foundations for some of the most fundamental concepts in the study of international relations. [Dc]: In your new book you also speak of the need for the realism school of international relations to adjust to contemporary global realities. but rather to non-state actors. Syria is a more difficult case because there is no supportive resolution providing legitimacy. Obama was smart to share the burden in NATO and to avoid boots on the ground. Nye to discuss his most recent book. The Russians and Chinese will resist. and that power will become more diffuse with individuals and private organizations playing a bigger role in world politics. Dr. Instead. [Dc]: The Obama administration has in general taken to employing smart power as its foreign policy strategy: for example having NATO shoulder the responsibility of the Libya mission and seeking an international chorus prior to condemning the Syrian regime. climate change. This not only allows outsourcing of production and jobs. but also creates new vulnerabilities to cyber espionage. including neoliberalism. invades third Muslim country”. Would you say that this strategy embodies the idea of smart power? [JoSeph nYe]: Smart power is the combination of hard and soft power to create optimal strategies in particular contexts. and the complications of using hard power there are greater. we can continue to press for more UN actions. JoSeph nye. and pandemics which require cooperation between all states. Western companies can shift production to cheaper Asian labor sources. and disruption. there is a reasonable prospect of a better situation than existed under Qaddafi. The Future of Power. as well as the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs during the Clinton Administration. And it is important to remember that under just war theory. so we are restricted to sanctions for now. Even if Libya does not manage to become a stable democracy. The Future of Power. [Dc]: How would you define success when employing smart power in the Syrian and Libyan examples? [Jn]: We do not know the final outcome in Libya. Dr. Libya is in Europe’s back yard and it is smart to encourage the Europeans to take the lead there. his thoughts on the Obama Administration’s foreign policy.S. [Dc]: What would you change about this strategy to more closely align it to your idea of smart power.S. Nye embodies the kind of intellectual that sees the world outside of Ivory Tower boardrooms. These positions include the Undersecretary of State for Security Assistance. but the outcome so far is better than letting Qaddafi massacre the population in Benghazi. Science. if anything? [Jn]: Further efforts in targeted sanctions and resolutions can be used to further delegitimize the Assad regime. oseph Nye. but the efforts can still have a delegitimizing effect. but it is difficult to get broad support. Obama waited for the legitimacy of Arab League and UN resolutions to structure a good soft power narrative. intellectual property theft. not certainty. financial stability. Do you see this strategy as being successful in a general sense? [Jn]: Libya was a good example of a smart power strategy. We should also work with Turkey. He has been selected as the most significant scholar of his field multiple times by various surveys and has published countless books that are essential reading for any student of foreign policy. Jr. | By QUEnTIn CAnTU | 20 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 21 . In addition. You contend that power will transition not from the U. there was physical distance between Tripoli and Benghazi that made a no-fly zone possible. Will J University DistingUisheD service Professor harvarD University dr. to China and India. and the current ills facing America. but not a no fly zone such as was used in the very different context of Libya. After all. These conditions are not present in Syria. Yet. Dr. Afghanistan. and Technology from 1977 to 1979. Otherwise the narrative from Morocco to Indonesia would have been “U. Nye is currently the University Distinguished Service Professor at Harvard University. the narrative was that the United States joined with others in a multilateral effort to enforce the United Nations Responsibility to Protect. one of the criteria is a reasonable prospect. In the context of Syria. [Dc]: In your book. as he has served in senior governmental positions throughout his career. This is important for the soft power component of smart power. How do you believe this will impact the economic relations between and among nations? [Jn]: One of the power shifts—transition from West to East—refers to states. And in the use of hard power. I believe that the reason for the different patterns in that region reflects the unpopularity of American policies on Iraq. one of realism’s pillars is the world’s limited resources and the inevitability of conflict over controlling those resources. the power diffusions put a new set of transnational issues on the agenda such as terrorism.interVieW InTERvIEw | nye [Diplomatic courier]: Secretary Clinton recently applied your term “smart power” to explain the administration’s strategy towards applying pressure on the Syrian government. is one of the most influential international relations scholars today. The Diplomatic Courier got a chance to catch up with Dr. and has been contributing to the field for decades. Jr. of success. you speak of two great power shifts—power transition and power diffusion. soft power. which has taken the lead in the region. and smart power. it makes sense to use the hard power of targeted sanctions. [Dc]: If the American strategy of smart power is working. Moreover. Indeed.
we wasted the first decade of this century on a mistaken strategy. In putting forward solutions. in principle. again with the rise of Japan in the 1980s. but it is important to remember that we have overcome worse problems in the past. debt. [Dc]: How will these conflicts be affected or exacerbated by such power diffusion? [Jn]: Power diffusion refers to the growing strength of non-state actors. food.org Global Financial inteGritY A Program of the Center for International Policy 23 22 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER . visit www. the recession. and desperate need for fiscal austerity? If these are not signs of American decline. stalemate in two wars. It is worth remembering that Americans thought they were in decline after Sputnik in the 1950s. such as natural gas that is delivered by pipelines. We must solve them to forestall decline. One of the results has been major investments by multinational corporations outside of China. and conducting groundbreaking research. and secondary education as among the most important. Whether we will rise to the occasion or not remains to be seen. Other resources. what are they? [Jn]: America faces a number of serious problems. To learn more. the debt and deficit crises. but even here new shale gas supplies are reducing the pipeline power that Russia now enjoys. It is particularly difficult when the outside power is not welcome among a nationalistic and awakened population.InTERvIEw | nye MANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images the current conflicts over energy security. [Dc]: Do you believe our current focus on counterinsurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan is distracting us from a better grand foreign policy strategy? [Jn]: Yes. But these problems have solutions. I suspect it will be corrected in the coming decade. Economic coercion depends upon asymmetries in markets. What do you make of the current state of our political gridlock. facilitating strategic partnerships. It is also a misunderstanding of economic power—as I argue in Chapter 3 of my book. and maintain our alliances where we are wanted. Sometimes these actors reduce conflict among states as multinational corporations did in the oil crisis of 1973. and now with the successful growth of China. and mercantilist views of owning the resource (such as oil) provide less control in a crisis than people think. Illicit financial flows forestall economic growth and good governance in poor countries and undermine the national security of rich countries. sometimes not. Last year. provides more opportunities for coercive power. One can think of deficits. [Dc]: You seem to reject the popular notion of American decline in the near future. But I suspect that the current pessimism is excessive and reflects the conditions that followed the economic crisis of 2008. Counterinsurgency and nation building is a very labor intensive and lengthy process. and water devolve into ones that are no longer among states? [Jn]: I think it is a misunderstanding of realism to say that violent conflicts over resources are inevitable. GFI is leading the way in efforts to curtail illicit financial flows and enhance global development and security. strengthen our economy. I spell these out in my book. Private actors can bring on new sources of supply. there was great concern over China’s control over certain rare earths. We should return to the wisdom of Dwight Eisenhower and avoid wars of occupation. Sometimes they do create conflict.gfip. Many raw materials are commodities in which price can reallocate supply.
international news. stories included not only the perspective of the United States on events of the day. with an illiteracy rate of less than one percent. including Russian. presenting all sides of a story. codifying the organization’s commitment to objectivity and journalistic integrity. and comprehensiveness in all their work. Biberaj. avoiding judgment in reports. and encourage the implementation of fundamental political and economic reforms. Chief of the Korean Service under the East Asia and Pacific Division.S. not only by telling the truth about the United States. Today. balance. The approximately 1500 hours of programs per week include features on American culture. know very little about North Korea. but they must be careful about expressing outright hostility towards the regime. the fact that they are an entity of the U. although their first broadcast was titled Stimmen aus Amerika—Voices from America. Bosnian.William Harlan Hale. They had no direction as to what they would broadcast. The medium-wave radio broadcasts’ primary audience is middle class elites. north Korea. in general. North Korea is a highly educated society. VOA broadcasts through the Internet. Kim Jong Il’s regime has conducted a systematic campaign throughout the country to instill hatred and fear of Americans. There is a lack of trust. an independent U. clearly.S. all the way from Russia to Albania. “I see a continuous need for our broadcasting. the Albanian Service is one of the most successful of VOA’s programs.” Mr. while reporting on global news events accurately. but also of reform efforts occurring throughout Eastern Europe.” VOA has proven itself to be a protagonist for the people. discussion programs. government’s favor.’s most effective public relations initiatives. no matter what the current regime tries. and the level of repression and isolation Albanians endured can only be compared to modern-day North Korea.however. the United States stepped into a role as guardian of the power of ideas and honest messenger of information to all corners of the world. the Voice of America is highly respected as an honest and fair messenger. with a June 2010 survey revealing it had a 45. Americans look suspiciously on news propagated by their government. February 1. VOA was able to send broadcasts behind the wall of silence.S. you have to think about who your audiences are—that’s the most important thing— and what kind of political environment they are in. Today. The code requires two independent sources before any information is broadcast as fact. While the Albanian service became an outlet for dissent. it is not an exaggeration to say that North Koreans know almost nothing truthful about the United States. and Serbian. “I think of all the countries that I cover. and the broadcasts helped “informationdeprived Albanians keep their hope alive. television. and a network of AM. and shortwave radio signals. Biberaj said when asked about the future of the Eurasia Division. perspectives and to get information they do not get from their own sources. The journalists of VOA combat this perception by adhering strictly to a code of conduct that preserves the integrity of VOA and ensures accuracy. in which the family you are born into and the political ties of your parents determine your fate. Using shortwave radio signals. All this makes VOA one of the largest multimedia news organizations in the world. he news may be good. However. the Voice of America has held at its core the mission to present to the world the policies and culture of the United States.. However. except the truth. Ukranian. FM. Americans. Such began the first broadcast of a small team of dedicated men transmitting live from a claustrophobic New York City studio into Nazi Germany.S. “When it comes to broadcasting in North Korea.. From Nazi Germany to Communist Eastern Europe to Kim Jong Il’s North Korea. The news may be bad. At that moment. televising programs in 26 of those. and. but also by respecting the intelligence and the needs of North Koreans in their broadcasts. For example. VOA fights back against this campaign.” according to Mr. VOA reporters worked double time to ensure that all stories emerging from the closed society were reconfirmed with sources in neighboring Greece and Yugoslavia.S. Their group had no name. as the only comprehensive source of news free from propaganda. government agency with eight members nominated by the President. Albania during the Cold War was the most Stalinist of the Eastern European Communist regimes. diplomatic interests. because many North Koreans have no concept of basic terminology and ideas the rest of the world takes for granted. It has been one of the U. education is mandatory through high school. did not mean to downplay the importance of the other six language services his division oversees.” Elez Biberaj. but they are closely watched by the regime. VOA has often been the only connection to the outside world that people of repressive regimes have. VOA had no way of knowing what the impact of their broadcasts were. Occasionally a diplomat may try to pressure the organization to report one such way on a story in order to further U.” said Dong Hyuk Lee. Greek. VOA was the only alternative source of news to the Communist Party’s propaganda efforts. In 1976. in what the local media is reporting. and VOA has not been allowed to broadcast within the United States since 1948. VOA operates under the direction of the Broadcasting Board of Governors.” . and objectively. Because of VOA’s unique position as a government entity. and in many places. However. commissioned its first-ever survey in Albania to discover that we indeed had an astoundingly large audience. learning English. a little more than half a year before the country’s Communist regime would collapse. Director of VOA’s Eurasia Division. an unstoppable source of honest and fair news for those pining for a beacon of hope from the outside world. VOA had the greatest impact in Albania. We shall tell you the truth.S. For years. Macedonian. and reaches 141 million people weekly. and the ninth seat always held by the Secretary of State. President Ford signed the VOA Charter into law. often.S. others involved in foreign policy have tried in the past to push journalists to shape their stories in “t 24 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 25 . it is not always easy to report these stories.” Seven in 10 Albanians listened to VOA broadcasts on a weekly basis. The equipment they used was borrowed.6 percent weekly reach in Albania and 65 percent in Kosovo. unlike those who tend to live in more rural areas without access to comfort items and steady food supplies. because this growing audience is made up primarily by politically-conscious individuals who want to know what the international community is discussing with regards to their country. From the very beginning. Lee. Their relationship with the U. Loyalist elites are more likely to live comfortable middle-class lives and have access to information from the outside world. however. and eschewing any special benefits or treatment that journalists employed by the U. and regionally focused programs to address the needs of the local populations. This middle class is unhappy with the direction their country has taken. according to Mr. there is a need for audiences in those areas to hear the U.S. government might have. however. “USIA.” Mr. then VOA’s parent organization. a broadcast discussing human rights violations in North Korea would have to explain what the concept of human rights actually is. However. “They have seen such tremendous. VOA broadcasts in 43 languages. countering the official propaganda.FEATURE | voa Voa at 70 “This is a Voice from America” | By ChRIsELLA sAgERs | the U. alBania unDer communiSm. government causes VOA to instantly lose credibility on a number of stories. Biberaj told the Diplomatic Courier. All around the world. it is in very many ways a somewhat feudal society. VOA was not able to send a reporter into Albania until May 1990. and Albanians from all walks of life have acknowledged the role the broadcasts played in bringing change to the country. 1942. until Albania opened after the collapse of the government in 1990. “In 1991. government has caused difficulties for the news organization overseas sometimes as well. positive change.
or how many people they reach within the Hermit Kingdom.” creDiBilitY. Parazit’s Facebook page has. Parazit. “For you to be successful as a news organization. carrying the American belief in “a decent respect for the opinions of mankind” to the darkest.” said Ramin Asgard. Broadcasts such as the latter focus on skills middle class individuals can use to survive. its YouTube channel has 8. a program that became particularly important after currency devaluations left middle class merchants destitute and with no other means of survival than participation in the country’s underground currency flow. However. over 770. whose name references the static that shows on Iranian televisions when the government jams international satellite signals. Voice of America will continue to bring an accurate and comprehensive perspective of the news to the world. as they did in Albania. VOA has no means of measuring what their impact is. including the wildly popular Daily Show-style satire program. Followers are able to interact with guests on the show by submitting questions or comments. it is social media that has been the most vital means of keeping an open dialogue between America and Iranians. news is about understanding what is happening where your audience is. meddles constantly in Iranian politics.S. Director of Persian News Network. From a small-underfunded studio in New York City. VOA is one of the only foreign-based news organizations to offer an alternative to Iran’s tightly controlled state-run media. and the self-deprecating humor and irony is able to charm skeptics while still informing. iran. bleakest corners of the earth. regularly pokes fun at accusations that it is merely an extension of American imperialism. as well as providing more practical programs.” Mr. DC. “This is not about finding politically sensitive information. as in every oppressive regime. But. Whether it is a good thing or a bad thing. English language instruction programs are very popular among the North Korean audience. Within Iran. repeating a theme that permeates the entire environment of the Cohen Building in Washington. the Iranian people are not as belligerent to the United States’ images as the government itself is.000 fans. as of printing. you cannot fool around with your credibility.FEATURE | voa The Korean Service seeks to educate its eager audience about these issues. 26 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 27 .5 million views. essentially driving the show’s content with viewer ideas and demand. Biberaj stressed. almost all American actions are painted with a broad stroke: the common dialogue is that the U. and VOA has found a devoted audience among Iranians both inside and outside of Iran who appreciate the space to challenge the Islamic Republic’s official discourse and lack of tolerance for dissent. through CIA-backed ideas. missions. The United States and Iran have a strained relationship that threatens to break out into war every few years. to a web presence that brings the light of knowledge to billions of homes around the world. as are basic weather forecasts warning about possible floods and programs introducing the basics of capitalism. The Persian News Network primarily broadcasts into Iran through satellite television. Voice of America has spent 70 years keeping the highest level of integrity and honesty at the forefront of its operations. Mutual hostilities are emphasized by mutual suspicion. Hopefully someday they will have the chance to find out. The show. and programs. “The whole idea is understanding what is happening in Iran. like finding out about the nuclear program--that’s not what this is about. attempting to bring down the government.
In rural India. from the holy Ganga in the north to the sacred Kaveri in the south. and the overuse of the country’s aquifers means that up to a quarter of India’s harvest could be lost to lack of water by 2025. a woman’s primary responsibilities of cooking and cleaning means that she—and those in her care—will be the most affected by India’s coming water crisis. 28 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 29 . and agriculture.gallery of moments indian women and The waTer criSiS | PhOTOgRAPhy By AKAnKshA MEhTA | EssAys By ChRIsELLA sAgERs | gALLERy OF MOMEnTs | WateR & Women the maJeStic riVerS of inDia. drinking. traverse the subcontinent. Today. 85 percent of India’s population depends on groundwater for cooking. cleaning. but belie a dangerous truth: India will not have enough fresh water for its population by 2020.
or privacy to clean themselves. At least 25 percent of Indian girls aged 12 to 18 drop out of school once their menstruation cycle begins because of a lack of access to toilet facilities. to a loss of income when they stay home during their cycle. the women of India are starting to turn their historic responsibility for the water into an opportunity for self-governance and empowerment. forming public-private partnerships— women with the most intimate knowledge of their local water resources are bringing clean water to their families. Hepatitis A. leptospirosis. often-barefoot women spend up to six hours and 10 miles each day on water trips. In the desert region Banaskantha in the western state of Gujarat.2 percent of households in 2001. further miring families in a cycle of poverty. young women face challenges ranging from embarrassment to debilitating infections. Their backs and knees degrade from the weight of the water. In rural parts of India. By taking matters into their own hands—joining collectives. as in most developing countries. these women are forced to travel farther from their homes to find sources of fresh water.the conStitution of inDia makes the provision of clean drinking water to improve public health a priority for the State. each time carrying over 30 pounds of water back to their homes. leaving them without the mobility later in life to provide for themselves. Over 75 percent of the villages in Gujarat no longer have reliable sources of fresh water. Without running water. But as wells dry up and pollution increases. prevents women and girls from spending time on micro-enterprises that could provide them with an independent income. 30 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 31 . An Indian woman can make up to six trips a day to fetch water for cleaning and cooking. sanitary napkins. to violence when they are vulnerable in secluded areas. it is the women who are responsible for the collection of water. The time spent fetching water. along with other household chores. many areas are beginning to struggle. As groundwater sources are depleted. and blindness-inducing trachoma. organizing rallies. petitioning local governments. Programs across the nation to bring clean water to urban and rural areas alike raised the rate of access to fresh water to 68. However. leaving them open to diseases such as diarrhea. Women’s health and opportunities are the first to suffer. They are at a higher risk of infection because they come in contact the most with unsanitary water.
and as women gained more confidence in their roles. NGOs and civil society women’s organizations like the Self Employed Women’s Association of India (SAWA) are teaching rural women the skills needed to fix hand pumps that otherwise can linger for months or years in disrepair. rainwater harvesting. but also introducing women to the basics of self-governance. or of the “Untouchables” caste. improved agriculture. Other village women joined pani samities (water users committees) and panchayats (village self 32 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER governance committees). which took over maintenance of a region’s water pipe systems and worked to improve local water sources.acroSS inDia. women are being trained in one of the most important occupations for a rural village: water pump repair. the committees began to focus on issues of particular interest to women—fodder growing. giving them few to no options for economic stability. 33 . and capacity-building—not only giving them a respected role in their communities. The female membership of the committees reached levels of 80 percent or more in many areas. Before their training. many of these women were migrant laborers.
34 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 35 .
Water iS one of the more capricious Indian goddesses. But as overuse and pollution of water resources becomes more common with the rapidly growing population. India is facing a severe fresh water shortage. and it is the women who must fight for a change. It is the women who will be most affected by this shortage. giving life as much as it threatens to take it away. 36 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 37 .
