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- 1 Convex Sets and Simplexes
- 2 Simplicial Complexes and Polyhedra
- 3 Simplicial Maps and Approximations
- 4 Homology of an Oriented Complex
- 5 Homomorphisms and Simplicial Maps
- the Subdivision Operator
- 7 Topological Invariance of Homology
- Homologies of Surfaces
- 9 Relative Homology for Polyhedral Pairs

[講義録]

2010 年版

An Introduction to Algebraic Topology

Simplicial Homology

— A Short Course

Katsuro Sakai

Institute of Mathematics University of Tsukuba

代数的トポロジー入門

単体ホモロジー 短期課程

筑波大学・数学系

酒井 郎 克

Preface

In Algebraic Topology, topological properties of topological spaces and continuous maps are studied by using algebraic methods (e.g., groups, homomorphisms, etc.). Homology Theory and Homotopy Theory are typical and classical. There are several Homology Theories. Among them, Simplicial Homology is most elementary and geometrical. As an introduction to Algebraic Topology, this course is provided. Our purpose is knowing how to associate Topology (spaces) with Algebra (groups) by learning the process of deﬁning the homology, and how to use Algebra in Topology by applying the homology. The reader is required to familiar with basic language of sets and maps, elementary point-set topology of Euclidean spaces, linear algebra and elementary group theory. To prepare this notes, the author was inﬂuenced from the book “Topology” (Japanese) by Ichiro Tamura (Iwanami Shoten Publ., 1972). In particular, the author owes the use of Mayer-Vietoris’ sequence for the proof of the topological invariance of homology to Tamura’s book. The ﬁrst draft was written in 2001 based on the author’s lecture notes for Topology I, which he had lectured several times the class of Mathematics Majors in the University of Tsukuba. The author is indebted to his colleague Kazuhiro Kawamura and his student Masato Yaguchi for their helpful suggestions on the ﬁrst draft of the manuscript. This has been used as a text in the class of Topology I for Mathematics Majors in the University of Tsukuba, 2001, 2005, 2009. This has been revised and improved after the lectures. Tsukuba, March, 2010 Katsuro Sakai

c 2010, K. Sakai

Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Convex Sets and Simplexes . . . . . . . . Simplicial Complexes and Polyhedra . . Simplicial Maps and Approximations . . Homology of an Oriented Complex . . . Homomorphisms and Simplicial Maps . . Mayer-Vietoris Exact Sequences and the Subdivision Operator . . . . . . . . . Topological Invariance of Homology . . . Homotopical Invariance of Homology and Homologies of Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . Relative Homology for Polyhedral Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 12 28 37 50

. . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

ii

. Some applications of homologies are given.Simplicial Homology — A Short Course In this course. . . Notations We use the following notations: • N = 1. • I = [0. — the set of integers. which is a sequence of additive groups associated with a topological space. These materials are ﬁrst studied. we study Simplicial Homology. it is shown that homeomorphic polyhedra have isomorphic homologies. ±2. 自然数全体 整数全体 • Z = 0. . 1. A polyhedron is constructed by small pieces. 2. and then we see how to deﬁne the homology group for a simplicial complex. 非負整数全体 (実) 数直線 半数直線 単位閉区間 1 . • R+ = [0. . — the set of non-negative integers. so called a polyhedron. . ∞) — the real line. ±1. 1] — the unit closed interval. ∞) — the non-negative half line. . • R = (−∞. • Z+ = N ∪ {0} = 0. The totality of assembled simplexes constructing a polyhedron is called a simplicial complex. . . — the set of natural numbers. The homologies of several surfaces are also calculated. so called simplexes. which reveals the geometrical structure of the space. 2. As the most important fact.

n times x(i) ∈ X — the i-th coordinate of x. x(i) = 1. . .• X n = X × · · · × X . . y ∈ Rk . x = 1 — the unit (k − 1)-sphere. x = ∀x. 和 スカラー倍 1 if i = j. • Rk — the k-dimensional Euclidean space. . x(i) ≥ 0 (1 ≤ i ≤ k) • Sk−1 = ∂Bk = x ∈ Rk • Δk−1 = x ∈ Rk def ◦ k i=1 — the standard (k − 1)-simplex. . 0 if i = j. ∀x ∈ X n . . . ∀t ∈ R. ei ∈ Rk (i = 1. . tx = (tx(1). x + y = (x(1) + y(1). ∀x ∈ Rk . . tx(k)) — scalar product. x(k) + y(k)) — sum. . x(i) > 0 (1 ≤ i ≤ k) k − 1 次元 標準開単体 — the standard open (k − 1)-simplex. x = (x(1). k) deﬁned by ei (j) = • B k = x ∈ Rk def def k i=1 i 座標 射影 k 次元 ユークリッド 空間 ノルム x(i)2 — (Euclidean) norm. . x(n)). pri : X n → X (pri (x) = x(i)) — the projection. . . . k i=1 k − 1 次元 標準単体 • Δk−1 = x ∈ Rk def x(i) = 1. . k 次元 単位球 (体) k − 1 次元 単位球面 x ≤ 1 — the unit k-ball. R2 R3 e3 Δ2 e2 e1 e1 e2 Δ1 2 . .

A) of a space X and its subspace A. B) means a map (or a homeomorphism) f : X → Y with f (A) ⊂ B (or f (A) = B). B). whence f |A : A → B is also a map (or a homeomorphism). A) is homeomorphic to (Y. B) from a pair (X. we say that (X. A) ≈ (Y. y ∈ B}. A) → (Y. When there is a homeomorphism f : (X. spaces are considered as subspaces of Euclidean space Rk . A map (or a homeomorphism) f : (X. B) and denote (X. y ∈ A} def 同相 恒等写像 内部 境界 閉包 — the diameter of A. A) of spaces to another pair (Y. • diam A = sup{ x − y | x. • idX = id — the identity map of X. B) = inf{ x − y | x ∈ A. clX A = cl A — the closure of A in X. B). • intX A = int A — the interior of A in X. bdX A = bd A — the boundary of A in X.In this course. • X ≈ Y — X is homeomorphic to Y . — the distance between A and B 距離 空間の対 対の間の写像 同相写像 A pair of spaces means a pair (X. for beginners. 空間の対の同相 3 . def 直径 • dist(A. A) → (Y.

x1 . hence n k. xn ∈ C. .1 Exercise – Show the above equivalence. x1 − x0 . . xn ∈ Rk are aﬃnely independent (or geometrically independent) if n n アフィン独立 ti xi = 0. . i=0 i=0 ti = 0 ⇒ t0 = t1 = · · · = tn = 0. x1 . 1. A ⊂ C . . For any A ⊂ Sk−1 = ∂Bk . It is said that A ⊂ Rk is in general position if any k + 1 points of A are aﬃnely independent. Bk and Δk−1 are convex. prove the following: A = n i=0 演習 z(i + 1)xi n ∈ N. . . . . xi ∈ A. .3 Exercise – For A ⊂ Rk . 4 . x1 . which is the smallest convex set containing A. . 1. Bk \ A is convex.4 Deﬁnition We say that x0 . For a ﬁnite set. . en ⊂ Rn . 演習 1. Note that Δn−1 = e1 . 線形 (１次) 独立 一般の位置 that is.4 Exercise – For A ⊂ Rk . 1. . . xn } = x0 . A ⊂ C . 1.1 Convex Sets and Simplexes 凸集合 1.1 Deﬁnition We call C ⊂ Rk a convex set if ∀x. . 1. tx + (1 − t)y ∈ C. . x1 . . 演習 1. . we simply denote {x0 . . ∀t ∈ [0. i=0 z(i + 1)xi ∈ C. prove the following: cl A = C C: closed convex in Rk . . xn − x0 are linearly independent. This condition is equivalent to the following: n ∀x0 . y ∈ C. .2 Exercise – Show that if C ⊂ Rk is convex then cl C and int C are also convex. .3 Deﬁnition The convex hull A of A ⊂ Rk is deﬁned by A = def 演習 凸包 C C : convex in Rk . . z ∈ Δn . 1]. . ∀z ∈ Δn . . xn .2 Example Every linear subspace of Rk .

