'\

i)
1/
"
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meaning ofsymbols, seepage 2-111.
1. SIMPLE BEAM-UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
Total Equiv. Uniform Load - wi
R-V
2
Vx
-wei-x)
wl O
M max. ( at center )
-8
_ (I-x)
Mx
5 wi'
L\max. (at center)
- 384Ef'
wx
= 241::1 (I' -- +x')
--- ---------- I
SIMPLE BEAM-UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DiSTRIBUTED AT ONE END
5.
2. SIMPLE BEAM-LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO ONE END
= (21-a)
RI = VI max. a_
I wa a
Total Equiv. Uniform Load = = 1.0264W Ro = Vo = 2T"'
9,3
= R1-wx
V
x
(when x < a)
R, = V, . = T
W
R,o
2W Mmax.(atx= :1) = 2W""
Ro = Vo max. = -3­
wx
o
= R,x-­
ewhen x < a) 2­
W Wxo
V. M
x
v« =T-II""
= Ro (I-x)
Mx (When x > a)
I ) 2WI
V, * I' I 1TIJ>..-1'J I I I I '"
M max. ( at x = .,_ = .5n41 - -----c= .1283 WI
wx ( A ) = __ a O(21-a)0-2ax2(21-a)+lx'
- ,3 9-013
j.x (When x < a) 24EII
wao(l-x)
Mx = Wx (IO-xO)
= 24EII (4xl- 2.
2
- a
O)
31
0
.:l.x (when x> a)
arnax. = .01304
SIMPLE BEAM-UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DiSTRIBUTED AT EACH END
• = (3x"-1010xo+71')
6.
l80Eli0
w,a(21-a) +WICo
R1 = V, 21
woc(21- c) + w,a
o
3. SIMPLE BEAM-LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY TO CENTER
Ro = Vo 21
4W
Total Equiv. Uniform Load =-3­
W
R-V
-T
\
W
Vx (when x <f) = 2iZ(10-4X
O)
! ! D! I I
WI
M max.. ( at center ) =-6­
Mx (When x <f)
- Wx .
WI'
.I \ (at center )
-6OEf
Moment \
Wx
( when x < ) - 480 EI 10 (51
1-4xl
) '
BEAM AND FORMULAS

'-""1 .:
For various static loading conditions
t For meaning ofsymbols, seepage 2-lll.
1
4. SIMPLE BEAM-UNIFORM LOAD PARTIALLY DiSTRIBUTED
wb
R, = V, ( max. when a < c) = 2T (2c + b)
wb
t Ro = Vo ( max. when a > c) =2T(2a+b)
i
= R,-w (x-a)
M max. ( at x = a + ) = R, (a +
Vx ( when x > a and < (a + b»)
1
= RIX V
2Mx ewhen x < a) ;

= Rtx--'i- (x-a)O
Mx
( when x > (a + b») .
Mx
( when x > a and < (a + b»)
= R.(l-x)
1'".
v,llllih' I Shear I
I ----------­
r
AMERICAN INSTITUTE -OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
l
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
Formeanmg 01 symbols, see page 2·111.
7. SIMPLE BEAM-CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER
Total Equiv. Uniform Load
= 2P
P
R=V
R =2
PI
M max.(at point of load)
=4
I Px
Mx when x < 2
Vi
e
)
=2
PI'
= 48EI
anlax. (at point of load)

IIX ( wh1!n X < )
48E:.1 - 4,;:::)
\ . /
.,
8. SIMPLE BEAM-CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT
;f
/
8 Pab
Total Equiv. Uniform Load
= -1-'-
Pb
Rl = Vs,(maxo when a < b)
=j
'Pa
R
2
Rz = Vz( max. when a > b)
-j
Pab
M max. ( at point of load)
=-1­
Pbx
'v
Mx (when x < a )
=-1­
z
11max. whena>b)
Pab (a + 2b) " 3a (a + 2b)
27 EI I
Pa'b'
aa ( at poi nt of load )
- """"3ETl
Pbx
.ax
.' I I ! ! II I
, I I I I I I I I i
Moment
(when x < a )
=6ETT (I' - b
2
- x')
9. SIMPLE BEAM-TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS
SYMMETRICALLY PLACED
l: 'TT l
R
8 Pa
Total Equiv. Uniform Load
*-1­
R-V
- p
M max.( between loads) = Pa
Mx (When x < a) = Px
'it
Pa
amax. (at center)
= 24EI (31'-4a')
Px
IIx ewhen x < a) = 6IT (3Ia-3a'-x')
Pa
IIx ( when x > a and < (1- a») = 6IT (3Ix-3x' - a')
}
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
l
I: For various static loading conditions
2
-
For meaning of symbols, see page 2·111.