38 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 39 .
the goal of providing nutritious food to growing world with fewer resources can be similarly achieved. Investing in women has positive repercussions not just for productivity. processed foods. increasing production to provide a sufficient and reliable supply of food as population rose. most of which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. and Brazil will increase demand for higher-value food products such as meats. and sugars are climbing. and climate shifts. available labor. yields on female farms would increase by 20 to 30 percent. Although the relationship between agricultural production and food consumption remains unclear. businesses. Finally. for which diet is an independent risk factor. Both global production and consumption of meats. decreasing the risk of commodity price rise and volatility. but also for nutritional improvement. advances in science will be critical to increasing yields for all commodities in spite of resource scarcity and climate shifts. The challenge is not just to grow more food. is largely untapped.5 billion are overweight or obese. correlating closely with the rise in nutrition-related chronic diseases such as heart disease. Women make up almost half of the world’s agricultural workforce. and good nutrition depends on agriculture. The World Health Organization estimates that 1. Basic and adaptive agricultural research is at the foundation of any effort to increase agricultural productivity. processed foods. the world’s farmers.5 to 5 percent. The security and economic benefits that flow from productive agricultural and food systems mean that investments in agricultural development should not decrease during times of economic distress—they should be maintained or expanded. will climb to 9. This is not just a problem facing highincome countries: 80 percent of global deaths from chronic diseases. and is beginning to invest in global agricultural development. As the world population grows. and pulling over one billion people out of poverty. members of the G8 pledged $22 billion toward strengthening developing country agricultural systems. Today. Research will be especially important to increasing the production of fruits and vegetables and other nutrient-dense specialty crops that require unique growing conditions.feeding a Sustainably and nutritiously | By DAn gLICKMAn | growing World FEATURE | FooD secuRity ew human experiences are as universal as the need for food. Reaching this goal will require political and financial support for global agricultural development by governments. these correlations indicate that the agriculture and food sector have a role to play in making nutritious food more available and accessible. and edible oils. chronic diseases negatively affect worker productivity. international organizations. A key solution to this crisis lies in the improvement of agricultural systems. Dan Glickman served as the United States Secretary of Agriculture from 1995 to 2001. agricultural production will need to increase by 70 percent to feed a growing and more affluent world. and fishers must be equipped to sufficiently increase food production and accessibility. ranchers. Increasing productivity of agricultural systems in the developing world can make the food supply more reliable. but have limited access to land and agricultural inputs. Each dollar of value added in the agricultural sector generates 30 to 80 cents in income gains elsewhere in the economy. supporting previous commitments made by African leaders to contribute 10 percent of their GDP to making agriculture in their countries more productive. international organizations.and middleincome countries. especially those in the developing world. The cost of the global decline in productivity due to illness and death from chronic disease is projected to reach $35 trillion by 2030. For the past century. Greater agricultural productivity also reduces poverty and stimulates local economies.5 billion. Good health is f based on good nutrition. If the goal is to increase overall production amidst resource constraints. where poverty is deepest and the highest returns are possible. and giving women nutrition information is proven to improve maternal and children’s health. almost a billion people are chronically hungry and 1. Although promising. India. and emerging markets throughout the developing world. and donors can take to make agriculture and food systems more productive? The first step is to prioritize investments in global agricultural development. there is a real risk that these rates will increase. incomes rise. If women were given the same access to productive resources as men. the global agriculture and food system has successfully overcome challenges. Investments in agriculture are twice as effective in reducing poverty as investments in other sectors. Overcoming these challenges and securing a reliable and nutritious supply of food lays the foundation for stability and economic growth. but more nutritious food. total national agricultural output in the developing world could increase by 2. In addition to posing a public health dilemma. such as droughts or flooding. Agriculture must also become more resilient in the face of rising temperatures and increased frequency of extreme weather. causing significant production increases in Latin America and Asia. prior to which he represented the Fourth Congressional District of Kansas as a Democrat in Congress for 18 years. particularly in Africa and South Asia. Agricultural development in Africa and South Asia is also a strategic objective of The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2009. Today. A recently released study by the New England Complex Systems Institute confirms the hypothesis that high food prices are a precipitating condition for social unrest. occur in low. Ensuring people have enough to eat is the foundation for good health and economic prosperity. Businesses and private donors are also showing renewed interest in this issue: the World Economic Forum’s New Visions for Agriculture Initiative is leveraging the resources and capabilities of 26 international consumer industry companies to support sustainable agricultural growth in the developing world. these actions must be considered just the first steps in what needs to become a broader. The international community has recognized these challenges and benefits. agricultural investments will yield the greatest return if they focus on women. Agricultural potential in the form of arable land. Most of the world’s arable land is already being cultivated or grazed. hindering economic growth and creating conditions that foster instability. businesses. oils. Production increases will therefore need to result from advances in yield-enhancing seed and fertilizer technologies or increasing output on under-utilized lands. salts. Rising incomes in emerging economies such as China. 925 million of whom are chronically hungry. By the middle of the century.7 million deaths worldwide are associated with diets low in fruit and vegetable intake. and the number of undernourished people the world would decrease by 12 to 17 percent. it will be necessary to focus investment in these areas. So what are some steps that governments. With demand for food expected to more than double in the next 40 years. long-term commitment by the international community to global agricultural development. With proper investment and well-targeted innovation in global agricultural development. It was investments in genetic and agricultural sciences that led to the Green Revolution in the 1960s and 1970s. Today’s global population of 7 billion people. and donors. diabetes. 40 | jAn/FEB 2012 || DIPLOMATIC COURIER Jan/Feb 2012 41 . inhibiting economic growth. Rates of return on investments in agricultural research have been found to have either the highest or second highest rates of return in reducing poverty. The recent revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa were not just about democratic freedoms – they were about food. Women make the majority of household nutritional decisions. Complicating this basic need for increased production are resource scarcity and climate change. and some forms of cancers.
and nutrition will be challenges of immediate necessity. was of great importance to hit the Millennium Development Goals’ target. at least two billion people in the world depend directly on agriculture for their livelihoods. and social protection mechanisms. an end to excessive speculation. During the group’s 2010 meeting in Seoul. Oxfam. as it did in France. and responding to those who are fed up with being under fed. ministers concluded that women’s empowerment through sustainable agricultural practices. a major international agency that reaches 98 countries. The IRIWI was presented in September in Mexico to the wheat-specific scientific community. The 20 top economies amalgamated to address the worst financial crisis since World War II. Papandreou himself. safety. livelihoods. pushed for more funding towards development. both in combating the immediate volatility of today that impacts the food of tomorrow. in relation to increases in agricultural production. The nutrition-inclusive approach to agriculture. human resources. the UK based international volunteer organization. Agriculture’s vital role in world food security—often defined by its ability to reduce poverty and yield economic and healthful prosperity—remained a key issue for discussion in November. which is likely to increase as the global population continues to rise towards its nine billion mark in fewer than 40 years. Billionaire philanthropist Bill Gates. and of developing sustainable alternatives to meet the projected production demands of the future. and a beefier investment in food security. Inside the G20’s meeting spot. were also on France’s agenda. and for countries and companies to uphold the Responsible Agricultural Investment’s (RAI) commitment to respect rights. The Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) among other multilateral actors. as they have in various capacities for the previous five summits. framed around the first Millennium Development Goal: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by cutting the number of hungry people in half by 2015. The first G20 summit of 2012. endorsed the Multi-Year Action Plan on Development as part of the Seoul Development Consensus for Shared Growth to provide more financial funding for infrastructure. Aid agencies and international NGO’s can expect the food conversation to continue to spill over to future summits. when the planet will hit an estimated nine billion people. as it did during the G20 Summits in Washington in 2008. 42 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 43 . sheepishly over several days. Since development money has dwindled. and transparency in commodity markets. including critical food initiatives. supported Seoul’s multi-year plan. but was put on the summit’s backburner as the crisis in Europe (in Greece and Italy. and enhanced protection for the most vulnerable demographics. will call attention to questions left unanswered during the leaders’ time in Cannes. as the population’s ability to feed itself stretched further from the limits of scraping by—there are a billion more people in the world now than just 12 years ago—the food conversation resumed in Cannes. lowered risk in price volatility. London and Pittsburg in 2009. insisting on more transparency. reforming stale policies that turn grain into biofuels. more specifically). including VSO.the Seven Billion Belly ache | By hAnnA TRUDO | FEATURE | FooD secuRity hen the world’s population swelled to seven billion on October 31st last year. Ministers also agreed to create an Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS). Leaders received criticism for their distraction with the big fat (not to mention expensive) Greek question that invaded the summit. and Toronto and Seoul in 2010. in the form of a popup referendum announced by Prime Minister George Papandreou. but if Los Cabos pans out like Cannes. along with Mr. The proposed referendum was later dismissed. and by 2050. which make up two thirds of the world’s population and roughly 85 percent of global output. they must push harder to meet the global issues that will impact more than Europe or North America in the future. and security of wheat in the context of a more sustainable agricultural spread. member countries. which took place on June 23. Broader issues. seemed equally volatile. In 2011. G20 agricultural ministers met with the French presidency in Paris to discuss an action plan on food price volatility and agriculture. education. However. the number of mouths waiting to be fed. Several months before the Cannes Summit. improving food security. and malnutrition. and resources. increased with it. the G20 agriculture ministers formed the Global Agricultural Geo-Monitoring Initiative to strengthen the process of crop projections and weather forecasting. food insecurity. particularly those relating to the nutritional needs of pregnant women and children. Additionally. This time. The longevity of Europe’s financial crisis will determine the amount of attention food security gets in Mexico. which is scheduled to take place in Los Cabos. Leaders considered the seven-billionbelly-ache during last November’s Summit in Cannes. Nearly one seventh of those people are hungry. was included as a top priority. disseminated a petition to leaders of the world’s biggest economies. According to a report released by the United Nation’s Committee on World Food Security (CFS) in late June 2011. not add-ons to the already stuffed global agenda. Or dropped open—depending on how you look at things. along with several NGO’s. But the challenges that ministers and members of the G20 face are of direct urgency. the French Presidency along with the G20 agriculture ministers agreed to launch the International Research Initiative for Wheat Improvement (IRIWI) to engage in global bread and durum studies to help secure the nutritional value. During the meeting. such as raising moral standards of capitalism and creating more legitimate systems of global governance. the organization pointed out. and are supported by the FAO. of course. has expanded its agenda since the inaugural summit in Washington in 2008—during the second half of the two-year world food price spike—to include a more comprehensive approach of assessing the globally burnt-out economy. volatility. energy. not so swiftly and indirectly. to assist in information exchanges about global production among governments. they hoped. which called for enhanced policy coordination. Ingrained into the plan’s framework was a call for the World Bank to work with international stakeholders to develop critical data about food stocks and production projections. Mexico in June. Some ministers argued food security policies should be rooted in the Right to Food guidelines. better known as the G20. W a subset of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). new sources of funding must be found to address expanding challenges. which include the ability to live free from plagues of hunger. would ignite contributions and dialogue from ministers of agriculture about the importance of advancing nutrition standards and access. questions about food security and its direct link to trade. But not everyone was convinced the G20 members—who met over a series of working lunches during the Cannes summit’s duration— sufficiently responded to the lofty goals that had been in the works since Seoul.
and the economics behind it all. there is incredible opportunity for innovation. Simply put. to learn. Innovation and resourcefulness are essential. He has over 25 years of experience in research and advocacy in the field of health and safety of vitamins. micronutrient fortification and supplementation has led to the creation of highly successful public-private partnerships. access to basic healthcare. we must overcome many health and development challenges. appropriate complementary feeding. A value chain approach in the areas of production. 44 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 45 . We all have a role to play in shaping the opportunities available to integrate nutritioncentered interventions across all sectors. It is imperative that we also find new and innovative solutions. This solid foundation can be built with the smallest of building blocks—the micronutrients. For a stronger. As they grow. Proper nutrition—micronutrients. carotenoids. These are just a few examples. delivery. Building a strong future rests on our ability to lay the building blocks for a strong human foundation. increasing their earning potential in adulthood. Compounding these factors are the effects of climate change on food availability and storage. her parents’ ability to ensure that complementary foods meet her needs. We can build new transformative approaches into existing systems that support the goal of better nutrition for all people globally. we have a great opportunity to shape nutritioncentered development solutions to give children a healthy start at life and in turn. we can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of nutrition interventions and scale up to the best possible impact-helping both the most vulnerable and the broader population. As global economies large and small struggle. processing. and implementation—from smallscale farmers. to food companies. and the accessibility of these products. It is proven that well-nourished children are more successful in school and are less likely to contract and die from diseases throughout their lives. There are things we can donow. The good news is we have the knowledge to make this happen. committed to fighting hidden hunger—malnutrition caused by micronutrient deficiencies.Building new models to nourish Seven Billion | By DR. To achieve this. the support available to enable her mother to breastfeed. and smart investments. thus helping families break the vicious cycle of malnutrition and poverty. including promoting exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a child’s life. Because all sectors are involved in nutrition. investment in nutrition is an investment in the future. The negative effects of malnutrition during this critical period cannot be reversed and permanently stunt a child’s intellectual and physical development. and minerals—form the essential building blocks for our potential as humans. KLAUs KRAEMER | i n a world of seven billion people. the types of crops available. and minerals needed to nourish our children and families. access to clean water. Working with Sight and Life. each one of us seven billion (and counting) deserves these opportunities. supporting interventions that provide optimal intake of vital micronutrients. Dr. to make a change. With its technical expertise. and furthering economic development of their nations. Klaus Kraemer is Director of Sight and Life. a humanitarian initiative of DSM. partnerships. nutrition is one of the smartest investments we can make to build a strong future. at a relatively low cost. Consider the factors that affect a child’s nutritional status: her mother’s health and nutrition. and nutraceuticals. as well as pregnant and lactating women. Building better nutrition begins early. and. we must challenge ourselves to think differently. and is essential to success in all areas of global development. We know that in order to build a better future. One way to approach solutions is to think about a food and nutrition value chain and the opportunities it presents to engage partners at different stages of production. vitamins. In a world of seven billion people where resources are stretched and financial resources limited. ensuring adequate nutrition for women of child bearing age. and innovative ways. well-nourished children will be more productive. DSM provides inputs for nutrition improvement programs including staple food fortification programs run by USAID through the Feed the Future initiative. to consumers. her family’s ability to afford nutrient-rich foods or forti- fied foods. vitamins. DSM has forged partnerships with the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and USAID to support nutrition in the developing world in practical. to contribute to our communities. inexpensive. develop our nations and thrive. It is vital to deliver proper nutrition and provide the right micronutrients during the 1. together we can find solutions that best use limited resources. By leveraging each of the partners’ unique expertise and resources. we must start with a solid foundation: one that enables us to grow. minerals. As a global community. healthier future.000-day window of opportunity during a mother’s pregnancy until her child turns two years old. processing and delivery. Whether it is capitalizing on existing delivery and production mechanisms to improve the availability of micronutrient-rich products or facilitating access to the tools and knowledge to fortify foods. so where to begin? We must focus on solutions that maximize limited resources through innovation. it is important to use the resources at our disposal to shape new models for the future to create a better life for all. nourish future generations of innovators. and micronutrient powder MixMe(tm) sachets delivered via WFP channels to increase daily intake of vitamins and minerals through home fortification.
In the schools.S. the U. and key nutrients. for example. But human beings also must also take care of themselves. just consider that the last recession caused the U. Their health— physical and economic—depends on how well we address the problem of obesity together. How well we live. and children In the marketplace. economy to contract by 1. Obesity is truly a problem without borders. There are obviously a number of factors contributing to the growth of obesity. eating more fruit. Discover how more than 190 of America’s leading brands are working together to reduce obesity. and about 400 million will be obese. we are providing families with more choices. and calories expended on the other hand.6 billion adults around the world will be overweight. A number of academic studies demonstrate that. The problem is by no means restricted to Americans. dark-green and orange vegetables.” W Too many calories in and not enough calories out. potassium. In other words. When it comes to family participation in physical activities. factories. one of the biggest challenges to our health is obesity. The economic consequences of obesity show up every day in American offices. the value of every natural resource—from oil to water—depends on how effectively and efficiently they are used by human beings.healthy Weight can lead to a healthy physical and economic future | By LIsA gABLE | hen the world’s population passed seven billion. healthy habits to children.S. schools. 239 million restricted activity days. The trend is getting worse. in the United States and elsewhere. and is available online free of charge.togethercounts.5 trillion calories from the marketplace by the end of 2015. Obesity rates in the United States soared by more than a third just between 1998 and 2006. As the World Health Organization has put it: “The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed on one hand. about 70 percent of Americans are overweight. it was a useful reminder of the fact that human beings may be our most valuable resource. We have taken several steps we believe will help deal with the problem by supporting programs for families.S. found that adolescents who eat with their families grow up to be healthier adults. To learn more visit healthyweightcommit. We’ve found this is an effective way for families to counter obesity and promote good health. and they depend on our guidance. the annual economic cost of obesity-related ailments is a little over half of the last recession.9 percent. Boys are more likely to consume more calcium. how much we cost the health-care system. parents get the opportunity to teach in the most effective way possible: by example. a first-of-its kind coalition that brings together over 185 multiple sectors of industry partners. And unlike the last recession.org HEALT C I ITME T WEMGHNT 47 OM HY . Girls are more likely to eat breakfast as adults.S. But probably the most important overall reason is the fact that too many people of all ages suffer from a basic imbalance in the energy quotient of our lives. the cost of obesity doesn’t end as part of the business cycle. magnesium. academics at University of Northern Iowa have found that is helpful because children model the behavior of the adults in their lives. Actions speak louder than words. When families eat together and engage in physical activity together. we announced a new pledge by Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation food manufacturing members to reduce annual calories by 1. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation was created to address this imbalance. Over the course of a year. With First Lady Michelle Obama at a White House press event. Department of Health and Human Services has reported. This curriculum reaches into tens of thousands of U. After all. schools. and how much we get to contribute to society depends largely on how well we look after ourselves. Lisa Gable is President of the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation. and other places of work. obesity-related disorders are responsible for nearly 40 million lost workdays. we are partnering with Discovery Education to provide an energy balance curriculum that promotes nutrition and physical activity education. According to the U. The World Health Organization projects that in five years about 1. To get a sense of the economic impact of cost. A family meal or a family activity is a teachable moment—an opportunity to pass on lifelong. how long we live. A study by the University of Minnesota. on a regular basis. spends or $147 billion a year treating obesity-related ailments.S.com—encouraging families to eat meals and engage in physical activities together. The problem is especially acute in the United States. About half of them are obese. and other fiber. One of the most important things we are doing is conducting the Together Counts™ program—www. Our future depends on our children. 46 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation is a CEO-led coalition of more than 190 organizations working together to help families and schools reduce obesity–especially childhood obesity. Increasingly. That comes to 1 percent of GDP. In fact. and 63 million doctor visits by employees across the country. Centers for Disease Control. And it is a problem with significant economic costs. the U.