. v1 . . . vn } = {u0 . . . . . . . . . m. Hence. vn } = {u0. 0 < z(j2 + 1) ± ε < 1. . there exist k − n many vn+1 . m. vn = i=0 z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δ where v0 . . um }. v1 .. . . v1 . 1. we can assume that v0 = uj for any j = 0. . u1 . Proof. . um ⇒ {v0 . i=0 1. v1 . z(j2 + 1) ∈ (0. v1 . . . v1 . vn are called vertices of σ and n = dim σ is the dimension of σ. z ∈ Δm . . A is in general position if and only if x0 . . x1 . . . . without loss of generality. . 1) because z(j + 1) = 1 (i. vn = u0 . v1 . vn ∈ Rk and u0 . vn ∈ Rk such that n n . . . there are distinct j1 = j2 such that z(j1 + 1). . . v1 . . . . . v0 = uj ) for all j = 0. . . .5 Deﬁnition We call σ ⊂ Rk an (n-dimensional) simplex or an nsimplex if there exist some aﬃnely independent v0 . u1 . vn ∈ Rk are aﬃnely independent and n < k. . v1 . 1. . v1 . . um ∈ Rk are aﬃnely independent. v1 . . . u1 . . vk ∈ Rk such that v0 . . . Then.7 Proposition If v0 . .e. . v1 . .6 Exercise – In the above. Choose ε > 0 so that 0 < z(j1 + 1) ± ε < 1. . . . 1. xn } ⊂ Rk and n k. We denote σ (0) = {v0 . . . . Assume that {v0 . . z(n + 1)) ∈ Δn the i=0 barycentric coordinate of x with respect to v0 . .Remark. When we represent m 演習 (n 次元) 単体 n 単体 頂点 (単体の) 次元 演習 重心座標 v0 = j=0 z(j + 1)uj . . prove that γ : Δn → σ deﬁned by γ(z) = n z(i + 1)vi is a homeomorphism. vn . . . . . we call z = (z(1). . Let A = {x0 . 1. . vn }. In particular. . Then. . .6 Deﬁnition When a point in an n-simplex σ = v0 . for each simplex σ ⊂ Rk . . xn are aﬃnely independent. . . . . u1 . . . 1. . vk are aﬃnely independent. . then v0 . . . the i=0 representation n z(i + 1)vi of a point in σ is unique. . .5 Exercise – Prove that if v0 . . . . um }. σ = v0 . . 1. . x1 . . . . . 5 . σ (0) and dim σ are uniquely determined. . vn is represented as x = n z(i + 1)vi .

2 2 which implies 1 z (1) + 1 z (1) = 1 (cf.8 Proposition Let σ be an n-simplex in Rk . By the deﬁnition of an n-simplex. . . . . It follows that 1 1 v0 = x + x = 2 2 n i=0 1 1 z (i + 1) + z (i + 1) vi . .and let x = j=j1 . .6). x ∈ v0 . . . Consequently. vn }. un − u0 ∈ σ − u0 ⊂ L and u1 − u0 . . . z (1) ∈ I. If σ = v0 . v1 . vj = n zj (i + 1)ui for some zj ∈ Δn . we can write n n x = i=0 z (i + 1)vi . Since x . . . . . z(j + 1)uj + (z(j1 + 1) + ε)uj1 + (z(j2 + 1) − ε)uj2 . . z ∈ Δn . Proof. . vn − v0 . v1 . For each j = 0. . . un . To see that v1 − v0 . . vn (where n = dim σ). . it 2 2 follows that z (1) = z (1) = 1. . x = x (cf. Note that σ − x ∈ L for each x ∈ σ. . whence u1 − u0 .j2 x = Then. u1 . . i=0 i=1 6 . σ (0) = {v0 . . . . Note that zj (1) = 1 − n zj (i + 1).j2 z(j + 1)uj + (z(j1 + 1) − ε)uj1 + (z(j2 + 1) + ε)uj2 . Exercise 1. 1. . . . . . un − u0 are linearly independent. n. . . . which means x = x = v0 — a contradiction! Thus we have the result. . Since z (1). . . vn are aﬃnely independent. v1 . Exercise 1. u1 . we have aﬃnely independent u0 . then v0 . vn . let L= n i=1 ti (vi − v0 ) ti ∈ R . v1 . . j=j1 . . which is the linear subspace of Rk spanned by v1 − v0 . vn − v0 are linearly independent. It suﬃces to show that dim L = n. . un ∈ Rk such that σ = u0. . .6). z . . x = i=0 z (i + 1)vi . .

n + 1. n n i=0 ◦ • b(σ) = def i=0 1 vi — the barycenter of σ n+1 ◦ (where b(σ) ∈ σ). . . . . . hence {u1 − u0 . . . . we have σ = σ and ∂σ = ∅. . z(i) > 0 z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δn — the interior of σ. . . . v1 . v1 . un − u0 . j = 0. (2) The barycentric coordinate of x ∈ σ is uniquely determined with respect to the order v0 . 1. . which implies dim L = n. z(i) = 0 (単体の) 境界 ◦ (単体の) 内部 = • ∂σ = def = σ \ σ — the boundary of σ. . . ∃i = 1. 演習 . (1) When dim σ = 0. it can be shown that (σ. . L is spanned by u1 − u0 . . Thus. . show that intÊk σ = ◦ σ and bdÊk σ = ∂σ. un − u0 } is a base for L. n + 1. 1. For every n-simplex σ. 1. vn .10 Proposition For an n-simplex σ = v0 . we deﬁne • σ= ◦ def n i=0 n i=0 z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δn .For every j = 0. n . . ∂σ) ≈ (Bn . ◦ hence σ = intÊk σ.7 Exercise – For each k-simplex σ in Rk .6). ∀i = 1. diam σ = max vi − vj 7 i. . We identify a 0-simplex v0 = {v0 } with the point v0 . . . . . ◦ 重心 Remark. . Note that if dim σ = k then intÊk σ = ∅. .16). . Sn−1 ) (Theorem 1. . . n n vj − v0 = i=0 n zj (i + 1)ui − i=0 z0 (i + 1)ui = i=1 n (zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))ui + (zj (1) − z0 (1))u0 n = i=1 n (zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))ui − i=1 (zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))u0 = i=1 (zj (i + 1) − z0 (i + 1))(ui − u0 ). . vn (cf. vn ⊂ Rk . 1. . Exercise 1. . z(i + 1)vi z ∈ Δn .9 Deﬁnition For an n-simplex σ = v0 . v1 .