10. SIMPLE BEAM-TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS
UNSYMMETRICALLY PLACED
I R, = V, ( max. when a < b) - (I-a +b)
- I
:
\X-) P P
1 R. = v.(max. when a > b)
- I
(I-b +a)
2 BrD
RI
I
,R 'J L
Vx (Whenx>aand«l-b») -
- I
I I I ! I " t V
2
b
r-r-r-
I"
M I ( max. when a > b) Rlil
( )
Ma max. when a < b = R.b
Mx (when x < a) = R ... x
Mx (when x > a and < (I-b») = R,x-P(x-a)
11. SIMPLE BEAM-TWO UNEQUAL CONCENTRATED LOADS
UNSYMMETRICALLY PLACED
P, (I-a) + P.b
R, = V, =---1
= P,a + Pz (1- b)
R. =V.
I
Vx (when x > a and < (1- b») = R, - P,
M, (max. when RI < PI) = R1. a
M. ( max. when R. < P.) = R.b
Mx (when x < a) = R,x
V, I I II It j
I
Moment Mx (when x > a and < (I-b») = R,x-P, (x-a)
12. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END, SUPPORTED AT OTHER­
UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
Total Equiv. Uniform Load = wi
R1 = VI . .

o//--
Wt -.,%
tlllllll!1 !ling
\

8
_ 5wl
R -V
- -8­
J - z max.
... = Rl-WX v«
_ wl Z
M max ... _. -8­
_ 9
MI (atx = i I) - 128 wi'
2
R1X- wx
Mx ..... -2­
,J..:"
amax. (atx = /6 (1+"'33) = .42151) = 185ET
wx
.:1)(.. ........• = 48EI (I' - 31x
2
+ 2x')
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
1
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meaning of symbols. see page 2-[[[
'A•.. ,iWst ,.;
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meaning 01 symbols. 2·:::
13. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END, SUPPORTED AT OTHER­
CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER
15. BEAM FIXED AT BOTH DISTRIBUTED
LOADS
2wl
Total Equiv. Uniform load =-3­
wi
R-V
=2
Vx = w(f-x)
wi'
M max. ( at ends )
= ""'1"2
wi'
M1 (at center)
=24
Mx = (6Ix-I'-6x')
wi"
( at center)
-
wx'
M,
= 24EI (1- x),
16. BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS--eONCENTRATED LOAD AT
CENTER
Total Equiv. Uniform Load
- P
P
R=V
-"2
PI
M max.(at center anc !r'!os)
-8
P
Mx (when x < f) = 8 (4x-l)
PI'
max. (at center) .
= 192EI
Px'
(when x < f) = 48EI (31-4x)
17. BEAM FIXED AT BOTH ENDS--eO:--lCENTRATED LOAD AT
ANY POINT
Pb'
Rl = VI (max. when a < !:)) = /S(3a+b)
Pal
R.=v.(max.when a > b) = /S (a +3b)
Pab'
M1 (max. when I. < b) =-,-,­
M2 ( max. when a > ::)
Pa'b
=-,,-
Ma ( at point of 1:.. 0 )
---,-,-
2Pa'b'
Pab'
Mx (Whenx<a) = Rlx--,,­
. 2Pa'b'
23' )
6omax. when a > b .: J. = 3.a;' b .
(
3EI (3a + b)'
Pa'b'
6.a ( at point of I:.a.d )
= 3EII'
Pb'x'
6.x ( when x < a) = 6Ell' (3al-3ax-bx)
G
d
"
Total Equiv. Uniform load
RI = VI •
I' I -I
R:z .. Va max.
P
M max. (at fixed end)
R,
'M I
\(, '

,L
Mx
1\11,



14. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END, SUPPORTED AT OTHER­
CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT
V,,* I !._'_' 'II iii ii' iiI ..
RI = VI
R. V.
MI
M.
Mx
Mx
ernax.
crnax.



