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Sections

  • 4.1 Anticipation
  • 4.2 Resilience
  • 4.3 Leadership
  • 4.4 Innovation
  • Shelter
  • Technology
  • 4.5 Accountability
  • Impact
  • Gender
  • 4.6 Partnership
  • 4.7 Humanitarian space
  • 5.2 Delivering differently
  • 5.3 Changing the structure, shifting resources
  • 5.4 Driving results and value for money
  • 5.5 Getting the message across



Humanitarian Emergency Response Review

28 March 2011 Chaired by Lord (Paddy) Ashdown



ForewordtotheHumanitarianEmergency ResponseReview
“The water started to rise, and it did not stop…the water was already so high and strong that I could not hold on to one of my children and the water swept her away. Luckily someone was there to grab her.”
Gonaïves,OgèLéandre,Haiti2008 ThepeopleoftheUnitedKingdomknowwhywerespond,individuallyandasasociety, tohumanitarianemergenciesaroundtheworld.Theyunderstandthatwhenweare confrontedbytheimageofachildtrappedintherubbleofanearthquake,orofafamily clingingtotheroofofafloodedhome,wedon’tsomuchcommittohelp,asfeel committedtodoso;committedbyoursharedhumanity. Itisbecausetheimpulsetorelievesufferingisrootedinmoralitythat our interventions to relieve suffering at times of disaster must always be driven by need and need alone. Nevertheless, the fact that Britain is prepared to play a full part (and often a leading part) as a member of the international community in order to relieve suffering at times of crisis makes for, not only a more compassionate world, but a safer one too – and that benefits all of us. Whatiscrucialisthatwhenwedecidetoact,wedosoeffectively.Thefactthat, acrossthecountry,householdbudgetsareunderparticularstrainatthemoment,only underlinesthepoint.Peoplewanttoknowthateverypoundtheygivewillbeapound spentsavinglivesandlivelihoods. InlookingatthewaytheUKgovernmentrespondstohumanitarianemergencies,this ReviewhasidentifiedmuchinwhichtheBritishpeoplecantakepride.TheDepartment forInternationalDevelopment,asapolicymaker,afunderandadelivererofaid,hasbeen widelypraisedforitsleadingrolewithintheinternationalhumanitariancommunity. Butbeinggoodisnotgoingtobegoodenoughgiventhechallengesahead.Thescale, frequencyandseverityofrapidonsethumanitariandisasterswillcontinuetogrowin thecomingyears,andatanacceleratingpace.Expertspredictthatclimaterelated disasterscouldaffect375millionpeopleeveryyearby2015,upfrom263million in2010. Thereasonsforthisaremany.Rapidpopulationgrowth,especiallyindisasterprone areas,isakeyfactor,especiallywhencombinedwithcontinuedmassurbanisation,much ofitunplannedandunsafe.Sotooarethechangesalreadyunderwayinsealevels,and inglobalrainfallandstormpatterns–changesthatwillcontributetosignificant additionalpressureforfoodandwaterintheyearsahead. Wearecaughtinaracebetweenthegrowingsizeofthehumanitarianchallenge,and ourabilitytocope;betweenhumanityandcatastrophe.And,atpresent,thisisnota racewearewinning. Somerecentlyaffectedcountries,likeChinaandChilehavedemonstratedremarkable resilienceinthefaceofnaturaldisasters.EvenJapan,wherethetriplecatastrophehas ledtotremendoussuffering,thingsmighthavebeenfarworsewithoutpreparation. Butothers,likeHaitiorPakistan,haveneededlargescaleoutsidehelpandwillcontinue todoso. Theabilityoftheinternationalhumanitariancommunitytoprovidethishelpis threatenedbyanumberofproblems,somenew,somefamiliar.

weneedtoplacethecreationofresilienceattheheartofourapproachbothto longer-termdevelopmentandtoemergencyresponse.ThiswillrequireDFIDtomake humanitarianresponseapartofitscoredevelopmentwork.evenmoreofalearningorganisationthatisalwaysopenand welcomingtonewideas.theUS.impartialityandneutrality.Unlesswe radicallyimprovethequalityoftheleadershipoftheinternationaleffortinhumanitarian crises.onoccasion.Thetaskof providinghumanitarianassistanceimpartiallyandonthebasisofneedishugely complicatedbyconflict. . Third.toworkalongsideorwithhostile–even proscribed–groupsalreadypresentshumanitarianworkerswithanumberofmoraland practicalproblems.itwillneedtonurtureits existingpartnershipswiththeEU.Theneed.Thesetooarelikelytogrowinnumberandcomplexity.weneedtocreatenewhumanitarianpartnershipstoallowDFIDbetterto influenceandworkwithinanincreasinglycomplexhumanitariansystem.religion.ethnicityorpoliticalallegiance.DFIDwillneedtoworkmorecloselywiththeemergingworldpowersand withtheprivatesector.theleadership.theRedCrossandthe internationalNGOs.Thisinturnwillrequireustoreassertthecorehumanitarian principlesofhumanity.politicalandoperational leadershipoftheinternationalhumanitariansystem. Fifth.tobecome evenmoreinnovative. Second.weneedtoinnovatetobecomemoreefficientandeffective.weneedsubstantiallytoimprovethestrategic.andprepareforfuturedisastersandconflict.Theseformthestructureofthisdocument.asemergenciesbecomebiggerandmorecomplex.Thisgap couldbefilledbythefastergrowing‘emerging’worldeconomies.Wemustdevise newwaystomeetthenewchallenges.Thesecountriescurrentlycontributefarlesstodisasterrelief.managementandcoordinationoftheinternational community’seffortshavenotriseneventothechallengeswecurrentlyface.thepromisetoassistpeopleonthe basisofneed.itwillneed.Inaddition.ineverythingitdoes.otherdonors.thanonwhatit candoalone.weneedtoincreasetransparencyandaccountabilitytowardsbothdonorand hostcountrypopulations.Thisreferstotheneedforhumanitarianworkersto begrantedaccessandprotectionastheyseektoprovidehumanitarianassistancein conflictaffectedareas.butthisisfarfrom guaranteed.soweneedtodefendand strengthenthehumanitarian space. First.wehaveconcludedthatmerelyimprovinguponwhatwehave doneinthepast–enhancingthestatusquo–willnotbesufficient. AsDFIDseekstomeetthesechallenges. Finally.usingsciencetohelpusboth predict.aswellaswiththemilitary.engagingmorecloselywith localpeopleandinstitutionssoastostrengthenlocalcapacity. Fourth. Regrettably.weneedtodevelopamoreanticipatoryapproach.andinany casearelikelytoremainpreoccupiedwiththerelativelyhighlevelsofpovertywithin theirownborders. Thesecondistherisingsecuritythreatfacedbyhumanitarianworkersontheground. Forallthesereasons. Thereareseventhreadstothisnewapproach. Sixth.Farfrombeingburdensome.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Thefirstistheglobaleconomiccrisis.wewillnotsucceedindealingwithwhatisahead.thisisinfactapreconditionfor theimprovementswewanttoseeintermsofvalueformoneyandimpact.the effectivenessofDFIDwilldependmoreonwhatitcandowithothers.whichcouldmakethealreadyslowergrowing countriesoftheWestlessableorwillingtoprovideresourcesfordisasterrelief.regardlessoftheirgender.Infuture. andtheincreasingdifficultiestheyfaceinaccessingaffectedpopulations.

Itisourhopethatthisreportwill assistDFIDtomaintainthatpositionofinternationalleadershipinthefaceofthe challengesthatlieahead.as theReview’sDirector.hasdrivenandsteeredusthroughoutthesevenmonthsofthe reviewprocess. Chair HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Director:RossMountain SeniorAdvisoryBoardMembers:AndyBearpark.who.ForewordtotheHumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview IhavebeenprivilegedtochairthisindependentreviewandamgratefultoSecretaryof StateAndrewMitchell.YaseminAysan. RandolphKent.butforenablingmetowork withaSeniorAdvisoryBoardwhosetalent. Lord (Paddy) Ashdown.ElisabethRasmusson. DFIDenjoysapositionofrespectandleadershipintheinternationalcommunityforthe workthatithasdoneinthepastandstilldoestoday.DavidBryer.RossMountain.GilbertGreenall.SteffenStenberg.MarkBowden.SimonMaxwell. . CarolynMiller.JodaSilva.andwithmyfriendoffortyyears.BarneyMayhew.NiciDahrendorf.experienceandwisdomhascontributedso muchtothiswork. SueWardell.withagiftedandcommittedteamofDFIDofficialswhohave supportedusoutstandingly. GordonConway.notonlyforaskingmetodothis.

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Nevertheless.Itisaboutinvestingininfrastructure.But theseearlywarningsandpredictableeventsareoftennotactedoninadvance.Afterthefloodstheinternationalsystemspent£60millionresponding. TheUKisamajorcontributorinhumanitariancrises. Itisinthenatureofdisastersandconflictthattheycannotbepreciselypredicted.andishighlyrespectedforitsrole.andsomedownto earthpractical.But wecanbemoreanticipatoryinourapproach.ExecutiveSummary ExecutiveSummary Thereviewcomesatatimewhenthehumanitariancommunityfacesanumberof dauntingchallenges. givingpeoplesupportbeforedroughtforcesthemtosellalltheirpossessions.TheUKgovernmenthasbeenthesecondlargestbilateral donorforhumanitarianreliefinrecentyears.or quicklyenoughwhentheyarehappening.whichisthemajorityofthe27inwhichDFIDnowworksbilaterally.Partoftheanswerisbetterpresentationof thescienceforbetterdecisionmaking. SomeofthebestknownhumanitarianorganisationsareUKbased.likebuilding housesandhospitalsthatcanwithstandearthquakes.andhasplayedapositiverolein improvinginternationalresponse.andtheBritishpublic givesgenerouslyinappeals.Resilienceisaboutbeingpreparedfordisasters.andhaving goodsystemsforrespondingtothem. .Thereviewmakesaseriesofhighlevelpolicy.Partoftheanswerisfordecisionmakerstoact onthisinformation.Butitisalsoaboutinvestinginhumancapacity.Disastersareincreasing.asare earthquakefaultlines.strengtheninga government’scapacitytorespond.asarethenumbersofpeopleaffectedby them.Itisabout economicplanningthatrecognisesdisasterscanhappenandmakesprovisionforthem. Wheregovernmentsarecapableofbuildingresilience.anamount itcouldnotsecure. Anticipation If we are to meet the challenges ahead.ThisshouldbeacorepartofDFIDdevelopmentworkincountries thatareatrisk. we have to be “ahead of the curve” rather than always behind. the less lasting damage disasters cause and the quicker they can recover. Resilience The more resilient a nation.isalsowellrespectedand wellregarded.throughDFIDshould helpthemtodoso.Politicalinstabilityandtheconflictitcanleadtoarereportedearly.Ithasexcellenthumanitarianstaff.aftertheUS. Investinginresiliencewillsavelivesandmoneyinthefuture.Devolvingdecisionmakingtothoseclosesttoeventsisanother part. themainconduitthroughwhichthegovernmentresponds.creatingdisastermanagementstructuresandplans.Droughtscanbequicklyidentified. preparing for disasters.thereviewhasalsoconcludedthatin lightofthepotentialneedinyearstocome.therewillhavetobeastepchangeinthe wayDFIDresponds.Hurricaneseasonsarewellknown.orschoolsthatdoubleupas cycloneshelters.recommendationsintendedtobringthischangeabout.Climatescienceisimproving allthetime.includingequippingatriskgovernmentsandcivilsocietywiththemeanstoact. ThisreviewhasfoundthattheUKDepartmentforInternationalDevelopment(DFID).thentheUK. as well as reacting to them.ThesearesetoutstarklyintheChair’sforewordandinthereportitself.Mozambiqueaskedthe internationalcommunityfor£2millionin2006tohelpprepareforthefloods.

Thehumanitariansectorhasbeenslowtochange. Changeisneededatthestrategicandtheoperationallevels.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Leadership Wheregovernmentsarenotabletorespondtodisastersorinconflictsituationsthey needastronginternationalsystemtohelpout. and work with others to deliver the change needed to face future challenges. DFIDhasagoodtrackrecordinsupportinginnovation.Overallthelevelofprofessionalisminthe humanitariansectorneedstoberaisedthroughbetterinvestmentinskillsandtraining.ledbythe UNEmergencyReliefCoordinator(ERC).Oneofthewaysthiscanbeachievedisthroughgreateruseofnew technologiesandnewpractices.toolittle hasbeendoneaboutit.The UN needs to invest in a leadership cadre and ensure its best people are deployed quickly to the biggest and most complex disasters. . TheUNistheonlylegitimateauthoritythatcanleadbutisoftentooweakandslowto doso.Thepeoplewhoareonthereceivingendofour assistancearerarelyifeverconsultedonwhattheyneed.Whilsttherehavebeenafewsuccesses.AlreadytheheadsofthemajorUNagencies.orabletochoosewhohelps themorhow.newprocessesand thenewideasfromthoseaffected.Buttoooftentheinternationalsystem failsthem.Ithasprovidedstartupfunding formanynewinitiatives.DFID should encourage and support further reform. as well as new ways of working. Butthereisanaccountabilitydeficit.institutional changesshouldbemadetomakethemso.arepushingtheseideas.decision-makingbodieswithnationalandlocalgroupsfully integrated.butnotto thoserespondingontheground.withDFIDfundingplayingameaningfulpart.thesehavebeendrivenby committedindividualsusuallywithoutsupport.Linesofauthorityneedtobeclearer.andcontinuestoseeksolutionstoproblemslikeshelter.Thesameistrueoftechnicalleadership –the‘clusters’.satelliteimagerywasavailabletostrategicplanners.CasestudiesforthisreviewinHaitiandPakistanmakethisdepressinglyclear.Whilstthishaslongbeenrecognisedasanissue.Thiswork needstobeaccelerated.and canhelppushthisnewagenda.Intractableproblemssuchasthetimelyprovisionof shelterremainachallenge. Ithelpedsetupanewinnovationsfund.This means that gender based issues and the needs of the vulnerable are too often overlooked.Theseleadersneedthesupportoftheirheadquartersand theagenciesthatdothemajorityofthework.harnessingthebestofnewscience.TheNigercase studyforthisreviewalonemakesclearthattensofthousandsofchildrenweresaved fromstarvationthroughpromptaction.Crucially. TheUKhasbeenastrongproponentofchangeintheinternationalsystemtodate.Newapproachessuchasgiving peoplecash(insteadofbuyingthemblanketstheymaynotneed)havetakenyearsto gotoscale.andwherenecessary.InPakistan. Accountability Humanitarianaidhelpsmillionsofpeoplearoundtheworldeachyear.suchasinnutrition wherenewfoodproductshaveprovenrevolutionary.Theseneeddedicatedleadershipinthebiggestemergenciesandthey needtobestrategic.andnewinnovationsneedtobetakentoscalefaster. Innovation Whenitcomestosavinglivesinanemergencyweneedtobeasefficientandeffective aswecan. there is a need for more investment in research and evidence.withotherdonorsandNGOs.

NGOs.thosewhodeliverhumanitarian aidcanonlyunderstandtheirimpactiftheyunderstandwhatpeopleneed.Hencetheimportanceofthekeyhumanitarianprinciplesofhumanity.DFIDoftencannotworkdirectlythroughthe authorities. neutralityandimpartiality. ManyofthepartnersDFIDworkswithinhumanitarianresponseareworld-class organisations.Thisisconnectedtotheaccountabilityissue.Theyareonly‘allowed’in.ExecutiveSummary Understandingtheimpactofhumanitarianassistanceisanotherareawheremuchwork isneeded. The UK should remain a committed multilateralist in its approach.thehumanitariansectorinrecentyearshasbeenseenby manyasa‘closedshop’withahandfulofagenciesanddonorsdominating.DFIDcan helpwithmeasuringimpactandmakingthosewhodeliverhumanitarianaidmore accountable.Nevertheless. and not to politicise humanitarian aid.withtheUnitedNationsandwithcivilsocietyorganisations makessense. willbeneededtoprotectciviliansandhumanitarianworkers.Whilstthis canbeexplained(partlybytheneedfororganisationstobeseenasneutraland impartial)thesystemdoesneedtochange.however. DFIDwillhavetomakesignificantchanges.Insuchcasesthereisafragile‘space’intowhichhumanitarianagenciesare admittedtohelpthosemostinneed.Themostradicalchangewillinvolveseeing humanitarianconcernsasacorepartofDFIDprogramming.Whereaidislinkedtopoliticalormilitarygoals.Workingwith partnersinothernations.mandatedbytheUN.The review endorses this approach.Insuchcases. defend and where possible enlarge this fragile space.access canbedeniedandthesecurityofstaffcompromised.makingitdifficulttoreachthose mostinneed.The reviewalsorecognisesthatincomplexconflicts. be they governments or the public.whentheyare viewedasgenuinelyimpartial. Delivering transformational change in DFID Todeliverastepchangeinthewayhumanitarianassistanceisconceivedanddelivered. The review concludes that DFID humanitarian policy should be to support.preferringinsteadto workwithandthroughpartners. to work with agencies that can access and help those in dire need.Itcombinesscarceresourcesforthebesteffect. the private sector.This review concludes that DFID needs to become more of a ‘network enabler’. as power shifts towards the newly emerging economies. partnership will become even more important as the world becomes more interconnected. Humanitarian space Inconflictzonesorfailedstates. Partnership TheUKisnotalargedirectproviderofhumanitarianassistance. Humanitarian agencies should also be more accountable to donors.ratherthansomethingthat .Donorshavearighttoknowhow–andhowwell–their moneyisspent.creatinga secureenvironmentbothfortheciviliansandfortheconductofhumanitarianworkcan oftenbeafirstpriority. working with existing partners but also developing new and dynamic partnerships with emerging nations. faith groups and the diasporas. and as greater challenges require more capacity. Linking impact measurement and accountability better to the funds agencies receive is a key recommendation of this review.andinsituationswheretheauthorityof thestatehasbrokendowntherewillbetimeswhenmilitaryforce.

HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview needstoberespondedtowhenithappens. It needs to seek value for money. It needs to work better with new donors and the private sector.Suchworkshouldalsobeofcentralconcernto DFID’sdevelopmentpartners. and demand accountability and transparency of itself and its partners.sothat theycaninvestintheskillsandstructurestheyneedtobebetterprepared. DFIDshouldactivelysupporttheUNinitseffortstoreformitshumanitarianleadership. for instance in the supply chain. It needs to promote innovation and bring new innovations and processes to scale faster.Fundingshouldalsobeavailabledirectlyto governmentsforresilienceandresponsework. . and to those who are the beneficiaries of it.willingand transparent. It needs to improve the way it provides leadership and coordination across the UK government when responding to humanitarian emergencies.There should be a closer. it must become better at communicating what it does. more integrated relationship between DFID’s core development work and the way DFID responds to meet rapid onset emergencies.wheretheyarecapable. both to those who provide the money. not crudely through comparing costs but through focusing on achieving the best outcomes for affected people and improving the quality of future decision making. It needs to drive radical change. To introduce a new dynamism into the humanitarian sector DFID needs to reach out to new partners. Finally.suchastheWorldBankandtheUN. It needs to put the measurement of impact at the heart of its work. FundingformultilateralandNGOpartnersneedstobecomemorepredictable.Thereisa needforfastandflexiblefundingforthe‘criticalperiod’immediatelyaftera humanitarianemergencyhashappened.

The international humanitarian system DFID:Aleadingactorinhumanitarianresponse 3.andprobabilities Respondingtoincreasedneed 4. Challenges Increasingdisasterrisk:themajortrends. Introduction Howthereportisorganised Howthereviewwasconducted 2.7 Humanitarian space Protectionofcivilians Securityofhumanitarianworkers 1 1 2 3 5 9 9 12 13 13 15 16 18 18 19 20 20 21 23 24 25 25 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 35 36 38 40 40 41 .threats.5 Accountability Impact Addressingtheneedsofthemostvulnerable Gender 4.2 Resilience Embeddingresiliencewithindevelopmentprogrammes Regional.1 Anticipation 4. Findings 4.6 Partnership WorkingwiththeUnitedNationsanditsagencies WorkingwiththeEuropeanUnion Workingwithbi-lateraldonors Workingwithnewdonorpartners WorkingwithNGOs WorkingwiththeRedCrossandRedCrescentMovement Workingwiththeprivatesector Workingwiththemilitary 4.TableofContents TableofContents 1.3 Leadership Strategicleadership Operationalleadership Humanresourcecapacities 4.nationalandlocalcapacities Innovativefundingmodelsforrisktransfer 4.4 Innovation Cashbasedapproaches Shelter Technology 4.

1 Changing the policy 5.3 Changing the structure. shifting resources Managingtheresponse Managingrisk 5. Delivering transformational change in DFID 5.5 Getting the message across 6.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 5.2 Delivering differently ShapingtheInternationalSystem Changingthefundingmodel Fastmobilisationfundingandpre-crisisarrangements Fundingrecoveryfromdayone Deliveringsmarterdirectaid WorkingstrategicallyacrosstheUKgovernment 5.4 Driving results and value for money Outcomesandeffectiveness Outputsandefficiency Inputsandeconomy Theglobalsupplychain 5. Recommendations 42 42 43 43 44 45 46 46 47 49 50 50 51 53 53 54 54 55 58 .

manyofthoseinchargeofmajoraidagenciesarewonderinghowtomeet thechallengesofthefuture.Italsocomesatatimeofchange forDFID.whichhas recentlypublishedthefindingsofitsBilateralandMultilateralAidReviews. TheUKisconsideredoneoftheleadingnationsinhumanitarianresponse.Sectionfoursetsoutthefindingsofthereview.ItalsolookstonewpartnershipsandhowDFIDcanwork bestwithintheUKgovernment.thereviewnoteswherepastresponsehasbeenmosteffectiveandlooks forwaystoenhancewhathasbeendonewell.Thereview’s conclusionsonhowDFIDshouldpositionitselfinordertomeetthefuturechallenges areoutlinedinsectionfive.InJanuary2010.Thisintroductionisfollowedbysectiontwo.ThereviewlooksatthewaytheUKcanworkwithotherinternationalbodies andUNagenciesinemergencysituationstoensurethattheglobalresponsetodisasters improves.Workinginpartnershipisabigpartofthe reviewandtheproposedfutureapproach.ThereviewsetsoutwhereDFIDcandeepen thesepartnershipsandhow.which brieflydescribestheinternationalhumanitariansystemandDFID’sroleinit.Thethird sectionlooksatpotentialfuturehumanitarianchallengesandthecapacitiesthereareto copewiththese.Rather.Itfocuses onsuddenonsetdisastersor‘spikes’inconflictsituations.theDisasters EmergencyCommittee(DEC)AppealforHaitiraised£101millionfromthepublic.TheBritish publicitselfgivesgenerouslytoemergencyappeals. How the report is organised Thereportislaidoutinsixsections.TheUKmustworktoinfluencetheglobalsystemifrealimprovementsare tohappen. Thescopeofthereviewdoesnotcoverlong-termchronichumanitariancrises. TheUKworksthroughandwithpartners. Thereviewisforwardlooking.butmanyofthe recommendationswillalsoapplytochronicsituations.Inrecent yearsithasbeenthesecondlargestbilateralhumanitariandonorglobally. TheBritishpublicexpectstheUKtobeamajorhumanitarianresponder.Introduction 1. CreatingthebestUKresponsewillonlygopartofthewaytowardsimprovingthewhole system. Theresponsewasespeciallynotableatatimeofglobaleconomiccrisis. 1 .ItwasaskedtoconsiderhowtheUKshouldbestrespondto humanitarianemergenciesoverseas.andtheroletheUKshouldplayintheinternational humanitariansystem.TheUKisastrongsupporterofthemultilateralsystem.andiswidely regardedinternationally.ItaimstobuildontheUK’sstrengths. Introduction ThisindependentreviewintohowtheUKrespondstohumanitarianemergencieswas commissionedbytheSecretaryofStateforInternationalDevelopmentandledbyLord PaddyAshdown.Sectionsixliststherecommendations.ItisnotanevaluationofDFID’sworkinemergenciesto date.Asthehorrendouseventsunfoldin JapanandoverayearaftertheHaitiearthquakeandsixmonthsafterdevastatingfloods inPakistan. ThisreviewofhowtheUKcarriesoutitshumanitarianresponseworkcomesata momentofreflectionfortheinternationalsystem. providessignificantfundingandconsistentlyprovidesexperiencedstaffandreliefitems tosupporttheresponseinmajoremergencies.

Theadvisoryboardservedinapersonalcapacity.Anindependentdirectorwasappointedtoheadtheteam. Asmallreviewteamcarriedoutconsultations.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview How the review was conducted ThereviewwaschairedbyLordPaddyAshdownandwasentirelyindependentinnature.but representedthroughtheirexperiencethemajorinstitutionsandtraditionsinvolvedin humanitarianresponse.literaturereviewandpreparedmaterial fortheboard. 2 . ASeniorAdvisoryBoard(SAB)of15metonamonthlybasisthroughoutthereview periodtosteerthedirectionofthereview.examinematerialandsetoutthemain themesandrecommendations.