choose i1 so that x − vi1 = maxi x − vi . z ∈ Δn .8 Exercise – For each k-simplex σ in Rk . it suﬃces to ﬁnd i1 . For each x. choose i2 so that vi1 − vi2 = maxi vi1 − vi .Proof. 1.12 Deﬁnition For a compact (= bounded closed) convex set A ⊂ Rk with 0 ∈ int A. Consequently. x − y vi1 − vi2 . show ∂σ = τ <σ 辺.11 Deﬁnition A simplex τ is called a face of a simplex σ if τ (0) ⊂ σ (0) . i2 such that x−y First. it follows that n n x−y = x− i=0 n z(i + 1)vi i=0 z(i + 1) x − vi z(i + 1) x − vi1 = x − vi1 . and it has the following properties: 8 . 面 τ. we deﬁne pA : Rk → R+ as follow: pA (x) = inf s > 0 s−1 x ∈ A = inf s > 0 x ∈ sA . we call τ a proper face of σ. y= i=0 z(i + 1)vi ∈ σ. 演習 Supplement 1. Let n vi1 −vi2 . 面 真の辺. which is called the Minkowski functional. the Minkowski functional pA : Rk → R+ is well-deﬁned and continuous. 1. x A 0 s−1 x sA tx ミンコフスキー 汎関数 1. and denote τ < σ. When τ σ and τ = σ.13 Proposition For a compact (= bounded closed) convex set A ⊂ Rk with 0 ∈ int A. whence we denote τ σ. Then. i=0 Next. whence vi1 − x vi1 − vi2 by the same argument. y ∈ σ. An n-dimensional face is simply called an n-face (0-face = vertex).

we have pA (tx) −1 tx ∈ A.. Thus. assume pA (x) < 1. Since pA (x)−1 x ∈ A by (2). Conversely. we have δ > 0 such that x − y < δ implies a−1 y ∈ Rk \ A. (5) If pA (x) = 1 then n+1 x= n n n+1 −1 x ∈ A and x = lim n→∞ n+1 x. we have δ0 > 0 such that z < δ0 implies z ∈ A. 0. pA is well-deﬁned. pA (x) < 1 for every x ∈ int A.e. (2) We have t1 > t2 > · · · > 0 such that t−1 x ∈ A and ti → pA (x) (i → ∞). 1 for every x ∈ A. pA is lower semi-continuous. i. n which means x ∈ int A. Choose δ2 > 0 so that x − y < δ2 implies b−1 y ∈ int A. t−1 x ∈ A if t > x /δ0 . Thus. tx ∈ A for suﬃciently large t > 0. it suﬃces to (4) By the deﬁnition. Moreover. hence bd A = {x ∈ Rk | pA (x) = 1}. (3) The case t = 0 or x = 0 follows from (1). Therefore. which means b−1 x ∈ int A by (5). hence tpA (x) pA (tx). If x − y < (1 − pA (x))δ0 .(1) pA (x) = 0 ⇔ x = 0. (3) pA (tx) = tpA (x) for each x ∈ Rk and t (4) A = {x ∈ Rk | pA (x) 1}. Since 0 ∈ A. When t > 0 and x = 0. it also follows from the deﬁnition that deﬁnition. x ∈ int A. pA (x) 1 implies x ∈ A. Since A is closed in Rk . R 1 1 hence a−1 pA (y) = pA (a−1 y) > 1 by (3) and (4). then y = (1 − pA (x))(1 − pA (x))−1 (y − x) + pA (x)pA (x)−1 x ∈ A because (1 − pA (x))−1 (y − x) ∈ A and pA (x)−1 x ∈ A. Since k \ A is open in Rk . Assume x = 0. Since A is compact (bounded). s−1 x ∈ A for suﬃciently small s > 0. Hence. hence b−1 pA (y) = pA (b−1 y) < 1 by (3) and (5). (Well-deﬁnedness) Since 0 ∈ int A. Proof. it follows that pA (x)−1 x ∈ A. Then pA (x) = 0. Since 0 ∈ int A. i Note that pA (x) = 0 by (1). For each x ∈ Rk . (5) int A = {x ∈ Rk | pA (x) < 1}. since pA (tx) pA (x) pA (tx)/t. we have δ0 > 0 such that x < δ0 implies x ∈ A. so pA (y) > a. If pA (x) < b then pA (b−1 x) = b−1 pA (x) < 1 by (3). 9 . (1) It is obvious that pA (0) = 0. (2) pA (x)−1 x ∈ A for every x ∈ Rk \ {0}. tpA (x) by the since (tpA (x))−1 tx = pA (x)−1 x ∈ A by (2). Thus. it follows show that 0 < pA (x) from the convexity of A that x = (1 − pA (x))0 + pA (x)(pA (x)−1 x) ∈ A. pA is upper semi-continuous. (Continuity) If pA (x) > a > 0 then a−1 x ∈ Rk \ A by the deﬁnition. so pA (y) < b.

pA (ϕ(x)) = pA (x)−1 x pA (x) = x . On the other hand. 10 . Since pA (xi )−1 xi ∈ A. if x = 0. ϕ 0 A ψ 0 Bk Since pA is continuous. For each x ∈ Rk \ {0}. we may assume that 0 ∈ int A. there exists a homeomorphism ϕ : Rk → Rk such that ϕ(A) = Bk . To see the continuity at 0. bdÊk A) ≈ (Bk . Without loss of generality. whence ϕ(xi ) = pA (xi )−1 xi 2 xi diam A → 0 (i → ∞). we deﬁne maps ϕ. assume xi ∈ Rk \ {0} and xi → 0 (i → ∞). By using the Minkowski functional pA for A. Therefore. Proof. ψ : Rk → Rk as follows: ϕ(x) = ψ(x) = 0 pA (x)−1 x x 0 x −1 p if x = 0. hence (A. Sk−1 ). 1.14 Deﬁnition A convex set A ⊂ Rk with intÊk A = ∅ is called a convex body. if x = 0. y ∈ Rk . ψ(x) = pA (x) and pA (ψ(x)) = x −1 pA (x)2 . A (x)x if x = 0. it follows that pA (xi )−1 xi < diam A. these are continuous at x ∈ Rk \ {0}. hence ψ is also continuous at 0. 凸体 1.9 Exercise – Show that the Minkowski functional pA in the above has also the following properties: (1) pA (x + y) pA (x) + pA (y) for every x. observe that ϕ(x) = pA (x)−1 x 2 . by the continuity of pA . ϕ is continuous at 0. 演習 (2) pA is a norm on Rk ⇔ A = −A. ψ(xi ) = pA (xi ) → pA (0) = 0 (i → ∞).1. In fact.15 Theorem Every compact convex body A ⊂ Rk is homeomorphic to Bk .

. ∂Δn ) ≈ (Bn . Sn−1 ) by Theorem 1. In this theorem. Then. (Δn . Y ⊂ Rk . Sn−1 ). x(i) 0 (i = 1. X ≈ Y implies int X ≈ int Y . en ⊂ R . Observe ϕ(Bk ) = {ϕ(x) | x ϕ(S k−1 1} = {y ∈ Rk | ψ(y) 1} = A and 1} = {y ∈ Rk | pA (y) ) = {ϕ(x) | x = 1} = {y ∈ Rk | ψ(y) = 1} = {y ∈ Rk | pA (y) = 1} = bdÊk A. . ∂σ) ≈ (Bn . .hence it follows that ψϕ(x) = ϕ(x) −1 pA (ϕ(x))ϕ(x) = pA (x) x −1 ϕ(x) = x and ϕ(ψ(x)) = pA (ψ(x))−1 ψ(x) ψ(x) = x pA (x)−1 ψ(x) = x Then. vn ⊂ Rk . . (σ.15. . n) = ∅. ∂σ) ≈ (Δn . Sn−1 ). v1 − v0 . Then. ブラウワーの 領域不変定理 1. Observe that h(Δn ) = σ and h(∂Δn ) = ∂σ. . Therefore. This follows from the following: Brouwer’s Theorem on Invariance of Domain: For each X. . that is. . Let h : Rn → Rk be the embedding deﬁned by h(x) = ϕ(x) + v0 . . . bdÊn Δn ) ≈ (Bn . In connection with the above. .16 Theorem For every n-simplex σ. Proof. Note. . it follows that 0 0 (σ. ϕψ = id and ψϕ = id. Thus we have the result. . 0 0 11 . . . . . . 0 0 0 0 For each n-simplex σ = v0 . . ϕ is a homeomorphism with ϕ−1 = ψ. . vn − v0 are linearly independent. v1 . . . Δn is a compact convex set in Rn and 0 intÊn Δn = Δn = x ∈ Rn 0 0 ◦ n i=1 x(i) n i=1 x(i) n 1. hence we can deﬁne a linear injection ϕ : Rn → Rk by ϕ(ei ) = vi − v0 for each i = 1. if Bk ≈ A ⊂ Rk then int A = ∅. e1 . . n) < 1. ∂Δn ) = (Δn . x(i) > 0 (i = 1. . n. Let Δn = x ∈ R n 0 = 0. one should remark that X ≈ Y is not given by any homeomorphism of Rk onto itself.