Pneumococcal vaccines have been available in richer nations for more than a decade but they were too expensive for developing countries.6 million children have been immunized and an estimated 38. Photo: GAVI/11/Doune Porter Gates Foundation and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) helped GAVI launch a matching fund with a combined pledge of $130 million. and increased the supply of vaccines while bringing down their cost. developing country manufacturers to enter the market. Public-private partnership models. Democratic Republic of the Congo Photo: UNICEF/2011 And it pays off. This is particularly true for the vaccine to prevent pneumococcal disease which causes pneumonia. From 2000 through 2011. government. and the institutional and economic policy environment in determining the robustness of economic growth. Seth Berkley. Each year.000 children’s deaths averted. more than 3. April 2011. meningitis. GAVI launched an Advance Market Commitment (AMC) designed to accelerate the availability of effective and affordable pneumococcal vaccines for children in poorer countries.7 million children die from vaccine-preventable diseases. Another 10 million more are expected to receive the vaccine by the end of 2012. the vast majority of them in Africa and Asia. has since been saving the world about $1. Eradicating smallpox through vaccination cost $100 million over a 10year period up to 1977. In doing so. And it is paying huge dividends.FEATURE | health public-private partnerships for health & Development | By sETh BERKLEy MD | t he health of people is intricately linked with the health of the global economy. and attract participants in its publicprivate efforts. encouraged emerging. This has allowed developing nations to shift focus and resources on building healthy economies rather than on social triage. and a healthy workforce is critical to long-term prosperity. Since GAVI began introducing support through the AMC. The goal is to raise $260 million for immunization by the end of 2015. like GAVI.3 billion a year in treatment and prevention costs. 1. MD. In an AMC. but also indirectly by improving children’s cognitive development and educational attainment. and to expand manufacturing capability. the World Bank’s financial know-how. He is a medical epidemiologist by training. which was formally launched at the World Economic Forum in 2000. It rates expanded immunization coverage for children as fourth on a list of the 30 most cost-effective ways to advance global welfare. and civil society partners. and health implications beyond a nation’s borders. and sepsis. The GAVI Alliance combines the private sector’s technological innovations. The GAVI Alliance. the Alliance has January 2011. Keeping people healthy supports economic growth and helps reduce poverty. To address this challenge. according to a WHO estimate. giving them the opportunity to grow into productive adults. is the CEO of the GAVI Alliance and a global advocate on the power of vaccines. and takes the lives of more than half a million children each year worldwide. is a public-private partnership that uses innovative market-based solutions to ensure that sustainable supplies of life-saving vaccines reach the world’s poorest children. And there is still a ways to go. New and innovative approaches to improving health will be critical if developing countries are to grow their economies and contribute globally. Four private sector organizations have already pledged amounts that will be matched by DFID and the Gates Foundation: ARK (Absolute Return for Kids). can impact individuals and improve global economic prosperity. Anglo American Plc. GAVI relies on other innovative financing tools to find better ways to raise and apply resources. GAVI supported countries in saving more than 5. social. and the “la Caixa” Foundation— Europe’s second largest. and the tremendous breadth of experience of our foundation. That investment.5 million lives and prevented life-long disabilities for countless millions more. High mortality and morbidity rates in poorer countries drag down whole economies and have major trade. donors commit funds to guarantee the price of vaccines once they have been developed. These commitments give vaccine manufacturers the incentive to invest in vaccine research and development. In exchange. New models to address age-old problems that hinder growth are needed in order to ensure developing countries become long-term business and trade partners who can contribute to re-igniting the global economy. 48 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 49 . Yemen. the firms sign legally-binding commitments to provide the vaccines at a steeply reduced price to developing countries. UNICEF’s procurement expertise. the World Health Organization’s wealth of best practices and scientific data. the Bill & Melinda One of the most cost-effective models in global health leverages private expertise and public health knowledge to save people’s lives and protect health through the power of immunization. helped to ensure continued research and development from vaccine manufacturers. Vaccines boost development not only directly through savings on treatment and longterm medical costs. The Copenhagen Consensus Centre estimates that a population’s health is as important as income per capita. geographic location. JP Morgan. Most recently. The fund will double the impact of contributions made by new GAVI partners from the corporate and foundation sectors. Health is a key driver for development. GAVI is achieving what was thought impossible before public and private sector partners sat at the same table: directed foreign aid investments to create a viable market for vaccines in developing countries.
but also health professionals. affordable. Tell us about the gathering. including through biotechnology. need. Extensive public-private partnerships and cooperation with civil society efforts will be required to combat the spread and control of NCDs. and local civil society groups can take n execUtive Director international fooD information coUncil foUnDation kimBerly reed on-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a growing global problem. came together to talk about responses that should be based on the needs of local populations and communications strategy. We want to make sure that everyone has a safe. [Dc]: The IFIC Foundation recently organized the Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit in New York City. and 70 percent of it must come from efficiencyenhancing technologies. According to the UN. we will need 100 percent more food. We just celebrated our 20th year. we gathered just a few blocks away to focus exclusively on insights to motivate healthful. but also the private sector. oral health. the United Nations held a High-level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of NCDs during the General Assembly in order to address the epidemic. mental health. The old adage says it perfectly: “think globally.interVieW InTERvIEw | ReeD [Diplomatic courier]: Tell us about the work the IFIC Foundation does. in 2008. Surgeon General Regina M. Because the messages we discussed can be easily and costeffectively tailored based on location. including through our award-winning website: www. The UN’s focus at the Head of State and government level brings further attention to important diseases on the global stage: the top four being heart disease.S. diabetes. cancer. active lifestyles. but also some other NCDs that are recognized in UN’s declaration. [Dc]: How effective do you think is it to address NCDs on a global platform? [Kr]: The UN meeting on this topic was groundbreaking—the UN at the General Assembly has only come together once before to address a health issue. However. Executive Director of the International Food Information Council Foundation. cancer. national governments have to present similar plans by 2013. high-profile level as many countries are tackling these problems. We want to be a part of this conversation and be able to help by providing our educational resources. and lung disease. Modern food production. culture.” [Dc]: What are some of the ways to address the inequities between developing and developed countries in how NCDs not only affect populations. we are at seven billion people today. In 2050. we have found that responses are most effective on the local level. is the importance of using consumer-focused health and nutrition communication messages. However. Then in 2014. the United Nations.org. We do not lobby or take political action. and best practices. and lung diseases—all caused by poor diet. diabetes. because effective. where they are based on the needs of the population. tobacco. However. We had a full day of great conversation around topics such as explaining the rise of NCDs. which complimented the simultaneous discussion at the UN. 36. So while the UN was meeting at the Head of State and government level. lack of exercise. both on panels and in the audience. science-based communications with consumers is part of the solution for NCD prevention and control. and journalists have a role to play in conversation. non-profits.and middle-income countries. | By ChRIsELLA sAgERs | 50 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 51 . It is good that they are raising awareness on a global. [Kr]: In September 2011. cost-effective way to help feed our world. and that was in 2001 on the topic of HIV/AIDS. Benjamin. including Alzheimer’s Disease. leading officials from the European Union and representatives from 34 countries. and also serves on the National Board of Directors of the Alzheimer’s Association. Reed has more than 15 years of senior level experience in both the public and private sectors.1 million people died from complications of the Big Four. we participate in civil society through educational efforts. and others. [Dc]: What outcome do you expect the Global Summit to have on the topic of NCDs? [Kr]: A key outcome of our Global Summit. and nutritious food supply. with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) held a very historic meeting on non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention and control. national governments cannot fight this issue on their own. MD. Nearly 80 percent of those deaths occurred in low. Last year. and others who provide information to consumers on the science and facts behind food. is an affordable. called Nutrition Reviews this year. This can range from healthy weight and active lifestyles to food safety concerns. We discussed how to talk about energy balance to help reduce the incidence of NCDs. the world will be home to nine billion people that will all need to be fed. Some highlights from the Summit included a keynote speech from U. To find out more about how civil society organizations are dealing with this growing health issue. through our consumer research. the UN will revisit the topic again in a comprehensive review and assessment to see what accomplishments have been made. but act locally. these four alone are the cause of 63 percent of deaths worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO). and level of health literacy. The WHO is responsible for giving a report on how they will work with multiple stakeholders by the end of 2012. and we focus on helping not only consumers.foodinsight. We saw that we had a key role in addressing the diet and physical activity aspect of this. and it is good that stakeholders from across the spectrum are being brought into the conversation. as well as the role of different stakeholders in this discussion. not only governments. and we try to educate about these opportunities. creating insurmountable barriers to antipoverty measures and development efforts. Heart disease. we hope that countries around the world will incorporate consumer messaging into their responses as part of their efforts to make measurable progress on NCD prevention and control by 2014. but also how they are addressed? [Kr]: It is important that the entire world has adequate food. MBA. [KimBerlY reeD]: The mission of the International Food Information Council Foundation (IFIC Foundation) is to effectively communicate science-based information on health. we also want to make sure we are a healthful society. nutrition. understanding consumer behavior. and food safety for the public good. journalists. Ms. the Diplomatic Courier sat down with Kimberly Reed. civil society members. or alcohol misuse—are the “Big Four” NCDs. The Summit’s proceedings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
InTERvIEw | REED on the role of educating local populations about nutrition. Facebook. and blogs. and decreased amounts of unhealthful fats.S. decreases farmers’ exposure to pesticides. scientists have also begun to target allergy-causing proteins. Through this network.” and have helpful “farm to fork” resources on our website to demonstrate how the food supply chain— which includes farmers. and “Small steps = big changes” —serve smaller portions to help curb calories. Second. What are your thoughts? [Kr]: Food biotechnology is key for feeding our growing planet. what effects on global health and nutrition do you expect? [Kr]: Food is about choice. but with that comes a responsibility to understand the facts behind the food. [Dc]: You have talked a lot about energy balance. Everyone should have access to food. Some messages that worked well with American parents to help move them to change included: “Know your number”—learning how many calories to consume in a day. or on farms. [Dc]: What are some of the effects of NCDs on women’s participation in their local economies and societies? [Kr]: Mothers are often the key decision-makers about what is eaten in the household. key messages such as calories. Decreasing pesticide use has a positive impact on the health and well-being of wildlife. distributors. in a variety of means. convenient. and education is part of that process. in the grocery store. Finally. Also. to making food yourself from fresh groceries. we believe it is a model for communicating about healthy weight and lifestyles that can be used globally. [Dc]: As fast food chains and the easy availability of fast food becomes more international. 52 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 53 . to microwavable and canned food— should all be options. energy balance. and all around the world. including increased levels of antioxidants. We get our message out to hundreds of millions of people. We are also very focused on the Internet. it allows farmers to grow more food to help feed the world’s growing population. thereby decreasing the amount of pesticides used in farming. Everyone should have access to those options. and healthful choices. rather than negative messages. genetically engineered crops aid in protecting the environment by producing insect. whether it is soccer in the backyard or dancing to music. and actually has several benefits. the food produced may be more healthful and nutritious. What can consumers do to reach this? [Kr]: We spoke with a lot of parents about good messages that would lead to behavior changes. and having a wide variety of food and food vendors—from quick serve restaurants. with some concerns over the diversity of the global food supply.and virus-resistant crops. as crops with enhanced nutritional traits make their way to the supermarket. First. nutritious. [Dc]: There has been some controversy over biotechnology and genetically engineered crops. We launched a special initiative called “Understanding Our Food. they are a great resource for education of a community about food safety and nutrition. as well as through our monthly Food Insight online newsletter that is emailed to thousands. and contributes to a cleaner water supply. but also crops are being engineered to grow in places where they would not survive before. Not only do insect-and virus-resistant crop varieties produce hardier plants. These foods may help to combat chronic diseases by providing more healthful compounds. we found parents in the U. food manufacturers. We communicate with them on a regular basis and share resources to help each other understand issues. we are able to deliver local responses. grocers. “Fun stuff counts as exercise!’—get active with the family. were more responsive to positive messages about food. While we focused on the United States. food service establishments. and nutrition should be in the forefront. energy balance. [Dc]: Do you reach out to women through mobile technologies? [Kr]: We partner with sister organizations around the world as part of a global network of food information organizations. We want to help mothers understand what impact food and physical activity can have on NCDs. leading to higher crop yields. As people make choices in restaurants. high-quality foods every day that also are tasty. and the Internet and social media have no boundaries. fresh and affordable. Our website is visited by people all over the world. and others—is able to bring us a variety of safe. vitamins. and share the latest news through Twitter.
Most farmers could not afford to pay them. home to more than 200 million people. irrigating a region haunted by drought. Before the early 1990s farmers used agricultural residue as their parents and grandparents had done before them: as biomass fuel for household heating and cooking.” is responsible for the rich alluvial soil. but farmers do it all the same—not because it is an ancient practice. the B aoding. go on burning. 90 miles from Beijing. mulching and tilling machines remain out of reach for China’s peasantry. which makes up about half the country’s population. On the west it slopes upward toward the Taihang Mountains. somewhere between 5 and 10 percent of China’s total yearly emissions. The North China Plain is China’s breadbasket. heaves a little. Steep 500yuan fines are a small deterrent. Anger over urban and industrial encroachments on farmers’ land and rights has been mounting for decades. In the process it generates an estimated two billion tons of CO2. in bad times. into the Bohai Gulf. a county under their jurisdiction. Shandong. devastating floods and famine. The smoke is produced by nearby peasant farmers who burn crop residue in the open fields during the harvest season. Forged land transfer agreements in Wangdu. supplied quick profits and new space for clothing factories and processing plants. China’s “gift” and its “sorrow. Baoding is the southern gateway to Beijing and its name means “protector of the capital. The Yellow River. Jiangsu. 45 years after China’s Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution got underway. containing 65 percent of its farmland and producing nearly all its maize and wheat. is flat again. So Hebei’s farmers. left in the fields to be set ablaze after the autumn reaping. Residue burning occurs across China’s agricultural heartland. Once the hunting and gathering grounds of Peking Man and the cradle of Chinese civilization. from Sichuan on up to Hebei. It meanders through the middle before flowing. like Beijing and Shanghai. gets blanketed each autumn for days on end by a thick fog of smoke. and Henan. Besides. on the north it is separated from the boundless expanse of Inner Mongolia’s grasslands by the Yanshan Mountains. There is an element of rebellion in the burning. the guardian of the proletariat. rising in step with the large sums at stake in China’s heated economic expansion. a small industrial city on the western edge of the North China Plain. But since the introduction of cleaner and more convenient combustibles like coal and liquefied natural gas. heedless of impractical decrees that come down from research centers in prospering cities a world apart. but it also brings. but because it is a cheap and easy way to rid the fields of waste while enhancing their fertility. Mile after mile the earth lies flat. the plain has become one of the most densely populated areas on earth. Today. It came as little surprise that officials in Baoding were found to be colluding with local companies for years to steal land from poor farmers. The city’s mega-factories are not to blame.” But if this means also protector of the Communist Party. biomass has most- 54 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 55 . propaganda trucks roam village streets and bump along dusty back roads during the harvest season with loudspeakers and colourful slogans proclaiming “Burning straw is strictly prohibited”. in good years. which use satellite remotesensing data to study the effects of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols. even as Beijing struggles to find ways to maintain the 120 million hectares of arable land needed to safeguard the nation’s food security.crisis on the north china plain | By PAUL nAsh | a poor man’s field FEATURE | FOOD sECURITy ly fallen by the wayside. like those in the neighbouring provinces of Anhui. It is illegal.
destroying pastoral land. its focus remains on supply-side initiatives such as building colossal dams. As the proverb goes.” The past decade has seen a rising tide of rural protest. Some farmers have chosen to make more dramatic. but injustice sweeps it away. have become commonplace. and drug-abuse now plague the countryside. Decades of agricultural reform following that dark era of turmoil have contributed to dramatic improvements in efficiency and crop yields. fair weather or foul. Beijing’s accelerated funding for research in intensive agriculture and genetic engineering. “rebellion is justified. But some fear that the $62 billion undertaking.. masks a much deeper problem.. Access. One cannot live without the other. LLC 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. if not desperate. Ste. Many Chinese still remember the famines of the early 1960s that killed tens of millions. will only exacerbate the current agrarian crisis. crime. something not felt 50 years ago when China’s leaders shared more humble backgrounds with the people they led and understood conditions in field better than any before them or after.com 57 56 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER . Toronto-based Correspondent Paul Nash is a China commentator and part-time doctoral candidate examining Western perceptions of China. Peasant farmers by the thousands have besieged government buildings. China’s contemporary leadership believes that its future depends on this project’s success. and its growing criticism of corrupt local officials. Ever since Mao. and polluting existing water supplies on a scale far greater than the controversial Three Gorges Dam. severe droughts. from the Yangtze River in southern China to the north. Today’s farmers on the North China Plain have to contend with this in a more literal sense as they become frustrated by the soaring allocation of water to urban and industrial use despite growing agriculture needs. Severe water depletion is expected to reduce agricultural yields 14 to 23 percent by 2050. NW. “A poor man’s field may produce abundant food. first proposed by Mao in 1952.org/ understandingourfood. D. Corruption.8 billion cubic metres of water annually. Flash riots. but they have also opened up a dangerous chasm between rural and urban. Cities like Beijing are sucking up all of the region’s groundwater. by 2050.foodinsight. much of China’s long history reads like a catalogue of revolutionary uprisings induced by agrarian inequality. The South to North Water Diversion Project aims to divert 44.org www. Although Beijing has paid more attention in recent years to water conservation techniques.aspx © International Food Information Council Foundation September 2010 Raptor Strategies. forcing the displacement of hundreds of thousands of villagers from their homes. The erosion of farmers’ incomes and declining public support for healthcare and education has led to well over a hundred thousand “mass incidents” in the countryside.C. The chief site of deepening inequality and large-scale social experimentation. Results.foodinsight. statements by setting themselves on fire. and flooding. reservoirs and canals. The privatization of state or collectively owned land and agricultural enterprises has involved more crony capitalism than many can stomach. Elder voices revive Mao’s rallying cry. to the point where Chinese scientists reckon that the city itself has sunk 2. The International Food Information Council (IFIC) and IFIC Foundation www. After all. the great North China Plain could become the Party’s undoing rather than the socialist dreamscape that Mao envisioned.raptorstrategies. which staked their survival on large water-control schemes such as the Grand Canal or the irrigation system in Dujiangyan.4 meters since the 1970s as a result. The legitimacy of the communist regime is in decay. Like so many dynasties before it. 780 Washington. 20006 T: 202/833-1166 F: 202/833-1080 www. many of them unpublicized. the Communist Party has used the metaphor of fish in water to characterize the relationship between revolutionaries and the people. Understanding Our Food Communications Tool Kit Leader Guide Now Available! “Understanding Our Food” Communications Tool Kit: Influence.FEATURE | FOOD sECURITy city’s officials have failed by exploiting the very peasantry that carried Mao Zedong to power less than 65 years ago. In 2002 it began the most ambitious ever.” while a younger generation seems more willing to act if ever one were to gain feet. It may be right.
specify the “urban” epoch we live in. as well as the unprecedented potential connectivity among people are all traits that. The contemporary rates of urbanization consolidated throughout history have made the metropolis a central symbol of civilization. as much as from a technological viewpoint. depicted a similar atmosphere in his dystopian novel The Concentration City. its contemporary ecumenical scale and staggering pace. Many are the examples in the contemporary arts that refer to such images. who travels endlessly along rail lines. the graduates of 2025 will not be able to ignore to socio-political impact of this worldwide trend and global transformation. which cannot do anything more than accepting the view “that the City stretches out in all directions without limits. If at the time of Asimov and Ballard some of these trends were only apparent. we are now at a stage of human history where the urbanization of the world’s population is unmistakably evident. to use an elegant expression coined by architectural historian Joseph Rykwert.G. progressing steadily. only to get back to the point of origin without ever leaving a disturbing conurbation. to the extent that we might now live in what Henri Lefebvre called the “urban society. Ballard. had finally reached the ultimate. humankind is now mirrored in the city more than in any other construct. where the urban settlement in question encompasses everything known to its inhabitants. its varied mobility and social complexity. J. Humankind. demonstrating that the interplay of a frail humanity with a muscular urbanism has a resonance deeper than mere whimsical attraction.” A few years later. Yet. has been “seduced by a place” it itself created. Isaac Asimov. There are presently 400odd “million-plus” settlements. ipso facto. nowadays half of the human population is settled within metropolitan areas. father of science fiction.” Certainly. and evaluations for the year 2050 estimate a growth of the urban population up to two-thirds of humanity. They have become the defining feature of humanity’s modes of aggregation. in another of the columns of modern-day fictional literature. “Its urbanization. If the “move to the city” is not a novel characteristic of our existence. As American economist Robert Murray Haig highlighted at the outset of this “city boom” 58 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 59 . and persistent scenery for the vast majority of its social interactions. Social and physical aspects of urbanization since the early 20th century have not just brought about quantitative changes in the dislocation of humanity across the globe. cities have also become the hinges of our society as they influence both lifestyle and mobility of the world’s population.” No escape is offered to the impuissant protagonist. making this contemporary geographical trend the largest urban migration in history. Fictional parallels notwithstanding. these visions might not be too distant from reality: if at the outset of the 20th century only one in 10 used to live in cities. From a social. we now need to start educating international practitioners and students about the momentous impact of urbanization. opened his most famed book Foundation with a graphic portrayal of the planet that was leading an imaginary galaxy mastered by humankind in all its width.Keeping up with an urbanizing World | By MIChELE ACUTO | i n 1951. All the land surface was a single city.