IFRC. (*Amountsunknown) Theformalinternationalhumanitariansystemismadeupofproviders(donor governments.themilitary.andbusinesses.536bn International NGOs $* Local communities and organisations $5. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemrespondstohumanitarianemergencieswhere thereisanappealforinternationalassistance.8bn $* International Private Sector $* Red Cross [ICRC.UNAgenciesandIOMandnationalandregionalNGOs andcivilsociety).Thelegalframeworkforaninternationalhumanitarianemergencyresponseisset outinInternationalHumanitarianLaw. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies] International military organisations National Private Sector $1.namelyaffectedgovernments. Remittanceflowsarealsonotcapturedbytheformalsystem.Thechartaboveshows themaincomponentsofthesystem.7bn $* $* Affected population Figure1: The international humanitarian system.Theinternationalhumanitariansystem 2.orinextremecaseswheredirectedbythe UN.HumanRightsLaw. Theinternationalhumanitariansystem $12.foundationsandindividualgivers)andtheimplementers(RedCrossand RedCrescentMovement. Data included from the Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2010.8bn UN agencies funds and organisations Local NGOs Governments DONORS Private contributions $4.RefugeeLawandUN Resolutions.Anumberofkeyactorsalsoofimportancearestillseentobeoutside theformalsystem.NGOs. 3 .1bn Affected country governments $* DELIVERY AGENCIES $7.

whichdetermineswhenandwhereaUN Peacekeeping(DPKO)operationshouldbedeployed. Therangeofactivitiesundertakenbytheinternationalhumanitariansystemhasalso expanded. Theinternationalsystemisfinancedbygovernmentdonors(ofwhichtheUKisa significantone)andprivatecontributions.Insuchcasesothermultilateralmechanismsandinstitutionsarealso involvedsuchastheUNSecurityCouncil. ii. 4 .9billion)to2009 ($15. Themaindeliveryactorsfallintothree‘pillars’:theUNanditsspecialisedagencies.the RedCrossandRedCrescentMovement. Governments.Aidworkerpopulationhasincreasedby6%yearonyearoverthe last10years2.nutritionandfoodaidandshelter.nationalandlocalinstitutionsinaffectednationstypicallyleadthe responseandprovidemuchoftheassistance.1billion). Inconflictsituationsthereistypicallyapeaceandsecuritydimensiontohumanitarian emergencies.asthisreportexplores.Althoughfundingtotheinternational humanitariansystemhasincreasedfasterthantherateofofficialdevelopment assistance(ODA)inrecentyears. Humanity–thecentralityofsavinglivesandalleviatingsufferingwhereveritisfound. withoutdiscriminationbetweenorwithinaffectedpopulations. Thetotalnumberofstaffworkingfortheinternationalhumanitariansystemis estimatedat210.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Theselegalnormsestablishthathumanitarianaidshouldbeguidedbytheprinciplesof: i. Inrecentyears. iv.andNon-GovernmentOrganisations(NGOs).withtheinternationalsysteminsupport. militaryobjectivesorotherinterestsrelatedtothelocationwhereassistanceis provided.internationalmilitaryforcesandlargeprivatecorporationshave increasinglybecomeaidproviders.foodsecurity. iii.thelatestGlobalHumanitarianAssistance(GHA) reportclaimsthathumanitarianaidfellby11%from2008($16.education.theRedCross/CrescentMovement(48.mentalhealthsupport. Neutrality–humanitarianactionmustnotfavouranysideinanarmedconflictorother dispute. 2 ALNAP. Impartiality–humanitarianaidshouldbeimplementedsolelyonthebasisofneed.agriculture.(2010).TheStateoftheHumanitarianSystem. 1 Stoddard(2008).900).400)and NGOs(112.waterand sanitation.many humanitarianoperationsnowincludeawiderangeofotheractivities.incomegeneration.800(mostlynationalsintheirowncountry).Figuresfortotalinternationalhumanitarian resourcesvarydependingonthesource. infrastructurerehabilitation.humanrightsadvocacyandsupporttothereestablishmentoftheruleoflaw1.However. Independence–humanitarianobjectivesareautonomousfrompolitical.500).including: protection.Thecorehumanitarianactivitiesremain:healthservices.ItismadeupofUN agenciesandtheIOM(49. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemhasgrownrapidlyoverrecentyearsandthereis oftenalackofclarityastowhatthetermactuallyreferstoandwhereitsboundarieslie.economic.

The2002InternationalDevelopmentActprovides thelegalbasisforDFID’sresponsetohumanitarianemergencies.inthecaseoftheHaiti earthquake. 3 AdaptedfromDFID.Theinternationalhumanitariansystem DFID: A leading actor in humanitarian response TheUK.9% ECHO 18.Exceptionally.throughitsDepartmentforInternationalDevelopmentisthesecondlargest bilateralglobalhumanitariandonor.Institutionalstrategicpartnershipshavebeenformedaroundthiscore funding.DFID delivershumanitarianassistanceinfourdistinctways: 1. 5 .9% Red Cross 13.theUNcomponent wassignificantlysmaller. DFIDcontributescorefundingtotheUN.9% NGO 11.closerto40%withlargerpercentagesgoingdirectlytoNGOs andtheRedCross/CrescentMovement.1% Humanitarian Consultancy 0.Latterly. In2009/10totalDFIDhumanitarianspendwassplitasshowninthefigurebelow.morethan50%wentondirectexpenditure.with thesolepurposeto“alleviatetheeffectsofanaturalorman-madedisasterorother emergency”outsidetheUK.aswellasadditionalfundinginbig emergencies. DFID shapes the humanitarian system AsasignificantUNmemberstateandalargedonortotheinternationalsystem.theUK (throughDFID)workswithUNagenciestodelivereffectivelyandimproveperformance.2% Figure2: Percentage of DFID’s humanitarian spend by agency type 2009/10.Accordingto theGHAReport201014donorsspentover60%oftheirhumanitarianaidthroughmultilateral agencies.“DFID’sExpenditureonHumanitarianAssistance2009/10”.3In severalsuddenonsetemergenciesresearchedaspartofthisreview.5% UN 53. Government 0.6% DFID Direct Contribution 1.theUKhasalsosignedtheEUconsensuson humanitarianaidthatenshrinestheprinciplesoutlinedabove.Asadonor.ItgivestheSecretaryof StateforInternationalDevelopmentpowerstoprovidehumanitarianassistance.theUKhas alsosigneduptothePrinciplesandPracticeofGoodHumanitarianDonorship.allowingDFIDandtheUNtosetlong-termgoals.

UNDPandUNICEF(see figure3onpage75).In 2010/11DFIDspent£134milliononrespondingtothefloodsinPakistanalone. 11%wentonrapidonsetfundingforhumanitarianemergencies.Asaresult.leadershipandcoordination ofhumanitarianemergencies. DFIDalsosupportedtheestablishmentofthe‘cluster’approach4.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview In2005DFIDsupporteda‘humanitarianreform’processthatsoughtmorepredictable response.Thereformscalledformajorchangesinfunding.WFP.humanitarianreform.the EU’sfundforemergencies. SeveralmillionpoundseachofcorefundingwenttoallofthebigUNagenciesinvolved inemergenciesandtheRedCross/RedCrescent.DFIDworkstoinfluenceothermemberstatestoincrease contributionstotheCERF.anewcoordination mechanismthatmadeagenciesresponsibleforparticularareaslikeshelterorhealth.aspx?tabid=53forafulllist ofclusters.whichhelpUN agenciesrespondrapidlytoemergencies.org/humanitarianreform/Default.TheUKhasbeenthelargestdonortotheCERF –morethan$420milliontodate–andtocountrypooledfundingmechanisms.ECHOthenspentthismoneythroughUNagencies. 2. 4 Seewww.TheannualcontributiontotheCERF constitutedabout10%ofDFID’snon-ECHOhumanitarianspend.TheoneoffamountsthatDFIDspendson rapidonsetemergencies.Theremainderon protractedcrisessuchasDRCongoorSudan.In2006therewere52countrydonorstotheCERF.however. ECHOwasthebiggestrecipientofUKaidatabout£100millionin2009/10.About£100 millionofthiswentthroughtheEuropeanCommunityHumanitarianOffice(ECHO).AlargeproportionofthefundsspentthroughtheUNwerechannelled toimplementingNGOs.theRed CrossandNGOs. 5 AdaptedfromDFID:“DFID’sexpenditureonhumanitarianassistance2009/10”. DFID funds humanitarian aid agencies and is the second largest bilateral donor after the US Government In2009/10DFIDspentabout£528milliononhumanitarianassistance.DFIDhasworkedtoenlargetheCentral EmergencyResponseFund(CERF)andcreatecountrypooledfunds. 6 .Aswell asleadingbyexample.followedby theICRCat£66million.changesignificantlydependingonthecontext.DFIDcontinuestoplayan influencingroleencouragingclusterleadagenciestoviewhumanitarianleadershipand co-ordinationactivitiesaspartoftheircorework.andthenOCHA(includingCERF). DFIDfundedglobalclusterappealstosetthesystemupandhascontinuedtopush agenciestodeploypeopletoleadthese.Throughitsfunding.By2010 thatfigurehadrisento82countries.

InthecaseoftheHaitiearthquakeresponseover50%oftheexpenditurewasspent directly.theUKcomesafterSaudi Arabia.Denmark.Ireland.DFIDhasastandbyarrangementwiththeUKfire servicetodeploysearchandrescueteamsaftermajorearthquakes.Theoperationsteamisonstandby24/7andisa contractedoutfacility.Theinternationalhumanitariansystem £100 £80 Millions £60 £40 £20 £0 HO RC CH A FP DP EF CH A HC R HO W Sa ve th e IC W UN IC EC UN UN O /O Figure3: UK contributions 2009/10.asoutlinedbyfigure4onpage8.In2009/10DFID’sin-kindgoodsorpersonnel supportamountedto£7million. Inabsoluteterms.Asapercentageofnationalincome(GNI)however. UN DP Ch ild re n 7 .Luxembourgandsomeothers.Sweden. DFID is also on a small scale a direct deliverer of aid. Search and Rescue (SAR) capabilities. and supporting secondments where appropriate HavingadirectresponsecapabilityallowsDFIDtostrengthenandinfluencethe internationalhumanitariansystem.currentlymanagedbyCrownAgents.Ithasstandby arrangementswithairfreightcontractorsandcandeployrapidlynichecapabilitieslike airporthandling. 3.Kuwait.Italsohasitsown standing‘operationsteam’(CHASEOT)thatcandeployrapidlytoemergenciesandruns alldirectdeliveryfromLondon. providing goods in kind.ItprovidesexpertpersonneltotheUnitedNationsonrequestand assemblesteamsspeedilyforDFID.theUKhasbeenthesecondlargestbilateralhumanitariandonorafter theUS.

principallytheFCO.DecisionsonwhethertodeployUKmilitarycapabilities aretakenonacase-by-casebasis. DFID leads the HMG response to humanitarian emergencies DFIDworkswithotherWhitehalldepartments.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Search and Rescue (SAR) Air brokers UN secondees MOD In kind Stabilisation Unit (SU) Government advisor Security Figure4: Percentage allocations of DFID’s direct spend on the Haiti earthquake response.DFIDleadson makingthehumanitariancase. CHASE OT 4.MODandCabinet OfficetocoordinatetheUKresponsetoahumanitarianemergency. 8 .

1millionreportedin2009weredisplacedin54countries.Bangladesh.andman-madeconflicts.healthcareandeducation. faminesanddroughts.052peopledieinanygivendisasterinlessdevelopedcountries.EthiopiaandtheDemocraticRepublic oftheCongo.lackingaccessto adequatewaterandsanitation.GlobalOverviewofTrendsandDevelopmentsin2009.263millionpeoplewereaffectedbydisasters–110millionmorethanin 2004. Challenges Allcurrenttrendssuggestthatmorepeople–particularlyindevelopingcountries–will beaffectedbyhumanitarianemergenciesinthecomingdecades.Theimpactofdisastersonurbancentreswill haveeconomicconsequencespotentiallygreaterthaninthepast.withvirtuallyallpopulationgrowthoccurringinlow-income countries.The 27.TheRighttoSurvive.IDMC/NRC.By2015.1billionby2050.suchasfloods. mostlyinlowandmiddleincomenations9. and probabilities 6 7 8 9 Oxfam.particularlyinlessdevelopedcountries.damagemayhavefarreaching consequencesmakingrebuildingcostlier.Theconcentrationofpopulationsinurban areaswillchangethenatureofmanyhumanitariandisasters.Morepeoplewillbeliving onmarginalland.includingPakistan.Notonlywillthey becomemorefrequent.thoseinternallydisplacedhasconsistentlyrisen. Lastyear. Oxfam.statelesspersonsandthosedisplacedwithintheirowncountry.(2009).Anestimated27.5million. threats.atlocal.Theworld’spopulationispredictedtoreach 9.Nigeria. UNHABITAT. In2009UNHCRreportedits‘totalpopulationofconcern’at36.nationaland regionallevel.inovercrowdedandpoorlyplannedhousing.willaffect manymore. InternalDisplacement(2010).theywillalsobeincreasinglyunpredictableandcomplex.1millionofthesewere displacedwithintheirowncountriesasaresultofarmedconflict.Whilstthetrendforrefugees(fleeingtheircountry) hasgonedowninrecentyears.generalisedviolenceor humanrightsviolations7. By2030.Otherdisasters(suchasearthquakes).climate-relateddisasters.including refugees.Challenges 3.over61%oftheworld’spopulation(5billionpeople)willliveinurbanareas. comparedto23indevelopedcountries8.Bydefinition thesearepeoplefleeingconflictorpersecution. 9 .Thisfigurerepresentedanincreaseofoveramillioninthe numberofinternallydisplacedpeople(IDPs)comparedwiththe26millioninternally displacedin2008andalsoin2007.TheRighttoSurvive.arepredictedtoaffectanaverageofover375millionpeople everyyear6.Whilstavailabilityofservices andinfrastructureshouldmeanfewerfatalities.theyearoftheTsunami.(2009). Increasing disaster risk: the major trends. Alreadyanaverageof1. Therisingworldpopulationandgrowthinurbanareas(demographicstress)willalmost certainlyincreasethehumanitariancaseload.

10 HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Earthquakes Recent history of conflict Multiple stress zone Water stress Demographic stress Crop decline Hunger Coastal risk Figure5: Areas likely to be at risk of instability as a result of multiple environmental stress. . Data from the Defence Concepts and Doctrine Centre (DCDC) Strategic Trends review 2006-2036 and International Charter ‘Space and Major Disasters’.

whichhaveespeciallydamagingeffectsondevelopingcountries.Donorswill 10 HumanitarianFuturesProgramme.Theyarebecomingmoreinvolvedin humanitarianemergencyresponses.aswiththenuclearthreatinJapancaused bytsunami.Migrationandchanging employmentpatternswillcontributetovulnerabilityinunexpectedways.reducingU. Mediareportingofhumanitarianresponseshasgrownoverthelastyearsandwill continuetohaveanimpactonthepoliticalandpublicreactiontodisasters.BrazilandtheGulfStatescontinuetogrow.Climatechangewillreduceyields. sourcesofsurvival. Globalisationandtheincreasinglyinterconnectedworldinwhichwelive.TheUSCongressisconsideringwhethertocut America’shumanitarianassistancebudgetin2011.theyare playinganincreasinglyimportantroleglobally.particularly asitispossiblethattraditionalDACdonorswillbeabletoprovidefewerresourcesfor disasterreliefinthecomingyears.Governmentsandnon-stateactorsinconflicthavebecome increasinglysophisticatedintheirattemptstomanageinternationalhumanitarianism.Remittanceflowsarealreadythesecondlargestsourceofforeigndirect investment(FDI)fordevelopingcountriesandincreasesignificantlyafteranemergency.andspilloverfromconflict-affected areascontributetoregionaldestabilisationandrefugeeflows. TheDiasporacommunitycanalsoinfluencethesizeandtypeofdonorresponse. dependingonitssizeandvociferousness.forinstanceas waterresourcesbecomescarce10.Thereispotentialforrepeatedfoodpricespikessimilartothoseofrecent years.Thereisagrowingdemandforbio-fuelsandincreasingconstraintsareposedby thepriceoffertilisersandfuels.FutureoftheHumanitarianSystem:ImpactsofInternalChanges.particularlyintheirneighbouringregions.theworldasawholefacesthetaskofincreasingfoodproductionby70to 100%by2050inordertocopewithagrowingpopulationwithagreaterlivestockbased diet. necessitatingtheproductionofstoredsurplusesinsomeregionstocompensatefor losseselsewhere.withthe potentialtocreatenewsecuritythreats.India.Pandemicsspreadrapidlythroughairtravel. Economicshocksinoneregionspreadthroughcommoditypriceincreaseandlossof remittanceflows.primarilyinAsiaandAfrica. Futurecrisescoulddifferfundamentallyfrompastexperienceandtheprospectof ‘synchronousfailures’isagrowingconcern.Newsourcesofdisplacementorconflictarealsopossible.Conflictdoesnotrespectborders. Timelyandunimpededaccesstoaffectedpopulationsisbecomingmoredifficultdueto theincreasinglycomplexnatureofemergencies. makingtraditionalwaysofinterveningmoredifficult.theshortageoflandandwaterandtheirincreased degradation.China wasanimportantactorintheresponsetothePakistanfloodsattheendof2010.The internationalhumanitariansystemneedstoworkmorewiththesepartners.Challenges Growingfoodinsecurityislikelytocreatenewhumanitarianemergencies.Therehasbeenanunprecedented growthinviolentattacksonhumanitarianworkers(177%increasefrom1997to200811) andthereisagrowingneedforincreasedprotectionandsecurityaspartofthe humanitarianresponse. TheDiasporacommunityisplayinganincreasinglysignificantroleinhumanitarian responses.S.(2010)TheWatersoftheThirdPole:sourcesofthreats. 11 .Underlyingthese challenges.Theexistenceofnearlyabillionchronically hungrypeople.within countriesandregionsandalsoglobally.meansthat disastersoftenhaveaglobalimpact. 11 JohnBorton. AseconomiesinChina.sometimescatastrophically.alreadyexacerbatestheconsequencesof emergencies.(2009).foodaidprogrammes by41%($687million)andOfficeofForeignDisasterAssistancefundingby67% ($875million).

Merelyimprovinguponwhathasbeendoneinthe pastwillnotbeenoughtomeetthechallengesofthefuture.andengagementwithnewactors. Increasedmediacoverageandnewwaysofcommunicatingthroughsocialmediatools. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemevolvedover150years.Seriousissues havebeenidentified. 12 .butnotaddressed.whichisgreaterthanthesumofitsparts.Inbothcases.andincreasedaccountability.whichis strugglingtocopewithcurrentlevelsofneed.inresponsetosuchconcerns.Strongerlinksbetweenhumanitarianand developmentwork.itwasnotplannedor designed.theperformanceoftheinternationalhumanitariansystemhasbeen inconsistent.willallowclosercontactbetweenrecipientsofaidand thosedonatingthemoney. suchasTwitterandFacebook.theinternationalhumanitariansystem showeditselftobelessthanthesumofitspartsandtheresponseswerecharacterised byweakleadership.overlapsandnumerousinefficienciesinthewayit works. Fortoolong.Togethertheywilldemandgreateraccountabilityofthe deliverersandtheofficialdonoragencies.betteruseoftechnologyand innovations.Asaresult.poorcoordinationandaslowresponse.NGOsandotherinternationalactors.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview havetomakedifficultdecisionsonhowtorespondtoadisasterinthefullglareof24/7 mediaattention.havethe potentialtobreakanalreadystretchedinternationalhumanitariansystem.Numerousreportshavebeenwrittenbythe UN.betterleadershipandcoordination.accesstonewresourcesthrough improvedpartnerships.therearegaps.failingthosemostinneed.Thereweretwomajorhumanitarian disastersin2010.willallbevitalpartsofahighperforming internationalhumanitariansystem. Responding to increased need Theincreaseintheinternationalhumanitariancaseloadandchallenges.Thefuturechallengesoutlinedabovewillneedamoresophisticatedoperation.Nowisthetimeforastepchangeinthe approachtohumanitarianreform. Newandinnovativewaysofworkingneedtobewidelyintroducedtoimprovethe efficiencyandspeedofdisasterresponse.whichrequiredinternationalhumanitarianassistance–theearthquake inHaitiandfloodsinPakistan.

andneedtheinternationalcommunitytodothis ontheirbehalfforatime(e. 12 TsunamiEvaluationCoalition(2006).andwith affectedpeople.incorporating disasterresilienceintodevelopmentprocesses.abuilderofcoalitionsandawillingparticipantinthem.Mostofall. Findings Thefirstpeopletorespondtodisastersandconflictaretheonesaffectedbythem. Wherenationalgovernmentsarecapable. 13 .Nigerin2009).WorldBank.orhostiletointernationalresponse (ortoaparticulargroupintheirpopulationbeinghelped). • Governmentswhoareunabletolead.local hospitalsworkthroughthenighttocarefortheinjured.g.then thishastochange.Inrealitymanyare predictable.Casestudiesforthisreviewshowdramaticgainsinplacessuch asBangladeshandIndonesia12. buttheapproachhasnotalwaysreflectedthisreality. Inthesefourbroadcategoriestheinternationalcommunityhastoresponddifferently.droughtsandstorms).Mozambique). Thisreviewsuggestsadifferentapproachisneeded.(2005).1 Anticipation Disastersareoftenviewedinthepublicimaginationas‘actsofGod’. Inmanycountriesgovernmentsroutinelyaffectedbydisastershavebecomeadeptat responseandprevention.NaturalDisasterHotspots:AGlobalRiskAnalysis.Whereitisslow. Iftheworldisgoingtogetbetteratthechallengessetoutintheprecedingchapter.India).Metal.g.g.This reviewhascalledthisbeinga‘networkenabler’.aswellaswithaidagencies.In someinstancesgovernmentsareactivelybelligerent.orfindtheyarecompletelyunabletocoordinate.Theyhavetosupportlocalinstitutions ratherthanweakenthem.Haiti).theyinvariablyleadtheresponsetodisaster evenwhenitisonaninternationalscale.g.ALNAP.Butalltoooftentheinternationalresponsearrivesas thoughthiswerenotthecase.andthereareplentyof credibledataavailableidentifyingcountriesmostaffectedbydisasters.werethesame.Whengovernmentsareoverwhelmedthey eitherstruggletoassertthemselves. Friendsandneighbourssearchthroughtherubbleforlovedonesafterearthquakes.A2005WorldBankreport‘globalhotspots’13identifiescountriesexposedto multiplenaturalhazards(earthquakes.it requiresbeingapartner. • Governmentswhoareunableorunwillingtoleadandareobstructive(e. Inconflictsituationstheinternationalsystemoftenbecomesthelasthopeforpeople livingintheworstcircumstances.Thissuggestsfourbroad categories: • Strongandcapablegovernmentswhotakethelead(e.sweepingasidelocalrespondersandaddingtothechaos ratherthanalleviatingit.Suchanapproachwouldrequire muchmoreworkontheanalysisofrisksandcapacitiesinadvance.Findings 4.itisthese peoplewhosuffer.orgetsthingswrong.andallgovernments.especiallywherethereisconflict. • Capablebutunderresourcedgovernmentswhoneedhelptolead(e. 13 Dilley.DonoragencieslikeDFIDhavetoworkwithgovernments. 4.Italsorequiresmoreworkonbringinga disparateinternationalresponsetogethersothatitperformsmorereliably. DFIDtoohastendedtorespondasifalldisasters.

Science 14 TheDCDCGlobalStrategicTrendsProgramme2007–2036.HurricaneseasonsintheCaribbeanandtheBayofBengalarewellknownand monitored.itwasalsobecauseDFIDhasan innovativeregionalfundinWestAfricaforcrisisresponse.ThequestionofearthquakesinKathmanduor Tehraniswhenratherthanwhether.notablytheUSAIDsupportedFEWSNET.despitetheintransigenceofgovernmentand thetardinessoftheUnitedNations.Partlythiswasduetopromptactionbythe EuropeanUnionhumanitarianorganisationECHO.Thereareprovenearly warningsystemsthatmonitorpotentialcrises.droughtsandstorms).Beingabletotoleratefailure– gettingitwrongoccasionally–isimportant.Supportingresilienceinatrisk nationswillfurtherincreasethelikelihoodthatearlyactionwillbetaken. ManyagencieswereabletoactinNiger.uk/ DefenceInternet/AboutDefence/Organisation/AgenciesOrganisations/DCDC/ 15 DARA(2010).andhowtimelyinterventioncansavetensofthousandsoflives. Whatisalsoclearisthatasclimaterelateddisastersincrease. 14 .Thisregionalfundallows agenciestogetmoneyquicklyforunexpectedandunnoticeddisasters–itallowsfor earlyaction.TherainfallthatproducedPakistan’sterrible floodsof2010happenedamonthbeforethefloodwatercauseditsgreatest devastation. 16 Seeforinstancethe1MarchSelectCommitteeonScienceandTechnologyfindingsthatthere isinadequateuseofscienceforanticipatingemergencies.Therehavebeensignificantadvancesin understandingearthquakeriskandwhentheymightoccurthroughmonitoringground motion.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview TheUKDefenceConceptsandDoctrineCentre(DCDC)goesfurtherinits‘horizon scanning’reportof200714.howevergoodthescience.the locationofmajorfaultlinesiswellknown.iswithearthquakes andvolcanoes.TheNigercasestudyforthisreviewshows howclearevidencedoesnotalwaystriggeraresponse(theblockageinNigerwas domesticpolitics).ElNinoandLaNinaoceaneffectslastforsomeyearsandchangeweather patternsinwaysthatarepartlyunderstood.Thecostbenefitofninetimely interventionseasilyoutweighsonewrongjudgementcall.ispossibleforsomehigh-risk nations.economyandconflict.factoringin demography.orvulnerability. Despitethis.witharecentreport15identifyingsub-SaharanAfricaasoneof themostatriskareas.andscientistsdonotroutinely produceinformationforthisaudience16.See:www.andproofthatpriorinterventionnotonlysaveslivesbutischeaper.Rainfalldataforregionsandcountriesin aridzonessuggestsdroughtcyclescanbeidentifiedearly.andisamatterofpoliticalwill.butstillhasawaytogo.Butdisaster managersdonotmakeenoughuseofsuchscience. Oneareawherepredictionisimproving.understandingthereasonsforbuildingdamageandcollapsesothat codesandstandardscanbedevelopedtoensuresafeconstructioninthefuture. Althoughearthquakescannotbepredictedwithanycertaintyinshorttimeframes.Thousandsofchildrenweresavedasaresultoftheseearlyactions.Thesegeo-physicalhazardsaredifferenttothehydro-meteorological onestouchedonabove(floods.Buttherewill alwaysbeanelementofrisk.Theytendtohappenless frequentlybutcauseseveredamage.these ‘slowonset’disastersareregularlymissed.Climatechangeisanotherobviouselementof stress.mod.Theeffectswerepredictedbutnotactedon. Earlyactionisatleastasimportantasearlywarning.Itidentifiesareasof‘multiplestress’. TheexpansionoftheCentralEmergencyResponseFund(CERF)wasinpartawayof makingsuchdecisionsmoretechnicalandlesspolitical. Thiscanalsobethecasewith‘foodsecurity’crises(famines). Whatisclearisthatprediction.Likewise.thebetterwewillneedto becomeatpredictionifwearetohaveanyhopeofcopingwiththese.althoughfarfromperfect.Climatevulnerabilitymonitor2010:thestateofclimatecrisis.