( at point of load)
(whenx<f)
(whenx>f)
(at x = I '\J"t .44721)
(at poi nt of load)
( when x < f)
(When x > f)
( at point of load)
(at fixed end)
(When x < a)
(Whenx>a)
"+a')
( whena<.414Iatx=1
31._a•
... ra)
(when a > .414latx=1 "2/+i
( at point of load)
(When x < a)
(When x > a)
3P

5P
-16
= -.!.!.!.
16
3PI
= ---,-s

32
= .5Px
16
= P (J.­ 11X)
2 -""""16
- PI'
- 48EI _,- = .009317
" 5 EI
7PI'
- 768El
Px
= 96EI (31' - 5x')
P
= 96EI (x-I)' (llx-21)
Pb'
=""""2ji""" (a +21)
_ Pa
2/0 (31'-a')
= Ria
_ Pab
- 2/2 (a+l)
= Rlx

Pa (/' - a')'
= JET (31'-a')'
Pab· ... rrr:
= ""2T+"i"
Pa'b'
- 12EII' (31 + a)
Pb'x
= 12EI II (3al'-2Ix'-ax')
- (l-x)'(31'x-a'x-2a21)
12EIl'
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEL CeNSTRUCTION
l


IH,
I
'1
[I
Ii
I
I
II
II
II
1;
d
I;
II

)
;i!
;\
BEAM DIAGRAMS HI'W iunIVIULH,)
For various static loading conditions
For meaning of symbols, see page 2-111.
18. CANTILEVER BEAM-LOAD INCREASING UNIFORMLY
TO FIXED END
=3
8
W
Total Equiv. Uniform load
R=V
=W
Vx
I'
WI
M max. ( at fixed end)
=3
Wx' Mx
=372
WI'
(at free end)
= "i1eT
_ W
- 6OEi/2(x'- 51"x+411)
19.
CANTILEVER BEAM-UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
Total Equiv. Uniform load . = 4wl
R=V
= wi
R
Vx := wx
M max. ( at fixed end)
2
wx'
Mx
- --2­
wi"
( at free end)
=8Ef
w
/Ix
= 24EI (x" - 4/'x +31")
20. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END, FREE TO DEFLECT VERTICALLY BUT NOT
ROTATE AT OTHER-UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD
_ 8
Total Equiv. Uniform load
T
wl
-
R=V = wi
Vx = wX
wi>
M max. (at fixed end) =-3­
wi>
M I (at deflected end) =-6­
Mx - i (l'-3x
2
)
wi"
amax. (at deflected end)
= 24EI
w (l'-x')'
/Ix
24EI
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meaning of symbols, see page 2-111
21. CANTILEVER BEAM-CONCENTRATED LOAD AT ANY POINT
8Pb
Uniform load .
Total Equiv. = P
hI
1
I
I R = V • . . = Pb
../.....J.__ rJ%,%R )
'I (When • > a _ (31- b)
x P IiII! Mmax. (."xed ",,) _ P<. _.,
I b----'1 M. ) _ 6EI
IIII \\ Y
1. ....:L uv
a -XI --- I ( at free end Pb
/1max, (atpointofload) =
31
(31-3x-b)
/la ) = 6EI
(
when x < a . f _ xl' (3b l +x) _
M1mu. /I. Co when J; :'> a) "' 6EI
22. CANTILEVER BEAM-CONCENTRATED LOAD AT FREE END
= gp
Tolal Equiv. Uniform load
/<---1 ..
IP
= P
R=V
= PI
M rnax. (at fixed end)
= Px
M.
A
PI'
/lmax, (attree end) =3ET
= (2/' -3/'x +x')
• • 6EI 0 • •
23. BEAM FIXED AT ONE END, FREE TO DEFLECT VERTICALLY BUT
NOT ROTATE AT OTHER-eONCENTRATED LOAD AT DEFLECTED END
= 4P Total Equiv. Uniform load
= P
R=V
R