however. These simultaneous transformations. as more and more people suffer from shelter deprivation and health hazards. alongside many other features. the Chinese Pearl River Delta. this epoch has something different. This is not. to the extent that we can now legitimately talk of several “megacities” of eight million inhabitants and increasingly widespread “hypercities” with 20 million souls living within less and less identifiable boundaries. one must give reasons why that portion is not even greater. which now account to almost 32 percent of the world’s urban population. It is the rise of this “urban age” that makes educating international scholars and diplomats a non-postponable necessity. has resulted in a radical redesigning of most of the world’s cityscapes.” Crucially for international analysts. and its features are somewhat unique in respect to its classical. or in the Tokyo-Yokohama region. it is imperative for international educators. as well as in parts of Latin America and coastal Africa. This is not casual: metropolitan growth and globalization are tightly intertwined into a mutually-constitutive relationship to the extent that. These features are also strongly connected with the processes prompted by globalization in the recent decades: as technology progresses. social relations are restructured and places are shaped by changing patterns of flows. Urban settlements have grown exponentially. as it often happens to many commuters on the American East Coast. The question is changed from ‘Why live in the city?’ to ‘Why not live in the city?’” The urbanization of the world’s population is not solely a physical process. medieval. in order to adapt to the rapidly urbanizing world in which international relations are increasingly embedded. in 1926: “instead of explaining why so large a portion of the population is found in the urban areas. and the creation of hybrid urbanities born out of the merger of once-separated municipalities. and thus conversely the contemporary practice of political relations. Soon—key experts in the field warn—we might witness the construction of a continuous urban corridor stretching from Japan/North Korea to West Java. boosted by a ten-fold multiplication of urban population during the past century. Yet. “we can speak of both the urbanization of the entire globe and the globalization of urbanism as a way of life. Parallel developments are evidently taking place in Europe and the United States. This momentous exodus. to prompt a more effective and eclectic engagement of their pupils and peers with this solid body of urbanist knowledge. urbanization brings about a revolutionary change in our society as much as it creates global trends that threaten this very society as a whole. terrorism. but also an inherently social revolution that redefines the spaces of interaction amongst people. as the width of governance voids and unregulated settlement foster the proliferation of slum dwellers. capable of influencing our species from its early days. and industrial predecessors. Megacities and metropolises are nowadays the loci of giant new problems for public management. testify the universality of 60 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 61 . accompanied by the sprawl of suburban areas across the Earth. represents one of the fundamental challenges of the present day. a call for duplicating the extensive theorization achieved by urban studies scholars thus far. In many locations around the globe it is now possible to travel from “city” to “city” without ever leaving an urbanized landscape. and urban violence—all everyday concerns for the contemporary diplomat. fuelling other human security threats such as pandemics. distances shrink. The urbanization of poverty. as Edward Soja and Miguel Kanai noted in 2008. and epitomize the state of our evolution through the eras. for example. Rather. Crammed shantytowns and uncontrolled suburban ghettos have burgeoned everywhere around the globe in both rich and poor countries.FEATURE | uRbanization FEATURE | uRbanization the urban experience. The phenomenon of growth itself is different to the extent that its rate is accelerating. as much as for foreign policy professionals.
In 2010. 62 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 63 . attacking the most vulnerable and often the poorest segments of society. the anti-TB drugs on the market were developed in the 1940s and 1950s. diagnostic and treatment tools. and drug technology that we take for granted today are not being widely applied to TB research. meanwhile. the medication is costly: treating a patient for MDR TB costs a total $22. when we make an advance in [fighting] an infectious disease. “In fact. effective treatments for this strain of TB. without treatment. What Dr. and there would be much better diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB and much better treatment for TB patients co-infected with HIV. the battle against tuberculosis (TB) is beginning to show signs of victory. Because funding levels are only one-third of the amount TB patient in Alem Kitmama. Ethiopia. and TB research is operating under the scientific principles of another century. a full one-third of HIV positive individuals are also infected with TB. means we are at the most dangerous point in the battle against TB. In 2000.” Katherine Floyd. this great news. TB has plagued humans for hundreds of years. While scientists are sure they have found new. Globally. Comparatively.000 per patient.” said Dr. However.8 million in 2003. The advances in molecular biology. “The promise of testing more people for MDR TB must be met now with a commitment to treat all of those who are diagnosed. However. 82 percent were in Africa. as they did at the end of last November in Papua New Guinea. As funding shortfalls increase with budget cuts on the horizon for global aid projects. until 2006 when the WHO initiated its Stop TB Strategy. especially in High Burden Countries. A confluence of budget crunches and the false perception that we may be able to ease up on the fight against TB may result in a decrease in aid. it would be a real scandal if we left people diagnosed with MDR TB without drugs. “We tend. 1. or the patient is going untreated. the cost of latent or normal cases of TB is only about $78 for a course of firstline drugs. the lowest level in a decade. One of the most dangerous results of this lack of new developments is the rise of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). cases of TB continued to rise. Director of WHO’s Stop TB Department. The growing incidence of TB cases worldwide was declared to be a global health emergency by the WHO in 1993.9 billion—underlies a drastic problem: cases of TB are only dropping in absolute terms because the incidence of HIV is also dropping. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported in October that rates of infection and mortality from the airborne bacterial infection have been decreasing since 2006. Photo courtesy of the World Health Organization (WHO). the number of people with TB dropped from a peak of nine million in 2005 to 8. because the attention that the HIV’s 30 years of existence has garnered is perceived as taking away resources to fight TB. deaths fell to 1. DNA. much needed to reach any breakthrough research.” As governments struggle to make up the shortfall from lost global NGO aid. which results from a bacteria strain that does not respond to standard treatment. there may be more stories headlines of MDR TB cases reaching crisis levels. Raviglione at a press conference discussing the details of WHO’s 2011 Global Tuberculosis Control report. they cautioned. said. The most common TB diagnostic tool— called a sputum smear microscopy—was developed 100 years ago.hanging in the Balance the global fight against tuberculosis | By ChRIsELLA sAgERs | FEATURE | global health i n the age of the war against infectious diseases. and its incidence levels could rise sharply.” said Dr. of the progress made in recent years against the spread of TB has only been because of its deadly relationship with HIV. “If the fight against TB [were] fully funded in the next four years in line with the Stop TB Partnership’s Global Plan. According to the WHO’s 2011 Global Tuberculosis Control Report.. However. putting in serious jeopardy the chance to eliminate TB as a leading cause of death globally.. Mario Raviglione.1 million HIV positive patients were also infected with new cases of TB.about 30 million people with TB would have been successfully treated between 2011 and 2015. where the rate of test for co-infection hovers only around 59 percent. the cost of treatment is increasingly coming out of the patient’s pocket. there simply is not enough funding. education programs. and to reduce the global incidence of active TB cases to less that 1 per 1 million people per year by 2050. and attention diverted from the world’s second most deadly infectious disease. The most vulnerable areas will not be able to properly test for—let alone treat—MDR TB cases. Research and development for TB has a somewhat jealous attitude toward HIV research.4 million in 2010 from 1.8 million in 2010.. while HIV funding will likely reach an excess of $6.6 billion in 2012. Fauci politely calls the “relative imbalance of resources”— experts are hopeful that TB donor funding will reach $0. only 40 percent of co-infected patients are undergoing antiretroviral treatment. Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. all 193 countries of the United Nations committed to decreasing the rate of TB when they signed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). predicts there will be a $200 million gap between available funds and the total cost of effectively treating MDR TB. The program’s goals were to reduce the prevalence and mortality rates of TB to 50 percent of their 1990 levels by 2015. Of these new cases.. Dr. Anthony Fauci. and we can turn our attention to something else. coordinator of TB monitoring and evaluation for WHO’s Stop TB Department. WHO experts are expecting $1 billion shortfall in funding for TB programs in 2012.to think that we’re making progress.
“pieces of a new framework are brokered one-by-one through the G20. is that “ratification through the UN General Assembly risks ending up with a lowest common denominator framework. have given fresh impetus to the maturing program. an “inside-out framework” where UN experts implement a politically inspired vision. A stubborn global financial downturn is exacerbating all of these obstacles. universal ownership. There may be no post-2015 framework at all. the MDGs will still be relevant after 2015. Global leaders convened a high-level summit at the UN headquarters in 2010 to evaluate the first 10 years of the MDGs experiment 64 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 65 . when world leaders convene a high-level summit at the UN headquarters.” according to Pollard. its exclusive. Pollard notes. having it ready to implement by 2015. plan for failure to SucceeD. they say. Casey also covers the G8 and G20 Summits. The “outside-in framework” could gain traction if the UN is unwilling or unable to take the lead. while the prospects for efficient integration of the different goals low. But we must accomplish the MDGs to prove to the world that we are qualified to lead a post-2015 framework. a “jigsaw framework. There are no assurances that the international community will muster the political will necessary to develop and implement a post-2015 development framework. That will not be easy. tracK ii: DeVelop a poSt-mDgS frameWorK. Then. One thing is certain. First. and finally. The fourth scenario also arises from an absence of UN leadership. The post-2015 framework could take many forms. he covers the United Nations writing about issues such as the UN Millennium Development Goals and UN Security Council Reform.” The world body’s ability to meet the 21st century’s biggest challenges may be riding on it. In September 2015. Finally.” by contrast. “focusing too much on a post-2015 framework might undermine our incentive to accomplish the goals at hand. eventually forming something like a coherent framework. its ability to walk and chew gum at the same time will determine whether it is capable of leading the next phase of the most ambitious development project in history. As a senior diplomat close to negotiations explained to the Diplomatic Courier. part justification should the UN fail to do so. however. expert-led process. The problem with an inclusive. the value of a new global development agreement may be called into question. Second. More importantly. G8. the BRICS. for example. and others “piece together” goals and targets for the broader international community to follow.” The likelihood of back door deals driving the negotiation process is high. the General Assembly ratifies the framework. despite donor governments’ record levels of spending in 2010. if indecision or disagreement sap political will and derail implementation efforts. We must walk and chew gum at the same time. combined with increased aid flows to the world’s least developed countries and the creation of new development partnerships. its relevance in tackling 21st century problems will be on the line. The following year. endowing it with legitimacy. UNFCCC. and fall under the direction of a variety of (non-UN) actors. Even then. Casey Coombs is Diplomatic Courier’s special resident correspondent to the UN.FEATURE | mDgs the un’s millennium Dilemma | By CAsEy COOMBs | Round will deliver. information. the prohibitive costs associated with increasing access to medicines. the projections from 2011 to 2013 are more modest.” a process the current MDGs framework would likely not have survived. and maximum buy-in. It could be as simple as pushing back the deadline and raising the targets. On the upside. these coalitions work to ‘piece together’ individual goals and targets. record levels of official development assistance (ODA) in 2010. lacks legitimacy. Indeed. But the UN’s role in the process may not be. However. Amy Pollard of the Catholic Overseas Development Agency (CAFOD) sees five distinct ways in which a post2015 framework could develop: a legitimate UN-led process. an “outside-in framework” in which civil society organizations lobby governments to adopt a development plan. and plan for a post-2015 framework that picks up where the first one leaves off. could “secure a more ambitious set of goals precisely because it avoids bringing contentious and technical issues into political arena composed of 192 countries. or as complex as collapsing the old structure and building anew. To fill that void. and communication technologies have stifled development efforts. in spite of intense efforts at the World Trade Organization (WTO) to revitalize the Doha Development Agenda—which seeks to stimulate global trade by lowering trade barriers—there are no assurances the buy-in. If too many of the MDGs’ targets are missed. The “inside-out framework.” whereby political coalitions such as the G8. But three major obstacles stand in the way. The next framework will undoubtedly be more inclusive. Indeed. Failure is also a possibility. or if divergent interests impede compromise. and plan for the final five. Its central messages were that “the MDGs will still be relevant after 2015” and that the UN is best equipped to lead post-2015 efforts. poSt-2015 optionS. the report smacked of an MDGs re-election campaign. and failure. tracK i: meet the 2015 DeaDline. UN-led route. lobbying governments to sign up for it one-by-one—a multi-year process in itself. “as 2015 approaches. and other international policy processes. and a s the 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches—and as reality sinks in that several of the targets will not be reached—the UN is adopting a two track strategy: redouble development efforts in the four years that remain. Secretary-General Ban-Ki moon debuted the dual track strategy. They emerged from the meeting with a mixed outlook. ownership. Part rally cry to meet the 2015 deadline. the UN develops a new framework through a series of international summits in which all 193 member states participate. Ultimately. Based in New York City. In the first scenario. the MDGs were created in this very way—though many argue that was a fluke. Pollard sees at least three challenges: convincing myriad civil society actors to focus on one framework.” Pollard explains.
In counties such as the U. such as immigration and technological innovation. In Japan. concerns. Older consumers have unique needs. this development is well under way. The so-called “silver market” will become increasingly important in the U. are able to benefit from older workers in the form of consulting and mentoring derived from experience and wisdom. are looking for ways to bring more automation to the health care system. A greater proportion of citizenry in the workforce means not only more producers. that of more elderly than younger citizens. it should come as no surprise that many companies. and even companionship are proving desirable.S. and generations young and old that contribute to the wellbeing of economies and societies. better than those in many countries. Yemen. Another reason not to bemoan a graying society is such societies tend to be less prone to violence. productive labor forces. will have to evolve repUBlic oF korea and an aging world popUlaTion Seniors in conversation at Jongmyo park. such as Toyota. and close to a billion people are 60 and over. businesses may be able to adjust more aptly than their counterparts in societies that age more quickly. both their interest in working long shifts and consumerism tend to fade. economic. un photo by Kibae park At the end of October 2011. Companies from electronics stores to rock gyms know that catering to this group will be an increasingly important aspect of their business. Although robots that could take the place of human care are still in very preliminary stages. Certain sectors already facing increasing demand. Most companies prefer to avoid such uncertainty and find operating in older countries more dependable. the global average life span is 68 years. republic of Korea. but more consumers as well. which faces a more gradual graying than many other countries. This year’s annual report by UNFPA. health monitoring. highlights the remarkable trends behind the numbers: roughly one in two people now lives in an urban area. The demographic transition will differ in speed and severity from country to country. most businesses succeed or fail based on their appeal to working-aged individuals.S. the story is not that clear-cut: Japan’s economy is projected to grow faster in 2012 than that of the relatively younger U. The demographic picture that many countries are facing today. compared to 13 percent in the United States. to meet the needs of rapidly maturing populations. Japan’s strict immigration policy will make it hard to depend on inexpensive foreign caregivers. For some countries. In a country famous for its robots. As the Japan example also illustrates. but also society as a whole to embrace factors. Japan may provide a helpful case study for much of the Western world. the world population passed the seven billion mark. and political instability. and social lives. and in Japan this group also holds nearly a third of all household wealth. Strong demographic trends are often credited with economic progress. As the majority of economic activity centers on this cohort. It seems likely that those societies best able to keep their elderly healthy and engaged stand the best chance of maintaining high economic well-being. Older consumers have their own set of needs that can differ significantly from those of younger cohorts. Practices that work well could be emulated. and opinions.S. whereas those that come to a dead end could be avoided entirely. businesses looking to take advantage of these trends will have to accept that the ideal of the traditional consumer is changing. Companies in Japan. the UN population fund. that will play a critical role in determining who will stay competitive in a changing landscape. It will be in the interest of not only business. as much of the Western world does. such as health care. As people age. Apple would not be one of the biggest companies in the world if our grandparents’ consumption dwarfed our own. in downtown Seoul. businesses marketing to older citizens are becoming increasingly common. 66 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 67 . While people around the world are living longer and healthier lives.how corporations Will have to adjust to Demographic changes | By KyLE ThOMPsOn-wEsTRA | FEATURE | PoPulation g lobal aging is a phenomenon that touches almost every aspect of our political. and companies that capture this change will be positioned well for continued success. countries and corporations must consider proactively what the implications of these demographic changes are on future economic growth. already new technologies for accessibility. or Europe.. which are strongly correlated with rising income. is unprecedented in the history of our species—and we’re only getting older. war. when it comes to aging demographics leading to economic decline. which is attractive to any business. The report sees the possibilities in seven billion–for fostering sustainable cities. Population growth generates increasing population density and urbanization. and Afghanistan—reflect this tendency. Over 22 percent of Japan’s population is at least 65 years old. and countries with such conditions today—such as Somalia. Large youth bulges throughout history tend to correlate with social unrest and conflict. As this slice of population increases in size. and around the world.
they will become part of the wider EU energy space and key to building a pan-European gas market. which has awoken to its ability to court other major power centers. Anders Aslund. In that quest for balance of power. which includes the EU-supported Nabucco gas pipeline. and Azerbaijan. supplies to Europe were drastically affected. equivalent to approximately 45-90 billion cubic meters of gas per year. the EU. most notably. however. appearing as key transit corridors for Russian and Central Asian energy flows. Iran. In fact. As such. a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington. the Caspian Sea will be at the forefront of future energy security discussions. other regions (such as Southeast Europe) will enable Caspian energy resources to be linked north towards Europe’s economic heartland—becoming a key participant in future energy dialogues. who rules the Heartland commands the World Island. the massive Soviet-era Druzhba pipeline that supplies most of the continent is not going anywhere. the English geographer’s memorable quote resonates even in today’s geostrategic circles: “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland. With an estimated date of completion in 2017-2018. these initiatives include Caspian and Middle Eastern regions which would supply gas to Europe through its Southern Corridor projects. and Italy. the EU is also supporting a number of enterprises linking the wider region (Russia currently provides a quarter of total EU gas supplies). Greece. A recent agreement between Turkey and Azerbaijan is planned to further advance such gas exports to European markets. the states of Southeastern Europe will in turn be vying to control the bulk of energytransport systems. Accordingly. and China are vying for control and influence over scarce energy resources that will only become more valuable and in demand going forward. Together with Russia. mainly pipeline projects that will serve to benefit the local economy.eurasian & global energy Security in the 21st century | By MIKEL KOTOnIKA & gLEn jOhnsOn | FEATURE | eneRgy secuRity m ajor players including the United States. The region will be a key battleground in the quest for far-reaching influence. it appears Russia will continue to be the dominant energy supplier to much of Europe in the foreseeable future. The key challenge will be to ensure that gas producing countries become ready to export directly to Europe. The new pipeline. Historical and linguistic ties are clearly no longer an insurmountable barrier in Central Asia. which for many may imply accepting high political risk linked to their geopolitical situation. ter experiencing an oil embargo from Russia in 1997-1998 and bitter haggling over a previously agreed-upon gas contract in 2009. many countries in the region are now taking on new attributes of geostrategic definition. the region represents an important economic. In addition to neighboring countries Armenia.” 69 68 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER . the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP). Subsequently. What’s more. Turkmenistan is perhaps the most illustrative case in point. While Central Asian countries along the Caspian Sea will continue to play a dominant role in the distribution sector. This lesson is being learned the hard way in Central Asia. Poland. This trend is expected to increase as shale gas and liquefied natural gas become increasingly viable options. which sealed the fate of Eastern Europe in World War II. it should not come as any surprise that Poland’s defense minister likened the pipeline to the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. The EU’s strategic goal for the Southern Corridor is to provide 10 to 20 percent of gas demand within the EU by 2020. the physical realities of Druzhba protected Russia’s neighbors from prolonged cutoffs. Turkmenistan. the pipeline project will be part of the Southern Corridor. Previously viewed as buffer zones between the ideological blocs of the East and the West. And many of the geographic regions that Sir Halford John Mackinder labeled as “pivot area” will become strategic to many powerful actors in the world. has one advantage for Russia that Druzhba lacks: namely. for instance. In this way. Hence. With an aim to reduce Russian influence and diversify its gas supplies. Quite simply. and Uzbekistan. If the region continues its path towards European integration and the EU. White Stream. A common approach on the part of Southeast European states could also alter the way in which the great powers and actors treat their interests. is now able to import about half of its gas from non-Russian sources. and a second to be completed throughout the course of this year. Central Asian and Balkan states will be critical in ensuring Europe’s interconnectivity of gas supplies. Ukraine. These powers will play a critical role in the global energy sector that will largely shape the political and economic context of this century. and strategic hub not only for Europe but also for the United States. with several proposals indeed on the table for its expansion to new territory. As part of the Energy Security and Solidarity Action Plan proposed by the European Commission. Turkey. who rules the World Island commands the World. When Russia shut off gas to Ukraine during price disputes in 2006 and 2009. Through the EU-led Southern Gas Corridor. has predicted that both Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan will outperform Russia in the Chinese gas market going forward. The project aims to directly link the European gas market with the largest gas fields in the world—the Caspian and Middle Eastern basin whose reserves are estimated at over 90 trillion cubic meters. shared energy security policies and strate- Holding the largest reserves of natural gas in the world. Af- gies will also be crucial. Europe and Eurasia’s energy policies will have a direct effect on other regional states seeking economic and political integration. it appears that its ability to use its gas supplies for blackmail is slowly diminishing. as an offshore line it avoids transit through politically troublesome nations in the region. China’s pipeline with Turkmenistan is now in place and the energy-hungry nation is contracted to buy billions of cubic meters of natural gas. as members of the EU’s Energy Community Treaty. and the ITGI pipeline between Turkey. Turkmenistan came to view China as a more reliable partner. energy ties have recently been strengthened with the completion of the Nord-Stream pipeline’s first line to Germany in November 2011. although Russia will remain a major player. Russia. Georgia. political. Washington’s policies toward the region will be wise to focus at strengthening regional ties and ensuring a diversification of Caspian energy to regional and international markets. Kazakhstan. For that reason. Several Eastern and Central European states quickly redoubled their efforts to diversify their energy sources as a result.