 Whilstpredictingsinglehazardsispossiblebutoftenneglected.butresearchandinvestmentisneededelsewheretopromote safeconstruction.Conversely.inaninter-connectedworldtheseeventsare evermorelikelyandpolicymakersneednewtoolstohelpthemanticipate. Recommendations DFID should: 1 2 3 Assemble and regularly update a global risk register for DFID using information gained from its country teams and international organisations. Butthisisnotonlyaboutrichnations. Anticipatingandpredictingconflictisanotherareathathasimprovedinrecentyears. MakebetteruseoftheDFIDChiefScientisttosupportUKscienceinanticipatingcrises.havingshockresistantinfrastructure.BringingtheresourcesoftherestofIndonesiatobear enabledthisrapidrecovery.AmuchlargerearthquakeinChilelaterintheyearkilled 3. Makethisavailableasacontributiontopre-crisisarrangementsacrossthesystem.TheHaitiearthquakeatthebeginning of2010killed230.000housesinthreeyears.Banda AcehinIndonesiawasdevastatedbythe2005tsunami. wherenationsarefragiletheyaremuchlessabletocope.orcombinationsofhazardsisafactorofmagnitudemoredifficult.ThiswassimilarlytrueforKhyberPakhtunkhwaprovinceinPakistan whichwasbetterpreparedasaresultofitsresponsetothe2005earthquake.almostonehundredtimesfewer.a1970cycloneinEastPakistan(nowBangladesh) killednearlyhalfamillionpeoplewhereasasimilarstrengthcyclonein2008killed 3.asistheabilitytoadapt.Theseareimportant.andbeingabletorecoveriswhatmakesnationsresilient. TheearthquakeinHaitihassetbackthedevelopmentofthatnationmanyyears.socialprotectionmechanisms.anticipatingunexpected hazards. 4.butmanagedtorebuild 100.Beingabletoanticipate disasters.000people.2 Resilience Theimpactofadisasterdependsonhowwellpreparedacountryistocopewithit.The possibilityofalarge-scalefloodcausinganuclearspillforinstance(asJapanhasproved).therehasneverbeenashortageof warningaboutpendingconflictsinahostofplaces.financial andhumanresourcesareallpartofbeingresilient. 15 . ordroughtsinRussiaandfloodsinAustralialeadingtofoodpriceriotsinWestAfricais difficulttoseeinadvance. Somearebetterabletobouncebackthanothers.Findings inthisareahasproventohaveverysignificantlyreducedfatalitiesanddamageinmany countriesandiscritical. RegularcrisesindicesfromtheInternationalCrisisGrouportheFundforPeacearebeing usedbygovernmentstoinformdecisionsonearlyaction.asin contrasttoearlywarningfornaturaldisasters.000people. Beingprepared.ThedifferencewasthatintheinterveningthirtyyearsBangladeshhadbecome betterprepared.000.Beingabletochannelinternationalresourceseffectivelywas anotherkeyaspect.Nevertheless.

Evenwhenacountry copesquitewelloverallwithadisaster.Apaperforthe2010WorldEconomicForumHumanitarianCouncil. Anewresilienceapproachwillincludeworkingatregional.“exposuretoriskandincomeshock”. Ultimatelydevelopmentistheanswertobeingabletocopewithdisasters–the exampleatthebeginningofthischapterillustratesthat–butgettingtodevelopment candependonbeingabletobouncebackfromdisasters. Workonlegalframeworks.Droughts insouthernAfricainthe1990sledtobigswingsinGDPgrowthacrosstheregion.noraretheymentionedinthe MillenniumDevelopmentGoals.climatechangeandresource scarcity.andworkonbolsteringthedepartments thatrespondafterdisasters. AseminalWorldBankstudyin2004foundthatdisasterssloweconomicgrowthinthe longtermaswellasshortterm18.“Encouraginginvestmentinadaptationmeasuresthroughmulti-year contracts”. 18 BensonandClay(2004). Theseriskslooksettoincreasewithpopulationgrowth.tearfund.andespeciallyfortheoverallgoalwithin DFIDofreducingpoverty.Thisisespeciallytrueincountriesthatdependon agriculture.achievingpoverty reductionwillgetharder.Between2000and 2009MunichReestimateseconomiclossesfromdisasterswere$670billion17.workonplanning.Incorporatingdisastercostsintolongertermeconomicplanningis necessaryifvaluabledevelopmentresourcesarenottobedivertedtorecovery.andthatthisisultimatelytheansweranyway.pdf 16 .Reducingmaternalmortalityandothermillennium developmentgoalswilldependonnationsbeingresilient.org/webdocs/Tilz/Research/Investing%20in%20Communities%20web. Thisapproachisnolongerdefensible. TheWorldBankrecognisesthisinitsguidelinesforpovertyreductionstrategies(PRS).WorldBank.Thebodyofacademicevidencethatdisastersand shocksmustbetakenseriouslyisgrowing.Disastersoftenhitthepooresthardest.Thesameistruein developingcountries.The earlywarningandactionsystemsinBangladeshhavealsopreventedhighdeathrates.suchasnationaldisastermanagementagencies.asistheevidencethatinvestmentin reducingdisasterriskshowsgoodreturns.SeeTearfundforinstanceat http://tilz.Despitethis.InthefragilecountrieswhereDFIDisincreasinglyworking. Thisanalysishasimplicationsfordevelopment.astheyhavelessabilityto copefinanciallywiththecostofdisasters.Civil societyorganisationsthatrespondtodisastersshouldbesupportedtoplaytheirroletoo.national.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Embedding resilience within development programmes Disasterscanhavesignificantimpactoncountries’development.ata householdlevel.Atnationallevelthereneedstobemoreworkondisastermanagement.Theeconomicimpactsofdisasters.thepoorestandmostvulnerablecanbe disproportionatelyaffected.acommunitylevelandanationallevel.littleisroutinely doneaboutdisastersindevelopmentstrategies.Bangladeshismoreresilientto disasterseconomicallybecauseofstructuralchangesinitsagriculturalsector(the deregulationofagriculturalinvestmentledtomoredisasterresistantirrigation).Flooddefenceandretrofittingbuildingsfor earthquakesintheUSfoundanaveragecostbenefitofonetofour19. 19 Somecostbenefitanalysiscitefactorsashighas1:24.andtheireconomiesareworseaffected overall.Conventionalthinkinghasbeenthatscarceresources shouldbeusedtopromotegrowth.Disastersalsoaffecttheeconomiesofmiddle-incomecountrieshowever.setting thembackyears.as theytendtohavemanufacturingsectors(forexample)connectedtoagriculture.Some smallcountrieshavesustainedlossesthroughdisasterofseveraltimestheirGDP.Vietnamlosesover1%ofitsGDPannuallydealingwithdisasters.communityand householdlevel.Thismeanspoorercountriesaredoublyaffected. Floodsanddroughtscanhaveknockoneffectsintermsoffoodproductionand internationaltrade. Oneofthefourdimensionsofpovertyis. 17 QuotedbyKunreutherin.

Findings Atcommunityandhouseholdlevelthereneedstobeworkonmechanismsand institutionstorespond(suchascivilcontingencycommittees).TheNigercasestudyforthisreviewdemonstratesthattargetedcash distributionsattherighttimecanstophouseholdsslippingintostarvation. Governmentsandcivilsocietyorganisationsalsoneedhelptoprovidesocialprotection mechanisms.sellingassets andincurringdebtalongtheway.butthesemeasuresareneeded before. Allofthisisavoidablewithworkinginstitutions.Alackofinstitutionsandcapacitiesmeansthataccidentsleadto muchhigherlossoflife.Disasterriskreduction(DRR)work seekstobuildlocalresponsesystemsandsmallmitigationinfrastructure.establishesthecapacities neededforresponseandensurestraining. DevelopmentinplaceslikeEthiopiaisfocusingmoreonsocialsafetynetsandis exploringexcitingnewideassuchasmicroinsurance.Peoplelivingontheperilousedgeofextremepoverty cannotaffordtotaketherisksneededtoescapethissituationotherwise.thatin fragilestates.thecombinationofsuchmeasurescanprovidethebasis foreconomicdevelopment.orstatesinconflict. Inthisvacuum.smallconflictscannotberesolvedandgrowtobigonesand communitiesarenotabletoprotectthemselves.ThecasestudyinDRCongoforthisreport highlightedthevulnerabilityofstatesandsocietiestoeventhesmallestshockswhen theyareveryfragile.petroltankerexplosionsthatdo thesame.knowledgeandeducation.equippingandregularpractising. Thisreportwasnotmandatedtolookatprotractedconflicts.andwillbeimportantasDFIDworkstobuildinstitutions.theinternationalhumanitariansystemisoftenthe provideroflastresorttotheverypoorest.orplayadualrolelikeschoolsthatareusedascycloneshelters.Sohumanitarianagenciesprovidebasichealthcareandrespondwhen majorkillerslikecholeraormeaslesbreakout.Butasthemoneyis usuallyhumanitarianitisonlyavailableafteradisasterhasstruck.Ensuringhumanitariananddevelopmentworkcloselytogetherwillbe vitallyimportant.Crucially. Intheaftermathofthe9/11atrocitiesintheUS.muchofwhatistodaycalled‘humanitarian’inDRCongoissimply substitutionservicedelivery.buttheyarenotresourcedorplannedindetail.ajudicialprocessthatallowsdisputestoberesolved beforetheybecomeviolent.anddisasterpreparednessandresponse.Many countrieshavenationaldisasterprotocols. governance.Itisclearthough.andoninfrastructurethat canwithstanddisasters.boataccidentsthatkillhundreds.afireservicethatcanattend accidentsbeforetankersexplode. Thiskindofworkistakingplaceindifferentsectors.Relativelysmallinputsattherighttimecansaveyears ofmiseryanddisease.Healthcareisnotprovidedbythestateandpeoplearetoo poortopayforit.apoliceorsecurityservicethatarrestsbandits.TheHyogo FrameworkforActionsetsoutfivebuildingblocksforeffectivedisasterriskreduction.riskassessment.Alicensingauthoritythatdoesnot allowferriestorunwithoutcheckingthemforsafety.Thisplansetsoutprotocolsforincidentcontrol.making stateslessfragile.Allofthisneedstobebrought togetherformaximumeffectiveness.theUKputinplacea‘national resilienceplan’.Resilienceisanimportantwayto understandthiswork.Climatechangeadaptationworkisoftenaboutmitigation worktoo–fromplantingmoremangrovestonewseedvarietiesforwarmersummers.notaftertheevent.Massrapesandrobberyarecommittedintheeastby rovinggroupsofbandits. 17 .DFIDhadastanding pledgetospend10%ofitsresponsebudgetonDRR.Afishingconflictin2009thatledtotheexodusofthousandsofpeopleacross theborderwhenitturnedviolent.recognisingthatitdidnothavethewherewithaltodealwithsucha disaster.riskmanagementand vulnerabilityreduction.InDRCongothereareemergencies almostconstantly.

 Thesameistrueofcivilsocietyorganisations.it wouldalsobepossibletogivemoneyandgoodsdirectlytothegovernmentaftera disasterknowinghowsuchresourceswouldbeused. NationalDisasterManagementAgenciesexistinmostcountriesthatsufferregular disasters.increasinggovernments’self-determinationandownership. Innovative funding models for risk transfer Asthecostofdamagecausedbyextremeweatherconditionsissoaring. TheAssociationofSouthEastAsianNations(ASEAN)playedapivotalroleinfacilitating theresponsetocycloneNargisinBurmainMay.Therehasbeenfundingfornationaldisaster preparedness.Thisregionalcooperationaround disasterresponsehascontinued. national and local capacities DFIDhasnottraditionallyfundedgovernmentsdirectlyinhumanitariancrises(lessthan 1%inthelasttwoyears). Anapproachtailoredtogovernmentcapacitywouldofferseveraladvantages.InMozambiquethegovernment askedfor£2milliontohelpthemprepareaheadofanticipatedfloodingin2006.InBangladeshUNDPhasalistofmore than30pre-approvedlocalNGOsthatitgaveDFIDmoneytoafterthe2008cyclone.leadingtopromptresponseintheeventofdisaster.organisationssuchastheRedCrossand RedCrescentNationalSocietiesoftenhaveformalresponsibilitiesinthenational disasterplan. GovernmentslikethePhilippinesandIndonesiacanalreadyrespondtoquitelarge disasterswithoutinternationalhelp.Withanestablishedrelationship.more sustainablewaystotackleweatherriskareneeded.Itisnotaconsciousstrategy.g.Catastrophe bondsarealsoissuedmorecommonlynow.This wasnotforthcoming.Withproperresourcestheycanpreparejointlywithgovernmentandother privateorvoluntaryagencies.butoftenlackequipmentandtraining.Public-privatepartnershipsinrisk financinghavebecomemorepopular. ManyoftheinternationalNGOs(andespeciallyfaithbasedorganisationslikeChristian AidandCAFOD).Increasinglygovernmentsatriskfromdisastersare sharingexpertisethroughsuchregionalforums.thefundingof nationalandlocalNGOsbyDFIDremainshitandmiss. protectinglivelihoodsanddiminishingnegativeeffectsofreliefinterventionsonlocal 18 .Specialfundingchannelscouldbe setupinadvance.whilstDFIDhasbuiltupconsiderable expertiseinrapidprocurement.Despitethis.typicallythroughtheUN.makingtransparencyandreportingeasier.asmanygrantstointernationalpartners arepassedontonationalandlocalorganisations.e.allowingfor long-termplanning. Insurancecanplayaroleinguaranteeingpredictableandreliablepayouts.spreadinggoodpracticeanddeveloping jointearlywarningsystems.but moreofaby-product.itusuallydonatesitsinkindassistancethroughaid agencies. Anincreasedfocusonnationalandlocalcapacitiescouldalsoincluderegionalbodies.Similarly.inparticularparametricinsurance.routinelyworkthroughlocalpartners.ratherthangovernment.2008.TheRedCrossandRedCrescent Movementalwaysworkthroughitsnationalsocieties.Thisisnot routinelylinkedwithsubsequentresponsehowever.byMexicotoprovideresourcesinthe eventofsevereearthquakeorhurricanedamage.whentherewasfloodinglaterthatyeartheinternationalresponse costover£60million.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Regional.althoughithasfundedmulti-donorreconstructionfunds throughtheUNandtheWorldBank.incountrieslikeBangladesh.althoughitfundsthemindirectly. NeitherdoesDFIDroutinelyfundlocalNGOsorlocalorganisationsinrapidonset emergencies.Preservinginternationalcapacityforthosedisasters thataretrulyoverwhelmingmakesmuchmoresensethanhavingtodeployexpensive internationalworkerstofloodssimplybecausethelocalsystemwassounderresourced.withjointprotocolsondeploymentofmilitaryassets oneofthelatestdevelopments.

 TheCaribbeanCatastropheRiskInsuranceFacility(CCRIF)isthemostprominent exampleofapublicprivateinsurancemechanismthatDFIDhasfunded. 5 4.whichareableatthecountrylevelto supportentrepreneurial.Thelimitationsarethatpremiumscanbetoohighwithhighopportunity costs. Recommendations DFID should: 4 Ensure that building resilience is part of the core DFID programme in at risk countries.whichwillincreaseinresilienceand improvedisasterresponse.June2010. Thereisrarelyavisionbeyondfundraising.Onthestrengthofthese findingsthereviewconcludesthatthereisaneedforfurtherhumanitarianreforms.leadingtotheestablishmentofanAfrican-ownedriskpooling entityforweatherrisk.andinindividualcrises.theUNremainstheonlylegitimateauthoritythatcandoso. Country offices should undertake contingency planning.withadedicated globalEmergencyReliefCoordinatorsupportedbythebigspecialisedUNagencies.andmarketsolutions. integrating the threat from climate change and other potential hazards into disaster risk reduction. • Theestablishmentofdirectfundingmechanisms.Itistrueatastrategiclevelandatan operationallevel.Itistrueacrosstheinternationalsystem. AlthoughtheUNhasthemandatetolead. 19 .itsperformancehasbeenverydisappointing overall. Promote national response capacities of governments and civil society in at risk countries including: • Thedevelopmentofnationalresiliencestrategies.“DoesDisasterInsuranceHaveaRoleinClimateChangeAdaptation”.3 Leadership Insituationswherethegovernmentofanaffectedcountryisunabletolead humanitarianresponse. • ThroughcivilsocietyorganisationssuchasRedCrossandCrescentSocieties.Thisreviewfindsthatthereisappetiteforthiswithinthesystem.Thereisalso thedangerofmoralhazard–governmentsnotfocussingenoughonriskreductionand preventionbecausetheyfeelinsured.Thereview welcomesthisgroundbreakingwork. 20 ChristianAid. Overtheyearsacomplexsystemhasbeenputinplacetodothis. Whatisneededisacompleteoverhaulofstrategicandoperationalleadershipinthe UN. • Regionalresponsemechanismswheretheyaddvalue.DFIDisnowalsoinvestinginthedesignofthe AfricaRiskCapacity. Thiswasespeciallytrueinthelargerdisasters.Findings markets20.andthatitisin theinterestoftheUKtochampionit.andthatitisnoteasytotelliftheinsurancegivesvalueformoney. • Nationalandlocalprivatesectorcompanies.InallbutoneofthecasestudiesforthisreviewUNleadershipwaspoor.andrarelyanorganisingnarrativethat drawstogetherthedisparatecapacities.Theissueisattheheartofensuringaffected peoplereceivewhattheyneedandachievingvalueformoney.Timefor ClimateJustice.

Itsoughttofillgapsinhumanitarianservicedelivery.Eachhasseparatemandates.UNICEFistheworld’slargestchildren’sagency providingeverythingfromcleanwatertotemporaryeducation.WHOleadsthehealthcluster.andforthispoliticalbackingtoextendinto responseswhentheyoccur. Theclusterapproachwasdevelopedasthelatestattempttosolvethecoordination problem. Operational leadership OneofthefundamentaldrawbackstoachievingamorereliableresponsefromtheUN isthatitismorealoosecollectionofstrongandseparateagenciesthanawell functioningsystem.WFPistheworld’spremierfoodagency. Finally.forinstancefinancingwhichhas improvedasaresultofthelastroundofreform.Thisis expandedinfurthersectionsofthisreport.Itdrove thelastroundofreformsandwillreceivemuchsupportforinitiatinganewround.Thisideahassubsequentlybeentakenup intheIASCandthereviewstronglysupportsthisprocess.Todo soitwillneedtobuildcoalitionsofsupportandworkcleverlywithitspartners.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Strategic leadership Firstandforemost.withlogisticsthatrival manymulti-nationalcompanies.Thiscreatescompetition.boards.Clustercoordinatorsoftenlack experienceandthetrainingrequiredtoprovidestrongleadership.Itneedstolookoutsideitsownnarrowbasetosecurethebesttalent.TheUKisalsooneofthebestplaced.The clusterleadisusuallyaUNagencyalthoughIFRCleadstheshelterclusterandSavethe Childrenco-leadstheeducationclusterwithUNICEF. 20 .andalargedonortothesystemitisimportantto workontheseissues. FortheUKasastrongUNsupporter.Butplanningandprioritisationremain weakandpoliticised. TheUNneedstodevelopacadreofcapablehumanitarianresponseleaders.Keyagenciesweregivenresponsibilityforleadershipandcoordinationforeach sector. makingprioritisationespeciallydifficultasitcanhavefundingimplications. Butperformanceofclustershasbeendisappointing. asdotheWorldHealthOrganisation(WHO)andtheFoodandAgriculturalOrganisation (FAO)whoarealsoinvolvedinhumanitarianemergencies.butwillhavetochangeif performanceistoimprove.LeadersofthevariousUNhumanitariancoordinationmechanisms havenoformalauthorityandreportinglinesbetweenclustersandcoordinatorsare unclear.Thesehavebeenseenasintractableissues.Leadersonthegroundmustbeconfidenttheyhavethe backingoftheirseniors.thereisaneedfortherightsupportsystemsandstructuretoenableleaders. Secondlythereisaneedfortherightpeople.forexampleWFPleadsthelogisticscluster.Toooftencluster meetingsareinformationsharinggatheringsinsteadofthestrategicdecisionmaking forumstheyshouldbe.Itneedsthe rightapproachtotalentmanagementandtherighttermsandconditionstounderpin this.Andthesystemhasmerelyreplicatedagencydivisionsmeaning prioritisationremainsjustasdifficult. Someofthesestructuresareinplaceandworkwell.Improvedcoordinationof allplayersbyanamedleadagencywasexpectedtoeliminategapareasandavoid overlaps.DuringthereviewsconsultationsinNew Yorktheideaofa‘standaside’mechanismwherebythebesthumanitarianleaderscould bedeployedintomegacriseswasdeveloped.thereisaneedforvision.missionsandhistoriesandallare suspiciousoftoomuchcentraldirection.ThereisaneedfortheUNatthehighest leveltosetoutthechallengesaheadandhowitplanstodealwiththem.Allthreeneedtofundraiseinbigemergencies.Thereisaneed forthisvisiontobebackedpolitically.asoutlinedabove.andofthememberstatesoftheUN.Therearefewstandingsupportstaffanddeploymentoftherightteamcantake weeks.Therefugeeagency UNHCRcansetupcampsforhundredsofthousandsofdisplacedpeoplefleeingwaror persecution.

Trainingisnottheonlymethodoflearningandshouldcomplement.theclusteroftenhasabetterunderstandingofthesituationon theground.95%oftheirtimeis spentinactionand5%ofthetimetrainingwouldbeahighfigure. ThegulfisstarkestwhenoneconsiderstheinvestmenttheUKmilitarymakeintheir preparedness. UNagencyautonomymeansthatclusterleadsoftenreportthroughtheiragencyrather thanthroughtheHCandOCHAcanbeexcludedaltogether.Infact.Forhumanitariansthisfigureisreversed.resultinstrongindividualswithinwell-managedteams. learningonthejob. Therehasbeenprogressonstaffskillsinthepastdecade.Agreateremphasisthereforeshouldbeputonclusterleadershipbynational governmentwhereappropriate.thereisaneedfordedicatedandexperiencedclusterleadership. Wherethishappens. Thereisaneedtogrowthepoolofcompetentprofessionalsinvolvedinhumanitarian work.Itshouldbebasedonan assessmentoftheskillsneededforthejob.notallclustersareneededin everyemergency.securedbypredictable donorfunding.Thiscanlead toless.Clearreportinglinesshould beestablishedbetweenHC.In naturaldisastersthisshouldbeanationalgovernmentleddecisioninconsultationwith theUNHumanitarianCoordinator(HC).Thisrequiresinvestment.Theroleofthe internationalsystemistosupportnationalgovernmentintimesofdisaster.Onemajorissueisthatthereisnostraightforward professionalrouteintohumanitarianwork.Thisallowsallpartnerstobe includedbutalsoallowsforacoregrouptosetstrategicdirection.agencyandOCHA.Theconsequencesarehard tomeasurebutareboundtoincludelostlivesandwastedfunds.consistingofa ‘strategicbody’groupandan‘informationsharing’group.notreplace.overtime. Human resource capacities Theunevenqualityofpersonnelisamajorlimitingfactorinhumanitarianresponse.This isparticularlytrueattheleadershiplevel. Inmegacrises.Ideallyitshouldbecombinedwitharangeofcareerdevelopmentmeasures. TobefullyeffectiveclustersneednationalNGOsandlocalgroups.Itneednotbeexpensiveorlengthy.languagebarriersorsizeof cluster.Manyaidagenciesgrewupwithouta cultureoftraining.nottotake over.andacommitmentfromhumanitarianagenciesto createcareerpathsforhumanitarianprofessionals. which.ratherthanmoreeffectivecoordination.Where thisisnotthecaseexperiencedcoordinatorsshouldbedeployed.Clustersalsoneed‘nontraditionalactors’suchas theprivatesectoriftheyaretobeeffectiveincoordinatingthefullresponse.NGOsshouldplayagreaterroleinco-chairingclusters.clusterlead.Findings Theclustersystemneedstoberevisedtoaddressthesefailings.Aidagencieswanttohireexperiencedpeople buthowdopeoplegetexperienceunlesstheyareofferedajob?Gettingstartedin humanitarianworkbecomesachickenandeggconundrum.Butineverymajoremergencytherearestillsignificantnumbersofaid personnelwholacksomeoftheskillsessentialtotheirjobs.butalsowithclusterleadership.Thiscouldberectifiedifdonorsmadelocalparticipationaprerequisitefor clusterfundingineachemergency.technical expertsandmid-levelmanagers. Somedisastershaveseenanoverproliferationofclustersandsub-clusters.Butitalsomeans that.Typicallyprofessionalmilitaryforcesspend95%oftheirtimetrainingand 5%oftheirtimeinaction.andanumberofworthwhile initiatives.insteadvaluingrapidactionandon-the-joblearning.managersandstaffdonothavealltheskillstheyneed. 21 .toooften.takingaccountofskillsthatarealready there.Butthesearethe verypartnersthatgetexcludedfirstduetosecurityreasons.Thetypeofdisasterandtheeffectivenessofexistingcoordination mechanismsshoulddictatehowmanyandwhichclustersneedtobeactivated.Thisapproach hasstrengths:aidagenciesremainnimbleandkeeptheircostslow.Inlargeremergenciesclustersshouldbecometwo-tier.

• WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtostrengthenandprovidebetterleadershipofthe clustersystem. 7 DFIDshouldmakeasustainedefforttoimproveskillsinthehumanitariansector. DFIDshouldinvestigateandsupportthedevelopmentofprofessionalstandardsthatit canuseitselfandwillbeofusetoothers. • Rapiddeploymentofexperiencedleadershipteamsinbigcrises. • EncouragetheconveningofaUNHighLevelPaneltolookatwaysofimprovingthe internationalhumanitariansystemtofacefuturechallenges.DFID’scommitmenttothiscouldbedemonstratedbyinvestinginagencyskills developmentandbybettertrainingofitsownstaffworkinginhumanitariansituations.Thismustincludetherightsupportstaff availableforrapiddeployment.Andindeed.someofthebestaidagencieshavebeendoingsoforyears.to12pinordertopayfortraining. • TrainingwithinDFID.anaverage of10pinthepound.Thisshouldincludea ‘stepaside’systemtoensurethebestleadershipisinplaceatboththestrategicand operationallevel. recruitment. including.say.theymightworrythatitwould appearwasteful.prioritisationandplanning. everyoneshouldbepleased. Skilledstaffwillmakebetteruseofthefundstheyhavebeenentrustedwith.andfasttrackthemwhenthey provecapable.Iftheyincreasedtheiradministrationbudgetsfrom.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Intheprivatesectorthislessoniswellknownevenifnotalwaysfollowed.Theyknowthepublicarerightly sensitiveaboutthis. • Ensuringpre-qualifiedpartnersdemonstrateadequateinvestmentinskills development(seesection5. • WorkwiththeUNtocreateanewcadreofhumanitarianleadersandthetalent managementsystemsandtermsandconditionstosustainthis. 22 .aidagenciesandgovernmentsandcivilsocietyindisasterprone countries. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtoresolvesomeofthedeficienciesinmanagement.2). Someaidagenciesmaybereluctanttoinvestintrainingforfearofincreasingthe percentageoftheirfundsspentonadministration. includingmorecoherentuseofUNexecutiveboardpositions. Professionalisationoftheaidindustrywillcomethroughbetterpreparationandtraining ofstaff. • WorkcloselywithUKmissionstobuildcoalitionsforreformoftheinternationalsystem.This shouldinclude.Aidagenciesshouldexplaintodonorsandthepublicthattheir beneficiarieswillbebetterservedifthereisamodestinvestmentinstaffdevelopment. Recommendations DFID should: 6 Build coalitions to drive forward humanitarian reform based on improving leadership.Butifthe2pspentontrainingincreasestheimpactoftheremaining88p.Themost successfulcompaniestakecaretoinvestintheirstaff. • Worktocreateasetofstandardsforhumanitarianleadership.