P
I
IIi&ffi.
PI
M max.( at both ends) =2
!
M.
= p(i-')
PI'
Shear
/lma.. (at deflected end) = 12EI
P (I-X)2 (I +2x)
a. 12Ei

Mmili.
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
1
L:::-I
1
2·123 .
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For various static loading conditions
For meaning of symbols, see page 2·111.
For meaning of symbols, see page 2·111.
BEAM
26.
-t:f·
24. BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT-UNIFORMLY
DISTRIBUTED LOAD
R. = V.
_ w
k----! -->4-.-< .;J
R. = v. . . - 2f (I'-a')
t-
Shear
x
1
w "
R. = v. + V. = 2f (I +a)'
R
z
v. = wa
.']
V.
_ w
- 21 (I' +a')
Vx (between supports) = R.-wx
(for oVerhang) = w (a-x.)
1"
, I r a- r ..
f,.';,.
l a! x = .21
1
- Ii- ) 8TZ(I +a»(1- a)' ax.
M. (at R.)
wa'
=-2­
BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT-UNIFORMLY
27.
I'
""\
Mx ( between su pports) = ;; (I' - a
Z
- xI) DISTRIBUTED LOAD BETWEEN SUPPORTS
.\
Total Equiv. Uniform Load
= wi
,
Mx. (for ) = i (a-x.)' wi
y.
R=V. =2
ax ( between su pports)
= 2::I/U4.21'X'+/x'-2a'I'+2a'xz)
Vx •
= w(
wi'
ax. (for oVerhang) = (4a'I-I'+6azx.-4ax.'+x,I) =-S­
M max. (at center)
= (l-x)A
Mx .
25. BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT-UNIFORMLY
V 5wl
4
amax. (at center) = 384EI
DISTRIBUTED LOAD ON OVERHANG
= (I' - 21x' + x')
wa' ax
R. = v.
=21
wl1xl
ax. = 24EI
R. = V. + V. - (2/+a)
- 21
BEAM OVERHANGING ONE SUPPORT-CONCENTRATED
V•• = wa 28.
LOAD AT ANY POINT BETWEEN SUPPORTS
Vx• (for oVerhang) = w (a - xll
Total Equiv. Uniform Load =
wa'
,;"

Moment
R.=v.(max.whena<b). = Plb M max. at Rz = -2­
( )
R. = v.( max. when a > b) . = Pt
( )
waZx
Mx between supports =
. I) Pab
M max. at pOInt of oad. = -1­
(
Pbx

Mx• (for oVerhang) = i (a - xll'
M
x
when x < a .• = -1­
I)
()
_ .Ia(a+2b) h b) _ Pab (a + 2b) 'o/-3a (a + 2b)
amax. betweensupportsatx= .1- = = .0320S -EI
wazJz wallz
amax. at x- '--3-w en a > -. 27EII
( (
.. 3 lS'o/3EI
Pa
Zb2
aa ( at point of load) . = 3EiI
( )
wa'
amax. for overhang at x. = a = 24EI (41 + 3a)

ax whenx<a =_-(l'-b'-x')
() 6EII
wa'x
Pa (1- x)
ax between supports = 12EIl (iz - x')
( )
ax when x > a = (2Ix-x'-a')
() 6EII
wx.
PabXl I
ax.
(
for overhang) = 24EI (4a'I+6a'x.-4ax.'+x.·) ax. = 6EiT" ( +a)
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Moment
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
1
L-.J
i
11
I
"
I
i
dj
1\,1.
III
\,
1'1
; U._