Thus there is no doubt that Venezuela could simply reap an equal amount of petroleum revenues from China in the event that the U. however. All of this is not to suggest that we should abandon hopes for a more renewable and sustainable energy future. All too often you hear that fossil fuels will soon reach their peak. there are many promises in the prospects of renewable energies. as a 2009 RAND study concluded. To see the irony in the dubious assertions that we fund our own enemies. What hydrocarbon engineers can do now no scientist a mere 50 years ago ever thought possible. as many in the “energy independence” debate are keen to propose. Indeed. Because oil is a global commodity. among our staunchest allies and countries that are hardly terrorist breeding grounds. the notion that we would be more secure if we fundamentally transformed our energy system in order to stave off climate change is shortsighted. It is not difficult to picture King Abdullah reacting with such scorn and fury as to create an actual national security threat to the United States. consuming energy that is only produced at home. Consider the sheer amount of petroleum and natural gas found in the one month of September in 2009: BP discovered three billion barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. told powers such as China and India that the coal-based method of production that has allowed their economies to undergo historic transformations in recent decades is no longer permitted. By this line of reasoning. oil demand borders on ignorant isolationism. safer. Simply put. Many potential domestic sources of energy. This line of reasoning argues that countries must come together to find more sustainable and less carbon-centric forms of energy so that we may live in a cleaner. and that the United States would benefit tremendously from becoming completely energy independent. Many U.S.S. While this may come across as heretical. embargoed its oil supplies. Spanish energy firm Repsol tapped into the largest natural gas find in Venezuela’s history. This accounts for why date estimations for peak oil are continually getting extended. and Petrobras of Brazil found even more hydrocarbon fuels in the Santos Basin (which several years prior was said to contain enough energy to make Brazil a global energy power). two of the largest suppliers of crude to the United States are Canada and Mexico. untapped sources of fossil fuels. imagine a world where the U. In short. peak oil alarmists and hydrocarbon declinists conveniently ignore the immense power of new technology to harness deeper. The last and most prevailing argument for energy security revolves around climate change. have their fair share of opponents. This is because oil is one of many goods that are being exchanged in a global marketplace. and if energy consumption became much more expensive worldwide simply due to precautionary measures taken by global politicians. and chic notions of sustainability that dominate today’s energy discourse simply do not stand up to actual realities. Furthermore. the amount of natural gas and new sources of oil being discovered today is enough to overwhelm any assertion of peak oil or the need to transition to a zero-carbon energy policy.FEATURE | eneRgy secuRity The truth is fossil fuels will continue to dominate international energy supplies for the long-term simply because they are the least expensive and most pervasive fuel resources the world currently possesses. To entertain the notion that we can cease such trade relationships is to deny the inherent benefits of free trade as well as revert back to the import-substitution policies of the past that have well-known records of historical failure. nor that our reliance of fossil fuels creates more problems than it does solutions. imagine the kinds of retaliation a state like Saudi Arabia would engage in if we banned their imports. in other words. and cooler world. Nearly every source of energy comes with its own risks. our addiction to energy from the likes of Saudi Arabia and Venezuela has effectively bought us our own enemies. terrorist attacks are so inexpensive that a decrease in Middle Eastern oil revenues would have virtually no impact on al-Qaeda’s fundraising capabilities. Anadarko Petroleum announced the likely presence of hydrocarbon fuels for 700 miles along the west African coastline. This analysis fails to confront such realities that. the alarmist scenarios. No matter where one’s views lie on the global warming debate. economy than improvement. Yet. we must not kid ourselves to think that we can transform a crucial part of the global economy overnight.S.S. Declaring that we would no longer engage in the international oil trade. politicians and security wonks are fond of the assertion that Americans contribute to insecurity at home and around the world by our dependence on foreign oil. Indeed. The ultimate irony in the American energy discourse today is that many of those who voice support for energy independence also oppose domestic petroleum production. that our consumption of oil causes global insecurity vis-à-vis rogue states and terrorist organizations. More importantly. prices are established globally and oil buyers will seek producers that boast the lowest cost. Many people tend to overlook the fact that while the United States does import the majority of its oil. if unstable countries such as Nigeria were to be deprived of revenue that fueled their financial systems. | By QUEnTIn CAnTU | 70 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER . might very well cause more damage to the U. 71 Breaking past the clichés on energy Security e verything you think you know about energy security and energy independence is wrong. has implications that are at best unclear and at worst actually counterproductive. such as the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge. You need look no further for evidence of this than the Obama Administration’s stated goal of decreasing oil imports and yet simultaneously maintaining the ban on offshore drilling in both the Atlantic and the Pacific. The gap between oil production and oil consumption in America is so immense that any effort to eliminate oil imports would force extremely costly new patterns of production and consumption on our parts. All of the talk about the benefits of choking malevolent countries from U. it is also one of the world’s biggest oil exporters. there is little to no cause for alarm in how we consume our current energy supply. Under closer scrutiny. political correctness. And with this in mind we can conclude that the risks posed by fossil fuels are far outweighed by their benefits. the cold truth is that for the time being.S. The prospect of more Chinese involvement in our own hemisphere means that this is hardly a win-win situation.
How we can do this is to have the long-term monitoring for the elections of the media…which was the case for the local election for only a month. and we’re going to fight back to get our territories from the Russian troops. Georgia is not recognizing this reality. wine. who is running in Georgia’s parliamentary elections in October. They should not serve the incumbent party. politics. who formerly supported President Saakashvili through handsome donations. not one.” What would make Georgia closer to the European community is precisely building not only defense capabilities. It means either that our prosecutors are incredibly brilliant or there is fundamentally something wrong with the system of justice. I think Russia is a big market for Georgian agriculture. [Dc]: The court system in the country is not in the best shape. resigned from his position as Georgia’s ambassador to the United Nations and formed the Our Georgia-Free Democrats Party in 2009. decided to stop spending millions on a government he no longer supports. and has perhaps even weakened over the past several years. Now. We are also advocating support for medium. and Georgia has accomplished a lot in bringing in anti-corruption work and bringing in the institutions that help civil service to be established. it has been the year of global uprisings. [Last] is fundraising abilities for the opposition. Having said that. we want to extend this. health care. And we are pragmatically interested in opening up the trade relationship with Russia. this is why we supported the WTO membership for the Russian Federation. How are Georgia’s May protests different from those in the Arab world? Is an Arab Spring-like revolution possible in this country? [iraKli alaSania]: What’s happening in the Arab world has a different context and a different history. and we have to explore these possibilities. and take the political reigns into his own hands. The Diplomatic Courier sat down with Mr. [such as] agriculture. almost two out of three Georgians are unemployed. We have to liberate the courts. has a clear. but [also] the democratic institutions. I want the Georgian businesses to have the same opportunities in Russian markets that Russia has in Georgia. it’s to get Georgia [to be] a stronger democratic unit [and to make] the economy healthier. [Dc]: And Russia? [ia]: Unfortunately I cannot be that hopeful for the democratic transition and changes in Russia. but the world is not recognizing this reality. Georgia has already—in its 20 years since regaining independence from the Soviet Union—gone through the revolutions.interVieW [Diplomatic courier]: In many ways. the education system that is broken in the country. Mr. and that imperious Russian neighbor.1 percent. Like a missile entrapped in the defense system he hopes to reform. [Dc]: What are the current NATO efforts in the country and what is your party’s place within those efforts? InTERvIEw | alasania [ia]: My party’s foreign policy objective is to get Georgia embedded into the Atlantic community. And people now appreciate that we should learn and demonstrate how responsibly we can behave to make Georgia’s changes. and Georgia has its own history. Russia is occupying almost 20 percent of Georgia’s land. Russia is a neighbor of Georgia and it’s a big nuclear country. and there should be a very clear anti-monopoly system built. Georgia’s NATO membership. “our future is with you. The prime minister or national security advisor bluntly advised the Georgian businesses not to seek any opportunities in Russia and I was surprised. The best self-defense for Georgia is truly building the democratic state and giving more ammunition to our friends in the United States and Europe to push harder for Russia’s de-occupation of Georgia. we have to depoliticize police. they should be loyal to the law and not politicians. because we need to get those opportunities back. but through the democratic system. In 2009 and 2010 the acquittal rate in the court was 0. and the media. The opportunities are so low in Georgia for mediumand small-size businesses because of the overwhelming monopolies in the Georgian business. but protracted target: democratic institutional change. The televised media needs to give the chance to the opposition and to the members of civil society to be on the air and to really discuss the issues that are important to the public. it’s more progressive than it was before. Alasania. and they should be independent. [Dc]: What components can be added to make a freer parliamentary election possible? [ia]: First is media access. which was employing 55 percent of Georgia’s labor force. The opposition movement. Irakli Alasania. This will help also to build up the competitiveness and competitive environment in business. which has gained significant traction since the party’s inception two years ago. so Georgia’s policy towards Russia should be pragmatic. What is on the reform agenda? [ia]: The courts are unfortunately subordinate to the prosecutor general’s office in the country. but several times. [Second]. But the best way to do this is not [through] war. has evolved in recent weeks after billionaire Boris Ivanishvili. and this is a national consensus among many parties in the country that. the opposition leader of the Our Georgia-Free Democrats Party. [Dc]: What are the key election issues you are focusing on for the campaign? [ia]: Education and unemployment [are] skyrocketing because of neglect of agriculture. Alasania in Washington just after he met with politicians to discuss what’s important to his campaign’s success. who was the former Head of Government of Abkhazia. It will help us to demonstrate that Georgia is building the lasting institutions that will help the successful model of transformation. getting jobs back. not through the revolutions anymore. | By hAnnA TRUDO | h leaDer oUr georgia free Democrats Party irakli alaSania 72 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 73 . [Over the past eight years]. This kind of experience was never in the countries that just had revolutions.and small-sized businesses. [Dc]: How is the country different from other former Soviet states? [ia]: With no disrespect to any other [former] Soviet republic—and we have a very good relation- UN Photo/Paulo Filgueiras e was calm when he talked about the two decades of revolutions his country has survived since the collapse of the Soviet Union. the better part of the businesses that tended to support and contribute money to the opposition were reprimanded by the tax police. and other products.
When I’m addressing the people in Georgia. and Congress people are true friends of Georgia. and he wants to now contribute with his own participation to have a competitive election next time.InTERvIEw | alasania A view of old Tbilisi with Metekhi Church. We cannot rely on the foreign aid. Georgia has been around for three millennia and we survived a lot of difficulties throughout our history.uschamber.to Georgia’s reform of police and reform of defense. How can you convince people to believe a truly fairer system is possible? [ia]: This is the fight for democratic changes. Senators. [it should] not [be] the person in the government that owns the people. so we’re looking forward that this dialogue will produce tangible results for the improvement of the election environment. This is one of the times that we need to come together. do more and become more. That’s the difference in philosophy that we have with Saakashvili. you are a leader. We have the work force that is more progressive. because all the major routes. [Dc]: Georgians remember the major political fraudulence of not too long ago. faster than others. People should own the governments.. Secretary Clinton will be visiting Georgia in early winter. The CEO Leadership Series offers a platform for CEOs of high profile companies to share their vision and thoughts on critical issues facing global business today and in the future. strong partners here to help Georgia get this transformation right. you should be ready to make changes yourself in the next parliamentary election. [Dc]: So what’s next? [ia]: What is coming up is the Bilateral Strategic Partnership Meeting on Democracy. visit www. Did these meetings pick up where you left off after speaking with Joe Biden in 2009? [ia]: The American government. but he got critical of Saakashvili. This series is a unique opportunity to hear from leaders at the helm of some our most significant industries and companies. [Dc]: Now that billionaire Boris Ivanishvili. to cast away all doubts and start working to make democracy really work.” [The sense] that I’m getting from the people is that they want to have a change through the peaceful democratic system. we have a young generation that is educated in the Western countries and now eager to build a new modern Georgia. such as John McCain and others during this trip. and I think there’s a lot of capacity and potential to build. I’m telling them “You should come to vote. They support the institution building. He contributed. ship with everyone in the region except Russia so far—I believe that Georgia is a very modern nation with a rich history.ncf. This is the power that will help Georgia to really change the environment and political monopoly into a monopoly of people over the governments through participation in the elections. has announced his entry into politics. that’s why they’ve been so active for the past 20 years by putting so much political and financial investment in my country.com/ceo-leadership-series. What they’re supporting in the country is building a level playing ground for everyone in politics for the next election. which they lacked for 20 years. for example energy transportation. -John Quincy Adams 74 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER The National Chamber Foundation’s CEO Leadership Series is Washington’s premier business and economic leadership program. the truly democratic institutions. who once supported President Saakashvili. not the friends of sub-politicians. UN Photo by Mark Garten. If we want to get central Asian and other energy resources to the West. The modernization happened really fast for the past 15 years. 75 For more information. are going through Georgia. I feel that we have natural partners. . [Dc]: You have met with some key people. Georgia is a natural place to go through. And I think the geopolitical place gives us the opportunity to be the key country in the region. we cannot rely on some other forces doing our job for us. learn more.. how will this shake up the system? [ia]: This is one of the richest Georgians who was supporting Georgia’s institution building [by] helping the Georgian government—Saakashvili’s government—through contributions. If your actions inspire others to dream more.
including the U. very few countries have a worse income distribution than Chile. costing about 0. and Western Europe muddle through their own economic crisis and possible collapse. Bolsa Família and Chile’s Sovereign Wealth Funds are just two of many good ideas that have come out of Latin America. The challenge is continuing the economic growth while simultaneously addressing local issues. Bolsa Família admirers have even reached Africa. Extreme poverty fell from around 17 percent in 1987 to less than four percent in 2010. The PRF can be best described as a savings fund. Chile currently is considered a darling of the emerging market family. The ESF’s objective is to accumulate copper revenues whenever copper prices are higher than the historical average market price or the forecasted market price in the next ten years.S. with the case in point being Nigeria enacting Care of the Poor (COPE). The richest tenth amongst Latin Americans earn 48 percent of the total income. insecurities. the number of Brazilians living under extreme poverty has fallen from 17 million in 2003 to nine million in 2009. merging four pre-existing cash transfer programs (CCTs) into a single one. but it can talk about the future with optimism. gender equality—whether in the workplace or at home cannot be swept under the rug. or the backyard of the U. and Chile 14th. income inequality has decreased as of late. the Economic and Stabilization Fund was given the green light to replace the Copper Stabilization Fund.8 billion. Latin America has had the unflattering distinction of being the most unequal region in the world. one cannot fail to notice the walled houses and gated communities. while the U. Historically. The results have been nothing short of amazing. Brazil’s Bolsa Familia and Chile’s Copper Funds are two prime examples in addressing development. and cartels the main focus in the arena of Colombian politics. with reserves of $250 billion. 76 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 77 . Colombia and Peru are also in planning modes of initiating their sovereign fund. but equally effective in their respective goals. Chile created the Copper Stabilization Fund in 1985. Is Bolsa Família a formidable blueprint for future poverty reduction programs across the world? New York seems to think it is. and nutritional monitoring. called Juntos. according to a report published by FGV. and Western Europe because of their sovereign wealth funds. income inequality remains relatively high. and instability. Payments are relatively small.S. Chile. But now it has an opportunity to be fully integrated in the global economy for the right reasons. and in 2003 the richest 20 percent earned close to 55 percent of the national income. one is the beautiful portrayal of beaches. One-sixth of the poverty reduction in Brazil can be attributed to Bolsa Família. Latin America can trump its horns by pointing to its recent economic boom—commodity driven—producing impressive GDP outputs. pre. To mitigate this risk. Brazil’s Bolsa Família is just one measure to combat these ills. a protective and conservative measure to reduce the risk of economic quandaries. amazing coastlines and the cheerful samba. and European economic drama that the good days don’t last forever. The PRF also has the responsibility of transferring wealth from one generation to the next to solidify future sustainability.5 million families across Brazil. Brazil and Chile have been in the forefront in confronting their nation’s inequality. with a cap of 200 reais ($109). During the 2008 world financial crisis. or will they mishandle their fiscal management and fall victim to the Dutch Disease and become an economy that is dependent on the price of copper? Will Colombia be a country that shows the world that they can rid themselves of their violent past. Brazil has two faces. Consequently the local economy will reflect that. but the challenge ahead is what to do with such impressive reserves. and agricultural products. Countries in Latin America and abroad are realizing that no harm is done by creating a rainy day fund. Chile’s success has not gone unnoticed. Upon visiting countries such as Brazil. To Latin America’s defense. but from a disturbing 20 percent rate in the last decade. child labor. during the 1997-1998 Asian Crisis. Former Chilean President Bachelet once said. what would be a supplement to the U. In spite of the grim that hinders Chile. “Brazil is the country of the future and always will be”? Will Chile continue being the exemplary nation that has reached an unprecedented period where the Chileans now aspire to create a Silicon Valley in Santiago. favelas. Recent data show that the richest 10 percent of the population earned 45 percent of the nation’s income. accounting for roughly 10 percent of GDP. the Chilean government in 2006 passed the Fiscal Responsibility Law. in terms of world inequality. then perhaps Latin America will no longer be a vague afterthought. In Chile. such as Although they still remain a serious concern. Chile’s two sovereign wealth funds amount to $21. and the ineffectiveness of public vaccinations. No longer were the FARC. wines. reserves that can be used to address the everpresent income inequality and public education.S. discovering with the recent U. It is encouraging that Latin America is gaining confidence and ridding itself of past violence. while the poorest tenth earn an alarming 1. It does not matter how fast a country is growing economically. In 2007. GDP per capita is above 15. around 22 reais ($12) per month per child. against a backdrop of shantytowns and favelas. The World Bank estimates that less than two percent of the population lives below the international poverty line. or will it always live up to the old joke. used as a deterrent from creating balloon-like budget deficits and loss of revenues. Chile was able to recover much faster than the U. It has occurred both in countries where growth has been rapid (Colombia. Then there is basic poverty: the poverty rate in Chile has dwindled down to near 10 percent. to the point of being often emulated. spending. more needs to be done to narrow the inequality gap. Brazil established their own fund not too long ago. but it is effectively and accurately aimed at the poor. Peru in 2005 established a similar CCT.000. Not an easy task. the Colombian President put forth a new agenda: furthering economic development and more attention to social issues such as the gross income inequality that permeates Colombia and Latin America. in order to supplement the revenues into the Chilean budget when copper prices are at a low. Bolsa Família was enacted in 2003. income inequality. ranked 57th in the world by the IMF (2010). Peru. the number of Brazilians with incomes below 800 reais ($437) a month has decreased more than eight percent a year every year.and post-natal care. 20 million Brazilians rid themselves from the strains of poverty. and Colombia. and Brazil) and where growth has been mediocre (Argentina and Ecuador).FEATURE | latin ameRica’s Rise the Sun also rises in latin america | By OsCAR MOnTEALEgRE | i n the summer of 2010. Latin America is by no means close to the finish line. a remarkably stunning accomplishment by one single program. and finally worry about growing their economy instead of allocating their resources towards keeping cartels and guerillas from growing cocaine? Latin America in some corners is known as the Forgotten Continent. fresh fruit. Will Brazil finally be a confident Latin American leader. guerillas.” The same can now be said for the majority of Latin American nations. After President Lula left the executive office. The other face is poverty.S.5 percent of Brazil’s GDP. Paraguay 11th. Ecuador ranked 7th. Bilateral trade agreements have been a priority for Chile. More countries in Latin America and abroad have taken note of their program’s achievement. For example. by lacking economic diversity. Minority rights are still an issue. if the rewards are only for a selected few— predominantly the elite—then there is no chance for a country to have real change and real opportunities for its citizens. For a Brazilian household. both are completely different. violence.S. Education in Chile is a constant social issue. Peru. If both programs are an indication of the new Latin America in the next 50 years. but the talking points changed considerably for Colombians. Brazil 8th. Chile’s economy has been inextricably linked to commodity prices. cellulose. to combat currency fluctuation and secure foreign reserves. Its objective is to combat a future government pension liability deficit. According to the United Nations Development Programme. Chile’s first order of business was to create a mechanism to sustain economic ascension. Chile is on the right path to prosperity. where public education compared to private education is often referred to as two separate countries. Undoubtedly. placing development at the forefront of their priorities. signing more than ten Free Trade Agreements. Bolsa Família is not the answer to save all. compared to prior periods. 22 reais could go a long way. Juan Manuel Santos was inaugurated as the new President of Colombia. and Canada. which targets female-headed households. It targets areas the poor need most help with: allowing Brazilian women a chance to live a dignified life and giving children the natural right of basic education. respectively.6 percent (World Bank). due to the outbreak of jobs and government-led social policies that helped alleviate the gross inequality. Is Colombia foreshadowing the new road for Latin America? Yes and no. Bolsa Família has reached 12. turmoil. The benefits of Chile’s growth tied to its sovereign wealth funds have also trickled down to the Chilean people. Chile could “look at the future without fear. allowing them the opportunity to become direct participants in Brazil’s future growth. Inequality in Latin America is borne of many causes: education. and the list could go on. exporting salmon. Bolsa Família pays mothers a small sum on the condition that their children attend school 85 percent of the time and receive basic health care. and malnutrition. Since 2003. income inequality. Never before has Latin America been flushed with so much money and buzz. Since its inception. economic and political stability needs to be sustainable. launching a similar conditional cash transfer scheme: Opportunity NYC. Colombia 10th. Its goals are straightforward: create a social safety net and provide relief to Brazil’s poor. After much success from the original Copper Fund.S. Minority groups such as African Americans and indigenous groups do not have the same opportunities as “white” Latinos. enacting two new sovereign wealth funds—the Pension Reserve Fund (PRF) and the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund (ESSF). but it has arguably been the most successful. Chile withdrew $200 million from the Copper Stabilization Fund to help keep the economy moving along.’s Social Security program. According to a recent government report.