Thiscontextofgrowinginterestandcommitmentpresentsclearopportunities. Newsocial. Thereisanurgentneedtoleverageappropriateformsofscience.usaid.itisessentialfordonorstotakean‘openinnovation’approachfromthe outset.andnoneofithasfocusedon 21 www.g.organisationalprocessesandwaysofthinking.org/pool/files/8rhach3. Buthumanitarianpractitionersandanalystsbemoantheslowpaceofchange.andinoperationalcontextssuchas community-basedfeedingtherapy.Itisnowwidelyacknowledgedthathumanitarianactorscannotsimplydo moreofwhattheyhavealwaysdone.4 Innovation Theinternationalhumanitariansystemisfacinggreaterandmorecomplexchallenges.seniormanagersandlikemindedpeersinotherimplementingorganisations.Synchronousfailures suchasthoseseeninJapan.DFID needstobecomemoreconsistentinusingevidenceandsystematicanalysistodecide wheretoinvestandhow.demographic.Anydonorseeking toimprovethesystemmustworkonthebasisthatitisnotpossibletosinglehandedly reformacomplexsystemwithmultipleactorsandfactors.Manyofthemost importantinnovationsofthepast30years–fromcashtocommunityfeedingtherapy –havecomefromrethinkingthiscentralrelationship. Amoreinnovativeinternationalresponsetodisastersneedstobefirmlygroundedin humanitarianprinciplesandvalues.the privatesector).Collectively.Theyneedtobuildontheprincipleofbetterlearning fromandwith.Ithassupportedspecificinnovationsprocessesbothatpolicylevelsuch astheGoodHumanitarianDonor-shipinitiative.affectedcommunities.USAIDhasmade innovationacentralpillarofitsongoingstrategicrenewalinbothpolicyand operations22.includingeffectivesupportfromdonors.wfp.Findings 4.headoffices.alnap. Thebarrierstoinnovationareoftenmoretodowithpoliticsandinstitutionalinterests.Alsoimportantaregood partnershipswithactorsoutsidethetraditionalhumanitariansector. Evidenceshows24thatsuccessfulinnovationshaveanumberofcommonenabling factors.Thisexperienceandreputationareassetsthatcould beleveraged.therehasbeenrelativelyless attentionpaidtoresearchforhumanitarianaction.WhileDFIDhas placedconsiderableimportanceonresearchfordevelopment.org/pool/files/8rhach3.environmentalandpoliticalproblemsincreasinglydemand innovativeproducts.withsignificant investmentinresearchcapacityNorthandSouth.org/content/revolution-food-aid-food-assistance-innovations-overcoming-hunger 24 www.DFIDhas areputationforbeing‘outaheadofthedonorpack’intermsofflexibilityand responsiveness.html 23 www.And majororganisationsarebeginningtounderstanditsimportance.DFIDanditspartnersneedtoinvestinrobustinnovationprocesses focusingonbothlongstandingunresolvedproblemsandnewemergingchallenges.Coalitionbuildingisvital.alnap.simultaneousdisasterstaxingglobalcapacitywillneednew approaches.research.Resourcesforstrengtheningtheinnovationscapacitiesofhigh valuepartnerswhichwillalsobeessentialtocreatethetimeandspaceneededfor reflectionandgenerationofnewideas.TheWorldFoodProgrammeisinnovatingthewayitdeliversfoodaid23.gov/press/speeches/2010/sp101008. Giventhelimitedresourcesthatwillbeavailablerelativetoothersectors(e.pdf 22 www.establishingtheUKasaninnovativeleaderinglobalhumanitarianefforts.Relatively straightforwardideaslikecashtransfershavetakenalongtimetobecomeaccepted.andgreateraccountabilityto.pdf 23 . Recentresearch21hasidentifiedanumberofsuccessfulhumanitarianinnovations.technology andprivatesectorknowledgetosupporthumanitarianinnovation.

Effective innovatorsandinnovationfacilitatorsshouldberewarded.Thereisnotimetodevotetodevelopingideas. Oneofthekeyfindingsofthisreviewisthatthereareopportunitiestobenefitfrom freshideasthroughoutDFID’shumanitarianpolicyandoperationalwork.Wherethereare 24 .Leadersneedtofosteran atmosphereofenquiry. Cash based approaches Oneoftheexcitingadvancesinrecentyearshasbeentheuseofcashforreliefand recovery.Partnersshould berequiredtoexplainwhy they are not using cash. Twoapproachesarehighlightedherefortheirimportanceforaneffectivehumanitarian response. ThisreviewhasconcludedthatDFIDshouldfollowtheleadofECHOandmakecash basedresponsestheusualreliefandrecoverypositionforitspartners.andalsoforhighlightingtherangeofwaysDFIDcansupportinnovations. noraretheyconsistentlyrewardedforit.Itispossibletoenvisageasystemwherebyinleanyearstargetedcash distributionsforseveralmonthswouldpreventmalnutrition. andthereisoftenahardbattletogetnewwaysofworkingaccepted.Butstaffarenotencouragedtoinnovate. DFIDalsoneedstoworktojointhedotsbetweenthesuccessfulinnovationsitfunds andtheproposalsitsubsequentlyapproves.potsandpans.feedbackandchallenge.ECHO insistedthatitspartnersusedcash. IntheNigercasestudyforthisreview.ThisurgentlyneedstochangesothatDFID’sresearch fundscansupportthedevelopmentofsuccessfulinnovationthataretakentoscale throughoperationalfunding.humanitarianagencieswouldsupplygoods.despitebeingafunderofresearchinto cash.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Southerncapacities.moreefficientandmoreeffectivein certainsituations.andthisshouldbebuiltinto appraisalsystemsandultimatelycareerdevelopment. Anyefforttoenhancehumanitarianinnovationsneedstobuildonandenhancethe entrepreneurialandcreativecapabilitieswithintheorganisation.Moreworkis neededtosystematicallyidentifywheretheneedforinnovationismostpressing.Butitdidnotpushthisnewwayofworking throughitsfundingdecisions.DFID staffmembersareavitalassetfortheorganisation.twoaspectsoftheresponsestoodout.Thereisaneedto provideappropriatetraining.doesnotroutinelyrequireits partnerstoworkwithcash.Traditionally.Concerndidhalfoftheircashdistributionsusingmobilephones–they distributedthephonesandthenusedatransfersystemcalled‘zap’toallowrecipientsto buygoodsinlocalshops.demonstratedthatcashdistributionscouldprevent malnutrition.wherethereistoleranceofrisk.ratherthantheconverse.butawealthof academicworkhasprovencashtobemoreflexible.Withanestablishedinfrastructurefortransfer.ConcernWorldwide.Themajorityofreliefoperationsstillsupplystrickenpopulationswith blankets.itsadoptionatscalehasbeen frustratinglyslow.Asnotedpreviouslyinrelationtoinsuranceandnationalresilience.largevolumesofcashmightpushpricesup.Wheremarketsdonot functionefficiently. Whilstthebenefitofusingcashiswidelyacknowledged.andfarcostliermedical interventions.anNGO.Forinstance.secondmentsandreflectionspaceforDFIDstaff.DFID.sincehailedasoneofthemost excitinginnovationsofthelastdecade.soapandsoon.DFIDprovidedsomeofthe firstfundstotrialthe‘plumpynut’ideainnutrition.costscanbe marginal.requiringthemtoargueagainstitsuseratherthan forit. Inevitablytherewillbetimeswhencashisnotappropriate. thereisscopefortransformativedevelopmentsinthislastarea.Thishastochange.withawealthofexperienceand knowledgefromarangeofdisastersettings. InnovationalsopresentsanumberofinternalopportunitiesandchallengesforDFID.andasupporterofitasanapproachatapolicylevel.

Findings

extremesecurityconcernsthismightalsobeanissue.Twoofthecasestudiesfromthis reviewsuggestthatthesecircumstancesmaybelessfrequentthanimaginedhowever. InNigerthecashdistributionsbyConcern,SavetheChildrenandotherstookplacein remoteareasatatimeofabsolutefoodshortages.Despitethispricesdidnotriseinthe markets,astradersefficientlydrewinsurplusfromneighbouringNigeria.SimilarlyinDR Congo,‘voucherfairs’demonstratedthatlocaltraderscouldbringgoodstoneedy populationsfarfasterandmoreefficientlythanaidagencies. Onefearthathasconsistentlydoggedthescalingofcashisthatofcorruption.The extensiveliteratureoncashhasfoundnoincreasedriskofthiscomparedtootherrelief goodshowever,andwithsystemssuchasmobilephonetransferandmicrobank accountsitmayinfactbeless.

Shelter
Providingadequateshelterisoneofthemostintractableproblemsininternational humanitarianresponse.Tentsaretoocostlyanddonotlastlongenough.Plastic sheetingcanbegoodbutmostoftenislowqualityandfallsapartimmediately. Rebuildinghousestakesyears,evenwhenlandissuesarenotmajorobstacles. Tosolvethisissue,agencieshaveincreasinglyused‘transitionalshelter’,awiderangeof alternativesolutionsincludingcash,communalbuildingsandtemporaryshelters. Typicallyacompromisebetweenatentandafullhouse,transitionalsheltercanlastfor threeyearsuntilproperreconstructionisachieved.Atbestituseslowcostlocal materialsandisbasedonasimpledesign.Materialscanbeusedafterwardstoo,when peoplemovetotheirnewhome. Whilstthisapproachshowspromise,therearealsochallenges.Transitionalshelterscost morethanafewbitsofplasticsheeting,andinemergenciesthatarenotwellfunded ‘transitional’canquicklybecome‘permanent’.Argumentsbetweenexpertsoverdesign, qualityandcostcanslowtheprocess,andweakcoordinationinthesectoroftenleads toawidevarianceinwhatisprovided.Thatcanmeanaffectedcommunitiesgetting differentlevelsofprovisiondependingontheagencyallocatedtobuildtheirshelter. Theissueofweakcoordinationwasattheheartoftheestablishmentofthecluster system.Assection4.3ofthisreviewsetsout,insomeareasthishasworkedwell. Logistics,foodandwaterhaveallimproved.Otherareashaveimprovedinparts.In shelter,theInternationalFederationoftheRedCross(IFRC)wasnominatedasthe clusterleadagency,andthishasnotworkedwell.Partlythisisbecauseshelteris difficult.PartlyitisbecausethereisanartificialsplitwherebyIFRCisresponsibleinthe immediateaftermathofadisaster,butnotbeyondtheemergencyphaseofdisplacement. DFIDhasbeenheavilyengagedinsheltersincetheIndianOceantsunamiin2004.Ithas fundedresearchandpushedqualitystandardsandcoordination.Thisreviewconcludes thatDFIDmustcontinueandintensifyitseffortstofindbettersolutionstoproviding shelterafterdisaster.Shelteriscriticaltohealth,employment,familyandsafety. Withoutadequateshelter,inallbutthemostbenignclimatespeopleareterribly vulnerable.Partlythismayinvolveresolvingtheclusterissuestouchedonabove.Partly itwillinvolvemoreresearch.Partlyitmayinvolvebringinginnewactors,suchasthe privatesectorconsortiumrecentlyfoundedthroughtheWorldEconomicForum. Continuingtofundandresourceshelterduringresponsewillalsobeimportant.

Technology
Technology,althoughnotasilverbullettotheproblemsofhumanitarianaid,alsoneeds moreconcertedsupport. Someexistingtechnologiesofferconsiderablepotential.TheNigercasestudyforthis reviewhighlightedtheuseofmobilephonesforcashtransfers(alsosuccessfullyusedin

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HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview

Kenya).Thisrapidlydevelopingtechnologycouldbecomethestandardinafewyears, revolutionisingthebankingandremittancesectoralongtheway.Satellitesarealready widelyusedintrackingstormsandinprovidingimageryforhumanitarianoperations. “Crowdsourcing”,suchasthatusedinKenyaandHaitimayprovetobeanimportant newwayofdoingneedsassessment.Socialmediaisdrivingnewaccountabilitytouched oninthesectionbelow.Googlehaspilotedseveralsoftwareapplicationsfor humanitarianoperationsincludingthroughitsGoogleEarthmapanditspeoplefinder softwarenowbeingusedinJapan. Thereareemergingtechnologiesthatalsohaveconsiderablepotential(andrisks). Foremostamongtheseisnanotechnology,whichiswidelyseenashavingthepotential totransformmedicine,watersafetyandfoodstuffswithinthenext5-10years.Another isagentbasedmodelling,increasinglyusedineconomics,whichmayhaveapplications inunderstandingthespreadofepidemicsorevenpopulationmovement. Recommendations DFID should: 8 Nurture innovation and its application in dealing with and preparing for humanitarian emergencies, including through partnership with operational agencies, private sector, technological innovators and science and research communities. Appoint a Humanitarian Senior Research Fellow, reporting to the Chief Scientific Officer with a dedicated budget tasked with developing evidence and innovation. Investinthreekeytechnologies;mobiletechnologies,satellitesanddatamanagement anddisplay. Supportexplorationofemergingandcutting-edgetechnologiessuchasnanotechnology, andnewcomputermodellingapproaches. Workwithpartnerstoensurecashbasedresponsesaregivenfullconsiderationand whereappropriatebecomemuchmorewidelyadopted.

9 10 11 12

4.5

Accountability
Accountabilityinsuddenonsethumanitarianemergencieshasparticularcharacteristics: thepresenceofacuteneeds,lackofchoice,lackofvoiceandaccesstoformal procedures,disconnectbetweendonorsandsurvivors,andtheprevalenceoflifeand deathdecisions.Allofthesemakeaccountabilitymorechallengingbutalsomore important. TheparadigmisstillviewingtheaffectedpopulationtoomuchaswhateconomistJulian LeGrandhascalled“pawns”(passiveindividuals)andtheinternationalcommunityas “knights”(extremealtruists).Thisapproachcosts.Localcapacitiesarenotutilised,the beneficiaryisnotinvolvedenoughandthequalityofdeliveryislowerthanitshouldbe. Sincethelate1990sthehumanitariancommunityhasinitiatedanumberofinteragencyinitiativestoimproveaccountability,qualityandperformance.DFIDhasbeen fundingthemostwidelyknownones:theActiveLearningNetworkforAccountability andPerformanceinHumanitarianAction(ALNAP),HumanitarianAccountability Partnership(HAP),PeopleInAidandtheSphereProject.

26

Findings

Theseinitiativesandothershaveimprovedstandards,quality,learningandtransparency inthesectorbutnotenoughprogresshasbeenmade.Itistimenowtoputthese approachesattheheartofhowthesystemworks. Thecasestudiesforthisreviewshowthatinvolvementofaffectedcommunitiesand provisionofinformationaboutprogrammestorecipientsofaidwaspatchyeverywhere. Ingeneral,performancewasworstduringthereliefphase,andimprovingduring recoveryandreconstruction.Theveryfactthatthemostinnovativepractices highlightedearlierarethosewhichfocusonrecipientcapacitiesandneedshighlights howfarthesystemhastogo. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemneedstoputaccountability,learningand transparencyintothecentreofitsresponse.Withthetechnologyandmethodsnow available,thereisnoexcusenotto.Assistancehastobeinaccordancewithwhat affectedpeoplehavemadecleartheyneed,ratherthanwhatthesystemispreparedto offer.Andtheinternationalsystemhastobeheldtoaccountforthat,andforlearning howtodeliverimprovedservices.Thiscanbedonethroughbetterfeedbackloopswith theaffectedpopulation,througharangeofmechanismssuchasListeningProject-style assessments,HAPcomplaintsmechanismsandperceptionsurveys. DFIDisbeingaskedtobemoreaccountablethaneverbeforetoUKtaxpayersinaperiod ofheightenedgovernmentbudgetaryconstraints.DFIDhastakenimportantstepson transparencyasasteptowardsgreateraccountabilityandisattheforefrontamongst donorsonthis.UndertheUKAidTransparencyGuaranteeDFIDhasstartedpublishing detailedinformationaboutallnewprojectsandprogrammesonthewebsince1January 2011.DFIDrecognisesthattransparencycreatesbetterfeedbackfrombeneficiariesto donorsandtaxpayers.Ithelpstobetterunderstandwhatworksandwhatdoesnot.It alsohelpsreducewasteandtheopportunitiesforfraudandcorruption. DFIDisalsocommittedtopushforfulltransparencyacrosstheinternationalaidsystem byaskingpartnersandotherdonorstoadheretosimilarstandardsoftransparency. Andtosquarethecirclefromtransparencytoaccountability,DFIDhascommittedto providingopportunitiesforthosedirectlyaffectedbyDFIDprojectstoprovidefeedback ontheirperformance.Thiscommitmentneedstoapplytoallhumanitarianemergency workaswell.Evenifputtingthemintopracticewillbemorechallengingthanin otherareas. Improvingaccountabilityisintimatelytieduptotheworkonimpactassessments–for credibleimpactassessmentsthereisaneedtoputdisaster-affectedpeopleatthecentre oftheanalysis. Thiscanbesupportedthroughinnovativeuseofappropriatetechnologythatimproves communicationstoandfromaffectedpopulations.Hi-techwasseeninHaitiwiththe Ushahidi“crowdsourcing”platform,low-tech–menonbicycleswithmegaphonesin BangladeshandBurmaforearlywarning.Mobilephonesandradioarebothimportant toreachpeople.

Impact
Theemergencyresponsesectordoesnotroutinelyassessimpact.Whatthismeansis thatforsomeoperationsitisalmostimpossibletosayhowtheassistancehelped people,orevenwhetherithelpedthem. Therearegoodreasonsforthissometimes.Inemergencies,thereislittletimeto measureintheearlyhoursanddaysofaresponse,inwhatthereviewseesas“the CriticalPeriod”.Inconflictitcanbedangerous.Andsavinglivesisthepriority.Itisalso moredifficulttomeasureavertingnegativechange(e.g.topreventfamine)than bringingaboutapositivechange(asindevelopment)becauseofthelackofdecent

27

However.inconsistentefforts. Thelackofbaselinesisnottheonlyproblem.neverminddowntothelevelofindividual donors’contributionstoaparticularproject.goodsorvaccinesdelivered ratherthantheimpactontheaffectedpopulation.Becauseofalackofresourcesandnarrowagendas.thefailuresinleadership. suchasprotectionanddignity.Whatisnecessaryistomoveawayfromasystemwheremany agenciesstillcontinuetomeasuresuccessinvolumeoffood. Thisisnolongeracceptable.thecompetitionbetweenagenciesandthelackofseriousconsultationwith thepeopleinneed.actionneedstobetakenatvariousstagesofan emergencyresponseaswellasinresiliencebuildingprogrammes.Lessonsneedtobelearnedandapplied.For that.needsassessmentsshouldprovidebaselinesagainstwhichimpactcanlaterbe measured.monitoringis anevengreaterchallenge.Perfectionisnotpossibleforthevalidreasonsoutlinedabove butalotmorecanbedone. ratherthanfitfullyifatall. anditmustuseevidenceonwhatworksandwhatdoesnotandwhytoimproveits performance. Otherreasonsfornotdoingimpactassessmentscannotbesoeasilyjustified:itis convenientnottohavetodoit. Tomeasureanddemonstrateimpact.theneedforhighvisibilityaction.impactassessmentsaredifficulttocarryout.Needsassessmentsarequiteoftentoolateto informfundingdecisions. Monitoringhasalsobeenfoundtobeweakandsuffersfrompatchy.leadershipandstrongpartnershipsareessential(seesections4.Thesectormustincreaseitseffortstodemonstrateimpact.6).CasestudieshavebeencollatedbyALNAPandothers. Incomplexemergencieswheresecurityandaccessaremajorconstraints.DonorslikeDFIDneedtochange theincentivesinthefinancingsystemtoensurethatimpactisroutinelymeasured.mostevaluationsfocusona particularprojectorprogramme.Remoteprogrammingisincreasinglyused.Thereiscompetitionbetweenorganisationsandsectors.especiallyin countrieslikeSomalia.isdifficulttoassess.andtodatefewdonorshave beenwillingtosupporttheseeffortsonthehumanitariansideofthesystem.Deliveringinsomeofthemostimportantsectorsofhumanitarianaid.Andthroughoutallstages.participatoryapproachesshouldbetaken wherepossible.impact assessmentsrequiretimeandresourcesthatarenottrivial.Thiswillprovidefurtherinsightintowhatcanand cannotbedone.theprocessisnot transparentandsharinginformationissometimesdiscouragedasitmightposeariskto aninstitution’sroleintheresponse.Needsassessmentsshouldalsobedesignedandcarriedouthavingtheviews ofaffectedpeoplecentrestage.therealitylooksdifferent.Perhapsmostimportant.Thequalityof 28 .Theyaremoreaboutgatheringinformationforplanning andfundraisingbyspecificagenciesthanbuildingacomprehensivepictureofneedand prioritisation.Aparticularlyimportantand necessaryareaforimpactassessmentswillbeininnovation.Itcannotbedoneas anadd-onalone.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview counterfactuals.3and4.Anyattempttoassessevenatasystem-wide levelisplaguedwithattributionissues. Thisreviewfoundthattoolsexistorarebeingdevelopedtoovercomethe methodologicalchallenges.testingtherelativeimpact ofoneapproachcomparedtoanother.Aidisonlyoneofanumberofinputs intothelivesofdisaster-affectedpeople. Intheory.shapedbydonorsand themedia.Needsassessments routinelylackbaselinedata. Ex-postevaluationstendtoevaluateactivitiesratherthanimpactanddonotoften enoughincludeaparticipatoryelementsothatdisastersurvivorscanholdagenciesto account.Withoutacommonstrategyandagreed definitionsofhumanitarianoutcomes.system-wideassessmentsarestillrare.A frameworkformonitoringandevaluatingresultsandimpactisbeingdesignedforDR Congo’sHumanitarianActionPlan.

 Thereisnoformalplatformforcollectiveengagementonspecificissues.Culturallyinsensitivepracticessuchas deliveringreliefitemsinsinglelanesarestillroutinelypractised.womenandthose withdisabilityarewidelywrittenabout.arenotusuallycarriedout. Addressing the needs of the most vulnerable Thehumanitariansystemispoorlyequippedtoensureanequitableresponseforthe mostvulnerable. Atthesametime.intheworstcaseitcancauseharm. Children.Astudy byHelpAge25showsthatadisproportionatelylowamountofhumanitarianassistance wasdedicatedtoensuringthattheneedsofaparticularvulnerablegroupindisasteraffectedpopulations–olderpeople–aremet. 29 . OxfamDisasterRiskReductionandClimateChangeAdaptationResources.Impactassessments. 26 Gender.sector-wideorsystemwide.Thecampsprovidedshelterandaccesstobasicservicesin theimmediateaftermathbutnoadequateprotectionforwomenandgirls.oldpeople.theroleofwomeninprevention.men.findingshelterandfood–toidentifyingwaystogenerate 25 HelpAge(2010).Humanitarianassistancethat doesnotassessandaddresstheneedsofchildrenmaybeignoringthemajority–and wouldthereforepotentiallybefailingtohavethegreatestimpact.26Astudy bytheLondonSchoolofEconomicsshowsthatnaturaldisastersandtheirsubsequent impactonaveragekillmorewomenthanmenorkillwomenatanearlierage.Alotofthe evidencebaseisanecdotal.Themostpervasiveoneisgender inequalityandthisismagnifiedbytheimpactsofclimatechangeanddisasters.asassessedbyALNAPfrom2000to2008hasbeenconsistently disappointing.andthereis littleifanydisaggregateddataonneedsandimpactonvulnerablegroups.2010.pickedupbysomeonewhowasawareoftheneedsof vulnerablegroupswhiledoingsomethingelse.Previousevaluationsshowthatwomendrivethemovefromimmediate concerns–reunitingfamilies.Whilstissuesspecifictochildren.monitoringand impactassessments.Neitherarenationalcapacitiesusedenoughinmonitoringand evaluativeefforts–whetheroperationalagenciesorthinktanksandacademics.reliefandrecoveryisnotrecognised enough. 27 TheGenderedNatureofNaturalDisasters:theimpactofcatastrophiceventsonthegender gapinlifeexpectancy1981–2002.Povertyexperiencedbywomenandmenisshapedbyinequalitiesthatdiscriminate againstandmarginalisecertainsocialgroups.Findings evaluations.Astudyofhumanitarianfinancingforolderpeople.makeupatleast50%ofaffected populationsinmostoftheemergenciesaroundtheworld.age. Gender Accountabilitycannotimprovewithoutthehumanitariansystembecomingmoregender aware.whetheragency-specific.definedbythoseundertheageof18.therearefewmechanismstodealwiththem.girlsandboysinanemergency situationhavedifferentneedsandareexposedtodifferenttypesofriskwillinthebest casebebadqualityprogramming.London. AmnestyInternationalreportedthatwomenandgirlslivinginthemakeshiftcampsin Haitioneyearafterthedevastating12January2010earthquakefacedanincreasingrisk ofrapeandsexualviolence.LondonSchoolofEconomics. Technologicaladvancessuchassatelliteimageryarestillnotusedenoughtocollect dataacrosstheprogrammingcycle.DisasterRiskReductionandClimateChangeAdaptation:ALearningCompanion.Projectsthatare genderblindriskmissingoutonthemostvulnerableindividualsandmayalsoprovidean inappropriateresponseduetolackofanalysisandlimitedunderstandingofwhatthe genderspecificneedsare.DuringthePakistan earthquakethispreventedwidowswithoutmalecompanyfromaccessingaid.27 Anapproachthatdoesnotrecognisethatwomen.includingforneedsassessments.