\
;;
.J
,v
. t

,,I
!II i
rd·
II -.
For various static loading conditions
Fer meaning of symbols, see page 2·)) L
29. CONTINUOUS BEAM-TWO EQUAL SPANS-UNIFORM LOAD
ON ONE SPAN
Total Equiv. Uniform load
R1=Vl .
R.=V.+V,
R,=V.
V,
76
!) M max. ( at x = 1
Ml (at support R.)
Mx (When x < I)
A Ma,. (C.472 I f:,.. 01 ;;.)
R.
"11"1111111111 i!l !I""""""I ;v
II I I I
30. CONTINUOUS BEAM-TWO EQUAL SPANS-CONCENTRATED
LOAD AT CENTER OF ONE SPAN
Total Equiv. Uniform load
.!!.P
8
l
R
• lR3 Rl=V,..
.!!.P
32
v,
-
II
-I I
R.=V.+V,
R,=V.
.!!.P
16
3
=--W
P
Shear
v.
32
M max. (at point of load) . .!!. PI
64
M1 (at support R. )
3
12 PI
A Max. (0.480 I from Rtl 0.015 PP/EI
31. CONTINUOUS BEAM-TWO EQUAL SPANS-CONCENTRATED
LOAD AT ANY POINT
Rl=Vl
41'
R.=V.+V. (2I
Z
H (1+a) )
Pab
= -4TJ (I+a)
R.=V.
3
v. =
4[>
Pab ( )
M max. ( at point of load) . -- 41'-10 (I+a)
4[>
Pab
Ml (at support R.) 4/Z (l +a)
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
'f.'
.......
"f
','!<;

v.

l

"
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meamng of symbols. see page 2-111.
32. BEAM-UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOAD AND VARIABLE END MOMENTS
R, = V, = + M, - M.
2 --1­
Rl = VI = _Ml - M'J:
""e )' I i 11111III!! III II'!' 'I 2 --1­
R,
I ) M, - M.
V. = w ( "2 - x + --1­
1 M, -M.)
MI (at x = Z + --w-I-­
wl
2
M 1 · 1. itt"!: {r.;1 --
= T- --z--
WX (M' - M.)
M. = "2 (I - xl + --I- x - M,
b(!Olocate . )= _IE-_(M' + MZ)+(M' -M.),
Inflection pOints) 4 w wI
Moment
A. = [XI _ (21 + 4M, _ 4M.) x. + 12M, X+ I' _ 8M,L _ 4M.I]
24EI wi wi w w w
33. BEAM-CONCENTRATED LOAD AT CENTER AND VARIABLE.lND MOMENTS
R, =v, _ .!- + M, - M.
-2 ---1­
R. =V. =f _M. - M.
I
MI (At center) = _ M, + M.
4 --2-­
I ) ( P M, - M.)
M.
(
When x < '2 ;:; Z + --1-- x - M,
I) P 1M, - Molx
M. ( When x > "2 = '2 (I - x) + . - M,
I ) Px ( • 8(1 - x} )
A. When x < 2 =48EI 31' - 4x- - -P-I- [M,(21 - x) + M.(l + x»)
(
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
_ 1 -------l
1
-
.....w
....Jir -..a-- ....JiI- -..1.1-. -w- H

..,
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meaning of symbols, see page 3-127
CONTINUOUS BEAM-THREE EQUAL SPANS-ONE END SPAN UNLOADED
uil 11;1
A E', I . , ! , ' i . _1 I
0
RA == 0.383uil Ro = -0.033 iol
I
0.383 wi " 0.033 uil
SHEAR

,-0.0333 W!2
, I '
"' Max. (0.430 I from A) = 0.0059 wl'/EI
35. CONTINUOUS 8EAM-THREE EQUAL SPANS-END SPANS LOADED
wi
At I 'i I lC ;i " , ':to I
RA = 0.450 uil Re = 0.550 wi Rc = 0.550uil Ro = 0.450 uil.
0450 wi h-----. I 0.550 wlb:--------.-...
I I
\'''-l!.lL-U
+0.1013 wl
2
_ I 1"\ ,..,r::,., r" ,
MOMENT
I 0.450 I

"' Max. (0.479 / from A or 0) = 0.00'!9 wl'lEI
36. CONTINUOUS BEAM-THREE ,EQUAL SPANS-ALL SPANS LOADED
wi u:1 wi
A f: ' i! I' I ,f,S I" .,II t !I i II j :t
o
RA = 0.400wi Ra == 1.10wi Rc == 1.10 wi Ro = 0.400wi
MOMENT

:.bOOWi wi
" Mal. (0.446 I from A or OJ = 0.0069 wl'jEI
',;'-"
'f1


.;;';;J\
:.:
;,


,
r
.,
."