and one sixth the cost of an ANA soldier. The original ALP program envisioned 30 districts with 10. and development. supported by VSO. The program was met with initial resistance from some Afghan leadership.S. This would reinforce GIRoA as a viable government to locals. First. The ALP was formally established by Government of Afghanistan (GIRoA) as a security development program for rural areas throughout Afghanistan. Government (USG) support in two significant ways: 1) providing funding to the MoI. Once the Afghans make this decision. This expansion would allow the ALP to expand into even more critical districts that are significant to both insurgent actors and terrorists. because of the enabling aspect of the VSO program. reaching its long-term potential will require constant reenforcement. In an attempt to capitalize on this history. This is not the case. Each location that establishes ALP goes through a rigorous process. they vote on each ALP candidate before he can begin training. with significant return on investment. Cost calculations indicate that ALP is roughly one fourth the cost of an ANP officer. If the ALP continues its successful development. CFSOCC-A anticipates that ALP. an option to remain a GIRoA employee and serve in their home communities. BEAU hIggIns. Despite this increase. selected the Combined Forces Special Operations Component Command—Afghanistan (CFSOCC-A) to lead the development of the ALP. who would have otherwise quit Afghan security forces. Empowering the ALP enables the population to protect itself vice focusing Coalition resources on protecting the population. and transition with a focus on identifying the root causes of stability vice the root causes of instability and building upon that foundation. An expansion of ALP above the current objective force level could be offset by small decreases in force levels of the ANA/ ANP. it is imperative to reconsider the future of the ALP. 2010 under the Ministry of Interior (MoI). counter-insurgency (COIN) strategy with ALP as the primary security component of that strategy. and with transition planning ongoing. and families. employed a new three prong counterinsurgency methodology known as Village Stability Operations (VSO). local defense forces have been part of the fabric of the country for many years. the program is still set to expire in 2015. By 2014. Third. which had prior experience in establishing rural area security. Hamid Karzai. becomes a bridgehead for GIRoA ministries and Coalition and International organizations to deliver services to neglected communities. hold. As of 1 November. the program should be examined as a possible long-term solution for community based security in Afghanistan. ALP services could be synched with literacy and vocational training requirements oriented at educating locals from each district center. tribes. CFSOCC-A. Ultimately the ALP could be a critical element as coalition forces transition security to Afghanistan. While ALP brings fewer capabilities. the ALP would also offer less financial risk to the USG and international donors. but with a focus on using the local shura to select and vet recruits. enabling ALP members through these services incentivizes membership while providing skills that allow ALP members to expand their civilian lives. This continues to be an attractive recruiting tool. it launched in 2010. The International Security Assistance Forces (ISAF). VSO occurs in four-phases: shape. The Special Forces teams embedded at the VSO platform train and mentor the ALP. 2011 there 78 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER . established the program on August 16. Fourth. as many young men in Afghanistan want to remain close to their villages. in July 2010. VSO empowers the villagers to decide if they want/ need ALP. There are several benefits to having ALP as an enduring force for both GIRoA and the USG. enDuring entitY. Besides offering this tangible security benefit. and in many cases the member is stationed far from his home province. Currently no other security elements allow individuals to work within their home district. Expanding the ALP into strategic regions and more districts of Afghanistan could ensure tribal and ethnic parity aligning the ALP program with demographic norms of Afghan population percentages. Second. however they are legally under the control of the district’s chief of police. Allowing ALP to be the “local service” option for other security forces would expand the recruitment pool and give individuals. governance. will be a major component of the ISAF/GIRoA “hold force” used to consolidate strategic gains. districts and provinces. ALP is considerably cheaper than funding the Afghan National Police (ANP) and Afghan National Army (ANA). The success of the program led the US Congress to authorize an expansion of ALP to 100 sites and 30. the concept for the Afghan Local Police (ALP) developed. the program goes unfunded in 2015. The President of Afghanistan. 79 i n Afghanistan.000 members. The site where teams embed in a village to conduct VSO. & ALEC MACKEnzIE | FEATURE | secuRity are 56 validated ALP sites and 9000 approved ALP members. Following the establishment of the ALP program. VSO fosters governance by helping the Afghans stand up representative shuras while providing development projects identified by local villagers. Militias. and 2) partnering with the MoI for training and technical assistance. To appreciate the contributions of ALP it is essential to recognize that it is a subset of the broader VSO methodology. Broad-based misconceptions about the ALP have characterized the program as more militia than government sanctioned security mechanism. GIRoA requested U. and other local security organizations oriented on the community have typically developed in villages that were outside of the reach of the national government’s influence. By establishing these shuras and gaining the trust of the locals. Current growth projections indicate that the force is growing by approximately 200 police per month. build. arbakai.000 members. the leading MoI authority in a district. called a Village Stability Platform (VSP). the ALP’s lower cost means it can be more easily sustained in terms of USG funding than the other security forces. and provide tangible benefits for villages. Finally. and with the Ministry of the Interior designated as the lead Ministry to provide oversight of the program. Implementation of ALP as an enduring force in Afghanistan would lead to greater government recognition by Afghans. an emphasis on partnering with coalition forces to provide training. Set to expire in 2-5 years. ALP is unique in that it allows for localized service within the MoI. they can maintain the persistent presence in the rural areas of Afghanistan that are rarely patrolled by other security forces.Building a Viable local Security force | By gERALD FULChER.” VSO is a critical component of ISAF’s comprehensive civil-military. “VSO embodies a broad effort to connect top down and bottom up stabilization efforts along three lines of operation: security. While the ALP program has achieved amazing success in just 16 months.
FEATURE | gulF colD WaR
the gulf cold War
| By DR. RIChARD ROUssEAU |
n mid-April 2011 Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) intervened militarily to quell the street riots in Bahrain, both acting in support of the besieged government. The reasons for this intervention are to be found in a range of economic variables and social and religious conflict between Sunnis and Shiites. Also included in this mix is the Iranian government’s ambitions.
raini regime. Saudi Arabia’s decisions to use force was not based on religious factors—Prince Nayef Biu Abdul al-Saud’s order—or the influence of the Arab League (AL), as some insinuated, but rather on a range of economic and political factors deemed particularly crucial by the most powerful states and drivers within the GCC, namely Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. a militarY interVention in the gulf. The Arab revolutions currently underway are seen by many Gulf monarchies as an imminent threat. The revolutionary wave which has hit nearby Yemen and Bahrain, two Arab League member states, could quickly spread to other Gulf States. The Bahraini and Yemeni riots, in fact, may serve as a source of inspiration for Sunni and Shiite reformists in Saudi Arabia. If the Bahraini government grants major concessions to the so-called rebels, dissent could be reinforced and become even more emboldened in its more stable neighbors. This anxiety is well-founded, especially if one takes into account the distribution of wealth among the Gulf States. The protests in the region are being led by the poorest and least politically represented Arabs. That accounts for their request for a true representation in political institutions and reforms to ensure greater social and economic welfare. For instance, the protests originated from Bahrain because governmental power lies in the hands of a Sunni minority in that country, although the majority of the population is Shiite. Occupying a central position in the Gulf, Saudi Arabia is the seat of Sunni orthodoxy. It has, for more than two centuries, been dominated by the Wahhabi sect, which follows an extremely conservative interpretation of the Koran. As a result, a greater Shiite influence in the Gulf would be generally considered a threat to both the monarchies and the Wahhabi Sunnis of the region. Another reason for the strong Saudi response to the events in Bahrain is the role the Muslim Brotherhood movement has played in them. This Islamic organization is alleged to be a pro-
moter of these rebellions and be actively involved in stirring up trouble in the region. Moreover, there are well-organized Muslim Brotherhood groups in Bahrain and Kuwait’s parliaments positioned to raise tensions which could easily boil over into fullfledged riots. In that context, maintaining order and security is paramount, especially considering the massive strategic resources the region contains. Ensuring order and security around the location of the most of the strategic resources of the region—oil—was another reason for the GCC troops’ heavy-handed military intervention. In addition, Bahrain is now one of the world’s leading Islamic financial centers. Altogether, these factors make it easier to understand Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States’ shared interest in nipping these revolutionary outbreaks in the bud. iran’S role. Saudi authorities’ concern skyrocketed when Iran decided to lend its support to the rebels, although not openly. Iran’s covert engagement can be primarily explained by the fact that it is the “home” of Shiite power in the Middle East. Consequently, a positive outcome for Shiites in Bahrain would be seen as a victory for the rebels against the shared “Sunni enemy,” as represented by the governments of the Gulf monarchies. The decline and fall of Sunni Arab regimes, avowed enemies of the Shiite regime in Iran, would bring about greater Iranian influence in the region and would represent yet another victory against the “Great Satan,” the United States. Washington, as a matter of policy, has always supported Sunni regimes, notably the Saudi monarchy. An ousting of the Saudi government in favor of Shiite movements could give Iran a staunch ally against the U.S. presence in the region. Moreover, according to the Iranian Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei, democratic Arab uprisings emanate from a logic rooted in the 1979 Iranian revolution, regarded in Tehran as an Islamic revival against Western-backed dictators. This line of reasoning among the Mullahs made the GCC intervention even more pressing in the eyes of the Saudis and other Gulf States. The real fear, therefore, lies in the possible increase of Iranian influence in the region, not only in religious terms but also through Shiite Iranians spreading Islamic activism. In economic and geopolitical terms, the acquisition of nuclear bombs by Iran would nominally change the dynamic and gravely disrupt the current geopolitical arrangement in the Middle East. reactionS anD conSeQuenceS. Bahrain and its powerful neighbors affiliated within the GCC, when faced with the threat of disorder, have quickly opted for military intervention—for example, Syria is the most recent case in which force has been resorted to on a massive scale. In other countries, the predominant policy has been to adopt political and military “hocus-pocus” coupled with astute positioning. In those countries where an emergency intervention has so far been avoided, concessions have been made in order to placate the locals, albeit for the short term. For example, during one of King Abdullah’s frequent extended trips out of his country, Prince Naif of the Saudi government took the opportunity to give a 15 percent wage increase to civil servants. He also implemented a series of mea-
Any escalation of the riots into the Gulf could lead o a much more violent military crackdown, which would have far-reaching consequences. If such repression were to continue and succeed, this could complicate even further the already difficult process of democratization in the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, on March 11, on the occasion of the “Hunayn revolution” (Hunayn is the name of a battle “miraculously” won by the Prophet Mohamed against supposedly far more powerful armies) organized by Shia and Sunni intellectuals, Prince Nayef Biu Abdul al-Saud, the Saudi Interior Minister, issued this order, which may be worthy of investigation by the International Criminal Court at The Hague: “to all the honorable heads of police in the areas of Riyadh, Mecca and Medina, al-Bahr, Qassim, the northern borders, Tabouq, Sharqiya, Qaseer, Najwan, Jezaan and the head of the emergency Special Forces, previous to our conversations regarding the so-called ‘Hunayn Revolution’—if indeed it exists—with its single goal of threatening our national security: this group of stray individuals spreads evil throughout the land. Do not show them mercy. Strike them with iron fists. It is permitted for all officers and personnel to use live rounds. This is your land and this is your religion. If they want to change that or replace us, you must respond.” Later the same Saudi government, in agreement with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), decided to send troops to break up the riots in Bahrain and prevent the spread of protests to the Saudi border. This military intervention cannot solely be attributed to the fact that Bahrain is a member of the GCC, which makes it possible for the Peninsula Shield Force (the Council’s military force for intervention) to be used. More likely, the reason for the crackdown is due to the fact that these demonstrations, if not tackled quickly, represented a threat to the balance of political, economic and religious power in the region. The bitter words of the Saudi prince, the GCC military intervention, and Qatar’s simultaneous pressure to curb the uprising were the first visible signs of nervousness in the Gulf at the prospect of a victory for the “rebels” over the Bah-
sures which gave immediate benefits to the population without actually bringing about economic and political reforms. Any escalation or expansion of the uprising into other Gulf States and the wider Middle East could have severe and unpredictable consequences. These could include the rise of an even more radical form of Wahhabi orthodoxy and conservatism. Such a shift would not bode well for Western geopolitical interests in the Persian Gulf. The continuation of rebellions could also prompt an even more violent intervention by the Peninsula Shield Force. In such a scenario, Sunni governments would, without much trouble, come out victorious. This would likely halt the political and economic development processes in the Arab world, worsening the social malfunctions which already exist. The political leadership of other Arab countries, should the Peninsula Shield Force be used to quash the rebellion, could easily find inspiration from the Gulf monarchies in how best to prevent unrests and the toppling of their governments. Jordan and Morocco, for instance, are trying to ally themselves within the GCC in order to create a sort of monarchical bulkhead against the incoming revolutionary wave. Social and political disorder within these two counties would act as a disincentive for foreign investors, drying up Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), which in turn would impact industrial and trade relations for the entire region. The end result is a serious development slowdown in the Gulf and, particularly, a further decrease of tourism. On the other hand, a continuing—and in the end, successful—process of democratization would make a significant difference for the Middle East. A greater number of representative governments based on popular majorities would come into existence. It is for this reason that the promotion of reform packages oriented to fostering the production of highly policy-relevant results remains the most viable option in securing outlines that coincide with the needs and demands of the populace. The burgeoning of Arab governments advocating sound employment policies and cultivating a favorable business environment could cool the fervor of the rioters and force the mobs to melt away. Expectedly, a better distribution of wealth among locals, and therefore greater social welfare, would normally appease the Arab youth who provide the bulk of the contingents of rioters. For now, however, purely political and strategic considerations have the upper hand, even among great Western powers, which, seemingly, do not want to see any real and substantial change in governmental structure within the Gulf States, especially in view of the threat posed by Iran’s nuclear energy program. Broad based status quo-oriented alliance of Sunni monarchies—a king of Gulf Counter-Revolution Club—to prevent the rise of Iran’s influence is what has come to fundamentally characterize the strategic environment in the Arabic Peninsula. A bipolarity system, opposing Saudi Arabia and Iran, is embedded in the region and perceived as a classic zero-sum game. Richard Rousseau is Associate Professor and Chairman of the Department of Political Science and International Relations at Khazar University in Baku, Azerbaijan.
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dr. hUSSein haSSoUna
n 1945 the League of Arab States (LAS) rallied around the objectives to free Arab states from colonial rule and to advance an agenda of economic and societal improvement. Although LAS received criticism for its political role—especially in 1991 over the division of the Iraq War—the body’s responses to Arab Spring countries has re-energized the its role as a regional political leader. LAS has suspended Arab states, like Syria and Yemen, for its human rights abuses during peaceful protest. Ambassador Hussein Hassouna heads the LAS Mission to the United States, who was appointed to his post in July 2002. Five years prior, Ambassador Hassouna served as the League’s Ambassador to the United Nations in New York after serving his native Egypt in several high-level delegations throughout his distinguished career in diplomacy. Ambassador Hassouna obtained his LLB and PhD in International Law from Cambridge University in England. | By MEhRUnIsA QAyyUM |
[Diplomatic courier]: What are the economic goals for a diverse body like the League of Arab States, which has both high-income and middle- and low-income countries among its membership? [huSSein haSSouna]: The League adheres to its Charter, which endorses the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. This philosophy is predicated upon each member holding only one vote, regardless of its size demographically or economically. In particular, the goal for the
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ambassaDor to Washington leagUe of arab states
nisian Summit held in Tunis. On the economic and social front, the League has held over 30 summits in which the Council would like to see an Arab regional developmental bank, similar to the Asian Development Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, or the African Development Bank. A growing region with a common language and a commitment to the various aspects of social justice needs a structure such as an Arab Development Bank to implement its development initiatives. Each Arab country possesses resources: while some Arab countries are endowed with greater levels of financial capital, others are endowed with greater levels of human capital to enrich each other’s labor markets. Overall, the goals are threefold: 1) attract foreign direct investment (FDI); 2) improve a variety of sectors and support labor training programs; and, 3) encourage small to medium enterprises to initiate within Arab countries. This latter goal will continue to grow, in part, once we invest in more worker training programs. The League has already taken steps to improve the gender parity index in several Arab countries, which helps the socio-economic development as Arab women raise the next generation of Arab entrepreneurs. [Dc]: In 2012, will there be a new strategy for the LAS in advancing economic goals since the Arab Spring? [hh]: With the advent of the Arab Spring, we have seen that the causes are not just political. The causes are rooted in socio-economic development as well. The League supports the Arab Spring and its goals for human dignity. Back in 2004, our Tunis Summit called for economic reform and set its focus on stimulating growth and creating jobs. We recognize the effects of a global recession, which has also reached the Arab region. As the MENA region has experienced the most growth in terms of human capital, it has also experienced a growth in social capital, the voluntary associations that believe in the importance of social and civic engagement. Hopefully this social capital will translate into increased relations with Arab to Arab business engagement, as well as manifest itself in a growing business culture. The Arab people participated in many initiatives; those with university level education are also a huge labor potential and are indicators of the need to expand infrastructure, financial, tourism, and telecommunications sectors. The socio-economic goals encompass developing the technical training needed to advance these sectors. These sectors need high levels of expertise in soft-skill training to supplement the already existing young populations that have college and university level education. We need those programs because we must tap into our indigenous workforces, which are a cheaper labor alternative in contrast to constantly importing the technical labor force from the U.S. or Europe to manage and operate sectors, like finance and telecommunications.
