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Age of Exploration

Age of Exploration


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Published by: aprodrig24601 on Oct 07, 2012
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Renaissance-Age of Exploration

Age of Exploration
 Discovery of the “New World” dramatically increased the

idea of exploring
 The Portuguese and the Spanish were the firsts to take

part in exploration

The Portuguese
 70 years before Columbus, Prince Henry the Navigator

captured Ceuta (North Africa)
 His motives were religious and mercenary

 Spices and African slaves were taken by Portuguese

 Before the sea route, Europeans could only get spices from

the Venetians who had bartered with the Ottoman Empire

The Portuguese (cont.)
 Overland routes had already existed, but Portuguese were

looking for a faster way
 The Sea brought its own dangers!!

Like this guy!

The Portuguese (cont.)
 They became very good at sailing close to the coast with

their ships
 This gave them good practice to ultimately cross the

oceans to the Americas
 The pope ultimately gave the Portuguese the “spoils” of

land, goods and slaves
 The Church expected exploration to lead to mass


The Portuguese (cont.)
 Established colonies in Goa and Calcutta
 Ultimately challenged the Venetians and Arabs for control

of the spice trade
 Spent majority of their time in the Indian Ocean

The Spanish
 1492, Columbus lands in the Americas
 Thinks he’s in India!  Natives greeted him, Columbus calls them Indians

(thinking he was in India)

Other Explorers
 Vespucci and Magellan explored the coastline of South

 Voyages marked the beginning of more than 3 centuries of

a vast Spanish Empire in the Americas
 The wealth gained, helped Spain finance the wars of the

sixteenth and seventeenth century

The Results
 Biological impact: new species of fruits, vegetables, and

animals were transported to and from the Americas
 Native Americans died because of new diseases

 This begins a long history of conquest, disease and slave


Spanish Empire in the New World
 Aztec= Mesoamerica, central America to Guatemala
 Inca=Andean South America  Both had large quantities of gold

Aztecs of Mexico
 1519 CE, Hernan Cortes lands in Mexico with 500 men
 Begins talks with Moctezuma II who thought he was the

god Quetzalcoatl
 Moctezuma first tried to appease Cortes w/ gold

 Cortes forges an alliance, specifically with Tlaxcala, an

enemy of the Aztecs
 Cortes decides to march on Tenochtitlan, takes over city

 Aztecs fight back, were driven back, but ultimately the

Spanish prevailed in 1521
 Cortes declares the land as New Spain


Incas in Peru
 In 1532, Francisco Pizarro lands on the west coast of South

America with 200 men to take on the Empire
 Pizarro lured Atahualpa into a conference and seized him

and killed many of his followers
 Pizarro executes Atahualpa in 1533  Spaniards ultimately take control of Cuzco

The Church in Spanish America
 Priests accompany early explorers
 Wanted to not only convert, but bring European ideals to

the natives
 Priests often were at odds with conquistadors
 By end of the 16th century, church powers grows in the


The Economy of Exploitation
 Native Americans and lands were drawn into the Atlantic

 Three major components: mining, agriculture, and

 Intertwined New World economy particularly with Spain

 Early conquistadors interested primarily with gold but

later turned to silver mining
 Spanish crown received 1/5th of all mining revenues

 The “crown” maintained a monopoly over the silver-

 The Spanish “epitomized” the wholly extractive economy

 Hacienda: large landed estate owned by persons originally

born in Spain (peninsulares) or of Spanish descent born in the Americas (creoles)
 Laborers subject to the ways of the land-owner  2 major products came out of this: foodstuffs for mining

areas and leather goods
 Farming/ranching subordinate to mining economy

Agriculture (cont.)
 West Indies: Plantation was the basic agricultural unit
 Cuba, Hispanola, Puerto Rico-black slaves used for the

production of sugar
 Major economic activity was also due to service

occupations, government, legal profession

Labor Servitude
 Native population was exploited and provided the labor

 The Encomienda= A formal grant of the right to the labor

of a specific number of Indians
 Repartimiento:-Required adult males to devote a certain

number of days of labor annually to the Spanish economy

Labor (cont.)
 Free labor was a result of a shortage of labor
 Free laborers were forced to purchase goods from the

mine or land owner- “debt peonage”
 Black Slavery=Sugar plantations of Brazil and West Indies

became a major center of black slavery

Impact on Europe
 Columbus’ voyage increased skepticism of the

ancients…how trustworthy was their knowledge if they were so wrong?
 New commercial contacts developed, brought cooperation

and civility (did it really?)
 Started the discussion on how native peoples were treated

Impact (cont.)
 Influx of spices and precious metals
 Inflation was created due to the steady rise of prices  Increased “coinage” also led to inflation  Prices in Spain on goods quadrupled by 1600  Basic research was sponsored, expansion of printing,

shipping, mining, textiles, and weapons

More Impact
 Capitalist institutions begin to develop, monopolies came

about over goods
 Bankers grew richer! Were able to fund monarchs

 Raised the ambitions of the poor
 These long lasting effects pave the way for the era of


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