$

!
j
";:
r:



AMERlc,\N TNSnnn-C OF STEEL CONSTRUcnON
;:1
I
I. :....-W

-
I .r,
39.
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various static loading conditions
For meaning 01 symbols, see page 3·127
A Max. (0.475/ from E) = 0.0094 wl'jEI
38. CONTINUOUS BEAM-FOUR EQUAL SPANS-LOAD FIRST AND THIRD SPANS
wi wi
A r I !I i 1
8
I Jt 'I' , 1E
RA == 0.446 ui] RB = 0.572wi Rc == 0.464 wi RE = -0.054 uil
0.446 u./ 0.018 wi 0.482 wi' - 0.054 wi
SHEAR I ' 10.554 wi :
I -0.0536 uil?

" Ii
-0.0536 wl
2
-0.0357 tul?
+0.0996 wl
2
Anlllllilli I l.l +0.0805 w1
2
A!
"lL rill
. c ' ' _,,' (0.4n / fromA) = ,O.OO91.
w/·/EI
AMERICAN INSTlruTE OF STEEL Coxsrxucrros
A Mn. (0.440 / from A and E) = 0.0065 wl"/D
r

j
i
.,

'.
:i
:!
.,
"
.,
,
I , I I , n II I I

15
.......... ----....------r--_--___
--
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
Design properties of cantilevered beams
Equal loads, equally spaced
No. Spans System
"'1
2 .. ®
\i9 A
B .. A
r·"

-.-
'&J 0

<&J 0
3
"'1
.. bt¥'
® E '51 E

A A
"°1 r'-
......
4 ..
'$"6
A '&J f G 0
r·'"


@ cgJ
0 \l9

St
5
H . H 0
"°1 r'-
0
-.,
t$' ''WI
..
@ F ee;:/ 0 a ! F

..
A

"°1 r'-
'Y' 0 0iW;

0

,even)
\19 F \&) a &- A
..
e 0
• 0
'&
..
0 C

-1- -1_
r:i;;


'6"

0 \9
c 0 :6

:r
H
Cl
t

H H H 0
(odd)
-:1 r'- r$-l -6-'€ 0
'Wi
o cgJ c

.. IF C\&JO a

G 0\5)0 F
..
A ® H H

n ee 2 3 l
I
:,
Typical
wfiffJdJ
p .; .; p p .;
. . . .
J P P P J l'P?P?J
Span
LLJLLUUllJUJJJ3 Loading
VI M
1
0.086 x PL 0.167 x PL 0.250. PL 0.333. PL 0.429 x PL
c
'"
Ml 0.096 x PL 0.188. PL 0.278 x PL 0.375 x PL 0.480 x PL
M
3
0.063 x PL 0.125 x PL 0.167 x PL 0.250. PL 0.300 x PL
E
0 M. 0.039 x PL 0.083 x PL 0.083. PL 0.167 x PL o 17\ x PL
::::;;
0.051 x PL 0.104 x PL 0.139xPL 0.208 x PL 0.249 x PL
A 0.414 x P 0.833 x P 1.250 x P 1.667 x P 2.071. P
II>
8 1.172xP 2.333 x P 3.500 x P 4.667 x P 5.857 x P
c
C 0.438 x P 0.875 x P 1.333 x P 1.750 x P 2.200 x P
.g
0 1.063 x P 2.125 x P 3.167 x P 4.250 x P 5.300 x P
u
E 1.086 x P 2.167 x P 3.250 x P 4.333. P 5.429. P
<1l
'"
F 1.109 x P 2.208 x P 3.333 x P 4.417 x P 5.557 x P
a:
G 0.977 x P 1.958xP 2.917xP 3.917 x P 4.871 x P
H 1.000 x P 2.000 x P 3.000 x P 4.000 x P 5.000 x P
<II a 0.172 xL 0.250 xL 0.200 x L 0.182 x L 0.176xL
.... c
b 0.125 x L 0.200 x L 0.143 x L 0.143 xL 0.130 x L
"'0
>.-
C 0.220 xL 0.333 x L 0.250 x L 0.222 x L 0.229 x L ",II>
_c
d 0.204 x L 0.308 x L 0.231 x L 0.211 x L 0.203 x L 0; Q)
cE
e 0.157 x L 0.273 x L 0.182 x L 0.176 xL 0.160 x L
<1l._
ua f 0.147 x L 0.250 xL 0.167 x L 0.167 x L O.ISOx L
(
I I ,- 1011- .LI.- 1.,_ I I I I I
..._..- ............
I
......- ......., ---- -- -- -- --1,r--­
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
For various concentrated moving loads
The values given in these formulas do not include impact which varies accordinc to the
requirements of e2ch case. For meaning of symbols, see page 3.127
40. SIMPLE BEAM--0NE CONCENTRATED MOVING LOAD