10): mesh K = mesh K (1) = max v0 − v1 v0 . If K is locally ﬁnite. The name “mesh” comes from the following fact (cf. In this case. the polyhedron |K| has two typical topologies. v1 ∈ K .2 Simplicial Complexes and Polyhedra 単体複体 2.e. There are inﬁnite-dimensional locally ﬁnite simplicial complexes. In this lecture. we treat only ﬁnite simplicial complexes.1 Deﬁnition A ﬁnite collection K of simplexes in Rk is called a simplicial complex if the following are satisﬁed: (K1) σ ∈ K. However. the local ﬁniteness is usually assumed because the topology of |K| is unique. def Remark. then |K| is locally compact and locally ﬁnite-dimensional (i. In the above. 無限単体複体 局所有限 Note. σ. For an inﬁnite simplicial complex K.. we can also consider inﬁnite-dimensional simplicial complexes. each point has a ﬁnite-dimensional neighborhood). K = K (n) if and only if dim K = n. the metric topology and the weak (Whitehead) topology. (単体複体の) 編み目 • mesh K = max{diam σ | σ ∈ K} — the mesh of K. Proposition 1. τ ∈ K. Replacing Rk by inﬁnite-dimensional linear topological space such as Hilbert space 2 . σ ∩ τ = ∅ ⇒ σ ∩ τ For a simplicial complex K. • |K| = def def (単体複体の) 次元 K= σ∈K σ= σ∈K σ ⊂ Rk — the polyhedron of K. we deﬁne • K(σ) = τ def τ σ — the simplicial complex of σ. The polyhedron |K| is a compact set in Rk because of the ﬁnite union of simplexes. (K2) σ. Non-locally ﬁnite simplicial complexes are also very useful. 12 . τ . inﬁnite simplicial complexes are useful and have many applications. where K is said to be locally ﬁnite if each v ∈ K (0) is the vertex of only ﬁnitely many simplexes of K. n} — the n-skeleton of K ◦ 多面体 • K (n) = {σ ∈ K | dim σ (K (0) = def σ∈K n 次元骨格 σ (0) is the set of vertices of K).2 Deﬁnition For an n-simplex σ. we deﬁne • dim K = max{dim σ | σ ∈ K} — the dimension of K (K is n-dimensional if dim K = n). where |K(σ)| = σ and K(σ)(0) = σ (0) . τ σ ⇒ τ ∈ K. 無限次元単体複体 局所有限次元 2. When K is not locally ﬁnite. the local ﬁniteness is no longer assumed.

A pair (K. Then |L| ⊂ |K| and dim L Every subcomplex of L is also a subcomplex of K. (2) For each σ ∈ K. 2. ∀σ ∈ L. K(σ) is a subcomplex of K. (1) Each n-skeleton K (n) of K is a subcomplex of K. In other words. we deﬁne the star St(x.4 Example Let K be a simplicial complex. K) = τ ∈ K ∃τ ∈ K such that τ def τ. • Lk(σ.5 Deﬁnition For a simplicial complex K and σ ∈ K. K) and the link Lk(σ. 2. ◦ 台 13 . Remark. • Lk(x. K) and the link Lk(x. τ. K) = τ ∈ St(σ. K(σ) ⊂ L). K) = τ ∈ K ∃τ ∈ K such that τ def 星状体 環状体 部分複体 単体複体の対 dim K. K) For each point x ∈ |K|. 2.• K(∂σ) = τ def τ < σ = K(σ)(n−1) — the simplicial complex of ∂σ.3 Deﬁnition Let K be a simplicial complex. K) St(σ.. K) at x in K as follows: • St(x. K) x ∈ τ . whence |K(∂σ)| = ∂σ. L ⊂ K is a subcomplex of K if L satisﬁes (K1) (i. the star St(σ. x∈τ . def K σ Lk(σ. def The carrier of x in K is the simplex σ ∈ K with x ∈ σ. K) of σ in K are deﬁned as follows: • St(σ.e. K) = τ ∈ St(x. K) τ ∩ σ = ∅ . L) of simplicial complexes means a pair of a simplicial complex K and its subcomplex L. A simplicial complex L is called a subcomplex of K if L ⊂ K. σ τ . Let L be a subcomplex of K.

K)| = {(1 − t)x + ty | x ∈ σ. K) = St(σ. Proof. (4) Prove that if x ∈ σ then St(x. then σ ⊂ OK (vi ) for all vi . t ∈ I} and | St(σ. (1) σ ∩ τ = ∅ ⇔ σ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 演習 τ. which implies σ.1 Exercise – (1) For each x ∈ |K|. The open star OK (v) is an open neighborhood of v in |K|. Then. K)|. K) if σ = {x}. ◦ ◦ (2) If σ ∩ τ = ∅. K)| \ | Lk(v.e. Thus.7 Deﬁnition For a simplicial complex K and v ∈ K (0) . . Proof. then any point of σ cannot belong to τ . .2. . In both (1) and (2). Conversely. (2) Give an example such that | Lk(x. . Then. (2) σ ∩ τ = ∅ ⇔ σ = τ . . v0 . . . . show that | St(x. . then σ τ and τ σ by (1).. the implication “⇐” is trivial. vn ∈ K. K) = St(b(σ). vn ∈ K (0) . v0 . v0 . Hence. . 2. t ∈ I}. Recall σ ∩ τ ◦ than vertices of σ ∩ τ . . assume that OK (v0 ) ∩ · · · ∩ OK (vn ) contains some x.8 Lemma Let v0 . y ∈ | Lk(x. . ◦ Remark. K)| = bd|K| | St(x. 2. vn ∈ K if and only if OK (v0 ) ∩ · · · ∩ OK (vn ) = ∅. each vi is a vertex of σ. . i. vn ∈ K. . show that Lk(x. K)| = |K| \ def {σ ∈ K | v ∈ σ (0) } 開星状体 = {σ | σ ∈ K. and OK (v) v ∈ K (0) is an open cover of |K|. K)| = {(1 − t)x + ty | y ∈ | Lk(x. St(σ. K)|. If σ has a vertex other (1) Assume that σ ∩ τ = ∅. hence OK (v0 ) ∩ · · · ∩ OK (vn ) ⊃ σ = ∅. x ∈ σ. . v ∈ σ (0) } — the open star at v. (3) Show | St(x. . 2. . τ ∈ K. K)| is a neighborhood of x in |K|. The converse implication “⇒” can be seen as follows: ◦ σ. Let σ ∈ K ◦ be the carrier of x. vn 14 ◦ ◦ . K). . K)|. we deﬁne • OK (v) = | St(v. . which is a contradiction. K) for every σ ∈ K. which implies σ = τ . . If σ = v0 . σ = σ ∩ τ τ . K) = Lk(σ.6 Proposition Let K be a simplicial complex and σ. Moreover. In particular.