partnershipwillbecome evenmoreimportantasourinterconnectedworldgetsmoresoandaspowershifts towardsthenewemergingeconomiessuchasBrazil. Encouragethespreadofbestpracticeinthisarea. ManyofthepartnersDFIDworkswithinhumanitarianresponseareworld-class organisations.theUKhashistoricallybeenactiveinsupportingmultilateralism. Givegreateremphasistobeneficiaryaccountabilityfactorswhenmakingfunding decisions.6 Partnership TheUKisnotalargedirectgiverofhumanitarianassistance. UNagenciesareamongstthelargestdeliverersofhumanitarianaid. Promote the development of improved needs and robust impact assessments. TheUKcanachievemorethroughandwithpartners. Recommendations DFID should: 13 14 15 16 17 Promote and support mechanisms to give recipients of aid a greater voice.TheWorldFood Programme(WFP)delivered44billionmealsin2010.Itsroleshouldbemore‘networkenabler’thanindividualdoer.UNagencieshavethereachandthepresencetodeliver 28 A.IUCN.Inthemodern worldthemostimportantpartofwhatanorganisationcandoiswhatitcandowithothers.IndiaandtheGulfStates.mostofitinresponseto emergenciesorongoingcrises.GenderEqualityandAdaptation.thehumanitariansectorinrecentyearshasbeenseenbymanyasa closedshopwithahandfulofagenciesanddonorsdominating.sothatDFIDrecognisesthatitisthe qualityofitspartnershipsthatmatters. 30 .commissionedatthesametimeasthisreview.appropriatelyandcomprehensivelythroughoutall stagesofassistance.Amultilateralaidreview.AsapermanentmemberoftheSecurityCouncil.Andwomenhaverepeatedlyledinitiativestoadapttotheimpactsofclimate change.China.withmultilateral responsethedefaultpositionoftheUKandDFID. Working with the United Nations and its agencies TheUnitedNationsasawholeisthelargestpartneroftheUKinhumanitarian emergencyresponse. Thisreviewhasconcludedthatthispositionshouldbemaintained.Thisreview concludesthataseachangeinthinkingisrequired. Nevertheless. Workwithotherstocreateanover-archingsetofstandardstoassessbeneficiary accountability.usingitsresourcestobring togetherorganisationswithdifferentskillstorespondtoacuteneed.andtheirknowledgeandresponsibilitiesrelatedtonaturalresource managementhaveprovencriticaltocommunitysurvival.asmuchifnotmorethanitsownstandalone capacity. foundthat80%ofhumanitarianagencieswereeithergoodorverygood.Araujoetal(2008).HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview income. 4.preferringinsteadtowork withandthroughpartners.Thisreviewendorsesthisapproach.Whilstsomeofthishas beenforgoodreason–theneedtobeseenasneutralandimpartialinconflictand beingabletoaccesspopulationsmostly–someofthisissimplynotworking.andafounder memberoftheUN.28Womenandgirlsneedtobe consultedontheirneedsimmediately.

theUNagenciesneed tobettersupportOCHAandtheERC.Themultilateralaidreviewcanbeagoodbasistostartthis rebalancingoffunding.Therehavealso beenfailures.notablytheinabilitytotreatandcontaincholerainHaiti.Asoneofthemajordonors.chartcareersandinvestin peopleifyoudonotknowwhetheryouwillhavemoneynextyear.asdoestheoverallinstitution.ECHO.Italso concludesthatNGOsneedsimilarsupport.notjustUNagenciesandinternationalNGOs. DFIDneedstohaveamoreconsistentstrategicdialoguewithECHO.itneedstoprovide greaterpredictabilityoffundingsothatthemainUNagenciescaninvestintheir humanitarianresponsecapacities.withgovernments.Agenciesneed togetbetteratreportingresultsratherthanwhattheyhavepurchased.Thedefaultpositionofmultilateralismmeanstheseagenciesneed supporting.Butsupportcannot.Theyneedtobecreative.notuninspiringtalkshops.DFIDfocusespriorityattentiononthemajorUNhumanitarian partnersratherthanotherdonors.AndalthoughtheUKprovidesasixthofitsfunding.Thisresultsinduplicationofworkandcostly overlaps.DFIDandECHOtoooftenworkin parallel.whichisthesecondlargestglobaldonorinits ownright. AtpresentDFID’srelationshipwithECHOappearstobedelegatedtojuniorstaff.andneedtoworkmorecollegially.andnotberoutinelyallocated. ThisreviewconcludesthatalongsidemorepredictablecorefundingtheCERFisa valuablemechanismandshouldcontinuetobesupportedandexpanded.What isneededisbetterengagementatpolicylevel.fromWFPrapidlydeliveringfoodto7millionpeopleinfloodhitPakistan.finance. UNagenciesarethebackboneofmanyresponses.Agenciesneedmultiyearfundingtomaketheseinvestments.couldbebeneficialtobothagencies.itdoesnotengagewith ECHOstrategically.Thisneedstochange.failingtocommunicateeffectively.andoftentheyneedtoworkonseverallevels.Atpolicylevel.Itisdifficulttokeepstaff.ThereviewdocumentedsomeexcellentexamplesofUNagency-led response.ThelackofeffectivepartnershipwithECHOisa wastedopportunity. DFIDneedstosupporttheseefforts.withNGOs andwithUNappointedleadership. Thesectionsonleadership.Theyneedtobe strategic.andtheirinternationalstatusoftenmeanstheyhaveabetterrelationship withgovernment.Itneedstobe awareofECHO’sstrategicplanningprocessesandengagewiththese. Working with the European Union TheEuropeanUnioncollectivelyprovideshalfofallofficialhumanitarianaid.Clustersneedtobegroupedaroundneedratherthanmandate.PooledfundsliketheoneinDRCongohave generallyworkedwell.IndisastersituationsECHOisroutinelyunawareofwhatDFID’sresponsewill be.accountabilityandimpactinthisreviewmake thepointthatthereisstillmuchworktobedonetoimprovetheperformanceofthe internationalsystem.to UNICEFsupplyinginfantfoodnationallyforstarvingchildreninNiger.Astheyapplymostlytoprotractedcrisesthereviewhasnot studiedtheseindepth.with capacitytoprovideeffectivehumanitarianaidwhenactingalone. decisionmakingbodies.Butitsimplementation hasbeentooinflexible.andbetteralignmentatdeliverylevel. DFID’spolicylevelrelationshipwithECHOisweak.andtheUKisconsistentlyoneofthe largestcontributors.andshouldnotbe uncritical.ResourcesfromDFIDshouldfollow successonthesecriteria.TheUKholdsauniquepositionamongstEUmemberstates.ButDFIDcanalsolinkthismoreclearlyto resultsandperformance.excepttogenerallyendorsethisapproach. 31 . includingallkeyactors.Agenciesmustcollaboratewitheachother.Clusterleadershipneedstobeimproved.Theclusterapproachisthecorrectvision–strategic networksbringingtogetherthemainactorsinvolvedinresponse.Italsohas itsownhumanitarianaidagency.Thisexperienceif bettershared.Findings aidatscale.

Sweden.The globalpictureofwhorespondstohumanitarianneedischangingtoo.Itwillbeimportanttounderstand wheretheUSwillfocusitsefforts.Russia.Nigerisa goodexampleofhowthiscanwork.ECHOhasstrongtechnicaladvisorypresence throughitsspecialisedofficesandpermanentrepresentationthroughtheEUdelegation.Thisis oftennotusedcoherentlybecauseofthefragmentednatureoftheUSaidbureaucracy. ThismeanstheUShasanopportunitytoinfluenceUNagenciesatahighlevel.Lately.andSaudiArabiaareimportantregionalpowers.bothgloballyandincountries likeDRCongowhereitplaysapivotalrole.DFIDshouldworktoreinvigoratethisgroup.Indiagavethrough multilateralchannelstoPakistanfloodrelief.Increasing contributionstodisasterresponsearebeingseenfromdonorsoutsidethe‘traditional’ OECDDACgroup. Working with new donor partners Theworldischanging.Chinaisnowthesecondlargestglobaleconomy.andisoftenperceivedbytheUSasaloner.forDFIDitwouldmeanthatconversationsaboutburdenshare–similar tothosewithECHO–wouldbeevenmorevital.TheGHDgroupisastartinggroundfor moreeffectivedonoraction.The principlesofGoodHumanitarianDonorship(GHD)bindlike-mindeddonorstogether aroundafurthersetofcoredonorprinciples.InothersituationsECHOmight followaDFIDlead.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Mostimportantly.SouthAfrica.DFIDdoesnothaveasustainedpolicydialoguewiththehumanitarian agenciesoftheUSgovernment.ithaslost momentum.DonorssuchastheNetherlands.UNICEFandtheWorldBanktraditionallycoming fromtheUS.TheannualMontreuxmeetingmightbetheforumforthisandcould potentiallybewidenedinscopeandambition.NorwayandCanada havebeenclosealliesforDFID.DFIDneedstogetsmarteratsharingresourceswithECHO.TheUSgovernmentisalsothelargestdonortoUNHCRandtheICRC. Allofthenationscitedabovesignificantlyrespondtodisastersintheirregions.andprovidedDFIDwithitsmostconsistentallies.neutralityandimpartialityas astartingpointforpartnershipwithothertraditionalhumanitariandonors.Itisvery influential.Brazilwasamajor responderinHaiti.ButmoreneedstobedonebyDFIDtodemonstratea collegialapproach.Nationssuchas India.Were thistohappen. WideningthegroupwhoadheretoGHDprincipleswouldbeapositivewayforward.ButDFIDalsoperiodicallysenthumanitarian advisorstoreinforceandcomplementECHOleadership.GHDhascreatedaspaceforcollectiveactionthatdid notpreviouslyexist.andtoensurethatscarcehumanitarianresourcesare spreadmosteffectively. Working with bilateral donors TheUSgovernmentistheworld’slargestindividualhumanitariandonor. TheGoodHumanitarianDonorship(GHD)grouphasplayedaroleinachievingchangein thehumanitariansystem.SaudiArabiawasthesinglelargestdonortoBangladeshfollowing cycloneSidr(andwasoneofthetopfiveglobaldonorsin2009).China’s contributiontoWFPdoubledin2005andwasoneofthelargestdonorsinBurmaafter CycloneNargisin2008(andinPakistanduringthefloodsin2010).withtheheadsofWFP. DFIDisoneofthestrongergroupmemberswithcapacitytoinfluencehowtobring othersin. TheUSwasconsideringasignificantreductionintheamountofhumanitarianaidit givesasthisreviewwenttopress(40%offoodaidanddisasterresponseby70%). DFIDsharesthebasichumanitarianprinciplesofhumanity. DFIDreliedonECHOtoleadtheresponse. 32 .WheretheUSwillobviouslylead–Haitiwasagoodexample –thenDFIDshouldbeabletofitaroundthis. Butevenso.Brazil.

 Chinahasenormouscapacitytorespondanddeepexperienceofhumanitarian emergencieswithinitsownborders.have experienceinresiliencebuildingespeciallyincommunitybaseddisasterriskreduction andmanyworkwithnationalandlocalorganisations. Inforgingnewhumanitarianrelationships.Toremainahumanitarianleaderintothe 21stcentury.DFIDshouldreachouttoseektobuildnewrelationshipswithChinaalong thelinesoftheirrecentWhitePaper.TheyarehighlyregardedbytheUKpublicandreceivegeneroussupportwhen massivedisastersstrike. Working with NGOs TheUKhassomeofthemostrespectedandimportantinternationalnon-government organisationsintheworld.InternationalNGOs areadeptatdeployingquickly.OrganisationslikeOxfamandSavetheChildrenareknown worldwide.Todoso.Forexample.theUAEandSaudiArabiaaresignificantdonorsinthe humanitarianassistanceandareincreasinglybecominginvolvedinotherways.India hasacadreofexperienceddisastermanagersingovernment.DFIDshouldmakemoreuseofthediplomaticnetworksandother governmentdepartmentsinordertobuildwidercoalitionsitneedstodrivethroughthe internationalreformagenda.DFIDisalreadyworking withtheGCCandhumanitarianassistanceisagoodareaofcommoninterest.Similarviewpointscanbeusedasstartingpoints.GujuratandTamilNadu.TheirworkhashelpedmillionsindisasterfromEthiopia.In2008NGOsspent$5. Russia’sEmergencyControlMinistry. DFID’scommitmenttohumanitarianprincipleswillbecomeincreasinglyimportantas partnershipsaredeveloped. Non-governmentorganisations(NGOs)alsoprovidemuchoftheimplementation capacityinhumanitarianemergencyresponse.China’shandlingoftheSichuanearthquakeresponse wasexemplary.andunderstandbothcultureandcontext.likeDFIDtobuildownershipbyworkingwithlocalauthorities.EMERCOMhasvastcapacityandexperience. TheGulfStates.IndigenousandfaithbasedNGOsare oftenthefirsttorespond.TheFCO’scapacitytobuildrapidconsensusthrough cablesinsupportofASEAN’sroleinresponsetoCycloneNargisin2008hasalready beendemonstrated.oftensettingupbigreliefoperationsweeksbeforethe UNcranksintogear.China’scurrent5yearplan(2006–2011)includesdisasterrelief.Theirpioneeringtechnicalworkhasoftensetthestandardforotherhumanitarian agencies. 29 GHAreport2010.Findings Theemerginggroupofnon-traditionalpartnersisanopportunityforDFIDtoestablish newrelationships.7billiononhumanitarianassistance29.FCOandotherWhitehalldepartmentswillbe vitaltodevelopopportunities.SupportmustbecorralledfromwithintheDACgrouptocreateareceptiveforum fornewdonorstojoin.DFIDwillhavetolookwideracrossWhitehalltoinfluenceinthis action.andworkwiththemtosharelearningwithotheratrisknations.ClosecollaborationbetweenDFID.DFIDmustlookforareasofcommongroundthatalready exist.suchasQatar.toBangladeshto Haiti.Alliances mustbebuiltwithothertraditionalhumanitariandonorstowelcomenewpartnerson board. highlightingtheimportanceofmultilateralcoordination.AnydisastersintheregionoftheHinduKushwill likelyseeChinarespondinginasignificantway.TheGulf CooperationCouncil(GCC)hasanewhumanitarianmechanism. NGOsoftenhavelargeprogrammesinaffectedcountriesbeforedisasterstrikes.Brazil’sviewon humanitarianresponseis.DevelopmentInitiatives. DFIDcancombineitsexpertisewiththatofnationsthatregularlyexperiencelargescale naturaldisasters.Demonstratingthevalueofthesewillbeanimportantpart ofnewrulesforinternationalhumanitariancollaboration.followingdisastersin Orissa.DFIDshouldnotrisk‘goingitalone’. 33 .

leading tomultiplesurveysandorganisationsjostlingforfundingforparticulargeographicareas ortechnicalsectors.In2006Medecins SansFrontieres(MSF)spent$575milliononhumanitarianaid.MSFFrancespentanestimated$81millionoftheFrench public’smoneyonrespondingtocrisesin2006.Forexample. NGOsarealsorapidlygrowinginscaleandgeographicspread.Theirglobalspreadistestimonytotheirenduringappeal.rivallingUNICEFat$2.TheConsortiumofBritishHumanitarianAgencies(CBHA)andtheWest AfricaRegionalHumanitarianFund(WARHF)offertwoprovenmodelsataglobaland regionallevel.Indiahasamillion indigenousorganisationsthatdescribethemselvesasNGOs. 34 .DFIDhasratherneglected theNGOsectorinthelastfiveyears.Theincreasedcapacity.a singlememberofanNGOfamilymakesamoresignificantcontributionthanitshost government.Unfortunatelythishasnotbeenenoughtostemthetideof firsttime“wellwishers”.Oxfamprovides peoplereadytogoforthewaterandsanitationcluster.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview ThetermNGOcoversadiversityoforganisations.7billioninthesameyear.comparedwithbilateralspendingof only$48millionbytheFrenchgovernment.WorldVisionhadaturnoverof$2.codesandthe ideathattheirhelpmightdomoreharmthangood.Thereisan industrywideCodeofConduct.bothforimprovingrapidresponseandin-country forlocalNGOs. TheCatholicChurchnetworkCaritas’svoluntaryspendwasequivalenttothebilateral humanitarianassistanceofSweden.ButotherNGOseitherdonot know.receiving86%oftheirfundsfrom privatedonations.Otherstryto pushapoliticalagenda.AfricaHumanitarianActioninEthiopiaruns programmesacrosstheHorn.technicalstandardsforeachsectorofactivityandlots ofworkonaccountability.Theyraise considerabledonationsfromfaithandDiasporacommunitiesoutsidetheDECappeals.MercyMalaysiahasbecomeawell-knowninternationalNGOrunning programmesasfarafieldasAfrica.000international NGOsflyingintoPortauPrincereadytohelp.ordonotacceptthissystem. DFIDshouldalsoconsider. Forofficialdonorsandtheinternationalsystemthiscreatesbothanopportunityanda challenge.thesixthlargestdonorin2006.SomeNGOsareanintegralpartofthe system.1 billionin200630.TheHaitiearthquakeprovidesanexamplethoughoftheheadache thattryingtocoordinatetheNGOsectorcanbe.SavetheChildrenco-leadstheeducationclusterwithUNICEF.BRACinBangladeshclaims tobetheworld’slargestNGOifnumberofemployeesisconsideredratherthanfinancial turnover.withmorethan1.Onlytwogovernments –theUKandtheUS–spentmoreonofficialbilateralhumanitarianassistancethatyear.Thiscould 30 DIreportfor2009Montreuxdonorsconference.especiallyofnationalandlocalNGOsprovides untappedpotential.investinginNGOs withspecialistresponsecapabilitiestoensurethesecanbedeployedrobustly.eitherthroughconsortiaorindividually.AswithUNagenciesthiscompetition meansthatassessmentinformationisoftentreatedascommerciallysensitive.manyofwhomdonotknowaboutstandards.OrganisationslikeMSFhavevery generouspublicsupportacrossEuropeandtheUS. WhatNGOsrepresentattheirbestiscitizens’action.Insomecases.Theseareeffectiveandshouldbeexpanded.Manyturnuplookingforguidance.Neitherhasitmadeanimpacton thecompetitionbetweeninternationalNGOs. AsaresultofthehumanitarianreformeffortswiththeUN. TheinternationalNGOsectorhasgonealongwayintryingtoself-regulate.Latterlythishasbeenchangingwiththe establishmentofinnovativeconsortia. FaithgroupsareanotherexampleofagrowingNGOsectorwithpotentialtoimprove responsesthroughtheirstronglinkswithandaccesstolocalcommunities.

 Whilstthesetypesofapproacheshavethepotentialtoimprovetheeffectivenessof manyofthebiggerinternationalNGOs.TheICRCiswidelyadmiredforitsprofessionalismanditsadherenceto mandate.DFID fundsforboththeIFRCandICRCpassedthroughtheBRCSinwhatwascalleda ‘tripartite’relationship.TheBRCSisoneof thestrongerNationalSocieties(NS)intheMovement.wherebyone NGOactsasthegrantholderonbehalfofthecollective.AnothermodelisUNDPinBangladesh. Working with the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement TheInternationalRedCross/CrescentMovementistheworld’slargesthumanitarian network.orMerlinwhohaveco-chairedcountryhealthclusters).DFIDshouldcontinuetoworkwiththe ICRCasitis.withmanyNationalSocietiesthatareunder-resourcedandunder-performing.aprivateSwissorganisationdedicated tohelpingvictimsofconflict.perhapslinkedtopre-crisisarrangementsandplanning.TheChineseRedCrosshasaround20millionvolunteersandoften respondsalongsidethePeople’sLiberationArmyindisasters. IncountrieswhereDFIDhasapresencethistypeofapproachcanbeextendedto nationalandlocalNGOsandapplytointernationalNGOswithsubstantialpresenceand experience.allowingaccreditedNGOseasier accesstocoordinationmeetingsandsoon.TheAmericanRedCrossisresponsibleformasscarein domesticdisasters.TheIranianRedCrescent Societyistheofficialresponsearmofgovernment.ThismakestheICRCapartnerofchoiceinconflict situationsandthisreviewendorsesthatview.Findings belinkedtoclusterneedsandresponsibilities(forinstancewithCAREwhosupportthe sheltercluster.ThisrecentlychangedfortheICRC–DFIDfundsnowgodirectto Geneva–butremainsthesamefortheIFRC. TherelationshipbetweenDFIDandtheRedCross/RedCrescentMovementhas traditionallybeenmediatedbytheBritishRedCrossSociety(BRCS).at£66millioninfinancialyear2009/2010.ButDFIDshouldencourage. TheNationalSocietiesandtheIFRCSecretariataredifferent.Forthepastdecade.However.rootedasitisinitsnationalbase.TheICRCreceivesthelargestamountofDFID humanitarianfundingofanysingleagency.ThecivilsocietyfundinDRCongocouldserveasamodel. 35 .itwillnotsolvetheissueofeverincreasing proliferation.thereview findsthatasystemisneededtohelpshortcutsomeofthechaosofcoordinationof NGOs.andastrategicvoiceintheIFRCSecretariat.Itislessthanthesumofits parts.Thenetworkhas tremendouspotential.ItscoreshighlyininternalDFIDanalysis. Butthenetworkdoesnotroutinelyachieveitspotential.includingtherecentmultilateralaid review.NationalSocietiesarerequired tohaveauxiliarystatustogovernmenttobeamember.OnepotentialmeasurethathasbeendebatedwithintheNGOcommunity formanyyearsisfor‘accreditation’ofsomesort.Thisideahasbeenresistedonthegrounds thatitwouldbealmostimpossibletoachieveandthatitmightunfairlyexcludeNGOs withrealcapacityorinsighttooffer–especiallynationalNGOs.helpandsupportthis process.USAIDusesthesetypesof ‘umbrellagrants’routinely. Thedifferentarrangementsreflectthestrengthsandcharacterofthedifferent organisations.Thisworkcanonlybe conductedbytheNGOsectoritself.Thereare186NationalSocietieswithaSecretariatinGenevaaswellasthe InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross(ICRC).anotheristhe recentlyformedCBHA.withhugereliefstocksandlogistics assetsincludinghelicopters.alargecontributortootherNSin itsownright.Whateveritlookslike.atrustedandprincipledpartnerinconflictsituations.andinmanycountriesthisisa significantrole.andwithcountryoffices.ithastohelpaffectedgovernmentsandthosecharged withcoordinationtounderstandwhereareputableorganisationhasprovencapability andhowitcouldbestbedeployed.

Theirperformanceinresponsehasbeenmixedhowever.corporatesocialresponsibility. Working with the private sector Theprivatesectorrepresentsahugesourceofuntappedcapacityandexpertiseto reducesufferingandhelprebuildcommunitiesintheaftermathofadisaster.theBritishEarthquakeConsortiumforTurkey). TheIFRCalsoremainsamassivenetworkfordisasterresponse.somethingthatshouldbeexplored.National Societiesareoftenclosetocommunities.Working withandthroughtheBritishRedCrossisasensiblehalfwayhouseforthetimebeing.creditandinvestment(e.includingbrand. TheBRCShasauxiliarystatustogovernmentintheUK.althoughinpracticethishasnot oftenbeeninvokedinrecentyears.manyoftheNationalSocietiesaremarginaltotheir nationallifeandincapableoflarge-scalemobilisation.Thenationalsocietyhasofferedtoextendthis typeofsurgearrangementtoDFID.This criticalrolecouldbeimprovedwithgreaterclarityoffocusonimprovingtheglobalRed Cross/RedCrescentresponsesystemfromtheFederation.TheBRCS alreadyprovidesadegreeoflegaladviceonthelawsofwartotheMOD.andwithnationaldisasterlegislation. TheroleoftheBRCSasanauxiliarycouldbere-invigoratedinotherways.BRCSalsokeepsanumberofhighqualityemergencyteamson permanentstandbyfortheFederation.Examplesofthisincludepublic-privatepartnershipsthatenable thesharingofrisks.oftenonavolunteerorpartialcostbasis.g.andstrengthenedbetter capacityattheNSlevel. Butthiscanonlyworkifsomeofthefundamentalproblemscanberesolved. Theemphasisneedstoshiftfromseeingtheprivatesectorasadonortobeinga‘doer’.Humanitarianorganisations suchasMapActionandRedRrelyontrainedpersonnelfromtheprivatesectorbeing availablewhenneededforcriticalshort-termassignmentsintheimmediateaftermath ofadisaster.Theprivatesector’smotivationforengagementisbasedona widerbusinessinterest.andwasremuneratedatan internationallevel. Butthereisstilldistrustfromthehumanitariansectorthatcharacterisesitselfas‘nonprofit’towardsprivatesectororganisationswhoseprimemotivationisperceivedas ‘profit’.andDFIDshouldbeactivein helpingtoachievethis.oftentheveryfirstto helpthroughlocalvolunteersandmobilisingthenetworkofNationalSocietiesata regionalorgloballevel.DFIDshouldworkcloselywithBRCSandtheIFRC SecretariattoinvolvetheFederationinitsresiliencework.Newmodalitiesofengagementare requiredinordertoenablethehumanitariansectortohaveaccesstoskillsandproducts asandwhenrequired. WorkingthroughandwithNationalSocietiescanbeagoodwaytoengagewith NationalDisasterManagementAgencies.Thispotentialmust beunlockediffuturechallengesaregoingtobemet. andasavaluedpartnernotacontractedentity.newmarkets.throughtheirvolunteernetworksandthe Federationhaspioneeredworkoncommunitybaseddisasterpreparedness.Itcanalso helptomitigatedisasterriskthroughpreventionandpreparedness.Thisbarriertocollaborationneedstobeovercome. andstaffmotivation. 36 .theCaribbeanCatastropheRisk InsuranceFacility.Itshouldalsocontinueto supporttheglobalreadinessoftheFederation. giventheotherwisetimeconsumingnatureofapotentialengagement.Itisalsoaquestionof managementandgovernance. InthenewdirectionrecommendedforDFIDinthisreview.TheBRCScanactasaninterlocutor.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Particularlyinsub-SaharanAfrica.Partlythisisaquestionof resources–whenahighachievingofficerfromtheIFRCSecretariatbecameSecretary GeneralofaweakperformingNationalSociety.Andinviewofthisfirmsareoftenwillingtoengageonareduced rateor‘atcost’basis.focusingonnational resilience.asforexamplewithDigicellinHaiti.thiscouldbe extendedtoDFID.therewasastepchangeinperformance.thereisamajorroleforRedCrossandRedCrescentNationalSocieties.

sanitation.nationalandinternationalcompaniesholdtheknowledgeandexpertiseto respondtourbandisasters. Disastersareincreasinglytakingplaceinurbanenvironments.theruralhinterlandwasnotmuchaffectedbytheearthquakeandmarkets resumedquickly.andvariousinitiatives.Thebestknown exampleinthesectoristhecollaborationofAgility. InHaiti.labour.IT andcommunication.Urbanareasarealsodependentoninfrastructureforthedeliveryof essentialservices(water.Thesetraderskeep cerealsoutofcirculationuntilthemaximumpriceisreached. Theprivatesectorcanbringprofessionalism.Notablyitisnationalcompanieslikethese whohavethecapacitytorespondaswellastherelationshipswiththelocalgovernment andcommunity. Thelocalprivatesectorisusuallythefirstthatcanrespondwithreliefitemsandfood.suchas theWorldEconomicForumDisasterRiskPartnershiptofacilitateaccesstoprivate sectorexpertiseinengineeringandconstruction. toolsfordrivingefficiencyandmanagingrisk.andintegratedurbanplanningisneededin ordertoprovideabasisforrecoveryandreconstruction.Urbanenvironmentsare characterisedbyahighconcentrationofprivatesectorinterests(markets.ThereisevidencethatNiger’s cerealmarketisstrictlycontrolledbyarestrictedgroupoftraders.andfundingandprocurementbarriersoftenprevent suchskillsbeingaccessedinatimelyfashionfromtheprivatesector.DFIDshould encourageandstimulatethisprocess.Protectionistrhetoricneeds tobereplacedwithafocusonwhocandowhat.Findings Companiesandgovernmentshaveoutsourcedservicesforyears.energy) Damagedinfrastructureneedstoberapidlyreinstatedandissueslikerubbleremovalare criticaltomakinglandavailableforcamps.TNTandUPSinprovidinglogistics andtransportationservicestoWFP. Thelocalprivatesectorcanalsoprofiteerfromdisasters. skillsandexpertisetoresponseoperations. Recognitionofthevalueoftheinternationalprivatesectorneedstobematchedwith understandingoftheimportanceoflocalbusinessesandcompaniesinimmediate responseandincatalysingeconomicrecovery.Thehumanitariansectoralsohasasetofquasi-commercial relationshipsinitsgrant/recipient/sub-contractingmodel.engineeringandmedicalsupplies.Reinstatingtheseisoutsidethe skillssetofNGOsorUNagencies.the supplychain).InDFID’s resilienceandpreparednesswork.withapotentially detrimentaleffectontheagriculturaleconomy.thelocalandnationalprivatesectorneedstobea keypartner. Thecurrentmodelsofprivatesectorengagementinhumanitarianactiongenerallyfocus onlargemultinationalcompaniesandinvolvepro-bonocontributionsoftheirproducts.Again.Thisismostlyinthesectorsoflogistics. Alltheseexamplesshowthatpositiverelationshipswiththeprivatesectorneedtobe establishedpre-disastersothattheycanbebestusedwhendisasterstrikes.Large-scalefoodaidwasneverthelessimported.Suchskillsneedtobecontextualizedtothechallengesofpost-disaster situationsthroughworkinginpartnershipwithhumanitarianorganisationsandbuilding long-termcollaborativerelationshipsthatenableknowledgetransfer.mosteffectively.leadershipandmanagementbestpractice.mapping.concentratingontheir coreadvantage. Local.HindustanConstruction CompanyinIndiahasbeenabletorespondtofloodsinOrissaandfloods/landslidesin Laddakhwheretheyhadconstructionsites.Therehavealsobeenproactiveeffortsbythe privatesectortobetterunderstandhumanitarianaction.Theycouldbeofgreatvaluetohumanitarianorganisations 37 .andtheuseofcuttingedgetechnology andinformation.drainage.Thisimportanceislikelytochange significantlywhencashtransfersbecomemoreprominent.It canprovideemploymentandcontributetonormalisation.solidwastemanagement.