, P Rl max. =- v, max. (at x 0 )
- p
R, JR,
PI
M max. (a.t point of load, when x - f)
.
-4

41. SIMPLE BEAM-TWO EQUAL CONCENTRATED MOVING- __
LOADS
RI max. = Vi max. ... 0 ) (a.t x
- P(2-
7
)
I:hen a < (2 - V2) I - .5861 J

nder load 1at • - (I _i-)
-;'(I-i-r
M max.

when a > (2 - V2) I - .5861
{ PI
r:;th one load at center of spa)
40)
-""4
,2. SIMPLE BEAM-TWO UNEQUAL CONCENTRATED MOVING
LOADS
=' VI max. at x .... 0 -
I-a
Ri rn ax. Pl+PZ--
Pi> Pz ()

_ (P.+P,) x;
M max. 1M m ax. may occur with largej P,I
R
l
I-J
R,
I
lo a d at center of span and other _
{
ott span (ease -40) 4
GENERAL RULES FOR SIMPLE BEAMS CARRYING MOVING
CONCENTRATED LOADS
The maximum shear due to moving concentrated load.
k---I 'I
I
OCCurs at one support when one of the loads is at that support.
With several moving loads, the location t h a t will produce maxi­

mum shear ·must be determined by trial.
Pl(i)l+ -.DP2
The maximum bending moment produced by moving con­
centrated toads occurs under on., of the loads when that toad
is as far from one support as the center of gravity of all the
R,! J!j l-i
R
,

mov ing loads on the beam is from the other support.
In thOe accompanying dhttdram, the maximum bending
moment oec u-s under load P 1 when x-b. It should also be
ILrtirtIrrnIDitJ noted that this condition occurs when the center line of the
Moment span is midway between the center of gravity of loads and the
n eares t concentra ted load.
,(;;Jfi
AMERICAN INSTITIiTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION AMERlCAN INslTTUTE OF STEEL CONSTllUcnON
.. ..:..
. .,
I
'J#
:1
;1
.:;
:;.;:.
..

... .... ..... ....
.Aw
..L.J ..L. J . J .'. " ..-. II I • • • c,
J. ­128
--
........ - '"--oil -...I _ _ _--"
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
Frequently used formulas
The formulas given below are frequentlv required in structural designing They are included
herein for the convenience of those engineers who have infrequent use for such formulas
and hence may lind refcr cnce necessary. Variation from the standard nomenclature on page
3·127 is noted. Simole Beam