2.2. A polyhedron is compact and metrizable. In case locally ﬁnite simplicial complexes are considered. that is. that is. whence (K. each point has an open neighborhood homeomorphic to an open set in R2 .16. K(∂σ). (K(σ). A surface is also called a 2-dimensional manifold. there exists a homeomorphism h : |K| → X.11 Example In the following. Y ) ≈ (|K|. h|∂σ) are triangulations of Bn and Sn−1 .9 Deﬁnition A topological space X is a (topological) polyhedron if X ≈ |K| for some simplicial complex K. that is. h) is a relative triangulation of (Bn . Y ) of spaces is polyhedral if (X. Note. where surfaces are spaces which are locally homeomorphic to the Eucliean plane R2 . polyhedra are locally compact. we illustrate triangulations of typical surfaces by ﬁgures. whence (K. h) and (K(∂σ). L) of simplicial complexes. h) is called a relative triangulation of a pair (X. (位相的) 多面体 単体分割 三角形分割 多面体の対 相対単体分割 相対三角形分割 2. Recall that only ﬁnite simplicial complexes are treated in this lecture. |L|) for some pair (K. there exists a homeomorphism h : |K| → X such that h(|L|) = Y . respectively. Y ).10 Example For an n-simplex σ. An n-dimensional manifold is deﬁned as a space which is locally homeomorphic to the n-dimensional Euclidean space Rn . Sn−1 ) by Theorem 1. A pair (X. so (K(σ). ∂σ) → (Bn . there exists a homeomorphism h : (σ. h) is called a triangulation of X. Remark. Then. L. Surface R2 曲面 多様体 ≈ 15 . Sn−1 ).

(1) Sphere S2 v v ◦ ≈ ◦ cut and unfold ◦ v ≈ A triangulation of S2 v 球面 cut and unfold A triangulation of S2 w u v v w u w u w cut and unfold v u u ≈ v w v w A triangulation of S2 Not a simplicial complex 16 .

(2) Torus T2 トーラス paste cut and unfold paste A triangulation of T2 (3) Klein bottle K2 クラインの壷 paste cut and unfold paste A triangulation of K2 17 .

(4) Projective plane P2 = (R3 \ {0})/ ∼ = {[x] | x ∈ R3 \ {0}}. where x ∼ y ⇐⇒ ∃t ∈ R \ {0} such that tx = y . [x] = (R \ {0})x def def 射影平面 P2 = S2 / ∼. −x ∈ S1 are identiﬁed v v paste v fold v v ≈ u w ◦ v v v v ◦ u A triangulation P2 w v Not a triangulation P2 v 18 . where x ∼ y ⇐⇒ x = ±y def x3 [x] x 1 ◦ ◦ 0 x1 R3 x3 [x] x R3 x3 = 1 1 ◦ 1 v = [e1 ] x1 ◦ 0 1 x3 = 1 x2 x2 x.

(5) M¨bius band M2 o メビウスの帯 cut and unfold A triangulation of M2 M¨bius band is contained in the projective plane. o u 1 v B2 − M2 2 M2 cut 2 B2 + 1 2 B2 + v 1 u B2 − paste 1 v u 2 B2 + 2 1 v B2 − u B2 A triangulation of P2 19 .

P2 = M2 ∪S1 B2 cut and unfold ◦ ◦ paste S1 ◦ S1 ◦ S1 paste B2 The cross cap paste ◦ M2 S1 S1 B2 B2 M¨bius band is also called the cross cap. o 20 . (1) The projective plane P2 can be obtained by attaching M¨bius o 2 2 band M with the disk B along their boundary circles.Remark.

. . . 演習 2. 2.2 Exercise – Let L be a subcomplex of K and K a subdivision of K. then K K.12 Deﬁnition Let K and K be simplicial complexes. In particular. . u0 . It is said that K is a subdivision of K or K subdivides K if |K | = |K| and each τ ∈ K is contained in some σ ∈ K. In other wards. . u1. whence u0 . n). . un are aﬃnely independent. . whence we denote K K. K2 can be o obtained by attaching two cross caps arong their boundary circles. . un is an n-simplex. . . b(σn ) is an n-simplex 21 . . . Show that L = {τ ∈ K | τ ⊂ |L|} is a simplicial complex which subdivides L. . Then. b(σ1 ). it is required that each σ ∈ K contains only ﬁnitely many simplexes of K . Note. 1. . if inﬁnite simplicial complexes are considered. K2 = M2 ∪S1 M2 1 M+ M2 2 M2 cut and paste M+ M− M2 2 M− 1 2 1 1 2 ≈ The under half of Klein bottle M¨bius band o 2. 細分 Remark. If K K and K K . In the above.Remark.13 Lemma Let σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn be a sequence of simplexes and ui ∈ ◦ σ i (i = 0. b(σ0 ). (2) Klein bottle K2 can be obtained by attaching two copies of M¨bius band M2 along their boundary circles. u1. . .

. vn are aﬃnely independent and n n n i n ti zi (j + 1) = j=0 i=j i=0 ti j=0 zi (j + 1) = i=0 ti = 0. The n-th derived subdivision is also deﬁned by induction. zi ∈ Δi . 22 n 階重心細分 導細分 n 階導細分 演習 . . we can write σi = v0 . In the above. . . . .3 Exercise – (1) Show that Sd K is a simplicial complex and Sd K K. Since zi (j + 1) = 0 i=j for each i and j. . 2. n. . un are aﬃnely independent. .Proof. Observe that n n i n i = 0 and ti ui = i=0 i=0 ti j=0 zi (j + 1)vj = n i=0 j=0 n ti zi (j + 1)vj ti zi (j + 1)vj . b(σn ) σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn ∈ K 重心細分 — the barycentric subdivision of K. where Sd0 K = K. we deﬁne • Sd K = def b(σ0 ). 2. (2) Show that if L is a subcomplex of K then Sd L is a subcomplex of Sd K. Then. we can deﬁne a derived subdivision of K. = j i ti zi (j + 1)vj = j=0 i=j Since v0 .14 Deﬁnition For a simplicial complex K. . . . by replacing the barycenters b(σ) with any points ◦ vσ ∈ σ. . it can be seen that tn = tn−1 = · · · = t0 = 0 by downward induction. Remark. . let n i=0 ti = 0. . . it follows that n ti zi (j + 1) = 0 for each j = 0. u1 . vi and i ui = j=0 zi (j + 1)vj . . . By inserting faces of deﬁcient dimensions. . . The n-th barycentric subdivision is inductively deﬁned as follows: Sdn K = Sd(Sdn−1 K). it can be assumed that dim σi = i. n i=0 ti ui ◦ To see that u0.

Then.H. This theorem is valid for any inﬁnite simplicial complexes. b(σ) − b(τ ) m mesh K m+1 m mesh K.1). for each σ < τ ∈ K. We can prove the following theorem. Since b(σ) ∈ σ ⊂ τ .15 Proposition For an m-dimensional simplicial complex K. . Theorem (J. but more preparations are necessary and it won’t be used in this lecture. Proof. if K1 K and K2 K. We write τ = v0 . Then K has a subdivision K3 subdividing both K1 and K2 . Note. . Whitehead): Let K1 and K2 be simplicial complexes with |K1 | = |K2 |. n b(τ ) − vj = i=0 n 1 vi − vj n+1 1 1 vi − vj = vi − vj n+1 n+1 i=0 i=j m n diam τ mesh K. limn→∞ mesh Sdn K = 0. mesh Sd K Hence. Hence. vn .13 that b(σ) − b(τ ) b(τ ) − vj . n+1 m+1 Thus. m+1 (see the remark for Deﬁnition 2.σ2 σ1 b(σ1 ) b(σ2 ) σ0 = b((σ0 ) b(σ0 ). It suﬃces to show that. .C. then there exists some K3 K subdividing both K1 and K2 . it follows from the argument in the proof of 1. 細分に関する ホワイトヘッド の定理 23 . Choose j so that b(τ ) − vj = maxi b(τ ) − vi . v1 . we have the result. b(σ1 ). . b(σ2 ) 2. so the proof is omitted.