Andwhere appropriate.oftenacountry’smilitaryistheonlyactorwithadequate resourcestorespondatspeedandscale.FacilitiessuchasthePrivateInfrastructureDevelopmentGrouporthe BusinessInnovationFacilitycouldhavehumanitarianwindows.Indisasterscaused bynaturalhazard.CHASEandthePrivateSectorDepartmentcouldworktogetheron galvanisingprivatesectorexpertisearoundspecificopportunitiesthatneedunblocking. Anexamplewouldbefastinfrastructurerehabilitationinurbanareas.orsensitivepoliticalsituations. Inarmedconflict.Followingthe tsunamithathitBandaAceh. DFIDhassetupanewPrivateSectorDepartmentinJanuary2011tohelpraisethelevel.theministryofhousingandlocalmunicipalityinSantiago. savingthemostlivesbypullingpeopleoutoftherubbleandbyprovidingthefirstrelief items.Existingandnewprogrammescouldaddressmanyoftheissues raisedabove.Thereareexamplesofmunicipal governmentsturningdirectlytotheprivatesector.Anothermightbe encouragingtheprivatesectortohelpstrengthenthehumancapacityoflocal governmentsandstructurestomanageemergencies.forinstancetheDujiangyan MunicipalGovernmentaftertheChineseearthquake.Chinaprovidedmilitaryhelicoptersand medicalteamsafterthePakistanfloodsin2010.Inmanycountries.Domesticmilitaryare oftenthefirstresponseofgovernment.Knowledgegeneration anddisseminationactivitiescouldincluderelevanthumanitariancases. ThereviewtakestheviewthattheBritishmilitarydoeshavearoletoplay insupportoftheUKresponseledbyDFID. 31 TECcoordinationstudy:www.Thereisanobviousneedtobeabletodistinguishbetween thesesituationsandmakesensiblepolicydecisionsbasedoncontext.aspx 38 .Theseexamplesdemonstratethe benefitofextramilitarysupportwhendisastersaresolargethatthecombined resourcesofdomesticmilitaryandthoseoftheinternationalhumanitariancommunity areinsufficienttomeettheneedsoftheaffectedpopulation.Whenbigdisastershit.DFIDshouldrecogniseacountry’srighttouse itsownmilitaryindisasterresponseandbesupportive.especiallyifpredictionsofincreasedneed materialise. Itisthenationalgovernment’sresponsibilitytodecidewhethertocallinmilitary resourcesinsupportofahumanitarianresponse.Chile. Working with the military Themilitaryhaslongbeeninvolvedindisasterreliefoperations.Itisvitaltouphold humanitarianprinciples.Thismaybeadecisiontousethe country’sownmilitaryortoaccepttheuseofforeignmilitary.Buthumanitarianworkersneedtobeabletoacknowledgeareasofmilitary comparativeadvantageandrecognisewheretheycanworktogether.especiallywherethereareobviouspoliticalormilitary objectives.usingmilitaryassetsassociatedwith partiestotheconflictcancompromisetheperceivedneutrality–andthereforesafety –ofhumanitarianworkers.attherequestofgovernmentandwithclearcomparativeadvantage.Itisequallyvitaltousethemosteffectiveresourcesatour disposaltomeettheneedsofthoseaffected.Aftertheearthquakeof2005. extentandeffectivenessofDFID’sengagementwiththeprivatesector.calling intheirownmilitarytorespondtoalarge-scaledomesticdisasteristhemostobvious thingtodo.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview operatingoutoftheirtraditionalareasofexpertise.alnap.org/initiatives/tec/thematic/coordination.Asubsequentreviewfounditoneofthemosteffective partsoftheinitialinternationalresponse31.Thisisan excellentinitiative.Internationalmilitaryinvolvementindisaster reliefhasbeenmorecontentious.thePakistanarmywasthefirstresponder.andapublic-privatepartnership (PRES)betweenArauco. Anationalgovernmentmayrequestassistancefromforeignmilitary.Indonesiain2004militaryhelicoptersfrominternational forceswereneededtoreachcutoffpopulationsandmanynationsprovidedmilitary assetstowardthisoperation.

2forrecommendationonfunding. 22 23 32 MilitaryandCivilDefenceAssets(MCDA): http://www.Thiswillopenthedoortotheuseofnichecapabilities.Butthereisawiderpointabouthowhumanitariansengagewithmilitary forces.Thisisusefulasit makesgovernmentsandpolicymakersthinktwicebeforedeployingmilitaryforces.This reviewhasconcludedthattheOsloguidelinesarestillrelevant.Thereisanassumption thatthiskitistooexpensive.andexplorethepossibilityof co-financing. 39 . Twoinstrumentscurrentlyexisttoguidetheappropriateuseofmilitaryresourcesin humanitariansituations. • WorkwithotherstosupporttheUNEmergencyReliefCoordinatorinthereformof OCHAandthesystemmorewidely. InconflictsituationsdeploymentofmilitaryassetsshouldbeinlinewiththeUN guidelines.org/media/guidance/3mcdaguidelines. NichecapabilitiesoftheBritishmilitarymayincludestrategicplanningandsurge deployment.DFIDshouldinterpret andwherepossibledefinetheprincipleoflastresortas.TheOsloguidelinesestablishtheprincipleof‘lastresort’.Inconflict.thisisnotusuallythe case. Maintain its default position that humanitarian response is multilateral33. Brazil and the Gulf States).coe-dmha.‘onlyusingmilitaryassetswhen nothingelsewilldo’. WorkwithNGOstopromotetheconceptofaccreditationorcertification.Findings militaryplanningandassetscanbehugelybeneficial.andinsuchsituations humanitarianorganisationsneedtoworkwiththem.pdf 33 Seesection5.orprovidebettervalueformoneythancommercialalternatives. EnsurethatthenewPrivateSectorDepartmentgivesfullconsiderationtothoseareas whereprivatesectorexpertisecanimprovehumanitarianresponseeffectiveness.althoughUNmandatedforcescanhelpinsecuringhumanitarianaccess. includingatthecountrylevel.Itmayalsoincludeagreateruseofmilitaryassets.the‘Oslo’guidelinesfordisasters.andtheUNguidelines32for conflict. In particular it should: • EngagemoreeffectivelywithECHOonapolicylevel. 20 21 WorkwithpartnerstopromotedonorcoordinationandrevitalisetheGood HumanitarianDonor-shipgroup.andthedifferencebetweenthem. UsemilitaryassetsinsituationswhereareconsistentwithOsloguidelinesandoffer capacityotherscannot.33 Recommendations DFID should: 18 19 Reach out to create new partnerships with new donor partners (including China.Therealissueiswhetherthereareessentialassetsfor savinglivesthatcannotbesecuredintimeanyotherway.Whenmilitaryforcescontrolareasthereisa needforahumanitariandialoguetoensurepopulationsinneedcanbeaccessed.Many UNforcesareroutinelygivenmandatestoprotectcivilians. India.without openingthe‘floodgates’tounwelcomedeploymentofmilitaryassetsforeverybig emergency.

however. DFIDcanworkwithagenciesliketheICRC. ThisreviewconcludesthatDFIDhumanitarianpolicyshouldbetoprotectandwhere possibleenlargethisfragilespace.andthebreakdownofstateauthoritythat therewillbetimeswhenmilitaryforce.impartialand independenttheycanbuildtrustwithcombatants. Whereaidislinkedtopoliticalormilitarygoalsthesecurityofstaffcanbe compromised.Thesamecasestudiesshow.makingitdifficulttoreachthosemostinneed.thepeacekeepingforceunderstands ithasadutytotryandpreventtheseandworkswithhumanitarianstothisend. Thisreviewwasnotmandatedtoconsiderthefullrangeofconflictsituations.Mobile operationalbasesofthetypetrialledinDRCongohavemerit.Insituationsofconflict.toworkwithagenciesthatcanaccessandhelpthose indireneedandtocontinuetoresistthepoliticisationofhumanitarianaid.byensuringthat peacekeepingmandatesincludetheprotectionofcivilians.InBurma 40 .mandatedbytheUN.itisclearthat protectionofciviliansandhumanitarianaccessisparamount.Itmustobserveinternationalhumanitarianlaw.Itcanworkwithlegitimatehumanitarianagenciestoassistthemintheirrole.especiallywhencoupled withwaysforcommunitiestotriggerthem.trainedinthetacticsoffightingbattles.especiallywhenresourcesarescarce.registeringrefugeesandpromoting rights).This shouldbereinforced. Humanitarianprincipleshaveevolvedovertimetohelpagenciesaccessandprotect populationsmostatrisk.impartialityandneutrality. Protection of civilians Inconflictsituationsandaftersomedisasters.Itcanuseitsinfluenceto remindothersoftheirobligationsunderinternationalhumanitarianlawandhuman rightslaw.Itishardforsoldiers.andhasmerit.whengovernmentsarebelligerentor venalDFIDcannotworkdirectlythroughtheauthorities.Oftentheneedforsecuritycomesbeforeanythingelse.byobservingthe keyprinciplesofhumanity.focusing onlyonnaturaldisastersandspikesinconflict.allowingthemtodeliveraid. InthecasestudyforDRCongo.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 4. DFIDcanworkwiththeUN.InparticularDFIDmustensurethatinconflicthumanitarianbudgetsfund neutralandimpartialagencies.andsubstitutionofbasicserviceswhereappropriate.Humanitarianwork cannotbethestickingplasterforalackofpoliticalaction.particularlyinurbanareasciviliansneed protectionfromviolence.theUNHCRandOHCHRtoenablethemto carryouttheirprotectionwork(visitingprisoners.andthatpeacekeepingforces areresourcedforthis.to findwaysofpreventingattacksoncivilians.Wherethoseagenciesareseenasneutral. CasestudiesinDRCongo.itwasclearthatUNpeacekeepinghasmadeprogressin itsprotectionwork.willbeneededtoprotect civiliansandhumanitarianworkers.DFIDneedstodowhatitcantonurtureandexpandthisspace.andbyleadingwhereithas influencetoensureothersdo.includinginpeacekeepingassetoutabove.Thebiggerpictureisthatconflictispolitical.wherestateshavefailed. TheUKcanplayameaningfulroleinsuchsituations.Insuchcasesthereisafragile ‘space’inwhichhumanitarianagenciesareacceptedandworktohelpthosemostin need. AnditcansupporttheworkoftheUnitedNationsinpeacekeeping.Whilsttherecontinuetobehorrificattacksagainstcivilians(mass rapesbygovernmentaffiliatedforcestonameone). thattherearethingsthatcanbeachieved.Thereview alsorecognisesthatincomplexconflicts.especiallyworkingwithothers.Thisistechnical work.7 Humanitarian space Whenthereisconflict.evenwhereitisapartytothe conflict.GazaandBurmademonstratethelimitedinfluencetheUK workingonitsownhasinsituationsofconflict.

Partlythisisthe resultofamorecomplexandlesscertainworld.Findings followingcycloneNargis.exemptionscanbemadebytheEuropeanCouncilon humanitariangrounds.andinvestingininter-agency securityinitiativeswhenthesehaveprovenworth. neutrality and impartiality in the new DFID humanitarian policy.However.Thislargelyremainsthecase. Theissuesaffectingthesafetyofhumanitarianworkersarebeyondthescopeofthis review.SriLankaandGaza)andislikelytocomeup moreofteninthefuture.insomeplacesitisalsoaperception thathumanitarianworkerandeventheUNispartisan.islargelycounter-productive.Colombia.HavingUNinyourtitleandflyingaUNflag onyourvehiclenolongerprovidestheautomaticprotectionitusedto. Security of humanitarian workers Humanitarianworkisbecomingmoredangerous.thelegalproblemshouldbeovercomebyapplyingforexemptionson humanitariangrounds. reaffirming the key principles of humanity.DFID.andthatprotectingthemis necessaryiftheworkisgoingtogetdone.fundingwhennecessary. Recommendations DFID should: 24 Re-assert the premise that humanitarian action should be based on need.Thehumanitarianimperativeshouldbeaprimaryconsideration.hadtostopfundingthehumanitarianwork ofinternationalNGOsandotherimplementingpartnersbecausetheycouldnot100% ensurethataterroristorganisationwouldnotindirectlyordirectlybenefit.andinallcasesofconflict.DFIDsupportedtheUNincoordinatingaccessadvocacythrougha HumanitarianAssistanceFramework. Ensurefundingismadeavailableforsecurityandriskmanagementforhumanitarian workers.militaryandlegalactiontriestocontainconflictandhelpthoseaffected byit.European legallybindinginstrumentsoncounter-terrorismandUKlegislationstipulatethat anybodydirectlyorindirectlyfundingterroristorganisationswillbeprosecutedunder criminallaw.anessentialpriority istonegotiatehumanitarianaccessonanunimpededbasis.Thisshouldbenegotiatedat thehighestnecessarylevel.Inthe casesabove.workingwiththeASEANgroupofnationsitwaspossibleto gainaccessforhumanitarians.thismeansputtingsecurity intoanyauditingprocessconnectedtopre-qualification. DFIDneedstoensurethatthoseagencieswithwhichitworkstakesecurityseriously. 25 41 . Traditionallyhumanitarianagencieshaveworkedonthebasisofbeingacceptedbythe localpopulation.Allpartiesarerequiredto grantsuchaccessunderInternationalHumanitarianLaw.praisedbyBanKi-Moon.onoccasion.Thishasmeantmoreinvestmentinexplainingwhattheyaredoing.patchybuild-upofinternational humanitarian.thismeanscontinuingtohaveacloserelationshipwithitssecurity department(UNDSS).InGaza.thepatient.WithNGOs.Whatisclearisthattheyareinmoredanger.asemployedbypartisanmilitaryforcesandforeigngovernmentsin conflicts.andnotlefttofieldworkerstomanageontheirown.InDRCongo. Thisreviewfindsthatinthesecircumstances.Statisticsquotedinthechallenges sectionofthisreviewoutlinehowmoreandmorehumanitarianworkersarebeingkilled andwoundedinthecourseoftheirwork. andrelyingontheirgoodworkstospeakforthemselves. Aparticularissuerelatingtocounter-terrorismlegislationhasariseninseveralcomplex emergenciesrecently(Somalia. WiththeUN. Deterrence.

aswellassomecriticalareasfor investmentsuchasresearchandinnovation.humanitarianassistanceisdefinedas.afunderanda‘doer’.Theconsensus ofthisreviewisthatthedefaultpositionforthisresponseshouldbemultilateral.andlooksattheresourcing. IftheinternationaldevelopmentactandthekeypiecesofEuropeanandInternational lawdeterminetheoverallframeworkforDFIDhumanitarianaction.ratherthan somethingthatneedstoberespondedtowhenithappens.neutrality.TheEUconsensusonhumanitarianaidinparticularcommitstheUKto. leadership. Thepolicyshouldalsosetoutwhy.basedon comparativeadvantageincludingpresence.Suchworkshouldalsobeofcentralconcernto DFID’sdevelopmentpartners.thenDFIDshouldstandreadytomakeadditionalfundsavailableinto themultilateralsystem.Workonanticipationand resilienceshouldbepartofDFID’severydayworkincountrieswhereithasapermanent presence(seesections4.whenandhowDFIDresponds.resilience.Fundingfor multilateralandNGOpartnersneedstobecomemorepredictable.suchastheWorldBankandtheUN.inthat DFIDwillworkwithandthroughitspartners. Asoutlinedintheintroduction.unableorunwillingtoact’.notleastbecauseofthisreview. impartialityandindependence’.OccasionallyDFIDwillalsoresponddirectly.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 5.innovation. 5. Thestepchangesoughtbythisreviewwillalsohaveconsequencesforthewaythat DFIDprovidesfundingbeforeandduringhumanitarianemergencies.Wherethescaleoftheneedexceeds regularresources.2).Anewpolicyshouldbe groupedaroundthemajorthemesidentifiedinthisreviewofanticipation.partnershipandhumanitarianspace.willingand transparent.Ithadthreepolicygoals: • Improvetheeffectivenessofhumanitarianresponses.1 Changing the policy TheInternationalDevelopmentAct2002isthekeypieceofUKlegislationthatframes overseasassistance.Fundingshouldalsobeavailabledirectlyto governmentsforresilienceandresponsework. • Beabetterdonor. Theconsensusalsosubscribestoanumberofotherprinciplesandcodes.Notablyit ‘firmly’commitstothe‘fundamentalhumanitarianprinciplesofhumanity.Themostradicalchangewill involveseeinghumanitarianconcernsasacorepartofDFIDprogramming.Thissectionsets outhowitshouldengageintheseroles. DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Todeliverthestepchangeinthewayhumanitarianassistanceisconceivedanddelivered outlinedabove.thenthe2006 humanitarianpolicyisthekeyinternaldocument.“assistanceforthe purposeofalleviatingtheeffectsofanaturalorman-madedisasterorotheremergency onthepopulationofoneormorecountriesoutsidetheUnitedKingdom”.‘providea needs-basedemergencyresponseaimedatpreservinglife.structureand accountabilitymechanismsitneedsinplace.where.DFIDisashaper.theUKissignatorytoEUandinternational law.sothattheycan investintheskillsandstructurestheyneed.preventingandalleviating humansufferingandmaintaininghumandignitywherevertheneedarisesif governmentsandlocalactorsareoverwhelmed.Intheact. • Reduceriskandextremevulnerability.accountability.wheretheyarecapable.1and4.DFIDhasalsocommittedtotheseprinciplesinits2006 humanitarianpolicy. Inadditiontoitsdomesticlegalobligations.Thissuggeststheformulashouldbe: 42 .DFIDwillhavetomakesignificantchanges. Thispolicyneedsupdating.

DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID • Why:becauseofinternationaldevelopmentact.seennotasa‘humanitarian’activity. butasadevelopmentnecessity.Humanitarianadvisorsneedtobesureof topmanagementandpoliticalsupportbeforeengaginginnegotiationswiththeUN systemonreform. 5. • Where:onthebasisofneed.onbudgetarygroundstheUKhasdriventermsofservice changesthathavemadeithardertorecruithumanitarians.asoutlinedinprevioussections.andhelpsthe mostpeople. leadership.IntheUN. where.Internationalagencieshavecometorealisethatwhile humanitarianstaffmightbehighlycriticalofanoperation. ThismeansthatDFIDhasadirectinterestinmakingtheinternationalsystemwork.InmegadisastersUKto routinelyrespondwithadditionalfundinganddirectdelivery.DFIDto responddirectlyonlywherethereiscomparativeadvantageoroverwhelmingUKpublic interest. Buttheimplicationsofthisreviewgofurther.DFIDhasbecome tooshrill. Thepolicyshouldbuildonthereviewthemesofanticipation.givingspecialemphasistothe changesinleadershipstructuresandcapacitythereviewrecommends. • When:throughmultilateralpartnersinthefirstinstance.politicalandsenior organisationalleaderswillnotexpendpoliticalcapitaltofixit.leadershipandcoordination. 43 .exerts withintheinternationalhumanitariansystem.DFID beratestheUNfornotdoingmoretorecruithumanitarians.partnershipandhumanitarianspace. DFIDwillhavetolearntobemorestrategic.DFID’sinfluenceinbringing aboutmuchneededchangeandreformswillbeincreasedifitspendsmoretimebuilding alliances.innovation.Whereneedexceeds thislevelofresources. AnewapproachisneededifDFIDwantstocontinuetoshapetheinternationalsystem.DFIDhasbeenoneoftheleadingvoicesin pressingforreformsinfinancing.Butthishaswaned.EUconsensusandBritishpublic support.throughDFID.accountability.andlesstimeactingalone.andtooinconsistent.Thereviewhasconcluded thatthisefforthasbeenbeneficialandshouldcontinue.2 Delivering differently Shaping the International System TheUKisamajorcontributortotheinternationalsystem. ThisreviewhighlightsinseveralsectionstheinfluencetheUK.Thisneedstoplacethecreationofresilienceinatrisk countriesintheheartofdevelopmentprocesses.Atthesametime. Sincethehumanitarianreformsof2005. Recommendations DFID should: 26 27 Incorporate resilience into its development policy and programmes. Aninternationalsystemthatworksprovidesthebestvalueformoney. when and how.Thesameistrueacross government.andwhichthe IASChasrecentlyendorsed. • How:throughregularfundstomultilateralandNGOpartners.resilience.ThereneedstobeapolicychangeinDFID onthedevelopmentsidetoo.additionalfundingtobeconsidered(basedonadvice). Develop a new humanitarian policy setting out why the UK responds.withthemajorityofits humanitarianresourceschannelledthroughpartners.