Flexural stress at extreme fiber:
f = Mcll = 0.1250
-
Flexural stress at Jny lit>er:
f =' Myl1 y = dist ance from ncutr al io fiber.
0.5000
-
A vertical shear ((,c"r maximum see
0.0130
v = VIA = \. dt (for beams and girders)
1.0000
Horizontal shearing srre s; at any section
1.0000
\ = VOllb 0 = statica] moment about the neutral axis of the entire sec­
tion of that portion of the cross-section outside of
0.2500
section A·A. . •
-
b = width at section A·A
0.5000
I Intensity of vertical sr.ear is equal to that of horizontal shear acting norrr.al to it at the
same point and bor': are USUJlly a maxirnurn lH mid-height of bearn.) -
0.0208
Shc ar and deflection at "ny point:
2.0000
d"v
EI-' =\1 x and yare abscissa and ordinate respectively 0:::; point on the 0.8000
.
neutral axis. referred to axes 01 recranzular coordinates
through a selected point of support. ­ 0.3333
I First integration g;\'e; slopes: second imegralion gives deflections. Constants of integra­ f -
tion must be dererr-med. i
10000
CO:\TI:\rous BEAI\IS i the theorem of three moments)
-
0.0355 .,. ,I. II, I.) /, '("'1/;' ""(')
L rutorru load: ,,1, -- - 2\1,,\ - -!- --" • -'- = - - -- - -'-'
2.6667
1.0222
l, . :, I: I .j I, I:
Concentrated loads:
0.5000
"1 II.?" (" I:) _ p,a,b,(, a
l
) b:)
IV ;1 - -r - -:- - +; ..: - - -- -- + - - -- -­
I, 1, I: r, I, I, I: -
1.5000
Considering any two consecutive spans in any continuous structure:
M... M, = moments at IeIt, center lind right supports respectively. of any pair of -
adjacent spans. 0.0495
I, and
= length of left and righ: spans. respectively. of the pair.
4.0000
I, and I,
= moment of inertia of left and right spans. respectively.
0.9500
h.'1 and ;... ., = load per unit of length on left and right spans. respectively.
P, and P,' = concentrated loads on left and right spans. respectively.
0.6000
a, and =' distance of concentr ated loads from left support. in
left and spans. respectively. -
b , and = distance of c-oncenlraled loads from right support in 2.0000
left and right spans. respectively.
-
The above equations are for beams with moment of inertia constant in each span but
0.0630
differing in 'different spans. continuous over three or more supports. By "Titing such an
4.8000
equation for each successive pair of spans and introducing the known values (usually zero)
of end moments. all other moments can be found.
1.0080
f X P
BEAM DIAGRAMS AND FORMULAS
Table of Concentrated Load Equivalents
,
Loading n CoeH
A.
a
b
c

d
"
e
f
g
a
b
p
c
2 d
----L­
e
f
s
a
b
c
3
p p
d
--LL e
I
g
a
b
p p p
4 d
iLL
c
e
f
g
a
b
c
p p p p
5 d
e ---lilL
f
g
Maximum positive moment (kip-tt.):
axPxL
Maximum negative moment (kip-it.):
bxPxL
Pinned end reaction (kips): c X P
Fixed end reaction (kips): d x P
Maximum deflection (in.): e X PI] /EI
Seam Fixed One End
Supported at Other Beam Fixed B-Jth Ends
... .... &I
0.0703 0.G417
0.1250 0.0833
0.3750 -
0.5000
0.0054
0.6250
0.0026
1.0000 0.6667
0.4151 0.3000
0.1563 0.1250
0.1875 0.1250
0.3125 -
0.5000
0.0093
0.6875
0.0052
1.5000 1.0000
0.4000 0.4770 ',
0.1111
0.3333
0.2222
0.2222
0.6667 -
1.3333 1.0000
0.0152 0.0077
2.6667 1.7778
0.4381 0.3333
0.1875
0.4688
0.2656
0.3125
1.0313 -
1.5000
0.0209
I. 9688
0.0104
3.7500 2.5000
0.4281 0.3200
0.2000
0.6000
0.3600
0.4000
1.4000 -
2.0000
0.0265
2.6000
00130
4.8000 3.2000
0.4238 03120
Equivalent Simple span uniform load (kips)
Dettection coen. for equivalent simple
span uniform load: g
Number of equauoac spaces; n
Span 01 beam (It.): L
Soan 01 beam (in.):
AMERICA." INSTlTUT'E OF STEEL
'.'",.,. ... Ixsrrnrrr; QF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
1 - I
I