InTERvIEw | hassouna [Dc]: What are the key highlights from your distinguished career in the U.S. that will help bridge relations between the United States and the Arab world? [hh]: During my term, the Arab League Mission to the United States co-sponsored the U.S.-Arab Economic summits. We collaborate with U.S.Arab Chambers of Commerce. These operate in Detroit, Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, Phoenix, Boston, and Houston, among numerous others. For example, the LAS Mission to the U.S. is partners with the National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce, which focuses on banking and finance with the Arab world. Also, we collaborated with the U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce in Houston, which convened high-level decisionmakers and business figures from the Arab world and the United States to improve mutual understanding and strengthen business ties. The League’s Mission in DC does not limit itself to only governmental engagement. We have convened a series of dialogues with civil society. In 2009, for the first time, we successfully worked with the Kennedy Center to promote the cultural heritage of the Arab world by launching the Arab Cultural Festival. All the 22 member Arab states coordinated through the Arab League. The most talented Arabs were showcased via art and culture, in literature, poetry, music, dance, painting, sculpture, and fashion. [Dc]: What are the lessons for the next generation addressing U.S.-Arab diplomacy? [hh]: We need to continue to work actively and to engage in dialogue to resolve complex political problems. Some people misunderstand the League of Arab States. Regardless, LAS is a regional player that can provide regional solutions, as we have recently seen through Libya. It is through the League that this initiative took place and [gained] momentum. For example, the League made an effort to develop a unified position towards Libya. First, the League suspended Libya because of Gaddafi’s treatment [of] his people. Second, the League voted to adopt a NoFly Zone, which was immediately followed by the UN Security Council to move forward with the same measure. The League led regionally so that further steps could be initiated, such as NATO enforcing the No-Fly Zone [as] the Libyan people exercised their right towards human dignity. Similarly, the League has condemned Syria for its violations of human rights. I would add that one should familiarize oneself with the nuances that distinguish Arab nation from each other. The next generation will see that there are benefits in recognizing that each Arab country—whether from the Gulf area or the Maghreb—has its own history. In recognizing that Arab nations are capable of redefining their futures by building their civil societies, there will be better understanding, as I noted in my address to the National Council on U.S. Arab Relations at their 20th Annual Conference.
Arab League is to provide a forum for the higherincome Arab countries to assist other Arab countries—and vice-versa—in a mutually beneficial environment. This is managed through a variety of major Arab funds and banks. Moreover, the League aims, through the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League, to achieve more economic integration between Arab states and, specifically, implement a common market. Currently, it administers the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA). On that note, LAS called for an Arab economic, political, and social reform at its Tu-
The Battle for HeARTs and Minds
| By ELIzA gARnsEy |
art and the War on terror
FEATURE | aRt & WaR
rmed with art, International Relations is more alert to ideas and less blinded by rhetoric. Art and visual culture play a strategic role in the battle for hearts and minds. As soft power resources employed in cultural diplomacy, art and visual culture have the potential to shed light on and shape, national and international public opinion—simultaneously influencing and responding to government actions. In the War on Terror, art has affected, and continues to affect, the ways in which ideology is represented, galvanizing action and reaction.
art anD the War on terror. “Terror” and the War on Terror are fluid concepts, which are equally premised on shifting political, social, and ideological phenomena. As a type of new war, the War on Terror is founded on the aim of disarming terrorism both physically and psychologically. The role of soft power must be acknowledged as an influential factor in achieving the disarmament of human minds by attracting those susceptible to terrorism towards alternate values, liberties, and alliances. Furthermore, the ways in which visual art responded to 9/11 and the subsequent War on Terror are particularly revealing to understand the role of art and visual culture as soft power resources. Art and visual culture have affected the War on Terror in two discernable ways. First, art was influential in co-opting support for the War on Terror. After 9/11 terrorism became highly optical. Images of planes crashing into the twin towers in New York took on an iconic status, representing evil, and prompting highly emotive responses on both individual and collective scales. The exhibition Here is New York epitomized the canonical fashion in which these images flooded the visual age. Beginning in a small gallery in New York, the exhibition showcased over 3,000 photographs of 9/11 and its aftermath. Described as a democracy of photography, the exhibition received over one million visitors during 2001 before travelling around America and onto London, Tokyo, Berlin, and Zurich. Created with the intent of memorializing 9/11, the exhibition provided a way for people from different countries to look, think, and reflect. However, Here is New York did more than memorialize 9/11—it rendered politics into aesthetics, and in doing so mobilized American and international masses, co-opting support for the fight against terrorism. Similarly, Joe McNally’s Faces of Ground Zero (2004)—a series of larger-than-life photographic portraits of 9/11 survivors and rescue workers—were exhibited throughout America and the United Kingdom, and received widespread international media coverage. The photographs functioned not only as a memorial to survivors of 9/11, but their wide dissemination meant that they became emblematic of America’s struggle against terrorism. The photographs took on symbolic agency, generating soft power appeal for the plight of the American people, and in turn, the American government’s decision to go to war against terror. Here is New York and Faces of Ground Zero functioned on dual civic levels: on one level, they acted as images of survival and hope; on another level, they helped cement anti-terror sentiment, galvanizing support for war and retribution. Secondly, art and visual culture have been prominent in representing and co-opting anti-war sentiment. In 2004 images emerged of American soldiers torturing detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. These images flooded the media and quickly began to be appropriated by
Painting by Ellesse Sorbonne artists. Richard Serra’s Stop Bush (2004) print depicts the now iconic image of a hooded prisoner, with the words ‘Stop Bush’ written clearly in capitals. Widely reproduced on billboards and in international print media, Serra’s print is one of many works of art to explicitly oppose the War on Terror. In particular, anti-War on Terror sentiment has been documented in the street art of America, Canada, the Middle East, Europe, Australia, Japan, and South-East Asia. The visual commonalities displayed by the street art of these countries, implicates visual culture as an important public forum in which soft power can attract away from government policy and state behavior. In contrast to the way in which photography attracted support for the War on Terror, visual culture has played a part in reversing this support by fostering public debate. art anD international relationS. While it has been a decade since 9/11, the role of art and visual culture as soft power resources in the War on Terror remains a significant issue to the practice of International Relations in an optical age. Since war can now be fought against metaphors such as terror, the battle for hearts and minds must necessarily be fought using equally complex resources such as art and visual culture. Eliza Garnsey has a Masters in Art History and Visual Culture from the University of Oxford and is currently completing a Masters in International Affairs at the Australian National University.
art aS Soft poWer. The concept of soft power is often misused to refer to anything other than military power. In actuality, soft power is far more nuanced, referring to the attractiveness of a country’s culture, ideals, and politics. As the ability to attract rather than coerce, soft power is distinctly different from propaganda. The shared attractiveness of soft power has the ability to legitimatize a state’s behavior in the eyes of its citizens and other states. The notion of art as a soft power resource has been largely neglected, and to this end International Relations has missed the opportunity to wield artistic combat in the ideological battle against terror. In the realm of cultural diplomacy, art figures as a modest, but symbolically and tangibly significant, soft power resource. It has the ability to transmit knowledge and values across both individual and collective levels. Art is communicative in moral and ideological terms, and importantly, it can trigger emotional responses which activate agency, mobilize communities, and shape political relations. The intersubjective nature of art makes its status as a soft power resource paradoxical. On the one hand, art can invoke emotional responses and mobilize political agency through shared attractiveness. On the other hand, art can promote controversy and debate—art is contestable. This paradox reinforces the relevance of art for International Relations, indicating the multiple ways in which art can affect all things “international.”
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and 63 percent of trade by countries in Western Europe is with other Western European nations. enhance customs cooperation and broader trade facilitation. Africa more than Europe is in need of “Common Agricultural Policy” which puts real focus and energy—financing—behind this potentially very profitable segment of the economy. these efforts are expected to converge in an African Common Market (ACM) and an African Economic Community (AEC). First was the landmark decision by the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). the continent’s infrastructure and logistic shortcomings make all efforts to increase trade (export or intra-African) very expensive and uncompetitive. in which economic. To this end. and even food products) will continue to generate valuable returns to be invested in those areas that need additional financing. fiscal. it appears that the leaders of the African Union are fully aware of the way forward—a Continental FTA that focuses on Intra-African trade. ports. food is becoming more and more valuable. as well as promote energy pooling to enhance the region’s competitiveness. and slightly more than four days in Central and East Europe. For perishable food and agricultural goods. because of infrastructure bottleneck (roads.S. In order to address this trend.S. social. compared against 8. the roaD aheaD. in January 2012 the African Union Heads of State and Government will hold their annual summit and focus on the theme of “Boosting Intra-Africa Trade. and the EU.6 percent in developed countries. as the Commission’s Issue Paper points out. and they increase the transaction costs of trading among African countries. African countries have established the African Union and created various Regional Economic Communities (RECs) to improve growth through trade. A united Africa can better negotiate for access to both foreign and domestic markets. The collaboration and cooperation of RECs through the Continental FTA would further improve regional infrastructure and consolidate regional markets through improved interconnectivity in all forms of transport and communication. and raw and semi-finished goods that are critical for growth. On average over the past decade. in comparison. and constitute 14 percent of the value exported in African countries. eliminate the problem of multiple and overlapping memberships. as it currently covers more than half of AU membership at 26 countries. But. Although there is still a lot to be done throughout the continent. If trade is a vehicle to growth and development. commodity prices. the RECs are pursuing integration through free trade. along with beverages. delays and complicated procedures related to insuring goods and customs guarantee requirements raise the cost of exporting from Africa and compromise the continent’s competitiveness. 86 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 87 . and China accounted for just one percent of African trade. minerals. Trade could do for Africa what it has done for Southeast and East Asia.-EU market economies (negotiating with governments vs. and the potential for economic growth has historically been “stuck in the muck. Although the continent as a whole is a food importer (see chart from a recent Issue Paper prepared by the AU Commission for the 2012 AU Summit). In particular. and services. negotiating with corporations). which operate more nationalistically in the global market then the U. and broader relaxation of restrictions on movement of goods. and other agricultural products. In this context. especially after the global financial crisis and the recent political upheaval in the neighboring Middle East and North Africa. so will Africa’s economic prosperity—thus enhancing the negotiating needs of the continent vis-à-vis the BRIC countries. Tanzania. These delays add a tremendous cost to importers and exporters. only about 10 to 13 percent of African trade is with African nations.S. promote harmonization and coordination of trade instruments and nomenclature. The road for regional integration is long and hard. and the past decade has seen consistent economic growth that is even faster than East Asia’s—a 200 percent increase in trade with the rest of the world. or 53 percent of Africa’s total GDP. Furthermore. less than six days in Central and East Asia. India. on average. export-leD groWth alternatiVeS. Even more important is the ability to negotiate better terms of trade with the BRIC countries. EAC (East Africa Community—Burundi. and storage) transport costs are 63 percent higher in African countries compared with the average in developed countries. Rwanda. could be a boondoggle for African countries. Today they make up 20 percent. Trade also provides the material means in terms of capital goods. and technology transfers with trading partners in the U. given the challenges facing the continent’s ability to continue to rely on global trade and high commodity prices for growth. and a total GDP of $630 billion. a decline in foreign debt by a quarter and budget deficits by two thirds. diamonds. For Africa. Africa has 60 percent of the world’s uncultivated arable land. minerals). as global food prices are constantly rising. A continent rich in commodities (oil. Pooling economies and markets together through regional integration provides a sufficiently wide economic and market space to make economies of scale possible. African leaders are making new commitments to boosting intra-African trade. and developing customs unions and a common market. Brazil. machinery. it often seems that the obstacles outweigh the potential for sustainable poverty alleviation and continuing economic growth. and EU economies and is threatening global trade and commodity prices. Eventually. incrementally.” However. but if the AU can build it then goods will come and go. persons. a recent article by The Economist: Africa’s hopeful economies: The sun shines bright analyzed the emergence of Africa’s “Lion Economies. tobacco. such delays can be devastating—leading to the loss of entire shipments. and by 2030 the rate is expected to be 50 percent. The current situation is hanging in the balance.sUMMITRy | AFRICAn UnIOn a renewed urgency for regional integration by the african union | _By nAsOs MIhALAKAs | a frica’s economic prospects have always been a topic of great consternation for local governments and international analysts and commentators. With this in mind. However. Food production in particular. 40 percent of North American trade is with other North American countries. The launch of this tripartite FTA initiative has galvanized interest towards a much broader Continental FTA. The one lesson from Southeast Asia that all developing countries and regions must never forget is that export-led growth will always produce desirable economic benefits. which has crippled the U. telecommunications. Kenya. Russia. foreign investment. A Continental FTA would enlarge markets for goods and services. In addition. could also derail Africa’s economic prospects and its significant progress to sustainable growth. and a decline in inflation in by eight percent. With rising populations in Asia. Each transport day lost due to customs and related problems is equivalent to additional tax. As the BRIC economies go. a neW continental fta. More importantly. delays at African customs are. in exchange for what others can provide at a lower cost. things are turning around. removing the barriers that inhibit it can only help increase its impact. and the need to come up with strategies to improve the situation. through such an economic marketplace Africa can strengthen its economic independence and empowerment with respect to the rest of the world.” Yet. longer than in the rest of the world—12 days in Sub-Saharan countries compared with seven days in Latin America. the global financial crisis.” The choice of the theme is both appropriate and timely. A generation ago. and Uganda) and the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) to establish a single Free Trade Area. Trade enables countries to specialize and export goods that they can produce cheaply. with favorable demographic trends. and sectoral policies will be continentally uniform. Focusing on existing areas where the continent has a comparative advantage (fuels. a combined population of 530 million or 57 percent of Africa’s population.
Beyond a more normalized diplomatic relationship. In terms of women’s rights.” Talabani related.” affirmed Talabani. However.” A significant step in strengthening that relationship was to upgrade the American diplomatic presence in the Kurdistan Region and this was accomplished with the opening of a U. From serving as part of the Kurdish negotiating team responsible for drafting a new Iraqi Constitution in the post-Saddam era to coordinating a meeting between the President of the Kurdistan Region and President Obama and serving as part of the delegation for that Oval Office meeting. who I had known since childhood. Talabani is focused on keeping both relevant in the eyes of Americans noting that “Iraq is an important country and Kurdistan is vital for Iraq’s development and for the development of civil society and democracy in the region as well. However.” But job one for Talabani is being the Kurdish voice in DC and when it comes to the White House and Congress he strikes a bipartisan tone acknowledging that it’s important to “maintain a strong relationship with those who are in the Administration that’s in power. including the outlawing of heinous crimes like honor killings and female genital mutilation. DC. Those are memories that I’ll never forget. I came and tried it out and it was fascinating and interesting. “I DIPLOMATIC PROFILE | talabani think this is a relationship that has been built on a lot of blood and treasure that has been split collectively. “I think the Kurdish story is a story that resonates well with Americans because it’s a story of the underdog—an underdog that despite the odds has been able to create a success story out of it. authorities. according to Talabani. “And while we mourn the almost 4. he believes those are best resolved ‘in country. Consulate in Erbil. representing the Kurdish interests within the new Iraq.” With Saddam’s boot removed from its neck. This veneration of his grandfather left Talabani feeling like he had not done enough. he gives high marks noting that Kurdistan is a tolerant society with a pluralistic government that has become a safe haven for Iraqi Christians and a variety of religious adherents fleeing other parts of the country. but at the same time maintain relationships with those who are in the opposition. a city teeming with political significance. relatively democratic entities in the Middle East today. he initially had tried to steer away from it.. not one of those loses have occurred in Kurdistan. personnel who have lost their life in Iraq.” As the Representative of the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in D. now the Prime Minister of the Kurdistan Region. It was the birth of a new country. But in Talabani’s estimation the special bond between the Kurds and Americans extends far beyond diplomatic channels and niceties. He accompanied his grandfather’s body back home where he and his family were greeted with an outpouring of warmth. affection. secular. Talabani and the KRG are able to focus more of their efforts on other key elements of a developing region from attracting business investment to promoting civil society and ensuring human rights for women and minorities. Talabani assigns mixed grades. the Kurdistan Region has emerged as a precious stone among gravel.S.S. We’ve been able to do that in certain sectors and now I think we need to go to other sectors where America has a competitive advantage and convince them that Kurdistan is open for business. passed away. “The opportunity avails itself.S. I am honored to have been one of the members of the negotiating team for that new constitution. he perceives formal. I was at a crossroads in life. the Kurdistan Region is Iraq’s most secure part of the country. but the U. “It’s important for us to present as united a front here as possible. and respect for his grandfather’s life from their fellow Kurds. Talabani did have a one year hiatus in 2003 when what was supposed to be a 2-3 week trip turned into a year-long assignment in Baghdad. It is the most stable and developed part of the country and we are very proud of this fact.C. In fact. This ultimately led to his taking part in the negotiations of the new Constitution.S. It’s just a matter now of convincing the U.” With the basic need of security attained. ‘when you’re Kurd88 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER W ish. legal improvements.” Talabani holds his Iraqi colleagues in high esteem. On the issue of religious tolerance. intervention in 1991 to establish the safe haven and the no-fly zones inadvertently or advertently has resulted in one of the most progressive. I was young. the liberation of the Kurdistan Region and the post-war effort. foreign policy success stories in the Middle East unfortunately. “It’s one thing to have a law and it’s another thing to implement it.’ The Representative added. Having worked with the Americans in Washington. and the mission what they’re trying to accomplish which I feel. who had raised him. “I think by far. the highlights of Talabani’s short career are impressive and embody some of the more pivotal events for the fledging Kurdish government.500 U. Qubad Talabani’s public service on behalf of the Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been punctuated with the sort of high-profile. “So I tried it out.S. “I remember one day getting a call from the then-Representative of the Kurds in Washington.S. one way or another’ politically aware and engaged and this maxim would prove true as he was drawn into the diplomatic sphere. And to have even a minimal role in that was very rewarding and exciting and frustrating. Talabani appreciates that this is an extended time at this premier post and during his tenure he has seen three Administrations. “It was an amazing year because so much was happening in Iraq.S. “We have enormous respect for the Ambassador. as Talabani tells it.Diplomatic profile posting in 2000 to Washington. you’re always somehow. When it comes to human rights.” The turning point that sealed Talabani’s decision to follow a career in public service occurred when his grandfather. it was in 2000. he was tapped to be a liaison to U. Talabani envisions a deeper and mutually beneficial economic linkage between the Kurdistan Region and the U. Operation Iraqi Freedom. a lot of heartache that my people have endured under the oppressive regimes of Iraq. But a career in diplomacy and politics and having the opportunity to witness and play a role in these historic moments were never a given for Talabani. He has since served in DC being promoted through the ranks and eventually becoming the Representative. That is not to say that real challenges do not exist that threaten to fade its luster.” As to any policy differences that may exist between the KRG and the Iraqi government. Talabani represents the interests of a key component of Iraq which is interesting given that there is an Embassy of Iraq representing the nation.” he continued. I think that there are very few U.” Talabani asserted. He said I’d like for you to work for me. saying. He answered the call and was quickly thrown in the proverbial ‘deep end’ with a . business community that Kurdistan is worth investing in. and I think we will only be able to implement it and apply the rule of law if culturally we can adapt to this era and not the last century. pursuing a completely different career track by studying engineering despite his family’s long and storied involvement in politics. He describes his work as nuanced and is quick to point out that “in no way do we claim to represent Iraq as a whole. is in synergy with what we’re trying to do here. extraordinary experiences that the most veteran of diplomats would envy. by and large.” As the relationship between Iraq and the United States and subsequently the KRG and the United States evolves.S.” One of the great stories in the Kurdistan Region is the stability and relative peace enjoyed by its citizens. | By sTEvE LUTEs | hile his diplomatic career admittedly is still young. for the diplomats that are posted there. Bombardments of and incursions into mountainous areas of the Kurdistan Region by Turkish forces pursuing Kurdish rebels of Turkish 89 QUBad Jalal TalaBani Representative of the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq to the U.