TheHERRwelcomesthis andrecommendsthatDFIDtakesafurthersteptowardsmulti-yearcorefundinglinked toperformancesothatthemajoragenciesandtheRedCrossMovementget predictabilityforfinancialplanningandcapacitybuilding.asoutlinedinprevioussections ofthisreport.Theseneedto becarefullymanaged.The splitoverthelastfewyearshasbeenstronglyinfavourofadditionalnon-corefundingin responsetoUNFlashAppealsforsuddenonsetdisasters.focuson resultsandvalueformoney. DFIDcurrentlyfundsthemultilateralhumanitariansystemthroughacombinationof corefundingandadditionalnon-corefundingatthecountrylevelforemergencies. Donorsshapetheinternationalresponsesystembythewaytheyfund.Betterallianceswithestablisheddonorpartnersandthenew emergingeconomieswillbeessential.ECHOandtheUS.aswillnewrelationshipswithregionalbodies.34 34 Carefulconsiderationwillneedtobegivennottobreachtheruleonfundinginadvanceofneed.Butthesystemisnotservingtheneedsof affectedpeopleaswellasitmight.TheNewYorkmissionhasa sizeableDFIDpresence.asoneofthemostinfluentialdonors.Someofthisis intended.ManyintheUNseeDFID asthesinglemostinfluentialdonor.Thisneedstochange. 44 .WherepolicymessagesarecommonbetweentheUK.ForDFIDtoachievebetterresults andgreatervalueformoney.TheBilateralandMultilateral AidReviewsarechangingthissplit.withinthevariousUNcommittees.Astepchangeisneededongreaterpredictability (includingmulti-yearcommitments).coherence.butmostisnot.Genevadoesnot haveaDFIDpresence. Changing the funding model ThemajorityofwhattheUKgovernmentdoesinhumanitarianassistanceisfunding others.ThroughtheMAR.ButUKMISinGenevacanneverthelessalsobeusedmore effectivelytohelpbuilddiplomaticalliancesinthepursuitofDFID’sreformagenda.ButDFIDalsoneedstouseitsfundstopromotechange–to ensurethatagenciesareequippedtorespondfastanddeliverwhatpeoplereallyneed.itdoesnotfocusenoughonprevention anditdoesnotdemanddemonstrableperformanceoffundedagencies.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview TheUKmissionsinNewYorkandGenevaarevaluableassets.accountability.DFIDhaslongbeenseenasafastandflexiblehumanitariandonor.notsquanderedinfrustration.transparency.throughseveralinternationalinitiatives.itisnotcoordinatedorharmonised.thesameprinciplesofaideffectivenessneedtoapplyto thefundingofhumanitarianpartners.hasapowerful effectonthesystem–aslaidoutabove.Theabilitytoleverageitspositionasthethird largestdonortoachieverealchangegivestheUKuniqueopportunities.andsharperadvocacybyleaders withinDFIDisneeded.TheGHDgrouphasbeenanengineforchange–theUK needstoworkwiththisgrouptoseethishappenagain.ButDFIDdoesnotuseeithermissionsystematicallyforitshumanitarian lobbyingandalliancebuilding.bettershapingtheinternational system. AboveallDFIDneedtobemorestrategicinitslobbyingwork.ThemainpriorityshouldbetoequipDFID’spartnersto buildtheircapacityandmanagehumanitarianresponse. DFIDcanchangetheincentivesinthewayitfunds.itisnot equitable.Thisposition shouldbemaintained.DFIDhasbeenastrongadvocateofgreateraid effectiveness.thebestperformingagencies shouldreceivesignificantlymorecorefundinglinkedtoresults. theyarefarmorepowerful.Maintainingapositionasatop donorwillbeessentialifthisinfluenceistoberetained. DFIDalsoneedstoworkbetterwithitsdonorpartners.andwhenusedwellcan deliverimpact.whichshouldbebetterusedtoplanadvocacy.Indevelopmentaid.DFID.Butbetteruseofpositionson UNagencyboards.Fundingisnotproportionatetoneeds.

purchasegoods.useequipmentandsoon.inlinewiththeMARfindingongood performance.DFIDshouldlookforwaysofco-financing ECHOresponseswherethiswouldaddvalue. Nevertheless. Fast mobilisation funding and pre-crisis arrangements Aparticularchallengeinfundingsuddenonsetdisastersisthefirstweekafterdisaster strikes.Onceapprovedhowever. Generally.DFIDneedsto retainitscommitmenttofundinghumanitarianneedsatthecountrylevel.theFlashAppealsandConsolidated Appealsshouldbecomeproportionatelysmallerovertimeapartfrominexceptional circumstances.DFID’scontributiontothemwillalsogodown. Asaresultofmorecorefundingformajoragencies. Keepingwiththesameprinciplesappliedabovetothemultilaterals.This reviewrecommendsDFIDlinksdemonstratingresultsandimpactcloselytofuture country/emergencyfunding.However.as theCERF.wheninfactthisisonlytrueifeachfamilyreceivesa handful–somethingimpracticalinmostdistributionmodels.Inreturnforanagreedenvelopeoffundingforanemergency. AsDFID’scontributiontoECHOisfixed.promotingbothpositiveandnegativebehaviours.Often.ItisoneofDFID’smostimportantand valuablecontributionstoemergencyresponses.DFID’sabilityand willingnesstoprovidefastfundingtogetthewheelsrollingandenablingthewider systemtostartprovidingreliefiswidelypraised.Programmeauditsarerarelycarriedout.e. asdemonstratedforexamplebyitsinvolvementintheDRCongopooledfund.nationalandlocalconsortia.theHERRalsorecommendsa highercontributiontotheCERFlinkedtoresults.thebestperforming NGOsshouldgetmorepredictablelong-termfundinglinkedtoperformancethrough strengthenedProgrammePartnershipArrangements.Oneoftheperverse incentivesitcreatesisforimplementingagenciestoproposethehighestbeneficiary numberspossiblefromtheirprogrammes.Importantareasofperformancejust getbox-ticking.agenciesdoneedsubstantialfundingtomobilise–tohirepeople. transport.howitwillbeaccountabletobeneficiaries orhowspecificissuessuchasgenderareaddressed.thisis whereDFID’sseatatthetableprovidesgreatvaluebyimprovingoverallaideffectiveness.thewayhumanitarianfundingisallocatedactsasa‘complexincentive system’.Having todecidequicklywhattofundandwhatnotanddealingwithmanydifferentfunding streamscarrieshightransactioncostsforDFID. 45 .TheCERFshouldbeenabledtofundpreparedness.whentheyactuallyhavetimetomakeaproper assessment).inwhatwerefertointhisreportasthe‘criticalperiod’.theCBHAandotherregional.partnershavefewpressurestoprovideinformationonhow theirprojectwillachievethedesiredimpact.Butmoreimportantlythecurrent approachdoesnotprovidetherightincentivesforagenciestodeliverhighqualitywork forthebestvalue.thislocksagenciesintoacourseof actionthatmayonreflection(i.notbethemostjudiciousone.Andforgreaterequityin allocationsandcoherence.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Forgreaterglobalequityinallocationsandcoherence. implementingpartnershavetobeabletodemonstrateresultsandreportaccordingly.Itdoescomeatacosthowever.Inmanyemergenciesin facttheseboxesusuallyrotinwarehouses. Whatisrequiredisastepchangeinlinkingcountrylevelfundingtoperformance.Henceaboxofwaterpurificationtablets ‘servesthousandsoffamilies’. Oncefundingisapproved.shouldgetincreasedfundingonamulti-yearbasis.Thesemobilisationfundsare connectedtothe‘programmes’andsohighlyspeculative‘proposals’aremadesimplyto allowagenciestomobilise.

Bothofthese capacitiesarehighlyappreciatedandhavebeenproventomakearealdifference.DFIDcandeliveraidrapidlythroughitsstandingemergency team.findingshelterandfood–toidentifyingways togenerateincomeveryquickly.drivethemovefrom immediateconcerns–reunitingfamilies.DFIDhasacalldownarrangementwiththeUKfire serviceforSearchandRescue.Itcanalsodeliverhighqualitypeopleintotheinternationalsystem.Thevalue formoneyofthereliefitemsdeliveredhasbecomequestionable.Theresultinghighercostsofrecoveringlostlivelihoodswillhavetobe pickedupbydevelopmentprogrammes. Cash-basedapproachestoacceleraterecoveryareonewayoutofthisfalsedichotomy andeasethewayintodevelopmentprogramming.therebycreatingacompetitivedynamicwhichcanerode collectiveactionandcompromisestheoutcomesfortheaffectedpopulated.typicallywithlessmoneypledgedthanrequired.Bythen.Becauseinsuch complexemergenciesobjectivesandcontextschangefrequently.DFIDneedsa fundingmodalitythatcanprovidefastmobilisationfundinginthefirstweek. Inadditiontotheinternalcapacity.DFIDneedstorecogniselivelihoodsfundingis legitimatefromdayone.targetedatsavinglivelihoods.Theimmediate reliefphase.recoveryneedsassessmentsarecarriedoutandlonger-term humanitarianprogrammingbegins.Onoccasion. Funding recovery from day one Internationalfundingforemergenciesisusuallysplitintothreelevels.recoveryandreconstruction.Andthen.dogsandequipment)tobedeployedwithinhoursofbeingcalled.Evaluationsshowthatwomen. 46 . Evidenceisbuildingupontheeffectivenessofcashresponses.itoftenfundsimplementing organisationsindividually.ThisprovidesforoneUNclassified‘heavy’team(64 people.OrtheexamplefromCycloneNargisinBurmaofthe privatesectorsellingthepotsandpansthatenabledthepreparationofcookedfood andareturntonormallongbeforetheinternationalpotsandpansarrived.Itisimportantthattheir impactisassessedinrelationtothesegoals.whilstsolvingsomeoftheissuesoutlinedabove.DFIDdoesneedvaried fundingmechanismsandaflexibleapproach.forexampleintocashbasedsocial protectionschemesthatcanreducevulnerabilityandbuildresilienceforthenextcrisis.Adonorpledging conferenceisheld.Thisreviewhasfoundthatwhataffectedpopulationswant andneedmostisanimmediatestarttolivelihoodsrecovery. Infrastructurerehabilitationisanotherexamplethereviewfounddoesnotgetenough attentionintheimmediateaftermathofanemergency. Whatthissplitfundingmodelhascausedisafalsedichotomyinseparatingrelieffrom recoveryandreconstruction.forexample.The‘criticalperiod’iswheninternational actorsandmoneypourintocountriesintheaftermathofanemergencytryingtosave lives.52inthe aftermathofCycloneNargisor27afterOperationCastLeadinGaza.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Similarly.whileDFIDasksforgreatercoordination.Theneatdonorsplitdoes notworkforthem.This shouldbebasedonpre-qualificationratherthanspeculativeproposals. Delivering smarter direct aid Inthebiggestemergencies. Toincreaseitsflexibility. Thenumberofprojectgrantsinemergencieshasalsobecomeoverwhelming. beneficiarieshadincurreddebtunderminingtherecoveryoftheirlivelihoods.the reconstructionphasestartssometimeduringrecoverywithdifferentfundingcomingon streamfromtheWorldBankandIMFoftentorepairpre-existinginfrastructure.Butthesenumbersoffundingstreams resultinhightransactioncostsofstafftimeandprovideastrainonhumanresourcesto adequatelymonitorandfollowupprojectsfunded.Afterthefirstmonth.Theun-clearedrubbleinHaiti highlightsthis.

Iftherightpersonisnotatthe meetingwhenitisrequested.Thiscouldeasilybeextended –onoccasionswheretheUKhasdeployedclusterleadsquicklythistoohasmadea hugedifference. WhatthismeansisthattheUKneedstobesmartaboutwhereandwhenitdeploys theseassets. Working strategically across the UK government TheUK’sresponsetointernationaldisastersneedstobecoordinatedacrossgovernment departments.Thesurgicalteamscostaboutonehundredthofthe searchandrescueteams(littleover£2.thedirectdeliveryofDFID shouldberetained. Alloftheinterventionscitedabovehavevalue.Italsoneedstothinkaboutthefuture. Thereisforexample.Thesepeoplemaynotbeofsufficientsenioritytotake decisions.informationmanagerstosetupsystemsquickly.ForexampletheFCOandCabinetOfficethroughtheir informationnetworkscanproviderapidsituationupdatestocomplementthoseof DFID’sownstaffandagencycontacts.thedecisioncannotbetakenandtimeislost.DFID helpeddeployateamofhighlyqualifiedsurgeonstoworkoncomplicatedtraumawounds.asthisreviewmakesclear.TheSearchandRescueteamsarehighly visibleanddemonstratemuchvaluedsolidarity.aircraftandhelicopters.ascouldothersciencebasedassets. 47 .Itshouldworkwithotherstobetteralignthis surgecapacity(forinstanceNRCandtheBritishRedCross).Thismightbemachines forunloadingaircraft.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID theUKalsoprovidesmilitaryassetssuchasships.Theseareespeciallyusefulinthe ‘criticalperiod’.Thistooisvaluable.000perlifesavedinHaiti.ButSearchandRescueunderthismodeliscostlywithover £250.Thiscanlead toalackofeffectivecommunicationbetweendifferentdepartmentsandafailureto achieveresults. DFIDdeploymentsaretypically‘enablers’–aircrafthandlerstomakesureaidflows swiftly.DFIDmay lookelsewherefortransport.ThisisoneofthemostcosteffectiveandinfluentialactionsDFIDundertakes.lesssoafterwards.noformalmechanismforconveningallgovernmentdepartments inresponsetoaninternationalemergency.Andastherearenomajorearthquakefaultlinesclose totheUK.TheresponseisusuallyledbyDFID.TheNHSprovidessurgeonsforresponseinthe ‘criticalperiod’.chemicalandbiological capabilities–thesecouldberapidlydeployedincircumstanceswheretheycouldmakea realdifference. WhereUKdirectassistanceconsistentlymakesadifferenceiswiththedeploymentof personnel.InNigeragencies spentlittleover£100perchildsavedinfeedingprogrammes.ForexampletheMODchainofcommandrequiressomeoneoftheright ranktoapprovetheuseofanaircraftforreliefsupplies. DFIDhasalsobuiltanicheexpertisein‘enablingequipment’.DFIDshouldworkwiththeUNtoensureithasthemostneeded enablingstaffonstandby(andnotsimplytakerequestsforcheappeoplethrough traditionalagencystandbyschemes).However.ArrangementsbyDFIDaread hocand departmentsarecalledinasandwhenDFIDconsidersthereisaneedforwidersupport.andinthe workrecommendedaroundsupplychainbythisreport.500)perlifesavedinHaiti.Othergovernmentdepartmentsprovidesupportinwayswhere theyhavedistinctadvantage.evidencefromthereviewsuggestswecandobetterat integratingtheseseparateinputs.andcontinuityofstaffwhoattendmeetingsisnotmaintained.andDFIDusuallyprovidesthe majorityofresources.theycanarrivetoolate. Theinformalityofthisarrangementmeansthattherightpeoplearenotalways availableatshortnoticetoattendmeetings.orhighqualitysheltermaterials.The same‘resilience’teamsintheUKfireservicehavenuclear.FromaUKperspectivesuchdeploymentsoffer uniqueopportunitiesforteamstoexperiencearealdisaster–invaluableshouldtherebe somethingsimilarintheUK.TheUK hasotherassetsthatcouldbeharnessedfordisasterresponseas‘nichecapabilities’.Morejuniorstaffmayrepresenttheir departmentthanisideal.InHaiti.

Forexampletheresponse toCycloneNargisinBurma. capacity.Incaseswheremoreformalcoordinationarrangementshave beenmade. • Ensurethereisflexibilityoffundingasfastmovingsituationschange.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Thereviewunderstandsthatothergovernmentdepartmentsarekeentoprovide supportinemergenciesandconsidertheyhavemoretocontributethanDFIDisaware of.suchastheCBHA andWAHRF.regionalandcountrylevelNGOconsortia.Theresultwasaneffectivebodymadeupofpeopleof therightsenioritywhowereabletomakedecisionsandactrapidly.Asimilarbody thatcoulddrawtogethergovernmentdepartmentsundertheauthorityofthePrime Minister. TheNationalSecurityCouncilisthenewmechanismunderwhichcross-government departmentsareconvenedundertheauthorityofthePrimeMinister.Awayshouldbefoundthroughtheexisting NationalSecurityCouncilmechanismtoconveneastandingcommitteeon humanitarianemergencyresponsetodothis. • Incorporatesurgicalteamsintofirstphasedeploymentsespeciallyafterearthquakes. 31 48 . Develop and deploy niche capabilities in a more focused way where they add value: • OnlyusesearchandrescueinsituationswheretheUKcangenuinelyaddvalue.crossgovernmentactionhasbeenmoreeffective. 29 Design fast and flexible funding models for emergency responses: • ProvidefastmobilisationfundingintheCriticalPeriodbasedonpre-qualification ratherthanspeculativeproposals. 32 33 ContinueandexpandthesurgeofUKcontractedpersonnelintotheinternationalsystem.Carryoutindependentperiodic programmeauditsandafteractionreviewstoinformfuturefundingdecisions.chairedbyDFIDandconstitutedunderstricthumanitarianprincipleswould providethenecessarycoordination.biologicalandchemical. performance and coherence by: • Increasingpredictablemulti-yearfundinglinkedtoperformancetomajorUNagencies. • Investigatenewformsofnichecapabilitiesthatcanrespondtonewtypesofthreats suchasnuclear. pre-crisis arrangements. • Ensurerecoveryandlivelihoodsfundingisconsideredduringandimmediatelyafter theCriticalPeriod.Usetheprocesstoreducebureaucracyinthis CriticalPeriod.2008includedthecreationofacross-Whitehallteamfor planningjointresponseoptions. Recommendations DFID should: 28 Change the funding model to achieve greater preparedness.Thisisparticularlythecaseifotherdepartmentsaregivenenoughtimetoplanand preparetheirresponse.ratherthanlaterashastraditionallybeenthecase. 30 Useallnewfundingmodelstoenforcestandardsandlinkfundingtoperformance throughclearimpactassessmentsandreporting.usingtheauthorityoftheNationalSecurityCouncil.perhapsby providingitinstages. theRedCrossMovementandNGOs. Conveneandleadastandingcross-governmentemergencymechanismformega emergencies. • Increasinglong-termsupporttointernational(theCERF)andcountrylevelpooled fundsandtoglobal.

‘megaemergencies’.Italso paysforasignificantlogisticalstandingcapacity–cars. shifting resources HumanitarianemergencyresponsehashistoricallybeenundersupportedwithinDFID.including response.astheworkhasbeenalmostconstant‘fire-fighting’. HumanitarianandSecurityTeam(CHASE)managesallhumanitarianissues.itisoutofstepwithmostforecastsofneedandmayalso reflectadesire‘nottobeinvolved’.Itmayalsoreflectan assumptionbycountryofficesthatCHASEwillrespondifthereisanemergencyandthe resourceswillbemadeavailablecentrally.strategicdirectionhas beenmissing.andthereisnoseniorchampion.eveninhigh-risksituations(Pakistanhadaconflictadvisorwithresponsibility forhumanitarianbutnoexperienceinthisarea).However.orrathercountryofficesdidnotmakeabidfor humanitarianresourcestorise.Theimpactof successivelarge-scaleemergencieshasbeentostretchresourcesstillfurther.inrecent yearscorporateworkhasbeenincreasinglyundertakenbytheteamasaresultoflackof capacitywithinDFID.ThiscapabilityiscalledtheOperationsTeam(OT) andisco-locatedwithCHASE.DFIDdoesnotsupport significanthumanitarianresearch.withOTstaffintegratedintotheDFIDmainoffice.Thecontractcurrentlyprovidesfor27staffsharedwiththe StabilisationUnit.anideathatDFID’scorebusinessisdevelopmentand thathumanitarianemergenciesareanunwelcomedistraction.3 Changing the structure.Untilrecently therewasaseparateAfricaConflictandHumanitarianUnit(ACHU)withinAfrica division.Countryofficescanchoosewhethertohavehumanitarian advisors.despitehumanitarian spendingconstituting8%ofoverseasdevelopmentaid(ODA)annually.Thishasledtomixedmessages andlostopportunities.Therearesixdedicatedhumanitarianstaffonthecontract. Theemergency(rapid)responsecapabilityhasbeenoutsourcedonathreeyearrolling contractualbasis.butitistheOTstaffthatsee howtheseagenciesperforminsuccessiveemergencies. PartnersremainhighlypositiveaboutDFIDandvalueboththequalityofthepersonnel anditsabilitytoreactquicklyandflexibly.ACHUoversawanAfricaemergencyreservefundandhadnoformal connectionwithCHASE.ThereisdemandforDFIDtobepresentin large-scaleemergenciesasitsabilitytoinfluencetheoverallstrategyismuchvalued.DFIDalsoundertookabilateralaidreview(BAR)thatasked countryofficestopredicttheirexpenditureforthenextfewyears. Thedisparateandneglectedstructuredoesnotonlyhaveaneffectonoverallstrategy. ThehumanitariancadrewasonlyrecentlyformedandisthesmallestofDFID’stechnical networksbyamargin.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID 5.themanagerialloadhasbecome increasinglyuntenable.Thismightreflectanaturaloptimism–thatthingswill getbetterorthatdevelopmentgainswillmeantheimpactofhumanitarianemergencies willbediminished. Tosomeextentthisassumptioniscorrect.communications.specialist deploymentequipmentandsoon.Thisreviewconcludesthatfor overwhelminglylargeemergencies. ThelackofcapacitywithinbothCHASEandOThasmeantclear.TheConflict.HumanitarianactionisspreadacrossDFIDina largelyunconnectedandad hocfashion.Despitealargeresearchbudget. Inparalleltothisreview.Thislackof strategyisnotconfinedtoCHASE.Inthisexercise humanitarianspendwasforecasttofall.responseshouldbeledfrom 49 .Whilst theinternationalreputationoftheOTisextremelyhigh(andmuchenvied). Thereisalsodemandforacontinuedcapacitytodeploybothpeopleandgoodsintothe internationalsystematshortnotice. ithasledtoaschismbetweenthepolicyfunctionandtheresponsemechanisms.The smallteamofhumanitarianpolicyadvisorscentrallyholdlongtermfunding relationshipswithbigagencieslikeUNICEFandUNHCR.Itcurrentlystandsat12peopleglobally.Astheconflictportfolioofworkincreases.

althoughDFIDshouldalsooperatea‘stepaside’policysimilartothat beingadvocatedwiththeUN.andtoimplementitfastisessential.andwillneedtoexpandthiscapability. DFIDhasasystemof‘responsemanagement’butitisdiluted. Partlyalsoitisbecausethisskillhasnotbeenprioritised. Slowdecision-making.crossWhitehallworkandanydirectassistance.Thereismorechanceofgettingthingswrong. ItalsomeansthatDFIDneedstomakebettersenseofitsinternalstructureandstrategy –reflectingtheimportanceofitshumanitarianworkinstructure.andaclear strategy.Theycanalsoprovide valuableanalysisandinsighttoLondon.thenbothseniormanagementandthecountryofficeswillneedto reflectthisinthewaytheyworkandplan.wherebyitensuresthatdeliveryisledwiththerequisite levelofexperience.ornotreacting. AcomparativeadvantagethatDFIDhaslongenjoyedisthequalityofitsadvisorycadre. Managing the response Humanitarianemergenciesarechaoticandfastmoving.anddecision-makingneedstobedelegated.shouldbeapriorityfortheresponse management.orrespondingtooslowly.If DFIDisgoingtopromoteinnovation.thanbeing accusedoflettingpeopledie.Theycan helpshapetheresponse. Theremustbeagreatertoleranceforriskinsuchsituation. Theconsequencesofthisarethatproceduresneedtobestreamlinedforhumanitarian emergencies.itscountryofficestoworkwith governmentsandUKmissionstoworkwithothernations.thenitwillneedtobebetterintegrateditself.Thisisduetothe separationofthecontractedoutOperationsTeamfromthemanagementofCHASE.oranaccusationofwaste.Formediumandsmall-scaledisastersthecountryofficesarewell placedtolead.Historicallythishas beenacknowledgedwithinDFIDandprocedureshavebeenmodified.Theproductionofawiderangingstrategyincludingfunding.Theintenseinterestfromacrossgovernmentandfromthepublicmeansthatit isnecessaryforLondontoleadonstrategy.Theownershipoftheresponsestrategyshouldbeatasufficientlysenior level.Empoweringthosewiththe informationtomakeadecision.buildnewpartnershipsandenablenewnetworks ofhumanitarianpolicyandpractice.using itspolicydivisiontopromoteresearchandevidence. ThereisaneedforDFIDhumanitarianadvisorstobedeployedtoemergencies.Thenewsystemmusthave experiencedresponsemanagerswithdelegatedauthority.Theyneedexperienced managerswithclearauthoritytobeincharge. Managing risk Humanitarianemergenciesarehigh-riskenvironments.Thistradition needstocontinue.InamegaemergencythiswouldbeatDirectororDirectorGenerallevel. Aneffectiveresponserequiresclearlinesofauthorityandresponsibility.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview London. Politicallythereislessriskinamessyresponse.Iftheperformanceoftheinternational systemistrulytobeimprovedthenDFIDwillneedtomakebetteruseof(andincrease) itshumanitarianstaffanditsoperationsteam. 50 .IfbuildingresilienceistobecomeacorepartofDFID’sworkasthis reviewsuggests.andsafeguardUKtaxpayerinvestments. Butthereareoftengreaterriskswithdoingnothing.lobbying.Wherethereisacountryofficetheyshould leadondelivery. Humanitarianemergenciesarehighriskbecausetheyinvolvelifeordeathsituations.Theyarechaoticanduncertain anddecision-makinghastoberapid.canleadtolossofbothlivesandopportunities.perhapswithsometechnicalorlogisticalsupportfromCHASE.Thisisnottruejustinmega-emergenciesbut alsoinemergingcrisesandconflict.capacityandresources aswellasinrhetoric.

Liveswillbelost.timelinessorspeedneedstobeadded intotheequationonvalueformoney.whatdoesnotandwhy. this will require: • RebalanceresourceswithinDFIDtomeetthechallengesofrisinghumanitarianneed.withsufficientdelegatedauthoritytoensureswiftaction.Therisksoflateornoninterventionneedtobeconsidered. not least by having a Director General champion this work.Therehasbeenalackofdemand forthiskindofinformation. Withoutgreaterclarityonresults(bothonwhatistheevidenceandwhatisthe humanitarianobjective).Connectedtothisistherequirementforagenciestodemonstrate results.Andwhenfundingdecisionsare basedonevidenceofresults.Butthiscannotcomeattheexpense ofrapidresponseorifDFIDhumanitarianstafffeelafraidtomakedecisions. Fundingdecisionsarenotroutinelybasedonevidence. • Ensuringeveryresponsetorapidonsethumanitarianneedisledbyanexperienced responsemanager.managedbyCHASE. Amongst others.itisoutputsratherthanimpactthatarebeingconsidered.itis notjustaboutthelowestcost.Thereasonsare laidoutintheImpactsectionabove. 5.4 Driving results and value for money Thehumanitariansectorhastraditionallybeenreluctanttocollect. Inahumanitarianresponse.bothinLondonandinthefield. funding and human resources for humanitarian work reflects its move to being a central part of DFID work.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Thisreviewsetsoutseveralmeasuresforimprovingaccountabilityintheinternational humanitariansystem. 35 Redefinetheobjectivesforthecontractedresponseteamsothatitissolelydedicatedto supportingrapidresponseandpre-crisisarrangements.itisnoteasytodeterminethevalueformoneyofhumanitarian actions.Thereisno valueinaresponsethatcomestoolate.AsinallotherareasofHMGspending. 51 .Therefore. • Expandthehumanitariancadre.togetvalueformoney.systematiseand shareevidenceonwhatworks.speedisoftheessence. Recommendations DFID should: 34 Ensure that the structure.Value formoneyanalysishastoincludethiswholechain. Valueformoneyisabouttheoptimaluseofresourcestoachievetheintended outcomes.andsometimesaninabilitytofindanswers.Andthecostsattachedtotheresultsthroughitslightbluesquares.Andithasrarelybeentried.Itisabouttheoptimumcombinationofcostsandqualityofthegoodsand servicestomeettheneedsofbeneficiaries. ThefigurebelowfromtheNationalAuditOfficeshowstheresultschainthroughitsdark bluearrows. • Leadlarge-scaleresponsesfromLondon.andprovetheyaregoodvalueformoney.