.2. (vij . the barycentric subdivision Sd K is an ordered complex with the order deﬁned as follows: b(σ) b(τ ) ⇐⇒ σ def 順序 (単体) 複体 τ (i. (vj . . 0). we deﬁne K(σ) × I = τ def ∃j = 0. 0). hence we have also follow that = 0. vn ∈ Rk be aﬃnely independent. . n such that τ (v0 . . 1) ∈ Rk+1 are aﬃnely independent. . it t0 = · · · = tj−1 = tj + tj+1 = tj+2 = · · · = tn+1 = 0. . . we have also tj = tj+1 = 0. 2. . . . By observing each factor of the ﬁrst equation. . . 1) = 0.18 Lemma Let v0 . . . .e. Assume j n n+1 ti (vi . 0). Then.16 Deﬁnition A simplicial complex K with an order on K (0) is called an ordered (simplicial) complex if σ (0) is a totally ordered subset of K (0) for each σ ∈ K. . 0).19 Deﬁnition For an n-simplex σ = v0 . . . 1. 2. . . . . 1). . vn are aﬃnely independent. . (vn . (vj . . 1). b(σ) < b(τ ) ⇔ σ < τ ). . we have j n n ti vi + i=0 i=j j i=0 ti ti+1 vi = 0 and i=j ti+1 = 0. . . . (v0 . v1 . .. . n. 0). . . 1) = 0 and i=0 ti = 0. Then. 1) ∈ Rk × R = Rk+1 are also aﬃnely independent.. K(σ) is an ordered complex). = (vi0 . Proof. (vim . Since (vj . 1) 0 i0 < · · · < ij 24 ij+1 < · · · < im n . . vn ⊂ Rk with an order v0 < v1 < · · · < vn (i. Since v0 . (vj . (vj . . for each j = 0. . . tj (vj . . (vj . 0). 0) + i=0 i=j ti+1 (vi . (2) For each simplicial complex K. . . . . 0). . (vn . 2.17 Example (1) A simplicial complex K with a total order on K (0) is an ordered complex. 1). (vij+1 . v1 .e. 0) + tj+1 (vj . 1) . .

If t = 1 then (x. . (vj . . . . (vj+1. t z(i + 1)(vi . 1) + i=j+1 z(i + 1)(vi . n. 0) i=0 n = + sz(j + 1)(vj . . . 1). (vn . . (vn . z ∈ Δn . When t < 1. Then. 1) ⊂ |K(σ) × I|. By the deﬁnition. 1). . 0). . t) = i=0 j−1 z(i + 1)vi . 1. Then. |K(σ) × I| = σ × I. . . . we have |K(σ) × I| = σ × I. 0) + (1 − s)z(j + 1)(vj . it follows that n (x. .1 I v2 0 K(σ) × I v0 v1 σ 2. 25 . 1) ⊂ |K(σ) × I|. let x = n i=0 n z(i + 1)vi . Thus. . 1) ∈ (v0 . t) ∈ (v0 . .20 Lemma In the above. Proof. . t) ∈ σ × I. n z(i + 1) i=j+1 t< i=j z(i + 1) s < 1 so that for some j = 0. Let (x. whence we can choose 0 n t = sz(j + 1) + i=j+1 z(i + 1). 0). it is easy to see that |K(σ) × I| ⊂ σ × I.

. . 1). . 1). . (vj . . 1) (v0 . K × I is an ordered complex with the lexicographical order. . . (vn . . . By the deﬁnition. . . To see (K2). def 2. 0). . 0). 0). . (vj . . vj } = {v0 . . . vj } ∩ {v0 . .22 Proposition For an ordered complex K. Let K.20. . . . . τ ∈ K × I such that τ ∩ τ = ∅.21 Deﬁnition For an ordered complex K. (vm . . (vj . . . 0). 1) and τ = (v0 . 1). By the deﬁnition and Lemma 2. 0). . . (vj . . . let K ×I = = def K(σ) × I σ∈K (v0 . 1). . . (vj . . . . . . +1 Then. 1) v0 . . . Therefore. . i < j. (vj . (v. . . let τ. (vj +1 . (vm . . . 0). . . . . (vm . . . . . K × I is a simplicial complex and |K × I| = |K| × I. . The convex hull of the above set is (v0 . . . . . vm ∈ K. . . . v0 < · · · < vj vj < · · · < vm and . . (vj +1 . 0). 1) = τ ∩ τ . . 0). . v0 < · · · < vj {v0 . 1). . . . vm ∈ vj +1 < · · · < vm . we have |K × I| = σ∈K K(σ) × I = σ∈K |K(σ) × I| = σ∈K σ × I = |K| × I. . . vj } and {vj +1 . . vn ∈ K. 0). (vm . 0). . (vj +1 . . The proof is complete. . . (vm . . . j) ⇔ v < u or v = u. 0). 1. v0 < · · · < vj vj+1 < · · · < vm and v0 . 0). . Proof. We write τ = (v0 . . . i = 0. . τ ∩ τ is a face of τ and τ . it is obvious that K × I satisﬁes (K1). . where v0 . v0 < · · · < vj vj+1 < · · · < vn and K × {i} = σ × {i} σ ∈ K . . (vm = (v0 . . 1) . . that is. (vj+1. . vm } ∩ {vj +1 . (vj+1. vm }.2. . vm 辞書式順序 } = {vj+1 . 1) . . . (vj . (vj +1 . 26 . 1). Moreover. 1) ∩ (v0 . . . . 0). . 1). i) < (u. (vj+1. . . . 0).

with the order 0 < 1. K × {i}. Then. I × I and (I × I) × I are triangulations of I2 and I3 . 1} be the triangulation of I. respectively.Remark. 0. In the above. 2. 演習 27 . i = 0. 1.4 Exercise – Let I = {I. Represent them in ﬁgures. are subcomplexes of K × I and |K × {i}| = |K| × {i}.

. vn ∈ K. .1 Exercise – For a simplicial map ϕ : K → L. even if ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is surjective. . . ϕ(vn ) ∈ L. 3. vn → ϕ(σ) = ϕ(v0 ). (1) In the above. Then. dim ϕ(σ) = dim σ and σ = τ ∈ K implies ϕ(σ) = ϕ(τ ). Remark. idK : K → K (i. ˜ ϕ:K σ = v0 . dim ϕ(σ) dim σ but dim ϕ(σ) = dim σ in general. i : L(0) → K (0) ) is a simplicial map. ϕ(vn ) are distinct. .e. . In particular. hence it induces a function ϕ : K → L. show the following: (1) σ τ ∈ K implies ϕ(σ) ϕ(τ ). . then the inclusion i : L → K (i. . that is. . 28 演習 . .3 Simplicial Maps and Approximations 単体写像 3. idK (0) : K (0) → K (0) ) is a simplicial map. ϕ : K → L is not surjective in general. .1 Deﬁnition Let K and L be simplicial complexes. a simplicial map is denoted ˜ by ϕ : K → L rather than ϕ : K (0) → L(0) by idenstifying ϕ = ϕ.. ϕ(vn ) ∈ L. A simplicial map is a function ϕ : K (0) → L(0) such that ∀σ = v0 . it is not necessary that all ϕ(v0 ). . . that is. . .. . . (a) dim ϕ(σ) < dim σ v2 ϕ v0 v1 u0 = ϕ(v0 ) u1 = ϕ(v1 ) = ϕ(v2 ) (b) ϕ(K (0) ) = L(0) but ϕ(K) = L v2 ϕ v0 v1 u0 = ϕ(v0 ) u1 = ϕ(v1 ) u2 = ϕ(v2 ) (2) If L is a subcomplex of K. . When ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is injective. Then. But. .e. ϕ : K → L is injective. . ϕ(v0 ).