As Country Director in Uganda with the biggest post and best safety record for volunteers in Africa. was taking too long to file.S. to more severe problems. The openness of Kurdistan to domestic and international NGOs means that occasionally we will be criticized more for violations of human rights or for aggressions here and there.” Talabani acknowledged. If we have a wise policy we can make sure the revenues get equally distributed so even if a region doesn’t have oil. “I’m very clear that I don’t want to run down the Peace Corps and discourage people from joining. and a career’s worth of science academia under his belt. On the one hand it is a good thing because there are many parts of the world where there are horrible things going on and they’re not being reported on because the societies and the governments are so closed off that they do not allow people to report on it. it shouldn’t be accepted. Mr. DC. there are people internally and externally who are trying to stir the pot who may have an interest in sustaining the violence and that’s what we have to collectively overcome.” Brown said in between bites of lamb at Café Istanbul in Northwest. wrote Peasants Come Last to spark a dialogue between those who run the organization in Washington and Americans who have embraced the Peace Corps for half a century. The harsh realities linked to living and trying to make things better in another country where stagnancy runs rampant.” Little practical help. and security relationship between the U. such as not being able to get a volunteer the medical attention she needed because the paperwork in the U. Federalism today is now an Iraqi project. an ethnic identity that is 90 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER on women’S righTS. and business people to run these posts and then they treat us like puppets in Washington. I could be enticed with a new challenge. It’s probably best not to think too far ahead. on The kUrdS in TUrkey.000-mile away Uganda might feel more like home. I think we’re much more likely to see a new bilateral agreement between Iraq and the United States that would continue a training mission in Iraq which I think would lead to a continued security cooperation between Iraq and the United States. who directed the National Center on Hunger and Poverty and was a chairperson of Oxfam America. Governors across Iraq are pushing for the same rights that the Kurdistan Region has had since we ratified the Constitution in 2005. Brown takes the reader through daily frustrations. with Washington bureaucracy and safety concerns now spotlighted. I’m happy to serve wherever I can be useful. the New Hampshire native could have been on his way to a give a glowing talk to Congress about everything that’s right in the celebrated 50-year-old organization. “I learned that Washington wasn’t here to help us. Brown said he would do it again in a heartbeat. to varying degrees.” he said. In 1966. at the same time we are against attacks on those countries from the various Kurdish groups. does not feel like much of a leader at all. “I only sent home three people in nine months. on paper legally and legislatively we probably have all the right things down. Might he return to his homeland to help chart its future course? He offered. are matched by perhaps harsher realities of Washington’s status quo. and Iraq and the Kurdistan Region. policy framework.DIPLOMATIC PROFILE | talabani origin is a festering problem. “They get doctors. and sometimes-dangerous ramifications of Peace Corps Washington. Syria and Iran). culture. the more it can champion these kinds of issues. we’re open. 8.S. When word got out that the LRA was no longer in the country. though usually persistent in their willingness to help. they still get a share of the wealth. “As Kurds. Brown’s fundamental interest in people and master’s degree in sociology. Brown invites readers into his tent to observe the insects and indigenous communities from behind the screen. on hUman righTS. one of whom was having sex with a married man without a condom. and to watch as his team of volunteers. it upsets Kurds in Syria because we know all too well what it feels like to be persecuted because of your identity. Brown introduces the corrupt Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA). It’s a balancing act. Kennedy’s altruistic worldview 50 years ago.’ But that’s the fact. but as a society. but after spending roughly 80 percent of his time in Africa under a bureaucratic microscope answering to the city’s calls and emails. done—for Brown. we could do better at. It’s one of history’s biggest injustices that there isn’t a country called ‘Kurdistan. we have our share of resources. is what the organization needs in order to survive another 50 years.” he said. that’s the reality that we have to deal with. But I do see the current mission that the United States has in Iraq ending on the evening of December 31st 2011 and what will replace that mission will be a new mission with a new mandate which requires a new agreement. like figuring out how to work a modern smartphone in a developing country. But we cannot be punished like in the old days where because we are Kurds we’re not going to get our portion of the revenues or we’re mistreated. a legitimate federal region within Iraq and then in each of the other countries (Turkey. “You know you’ve got these kids’ lives in your hands. and while there are people today who are trying to resolve it peacefully and diplomatically I fear that. and he would encourage people to do the same. which means when you’re open. There have been too many decades of violence in Turkey and fingers can be pointed in all directions. Turkey and Iran. is carried as a central theme through the book.” With great opportunities and challenges ahead for the Kurdistan Region. Peasants Come Last. but culturally I think we are still lagging behind. “The unrest is not in the towns and cities but there are bombardments of the village areas along the borders of Iraq. but Washington told him he “missed the deadline” to apply in June 2009. I think now federalism has gone beyond being just a Kurdish proposal. When you talk about issues such as the rights of women. diplomatically and peacefully. The Kurds are very supportive of a long-term political. and introduces a new perspective into the nature of volunteerism from the idealistic roots of inception to the rigidness of U. Washington today is just getting in the way. I think that in this day and age it can’t be accepted. And I think that the stronger civil society becomes in Kurdistan. who said few people love the Peace Corps more than he does. Dr. Talabani envisions a role for himself. and daily life. at times. at the same time. The book chronicles his time in Uganda through the eyes of a leader who. he said he cares about the organization too much to do that. “And we have stated publicly and in discussions with those countries bilaterally that we’re against this kind of intervention.” Disagreements over how to divide revenues generated from the energy sector also could flare up. is packed with organizational tough love and sensibility that he hopes will seep into the pores of policy makers. Dressed in a standard suit and red tie— looking the part of a white-haired seasoned speechgiver—and accompanied by a close team of three. “and that’s what I mean about peasants coming last.S. Brown should feel comfortable lunching at an ethnic café across from the Peace Corps headquarters in Washington. Brown. Brown’s latest book. ForceS From iraQ. led him to wing it for two years in a land where he did not speak the language or fully understand the culture—an expectation that remained a trend nearly four decades later when he returned to the Peace Corps with his wife and daughter. but there are also enormous resources in the south. e didn’t cry when he talked about the 24-year-old Peace Corps volunteer who was having unprotected sex with a married man during her term. along with 87 percent of the population who were filtered into internally displaced persons camps. Today we have an established Kurdish political identity. a change in policy—a way to get the work that needs to be done. We’re not hiding our deficiencies. I find it very difficult to expect to wake up on the 1st of January 2012 and not see an American soldier in Iraq. we’re public.” he said about the technicality. But in an organization that becomes more marginalizing with age. on a KUrDish state. But he didn’t come to Washington to appease policy makers by telling them what they wanted to hear. economic. In Peasants Come Last. not just as a government. the book points out. a first person narrative that criticizes the structural inadequacies. The Kurdish question in Turkey needs to be resolved politically. Brown said he wanted to put volunteers there. he is insistent that the Kurds be treated fairly. protected by the UN. you’ll be open to criticism which for us is a motivating factor that’ll help us address some of the shortcomings that we have. just out of graduate school. So I don’t think we will see a renegotiation of the status quo forces agreement. but his eyes teared from concern. there’s no one group whose fault it is more so than the others. “I thought I could change the world. on iraQi FederaliSm. “It’s such a fluid situation. whose 20-year ruling leader was driven out of the country during his time in Uganda. But what the future holds isn’t exactly clear. As much as I love this city. While Talabani believes agreement can be reached to ensure that everyone will be satisfied. the same kind of invigorators who shared former President John F. and the looming Vietnam draft selection not far behind. Larry Brown was responsible for the lives of hundreds of young men and women who wanted to save the world. The issue of women’s rights and of women’s participation in government and business. 91 . sometimes make decisions—such as having unprotected sex while intoxicated—that cripple the integrity of the program and jeopardize their personal health. saying. and more institutional hindrance. It’s a problem that has been festering for too long. but I think if a Kurd in Iran is executed because of his or her Kurdish identity it upsets Kurds in Iraq.” Brown said.” BooK reVieW peasants come last | By hAnnA TRUDO | h TalaBani on The iSSUeS on The wiThdrawal oF U. Brown entered the Peace Corps four years after it was founded as a 23-year-old volunteer with the president’s do good mission in the forefront. professors. But according to the retired Harvard professor of public health.S.” But the decision to enter the Peace Corps. trying to shape politics.
Photo is courtesy of ICG. coveR: icg annual Peace aWaRDs | Jan/Feb 2012 international crisis group’s in pursuit of peace award Dinner on friday. Places.Diplomatic Diplomatic Courier’s Lifestyle Department Life. just. Arts. Secretary of State hillary rodham clinton honored four women who have dedicated their lives to promoting peaceful. and open societies in some of the world’s most conflict-affected regions. where u. 92 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 93 . December 16. Sarah mclachlan provided the entertainment for the evening. 2011 the international crisis group (icg) celebrated its annual “in pursuit of peace” award Dinner.S.
A steady stream of jokes and deft improvisation by Master of Ceremonies Wolf Blitzer. She was also the only female national election commissioner with Somaliland’s first National Election Commission.” ICG’s President and CEO. which has honored such notables as former U. Somaliland. Clinton convincingly argued is “the largest untapped reservoir of talent in the world. former President Bill Clinton. former President Bill Clinton. when it comes to conflict resolution. Tunisian Sihem Bensedrine. and environmental initiatives in one of the most volatile regions in the world. Ms. Shukri Ismail of Somaliland cofounded the non-governmental organization CandleLight to promote health. Radio Kalima. Photo by Brittany Somerset. Photo by Brittany Somerset. Tunisia.S. Following Ben Ali’s ouster earlier in the year. Louise Arbour. A medical doctor by profession. Pakistan. Working in another conflict-laden region thousands of miles away from Somaliland. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton. “Very often women are depicted only as victims in times of war and conflict. There were a few non-female highlights—such as an unscripted appearance by the Secretary of State’s husband.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton convincingly argued. she has become an important figure in Afghan politics. where she established a host of women’s initiatives. An unscripted appearance by the Secretary of State’s husband. Shukri Ismail Chairperson. which operates 55 schools for girls and boys in Afghanistan and three schools for Afghan refugees in Quetta. Chief Editor of Radio Kalima and co-founder of several rights and freedom of speech and expression organizations in the North African country. whose keynote address previewed an ambitious roadmap to bolster UN Security Council resolution 1325. earning a cabinet post in Hamid Karzai’s 2002 Afghan Transitional Administration. Not because it’s handed to them but because they’re willing to exercise it and take it themselves by taking a place in public life. When it comes to conflict resolution. as well as a steady stream of jokes and deft improvisation by Master of Ceremonies Wolf Blitzer—but the evening undoubtedly belonged to the sex that. Ms.” The most important guests of the evening—besides. Photo by Brittany Somerset. Guatemala’s first female Attorney General. “But I think what we can show tonight is also the rise of…the power of women.W. was all about women this year. Ambassador Issam M. U. International Crisis Group’s President and CEO embraces honoree Shukri Ismail. has been beaten. honorees Claudia Paz y Paz Bailey Attorney General. which empowers the role of women in conflict resolution negotiations— were the four honorees.S. Claudia Paz y Paz Bailey has spearheaded the prosecution of some of the most notorious criminals in Guatemala’s 36-year-long civil war just as the country is facing a resurgence of criminal violence from powerful drug cartels. Sihem Bensedrine Chief Editor. Photo is courtesy of ICG. and ultimately exiled in 2011 by the Tunisian government for rights advocacy.” Photo by Brittany Somerset. Bush and Bill Clinton. 94 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 95 . ICG’s President and CEO. Independent Human Rights Commission. stripped of property on numerous occasions.” From left to right.” and have recently opened his court case. of course. Afghanistan. jailed. told the Diplomatic Courier as guests were arriving. women are “the largest untapped reservoir of talent in the world. She is currently Chair of the Independent Human Rights Commission in Afghanistan. educational.DIPLOMATIC LIFE | inteRnational cRisis gRouP international crisis group’s in pursuit of peace award Dinner | By Casey CoomBs | t he International Crisis Group’s (ICG) annual In Pursuit of Peace award dinner. Guatemala. and Sima Samar Chairperson. Fares. U. Paz y Paz Bailey said her office apprehended her colleague’s perpetrators “without firing a single shot. Chairperson of CandleLight. Afghan Sima Samar founded the Shuhada organization. presidents George H. After the torture and killing of one of her prosecutors and amidst constant threats to her own safety. Louise Arbour. Bensedrine returned to her country to become president of the Arab Working Group of Media Monitoring. CandleLight. Dr. and business tycoon-cum-philanthropist George Soros. Dr.
). Zbigniew Brzezinski. Former National Security Advisor General Brent Scowcroft and Atlantic Council President and CEO Frederick Kempe at the celebration in honor of Brent Scowcroft on December 13.DIPLOMATIC LIFE | atlantic council the atlantic council hosts an evening honoring Brent Scowcroft Panelists discuss how the U. Zbigniew Brzezinski. Former National Security Advisor General Brent Scowcroft and Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates speak at the celebration in honor of Brent Scowcroft on December 13. Dr. also speaking at the event were current National Security Advisor Tom Donilon and former National Security Advisors Steve Hadley. Scowcroft Group Managing Director Virginia Mulberger. and Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates at the celebration in honor of Brent Scowcroft on December 13.S. Former National Security Advisors Sandy Berger and Robert McFarlane were also in attendance. including former national security advisors. Former National Security Advisor General Brent Scowcroft. members of Congress. Photo courtesy of the Atlantic Council. 96 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 97 . Jones.. Jones. Photo courtesy of the Atlantic Council. Photo courtesy of the Atlantic Council. Jr. Atlantic Council Chairman Senator Chuck Hagel. can rediscover its economic vitality to provide leadership. In addition to former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. and Former National Security Advisor General James L. Jr. USMC (Ret. Former National Security Advisor General Brent Scowcroft. from left: Atlantic Council President and CEO Frederick Kempe. t he Atlantic Council celebrated the legacy of the former two-time national security advisor Brent Scowcroft Tuesday night at a dinner attended by nearly 500 friends and current and former colleagues of General Scowcroft. saying that compromise has become akin to selling out. and Dr. During his keynote address. General James L. Henry Kissinger. Photo courtesy of the Atlantic Council. Former Secretary of State and National Security Advisor Dr.. Former National Security Advisor Dr. Atlantic Council President and CEO Frederick Kempe. and ambassadors. former Defense Secretary Robert Gates lamented the political gridlock preventing Washington’s leaders from solving the most difficult challenges facing the United States and its allies today. Henry Kissinger.
although there are reportedly private American shuttle programs currently in the works. including China and Uganda.2300 | JEFFERSONDC. Initially developed in the 1970s. while other countries. and brought inspiration to the world. and the re-entry disintegration of the Columbia in 2003. the Space Shuttle was the symbol of space exploration. f Reminiscent of a stay at a grand and gracious home. for now.MOMENT End of an Era THE JEFFERSON WASHINGTON DC Photo: NASA/Dimitri Gerondidakis or 30 years. In 135 missions. utilizing Russian Soyuz rockets to ferry supplies and crew members back and forth between Earth and the Station. 98 | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER European and distinctly Washingtonian in style. On July 21st. 16th and M Streets NW | t: 202. The end of the shuttle program leaves the United States without an indigenous means to reach space. conducted experiments. are reaching various levels of success in their own space flight programs. Flights to the International Space Station are. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s program launched telescopes and satellites. The program continued through the loss of the Challenger in 1986.COM 99 . ferried explorers to a temporary home in space. the shuttles went through years of testing before the shuttle Columbia launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida into the first flight to space in 1982.448. However. what NASA’s future will be in taking humans to space is yet to be worked out. Atlantis returned to earth from the final shuttle mission.
Conflict Resolution. Climate Change. Defense. Climate Change.com/ypfp | Jan/Feb 2012 | DIPLOMATIC COURIER 100 eration.gence Sharing. Political Economy. Education. generationbeofready? Come test your skills in the Negotiation. Trade Agreements. Internati Corruption. Relationships.foreign policy leaders. Strategy. and new al Resources. Free Trade. Exposure. Poverty All Relief. skills. from h. Climate Change. Human Rights. Statecraft. Clean Water. Diplomacy.com/ypfpHQ nance. Leaders keeping. Piracy. . Trade Agreements. Inst gence Sharing. Development.to Cybercrime. Arms Control. Microfinance. Negotiation.xml l Commons. Technology. Global facebook. Leaders keeping. Free Trade. Founded in 2004. International eration. Diplomacy. Pub ypfp. New York. Political Economy. Global state failure to international financial crises climate change. YPFP is a nance. Terrorism. Public Sector. Migration. Poverty All Relief. Failed States. new approaches to solving problems. Technology. Environmental Stewards al Resources. Migration.000 young professionals in more than two l Commons. Conflict Resolution. Pub partnerships. Environmental Stewards al Resources. Conflict Resolution. Internati The world is facing critical global Will you Corruption. and relationships they will need to eration. Cybercrime. Cybercrime. Markets. Diplomacy. Migration. Technology. Arms Control. Education. Clean Water. Statecraft. Development. Altenative En leadership laboratory that is shaping the next cial Crisis. Internati Knowledge. Ungoverned Spa non-partisan. keeping. Social Entrepreneurshi c-Private Partnerships. Geopolitics. Social Entrepreneurshi c-Private Partnerships. Every day. Pandemic Disease. Political Economy. Private Sector.org h. Globalization. Microfinance. Education. Strategy. Failed States. Human Rights. Poverty All Relief. Social Entrepreneurshi c-Private Partnerships. Skills. Statecraft. Defense. Development. Management. Ungoverned Spa l Commons. Young Professionals in Foreign Policy (YPFP) members are meeting around the world to discuss and address the most pressing issues facing our global society. Corporate Social Responsibility. Humanitarian Aid. Altenative En cial Crisis. Free Trade. Intervention. Globalization. Defense. Intervention. Piracy. Markets.org/rss. exposure. Environmental Stewards 21st century challenges will require new thinking. Management. Trade Agreements. Pub h. Decision-Making. Clean Water. Decision-Making.challenges. Markets. Proliferation. Human Rights. London. Corporate Social Responsibility. Private Sector. Pandemic Disease. International its members to develop the knowledge. YPFP prepares dozen countries and States. International twitter. Corporate Social Responsibility. Geopolitics. Leaders succeed in a more interconnected and globalized world. Inst gence Sharing. Intervention. Ungoverned Spa ypfp. volunteer run organization with over 8. Piracy. Decision-Making. Humanitarian Aid. Global nance. Management. Humanitarian Aid. Strategy. Arms Control. Geopolitics. and Brussels. Terrorism. Failedbranches in Washington. Pandemic Disease. Public Sector. Proliferation.
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