 Whilethereviewrecommendsmoreworkonevidenceofwhatworksandwhatdoesnot andcost-effectivenessinhumanitarianaction.thisworkislessrelevantintheCritical Period.hastochangeifthehumanitarianimperativeofsavinglivesistheprinciple.domesticresourcesortheprivatesector.AsDFID’scomparativeadvantageisfast response.therelativeimportanceofthethreekeycomponents.partnerslooktoDFIDimmediatelyforfunding.because.Othersubstantialcoststothecommunity(suchas travelcostsandopportunitycostsofbeinginfull-timecare)havealsoreducedsignificantly.2).whichsetsouttheneed.DFID’sinvestmentinCommunity-BasedTherapeuticcare(CTC) isagoodexamplewhichhasmadethetreatmentofmalnourishedpeopleinmajor emergenciesmorecost-effectivethantraditionaltherapies.justificationandaffordabilityofanintervention.Costandqualitythenincreaseinimportancewithtime.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Value for money Economy Efficiency Value for money Qualitative Costs (£) Inputs Outputs Qualitative Outcomes Figure6: Value for Money: Costs and results.CTCcantreatseveralthousandmalnourishedpeoplewithlittlemorethan theextracostsoffoodandmedicine. IntheCriticalPeriod.2).quality andspeed.However. SinceJanuary2011.isthereforelikelytohavethegreatestimpactonvalue formoney.DFID’simportantroleinmakingthesystemmoreeffective.inthisphasespeed saveslives.Beitfromotherdonors.post-actionreviewsandevaluationscanhelpgreatlytoinformfuture decisionmakingaboutdeliverypartnersandmechanismseveninthecriticalperiod. InnovationisanotherareawhereDFIDinvestmentcouldreapsubstantialgainsinvalue formoneyinthefuture.AstheIFRCAnnualreport2008says:‘thereisnoeconomicsenseinspending moneyonemergencyresponsealone.Yearsofinvestmentcandisappearinminutesif 35 ThisBusinessCasemodelisbasedonHMTreasuryguidanceandensuresconsistencyacrossUK governmentdepartments.Itisestimatedthat£1inpreventionsaves£4inresponse(seesection 4.allproposalsforDFIDfundingmustbeaccompaniedbyaBusiness Case. Itshouldnotbeforgottenthatbuildingresilienceisoftenthebestmeansofproviding valueformoney.as laidoutthroughoutthisreport. DFID’sresourcesinaneffectivesystemcanachievemuchgreatervalueformoneythan inanineffectivesystem.35Ithas notbeendevisedthoughforcompletingwithinhoursofadisasterhittingwhen informationisscarceandpeoplearedying. Valueformoneyinaresponsecanbestbeachievedthroughafocusonachievingresults withallresources. National Audit Office.Witharelativelyhighfixed initialcost. 52 . throughprequalificationofpartners(seeChangingthefundingmodelinsection5. Duringaresponse.itisspeedthatshouldcountthemost.cost.

e.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID riskreductionandpreventionareignored.Thisshould leadtobetteroutcomesfortheaffectedpopulation.DFIDKenyaandSomaliaarebuildingupadatabaseofhumanitarianindicators andcosts. • Toiletsandsanitationforalmost500.First.a bodythatwillevaluateDFID’swork.animalstockfeed.Howexactlyitdoesthat.p14.cash-for-work versuspsychosocialsupport.Thereare however. • Outputsarenotstandardised(evenwithinsectors)withtheresultthatcomparingis oftenlikeappleswithpears.Theyalsodonotshowifthetoiletswereplacedandlitin suchawayastobegendersensitive.Henceitisdifficulttojudgethe efficiencyofimplementingpartnersandDFID’sfunding.twoproblemswithreportingoutputresults.Cost andbenefitsarerarelyquantified.Ifthetimingwaswrong.e.for example.g.November2010.fertiliser.outputscanonlybeproxies forimpactandcangetitwrong. • Somebenefitsaredifficulttomeasure. Outcomes and effectiveness Thesectiononimpactsetsouttheimportanceofbeingcleareraboutdesiredoutcomes andimpactandmeasuringthem.Thereviewwelcomesthisinitiative. DFIDoftengetsitright.ascurrentlyreportedinproject documents.Internally.Anyprojectorprogrammehastobeableto showwhattheintendedoutputsareandlaterwhattherealoutputswere.000ruralfamiliestoavoidfurtherlossofanimalsanddependencyonfoodaid forthenextyearormore.Second.otherstudiesestimate evenhighercostbenefitratios.buttheydonotsayiftheseedsandfertiliserscamein timefortheplantingseason.Qualityandspeed–twokeyparametersof humanitarianeffectiveness–cannotbeassessedbyoutputmeasurement. Comparisonsbetweencostsofoutputsandhencethecostefficiencyofimplementing partners.atwhat costandwhatwouldhappenwithoutDFID’ssupporthoweverisoftennotclear.Andquantitativeassessments areastepmoredifficultthanqualitativeones.ButassessingtheoutcomesofDFID’sfundingand influencingisfarmorecomplexthanmeasuringoutputs. Outputs and efficiency Outputsarethefirstresultsinthechain.Externally.000people. ThefollowingareexamplesofoutputsfromthePakistanfloodsresponse: • Wheatandvegetableseeds.inprotectionanddifferentinterventions havedifferentbenefits–theydonotalladdressthesameneed.Thereisa dangerbyfocusingononeareaoftheresultschainofhittingthetargetbutmissing thepoint.DFIDhassetuptheIndependentCommissionforAidImpact.outputs.g. JudgingfromthequalitativeassessmentsmadeinevaluationsofDFID’sresponseefforts.DFIDPakistan.HowardKunreuther.theimpactwouldnothavebeen thedesiredoneofrecovery.hasstartedpilotinganapproachtobetteroutcomeassessmentandunitcost analysis.andveterinaryservicestomore than115.Fundingisfast.’36ThisiswhyDFID’sapproachtohumanitarian workneedstohavepreventionatitscore.goestothesectorswheretheneedis greatestandenablesotherpartsofthesystemtobecomemoreeffective. 36 IFRCannualreport2008.arecurrentlyclosetoimpossible.includingindisasterresponse.withafocusin impact.flexible.cannoteasilybecomparedoraggregated. 53 . Thenumberssoundimpressive. DFIDismakingeffortsonvariousfrontstorectifythis.

ortiming.theglobalsupplychainwarrantsspecial consideration.Aprojecttargetingdifficulttoreachpopulationswillhave veryjustifiablygreaterlogisticscoststhanaprojectinanurbaneasy-to-reach environment.personnel andpersonnelsupport(includingsecurityforpersonnel)toindirectsupportcosts (theoverheads).isitpossibletocarryoutananalysistoseewhich interventionisthemostcost-efficient.Allbudgetsofimplementingpartnersshow whatinputsareusedatwhatcost. UNagenciesontheotherhandhavesignificantprocurementandlogisticsdepartments buttheyareconstrainedbyantiquatedprocurementrules.notalwaysforjustifiablereasons.shelterforanadditional10.EvaluationsofNGOresponseshaveshownthatmistakes areroutinelymadealongthesupplychain.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview • Theinformationcurrentlyreceivedfromimplementingpartnerscangivearough indicationofwhatthingscost. • Anycomparisonsofcostswouldbemisleadingwithoutknowingtheexact circumstancesoftheactions.supplychainmanagementneedstoberecognisedasan integralpartofpreparednessandresponse.Butthecomparisonsdonotmakesenseifthecontextisnottakeninto accountasexplainedintheoutputsection.differentdonorrequirements andUNbureaucracy. LookingthroughbudgetsofDFIDimplementingpartners.Withthis£1million.Thiscapabilityloss onthedevelopmentsideofoperationshastranslateddirectlyintoalossonthe humanitarianresponseside.000families couldhavebeenpurchasedanddeliveredamonthearlier. 54 .levelof securityrisk.AnagencyinthePakistanflood responseforexamplewantedtochargeDFID£1millionmoreforthesamenon-food itemsdeliveredtothesameplacebutwithaonemonthtimedelaythanifDFIDhad procuredtheitemsitself. internationalmovement. The global supply chain Aslogisticscanaccountforasmuchas80%37oftheeffortofhumanitarian organisationsduringareliefoperation.Inputsrangefrommaterialsandlogistics. Keyconcernsthatimpactnegativelyontheaffectedpopulationare: 37 Trunick(2005). Onlywhenoutputsarethesame.coordinationwithotheragenciesanddeliverytothe beneficiaries. ManyINGOshavelosttheirsupplychainmanagementcapabilitiesthroughthechange intheirfocusfromdirectdeliverytoadvocacyoverthelastdecade.Itcannotgivemuchmorethough.includingtargetingofdifferentpopulationgroups.qualityandcostcontrol.itisobviousthatcostscan differsignificantly. Comparingunitcostsofinputsbetweenimplementingpartnersoracrossemergenciesis relativelyeasy. IfDFIDwantstoimproveitsabilitytorespondattherighttimefortherightpriceand withtheappropriatequality.managingproductioncapacity. End-to-endsupplychainmanagementinahumanitarianresponseincludesprocurement. Inputs and economy Inputsareeasytoidentifyandquantify. stockpilemanagement.Aprojectinacomplexemergencywith securityimplicationswillhavegreatersecuritycoststopersonnelattachedthananother oneinanaturaldisasterzone.

costs of inputs.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID • Qualityofnon-fooditemsbeingsubstandard.DFIDhasto recognisethattheglobalsupplychainislikelytochangesoonerorlater. 37 38 5.DFIDneedstogetbetteratcommunicatingthegenerallyexcellent workitdoes. Whilstdecreasingtheseinefficienciesshouldbeseenasaprioritynow. 55 .workwithotherdonors.Afocus onmorelocalprocurement.Itisestimatedthat70%ofthemillion plussheetsprovidedtoHaitiaftertheearthquakeneededreplacingafter9months. outputs and outcomes from different countries and regions and different types of disasters in order to be able to carry out effective unit cost analysis and enable fast evidence based decision-making.faithbasedgroupsand partnerships. • Becauseoflimitedsupplysidecapacityinanemergency.ButhistoricallyDFIDhasnotusedtheseopportunitiestotalk aboutitswork. Share this where appropriate with other donors.womengotintodebtbecausetheypurchasedreliefitemslong beforetheinternationalresponsereachedthem.willalsochangethenatureof thetraditionalsupplychain.5 Getting the message across ThereisstrongpublicsupportfortheUKresponsetodisastersandemergenciesin developingcountries38.whichhaveatbestlasted9months.After CycloneNargisinBurma.Thiscanbeovercomebybuildingupthesupplierbaseinadvanceand collaboratingonqualitystandardsandspecifications.ordesirabletoadoptabroadcastapproachto communicationswork.throughdiasporas.Ifforexample cashresponsesbecomeagame-changerinhumanitarianresponse. Basedonthefindings. • Lackofpreparednesscanleadtomultiplesoftransportcostsnecessary(especiallyair versusseatransport).pricesgoupandquality decreases.thiswillhave importantimplications.Blanketsprovidedintheaftermathof theSamanganearthquakeinAfghanistanweretoothinfortheclimate.CommunitiesintheUKareoften independentlylinkedtoaffectedpopulations. EncouragetheIndependentCommissionforAidImpacttoexaminearangeof humanitariancasesandresiliencebuildingwork.theprivatesectorandimplementing partnerstoalignsupplychainpractices.Withanaidbudgetunderattackfromsomequartersandquestions aboutfailureinHaiti.asincreasinglydonebyWFP. HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011. • Reliefitemsarenotalwayswhatthebeneficiariesmostneedorarrivetoolate. Atacost(withoutfreight)ofaround£10asheetthatmeans£7millionwasspenton commodities. Thecommunicationsenvironmentischanging.Domesticmediacoverageisincreasinglyhostiletothe 38 93%ofrespondentsstronglyagreedoragreedwiththestatement‘WhereverpossibletheUK governmentshouldresponddirectlytodisastersandemergenciesindevelopingcountries’.Internationalprocurementandtransportwilldecrease. Recommendations DFID should: 36 Build up a library of results. Carryoutanin-depthstudyonhowDFID’sfundingimpactsonthehumanitariansupply chainrecognisingthatthesupplychainisamajorcostdriverinsudden-onsetresponses.Itisnolongerpossible.

Itisabletorefer neutrallytotheworkofothers. UsingitsrelativeindependencefromthisrelationshipDFIDcanmakegeneralcomments onthecontextandnatureofthedisasterandtheplannedresponse.ThemediaoftenreliesonNGOsforaccessandinformationatthesame timeasseeingitsroletoholdthemtoaccount.Butthispositioncanonlybeexploitedifitcanofferanauthoritativevoiceonthe groundfromtheoutsetofaresponse.Thesecanbedevelopedastheresponseprogressesand shouldcomplementmediaannouncementsonfundingallocations.IfanNGOhelpsajournalistreacha communitythatisreceivingsupportduringaresponse. Thereisalsoaneedtoemployalongertermstrategicapproachtohelpshareabetter understandingabouthowanemergencyresponseworks–andwhyitisimportant.howtheinternationalcommunityisrespondingand therangeofresponsestomeetneeds.Andmorerecentresearchcommissioned byPlanUKreportedthat90%ofrespondentsrecalledrecentdisastersinHaitior Pakistan.Intimethiswillhelpchallengetheperception thataid.developmentandhumanitarianresponseisoneandthesame.ThispresentsDFIDwithaclear opportunitytobringitsworktotheattentionofanalreadyengagedpublic–oneofits bestchancestoreachabroadUKpublicisthroughcommunicationsarounditsresponse torapidonsetdisasters.strategy.Thiswillmake detailedinformationofeachemergencyresponseavailable.tosecureauniquepositionincommunicatingtotheUK public.TherelationshipbetweenthemediaandNGOsisa complexone. Foranemergencyresponse. Butwhereconcernsabouteffectivenessandcorruptionaregenerallyhighthereview publicsurveyshowedsupportforDFID’sresponsedidn’tcarrythesamelevelsof concernaboutwasteandcorruptionthathavebeenreflectedinothersurveys40. 40 60%ofrespondentsdisagreedorstronglydisagreedwiththestatement‘Emergencyaidis wastedthroughinefficiencyandcorruption.MediaSymposium:Feb2011.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview government’sringfencedaidbudget. TheUKAidTransparencyGuaranteewillputallnewspendingon-line.ComRes:Feb2011.andthemoneyandsupportdoesn’tgettothe peolewhoreallyneedit’.andtherearegreaterexpectationsaroundthe speedandavailabilityofaccurateinformationaboutDFID’swork.thejournalistislikelytogo furthertofindacommunitythathasbeenoverlookedtopresentthestoryofaidnot gettingtothosewhoneedit39.and36%werepromptedtodonate43. 42 94%ofrespondentsstronglyagreedoragreedwiththestatement‘TheUKgovernmentshould domoretoexplaintothepublichowitsworkishelpingtomeettheneedsofpeopleaffected byinternationaldisastersandemergencies’.HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011 43 PlanUK:Unnaturaldisasters:compassionversuscomplexityinthemedia’sreportingof humanitarianemergencies.plansandexpectedresultsneedtobereadily available.Italso showedthatthepublicfeelpleasedwhentheyhearabouttheUKgovernment’s response41alongwithadesiretoknowmore42. 41 98%ofrespondentsstronglyagreedoragreedwiththestatement‘IfeelpleasedwhenIhear thattheUKgovernmentishelpingplayapartinaninternationalresponsetoadisasterof emergency’. 39 PlanUK:Unnaturaldisasters:compassionversuscomplexityinthemedia’sreportingof humanitarianemergencies.and thepublicarereadytobeengaged. 56 . Thisneedsastrongandconsistentnarrativetoenablethepublictounderstandthat differentdisastersandemergenciesneedadifferentresponsefromtheUK–including explanationofhumanitarianpolicy.HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011.Aproactiveandstrategic approachtopubliccommunicationswork(mediaandnon-media)willbeneededtoput thisinformationincontext.EarlystatementsonUK’splansandobjectivestoresponseshouldbeposted on-lineassoonaspossible. HumanitariandisastersnaturallyattracthighlevelsofmediaattentionintheUK.HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011.

• Embedcommunicationsatthepolicyandoperationslevelfromthebeginningof aresponse.CommunicationsactivityaroundtheUK’sresponsetomeet humanitarianneedsinGazafollowingOperationCastLead.communicationsthroughDFID’sownwebsiteandonlinepresenceis vitaltothesuccessofitscommunicationstrategy. Communicationsstaff.gov. Thoseaffectedbydisasterareincreasinglyabletoprovideinformationandcontributeto assessmentofneedaswellascallingdonorsandtheinternationalcommunitydirectly toaccountviaonlinechannelsmeansevengreaterneedforcontinuedbuildingofits onlineprocess. • Makebetteruseoffaithbasedanddiasporapartners.Theserelationshipsneedtobedevelopedinadvanceof anemergencyresponse.FacebookandFlickrpagespresentDFID’sworktoan engagedpublic.dfid. Recommendations DFID should: 39 Prioritise communications as a key factor in the UK’s emergency response. and resource it accordingly.tweets. • Workmorecloselywithfundedpartnersoncommunications–toagreeaconsistent narrativeandsharechannels. 40 Request the International Development Select Committee to scrutinise progress on the implementation of these findings one year on from the launch of this report.Thisworkhasbeendevelopingwell: e-bulletins.hasshownDFID’scommunicationsworkaroundanemergencyresponseat itsbest. • MakeDFID’shumanitarianandemergencyresponseworkpermanentlymore visiblethroughDFID’swebsite–inadditiontofeaturesonspecificresponses. 44 www.blogs.and/ortheteamleadertrainedincommunicationsshouldbe supportedtospeakpubliclyonDFID’sbehalf.YouTube.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Governmentrestrictionsonspendingmeansthatalongsidetraditionalbroadcastand printmediaactivity.andtheon-lineFlood MonitorshowingclearlywhereandhowUKAidishelpingpeopleaffectedbythefloods inPakistan44.uk/Where-we-work/Asia-South/Pakistan/Pakistan-Floods-Monitor/ 57 .

• TrainingwithinDFID. • ThroughcivilsocietyorganisationssuchasRedCrossandCrescentSocieties. Leadership 6 Build coalitions to drive forward humanitarian reform based on improving leadership. • Theestablishmentofdirectfundingmechanisms. 7 DFIDshouldmakeasustainedefforttoimproveskillsinthehumanitariansector. including.prioritisationandplanning. • Nationalandlocalprivatesectorcompanies. 1 2 3 Recommendations Assemble and regularly update a global risk register for DFID using information gained from its country teams and international organisations. integrating the threat from climate change and other potential hazards into disaster risk reduction.andmarketsolutions. Anticipation Resilience 4 Ensure that building resilience is part of the core DFID programme in at risk countries.This shouldinclude.includingmorecoherentuseofUNexecutiveboardpositions. • Worktocreateasetofstandardsforhumanitarianleadership. • Regionalresponsemechanismswheretheyaddvalue. • Ensuringpre-qualifiedpartnersdemonstrateadequateinvestmentinskills development 5 58 .whichareableatthecountrylevelto supportentrepreneurial.Thisshouldincludea ‘stepaside’systemtoensurethebestleadershipisinplaceatboththestrategicand operationallevel. MakebetteruseoftheDFIDChiefScientisttosupportUKscienceinanticipatingcrises. • WorkcloselywithUKmissionstobuildcoalitionsforreformoftheinternational system. Country offices should undertake contingency planning.Thismustincludetherightsupportstaff availableforrapiddeployment.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 6. • EncouragetheconveningofaUNHighLevelPaneltolookatwaysofimprovingthe internationalhumanitariansystemtofacefuturechallenges. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtoresolvesomeofthedeficienciesin management.aidagenciesandgovernmentsandcivilsocietyindisasterprone countries.whichwillincreaseinresilienceand improvedisasterresponse. • WorkwiththeUNtocreateanewcadreofhumanitarianleadersandthetalent managementsystemsandtermsandconditionstosustainthis. Makethisavailableasacontributiontopre-crisisarrangementsacrossthesystem. • Rapiddeploymentofexperiencedleadershipteamsinbigcrises. Promote national response capacities of both governments and civil society in at risk countries including: • Thedevelopmentofnationalresiliencestrategies. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtostrengthenandprovidebetterleadershipof theclustersystem.

including through partnership with operational agencies.mobiletechnologies. Workwithpartnerstoensurecashbasedresponsesaregivenfullconsiderationand whereappropriatebecomemuchmorewidelyadopted. 9 10 11 12 Accountability 13 14 15 16 17 Promote and support mechanisms to give recipients of aid a greater voice. In particular it should: • EngagemoreeffectivelywithECHOonapolicylevel. Givegreateremphasistobeneficiaryaccountabilityfactorswhenmakingfunding decisions. Encouragethespreadofbestpracticeinthisarea. Investinthreekeytechnologies.orprovidebettervalueformoneythancommercialalternatives. reporting to the Chief Scientific Officer with a dedicated budget tasked with developing evidence and innovation. EnsurethatthenewPrivateSectorDepartmentgivesfullconsiderationtothoseareas whereprivatesectorexpertisecanimprovehumanitarianresponseeffectiveness. 20 21 WorkwithpartnerstopromotedonorcoordinationandrevitalisetheGood HumanitarianDonor-shipgroup. includingatthecountrylevel.andexplorethepossibilityof co-financing. UsemilitaryassetsinsituationswheretheyareconsistentwithOsloguidelinesandoffer capacityotherscannot.satellitesanddatamanagement anddisplay. 22 23 59 . WorkwithNGOstopromotetheconceptofaccreditationorcertification. Promote the development of robust impact assessments. Appoint a Humanitarian Senior Research Fellow. Brazil and the Gulf States). Maintain its default position that humanitarian response is multilateral. andnewcomputermodellingapproaches.Recommendations Innovation 8 Nurture innovation and its application in dealing with and preparing for humanitarian emergencies. Partnership 18 19 Reach out to create new partnerships with new donor partners (in particular China. Supportexplorationofemergingandcutting-edgetechnologiessuchasnanotechnology. India. • WorkwithotherstosupporttheUNEmergencyReliefCoordinatorinthereformof OCHAandthesystemmorewidely. Workwithotherstocreateanover-archingsetofstandardstoassessbeneficiary accountability. technological innovators and science and research communities. private sector.

• Incorporatesurgicalteamsintofirstphasedeploymentsespeciallyafterearthquakes. theRedCrossMovementandNGOs.suchastheCBHAand WAHRF. 29 Design fast and flexible funding models for emergency responses: • ProvidefastmobilisationfundingintheCriticalPeriodbasedonpre-qualification ratherthanspeculativeproposals.biologicalandchemical. neutrality and impartiality in the new DFID humanitarian policy. where.Carryoutindependentperiodic programmeauditsandafteractionreviewstoinformfuturefundingdecisions. Develop and deploy niche capabilities in a more focused way concentrating on those areas where DFID or the UK are able to add value: • OnlyusesearchandrescueinsituationswheretheUKcangenuinelyaddvalue.perhapsby providingitinstages.Usetheprocesstoreducebureaucracyinthis CriticalPeriod. Conveneandleadastandingcross-governmentemergencymechanismformega emergencies.regionalandcountrylevelNGOconsortia. 32 33 ContinueandexpandthesurgeofUKcontractedpersonnelintotheinternational system.partnershipandhumanitarianspace.accountability. • Ensurethereisflexibilityoffundingasfastmovingsituationschange. Delivering differently 28 Change the funding model to achieve greater preparedness. reaffirming the key principles of humanity. • Increasinglong-termsupporttointernational(theCERF)andcountrylevelpooled fundsandtoglobal.Thepolicyshouldbuildonthereviewthemesofanticipation. Develop a new humanitarian policy setting out why the UK responds. performance and coherence by: • Increasingpredictablemulti-yearfundinglinkedtoperformancetomajorUNagencies. 31 60 . leadership. when and how.innovation. pre-crisis arrangements. capacity. Ensurefundingismadeavailableforsecurityandriskmanagementforhumanitarian workers. • Investigatenewformsofnichecapabilitiesthatcanrespondtonewtypesofthreats suchasnuclear.ratherthanlaterashastraditionallybeenthecase.resilience.usingtheauthorityoftheNationalSecurityCouncil.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Humanitarian space 24 Re-assert the premise that humanitarian action should be based on need. 30 Useallnewfundingmodelstoenforcestandardsandlinkfundingtoperformance throughclearimpactassessmentsandreporting. • Ensurerecoveryandlivelihoodsfundingisconsideredduringandimmediatelyafter theCriticalPeriod. 25 Changing the policy 26 27 Incorporate resilience into its development policy and programmes.

 Workwithotherdonors. Carryoutanin-depthstudyonhowDFID’sfundingimpactsonthehumanitariansupply chainrecognisingthatthesupplychainisamajorcostdriverinsudden-onsetresponses. 61 .bothinLondonandinthefield. • Ensuringeveryresponsetorapidonsethumanitarianneedisledbyanexperienced responsemanager. 37 38 Getting the message out 39 Prioritise communications as a key factor in the UK’s emergency response.Theserelationshipsneedtobedevelopedinadvanceof anemergencyresponse. shifting resources 34 Ensure that the structure.managedbyCHASE. • Expandthehumanitariancadre. and resource it accordingly. Share this where appropriate with other donors. 35 Redefinetheobjectivesforthecontractedresponseteamsothatitissolelydedicatedto supportingrapidresponseandpre-crisisarrangements. 40 Request the International Development Select Committee to scrutinise progress on the implementation of these findings one year on from the launch of this report. this will require • RebalanceresourceswithinDFIDtomeetthechallengesofrisinghumanitarianneed. • Makebetteruseoffaithbasedanddiasporapartners. EncouragetheIndependentCommissionforAidImpacttoexaminearangeof humanitariancasesandresiliencebuildingwork. Amongst others. Communicationsstaff. costs of inputs.Recommendations Changing the structure.withsufficientdelegatedauthoritytoensureswiftaction. funding and human resources for humanitarian work reflects its importance as a central part of DFID work. • Workmorecloselywithfundedpartnersoncommunications–toagreeaconsistent narrativeandsharechannels. • Leadlarge-scaleresponsesfromLondon. not least by having a Director General champion this work. • Embedcommunicationsatthepolicyandoperationslevelfromthebeginningofa response.and/ortheteamleadertrainedincommunicationsshouldbe supportedtospeakpubliclyonDFID’sbehalf. outputs and outcomes from different countries and regions and different types of disasters in order to be able to carry out effective unit cost analysis and enable fast evidence based decision-making. • MakeDFID’shumanitarianandemergencyresponseworkpermanentlymore visiblethroughDFID’swebsite–inadditiontofeaturesonspecificresponses. Driving results and value for money 36 Build up a library of results.theprivatesectorandimplementingpartnerstoalignsupply chainpractices.

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PublishedbytheHumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview March2011 Chair:Lord(Paddy)Ashdown Director:RossMountain SeniorAdvisoryBoardMembers:AndyBearpark.MalcolmRidout.dfid.gov.SteffenStenberg.ElisabethRasmusson.YaseminAysan.JodaSilva.uk/emergency-response-review .RosTendler.LewisSida.RachelKessler.GordonConway. SueWardell.CarolynMiller.GilbertGreenall.DavidPratt.NiciDahrendorf.SimonMaxwell. DavidBryer. MarkBowden. Thisreportisavailableonline:www.RandolphKent. HumanitarianReviewTeamSecretariat:MelindaSimmons.LouisaBrewin.BarneyMayhew. SophiePongracz.

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