v2 σ ϕ u1 = ϕ(v2 ) ϕ(σ) = τ b(τ ) v0 b(σ) v1 u0 = ϕ(v0 ) = ϕ(v1 ) |ϕ|(b(σ)) = 2 u0 + 1 u1 3 3 3. 単体写像 This |ϕ| is also called a simplicial map.2 Exercise – Show that |ϕ| is well-deﬁned. . |ϕ|(b(σ)) = b(ϕ(σ)) in general. .2 Deﬁnition For a simplicial map ϕ : K → L. where v0 . 演習 (2) For a simplicial map ϕ : K → L and σ ∈ K. (1) |ϕ| : |K| → |L| is continuous.(2) ϕ(K) = ϕ(σ) σ ∈ K is a subcomplex of L. 3. . z ∈ Δn . that is. (2) If ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is injective then |ϕ| is an embedding. . |ϕ|(x) is uniquely determined independently from choice of σ ∈ K with x ∈ σ and an order of vertices of σ. 29 . (1) One should observe that | idK | = id|K|.3 Lemma Let ϕ : K → L be a simplicial map. vn ∈ K and n x= i=0 z(i + 1)vi . Remark. the function |ϕ| : |K| → |L| is deﬁned as follows: n |ϕ|(x) = i=0 z(i + 1)ϕ(vi ). 3.

Proof. (1) For each n-simplex σ = v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K, we deﬁne the homeomorphism γ : Δn → σ by γ(z) = n z(i + 1)vi . Then, for each z ∈ Δn , i=0 (|ϕ| ◦ γ)(z) = n z(i + 1)ϕ(vi ). It follows that |ϕ| ◦ γ is continuous, whence i=0 the restriction |ϕ||σ = (|ϕ| ◦ γ) ◦ γ −1 is also continuous. Since |K| is the union of ﬁnitely many simplexes, it follows that |ϕ| is continuous. (2) For each n-simplex σ = v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K, ϕ(σ) = ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) ∈ L is also an n-simplex, hence we have the homeomorphism γ : Δn → ϕ(σ) deﬁned by γ (z) = n z(i + 1)ϕ(vi ). Let γ be the same as above. Since i=0 γ (z) = (|ϕ| ◦ γ)(z) for z ∈ Δn , |ϕ||σ = γ ◦ γ −1 : σ → ϕ(σ) is a homeomorphism. Since ϕ(σ) ∩ ϕ(τ ) = ϕ(σ ∩ τ ) for each σ, τ ∈ K, it follows that |ϕ| is an embedding. Remark. In the above, |ϕ| is not a homeomorphism even if ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is bijective. See Remark (1) for Deﬁnition 3.1. 3.4 Deﬁnition A map f : |K| → |L| is simplicial (with respect to K and L) if f = |ϕ| for some simplicial map ϕ : K → L. A simplicial homeomorphism (or a simplicial embedding) is a homeomorphism (or an embedding) which is simplicial. Remark. (1) In the above deﬁnition, f |K (0) = ϕ. Hence, a map f : |K| → |L| is simplicial if and only if, for each σ = v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K, f (v0 ), . . . , f (vn ) ∈ L and n f

n i=0

単体同相写像 単体埋込写像

z(i + 1)vi =

i=0

z(i + 1)f (vi), z ∈ Δn .

(2) In case |K| = |K | and |L| = |L |, a simplicial map f : |K| → |L| with respect to K and L is not simplicial with respect to K and L in general (even if K K and L L, e.g., K = Sd K and L = Sd L). See Remark (2) after Deﬁnition 3.2

Note. The following can be proved: Theorem: Let f : |K| → |L| be a simplicial map. Then, (1) for any L L, there exists some K with respect to K and L ; K such that f is simplicial L such

K and L L, there are K K and L (2) for any K that f is simplicial with respect to K and L . On the contrary to (1), for some K K, there exist no L is simplicial with respect to K and L .

L such that f

30

3.3 Exercise – A simplicial embedding f : |K| → |L| with respect to K and L is also simplicial with respect to the barycentric subdivisions Sd K and Sd L. 3.5 Lemma Let K1 , K2 and K3 be simplicial complexes. If ϕ : K1 → K2 and ψ : K2 → K3 are simplicial maps, then the composition ψ ◦ ϕ : K1 → K3 is also simplicial and |ψ ◦ ϕ| = |ψ| ◦ |ϕ| : |K1 | → |K3 |. 3.4 Exercise – Prove the lemma above. 3.6 Deﬁnition A map f : |K| → |L| be called a PL map (or a piece-wise linear map) if f is simplicial with respect to some subdivisions K and L of K and L, respectively. A PL homeomorphism (or a PL embedding) is a homeomorphism (or an embedding) which is PL.

Note. By using the theorem in the previous notes and the theorem due to J.H.C. Whitehead in the note after Proposition 2.15, it is easy to prove the following: Lemma: Let f : |K| → |L| be a PL map. Then, (1) there exists some L L such that for any L with respect to some K K and L ; L , f is simplicial

演習

演習

PL 写像 PL 同相写像 PL 埋込写像

(2) if |K| = |K | and |L| = |L |, then f : |K | → |L | is also PL. Then, the following is easily follows: Proposition: Let K1 , K2 and K3 be simplicial complexes. If f : |K1 | → |K2 | and g : |K2 | → |K3 | are PL maps, then the composition g ◦ f : |K1 | → |K3 | is also PL.

3.7 Deﬁnition Let K and L be simplicial complexes. It is said that K is (simplicially) isomorphic to L (denoted by K ≡ L) if there exist simplicial maps ϕ : K → L and ψ : L → K such that ψ ◦ ϕ = idK and ϕ ◦ ψ = idL , where ϕ : K → L is called a (simplicial) isomorphism and ψ : L → K is the inverse of ϕ. (Recall that |ϕ| : |K| → |L| is called a simplicial homeomorphism.) It is said that K is combinatorially equivalent to L (denoted by K ∼ L) if K and L have subdivisions which are isomorphic to = each other. Remark. (1) K ≡ L ⇒ K ∼ L but K ∼ L ⇒ K ≡ L. = = (2) The relations ≡ and ∼ are equivalence relations among simplicial = complexes.

(単体) 同型

(単体) 同型写像

逆写像

組合せ同値

31

Note. It follows from the following theorem that the relation ∼ is transitive. = Theorem: Let K and K be subdivisions of a simplicial complex K. Then, there is a subdivision K of K such that K K and K K . More generally, the following also hold: Theorem: Let K1 and K2 be simplicial complexes with |K1 | = |K2 |. Then, there is a simplicial complex K such that K K1 and K K2 . In other words, |K1 | = |K2 | implies K1 ∼ K2 . =

3.5 Exercise – Prove that a bijection ϕ : K (0) → L(0) is a simplicial isomorphism if and only if v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K ⇔ ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) ∈ L. 3.8 Proposition Let h : |K| → |L| be a homeomorphism. Then, (1) h : |K| → |L| is simplicial if and only if there is a simplicial isomorphism ϕ : K → L such that h = |ϕ|; (2) h : |K| → |L| is PL if and only if there are subdivisions K K and L and a simplicial isomorphism ϕ : K → L such that h = |ϕ|. L Proof. (1) Since the “if” part is trivial, it suﬃces to show the “only if” part. If h : |K| → |L| is a simplicial homeomorphism, then h|K (0) : K (0) → L(0) is clearly a simplicial injection (cf. Remark (1) after Deﬁnition 3.4). For each u ∈ L(0) , let σ be the carrier of h−1 (u). Then, h(v) = u for any vertex v of σ, which implies that σ is itself a vertex, i.e., h−1 (u) ∈ K (0) . Therefore, h|K (0) : K (0) → L(0) is a bijection. It remains to show that for each v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K (0) , h(v0 ), . . . , h(vn ) ∈ L ⇒ v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K. Let τ = h(v0 ), . . . , h(vn ) ∈ L and σ ∈ K be the carrier of h−1 (b(τ )). Then, ◦ h(σ)∩ τ = ∅, whence τ h(σ), which means that h(v0 ), . . . , h(vn ) are vertices of h(σ), i.e., v0 , . . . , vn are vertices of σ. Therefore, v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K. (2) The “if” part is trivial. If h : |K| → |L| be a PL homeomorphism, then h is simplicial with respect to subdivisions K K and L L. Hence, the “only if” part follows from (1). 3.9 Corollary For simplicial complexes K and L, K ∼ L if and only if there = exists a PL homeomorphism h : |K| → |L|. Consequently, K ∼ L implies = |K| ≈ |L|.

演習

32

∼ Note. It had been conjectured that |K| ≈ |L| implies K = L. This conjecture was called Hauptvermutung. All attempts in proving this conjecture were in vain. Finally, this has been known to be false.

基本予想 (独語)

**3.10 Deﬁnition Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map. A simplicial map ϕ : K → L (or |ϕ| : |K| → |L|) is a simplicial approximation of f if |ϕ|(x) is contained in the carrier of f (x) in L for each x ∈ |K|.
**

ϕ(σ) ϕ(v1 ) σ v0 x v1 f |ϕ| ϕ(v0 ) |ϕ|(x) f (x) f (σ)

単体近似

3.11 Proposition Let K be a simplicial complex and γ : (Sd K)(0) → K (0) . Then, γ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of id|K| if and only if γ(b(σ)) is a vertex of σ for each σ ∈ K. Hence, id|K| has a simplicial approximation γ : Sd K → K. Proof. First, note that σ is the carrier of b(σ). Then, the “only if” part is obvious. To see the “if” part, assume that γ satisﬁes the condition. To show that γ (0) (0) is a simplicial map, let σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn ∈ K. Since γ(b(σi )) ∈ σi ⊂ σn , γ(b(σ0 )), . . . , γ(b(σn )) is a face of σn , hence γ(b(σ0 )), . . . , γ(b(σn )) ∈ K. Therefore, γ is a simplicial map. For each x ∈ | Sd K| = |K|, there are σ0 < σ1 < · · · < σn ∈ K such that b(σ0 ), . . . , b(σn ) is the carrier of x in Sd K. Then, σn is the carrier of x in K. As saw in the above, γ(b(σ0 )), . . . , γ(b(σn )) is a face of σn , hence |γ|(x) ∈ σn . 3.12 Lemma Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map and ϕ : K (0) → L(0) . Then, ϕ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of f if and only if f (OK (v)) ⊂ OL(ϕ(v)) for each v ∈ K (0) . Proof. Assume that ϕ is a simplicial approximation of f . Let v ∈ K (0) . For each x ∈ OK (v), let σ ∈ K be the carrier of x and τ ∈ L the carrier of f (x). Then v is a vertex of σ. Since |ϕ|(x) ∈ τ and ϕ(σ) is the carrier of |ϕ|(x),

33

ϕ(σ)◦ ∩ τ = ∅, which means ϕ(σ) τ , hence ϕ(v) is a vertex of τ . Thus, ◦ f (x) ∈ τ ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)). Hence, we have f (OK (v)) ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)). Conversely, assume that ϕ satisﬁes the condition. For each v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K. Then n OK (vi ) = ∅ by Lemma 2.8. By the condition, i=0

n n

OL(ϕ(vi )) ⊃

i=0 i=0

f (OK (vi )) ⊃ f

n i=0

OK (vi ) = ∅,

which means that ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) ∈ L by Lemma 2.8. Then ϕ is a simplicial map. For each x ∈ |K|, let v0 , . . . , vn ∈ K be the carrier of x. Since x ∈ n OK (vi ), it follows from the condition that f (x) ∈ n OL (ϕ(vi )). i=0 i=0 Hence, every ϕ(vi ) is a vertex of the carrier τ of f (x), whence |ϕ|(x) ∈ ϕ(v0 ), . . . , ϕ(vn ) τ . Therefore, ϕ is a simplicial approximation of f . 3.13 Proposition Let K1 , K2 and K3 be simplicial complexes. Suppose that continuous maps f : |K1 | → |K2 | and g : |K2 | → |K3 | have simplicial approximations ϕ : K1 → K2 and ψ : K2 → K3 , respectively. Then, the composition ψϕ : K1 → K3 is a simplicial approximation of the composition gf with respect to K1 and K3 . 3.6 Exercise – By using Lemma 3.12, prove the proposition above. 3.14 Theorem Every continuous map f : |K| → |L| has a simplicial approximation ϕ : Sdn K → L for some n ∈ N. Proof. Since |K| is compact, there is a Lebesgue number δ > 0 for the open cover f −1 (OL(u)) u ∈ L(0) of |K| (i.e., A ⊂ |K| with diam A < δ is contained in some f −1 (OL(u))). By Proposition 2.15, mesh Sdn K < 1 δ for 2 some n ∈ N. Then, for each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) , diam | St(v, Sdn K)| < δ, whence St(v, Sdn K) is contained in some f −1 (OL (u)). Let ϕ : (Sdn K)(0) → L(0) be a map such that f (OSdn K (v)) ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)) for each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) . Then, ϕ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of f by Lemma 3.12. Remark. In general, without subdividing K, we cannot obtain a simplicial approximation of a continuous map f : |K| → |L|. For instance, let K = L be the triangulation of [0, 2] with K (0) = {0, 1, 2}. Consider the √ continuous √ map f : |K| → |L| deﬁned by f (x) = 0 for x 1/ 2 and f (x) = 2x − 1 for 34

演習

3. when h = |ψ| for a simplicial map ψ : K × I → L. Then.15 Proposition Let f. we deﬁne the injection ini : |K| → |K × I| by ini (x) = (x. for each x ∈ |K|. there is a vertex u ∈ L(0) such that f (x). By the way. Then. i). 3. g : |K| → |L| be continuous maps. where K (0) is given some order so that K is an ordered complex. We call h a simplicial homotopy (from f to g) and denote f = h0 and g = h1 . ϕ and ϕ are simplicially homotopic. g = |ϕ | for simplicial maps ϕ. Suppose that.12. let δ > 0 be a Lebesgue number for this cover and choose n ∈ N so that mesh Sdn K < 1 δ. there exist n ∈ N and a simplicial map ϕ : Sdn K → L which is a simplicial approximation of both f and g. Similarly to Theorem 3. Then. it is also said that ϕ is simplicially homotopic to ϕ .17 Theorem Let ϕ. Prove that ini : |K| → |K × {i}| is a simplicial homeomorphism and hi = h ◦ ini . 2 2 − 1) is not contained in any OL(v). there is some u ∈ L(0) such that OSdn K (v) ⊂ St(v.14. ϕ : K → L. Sdn K) ⊂ f −1 (OL(u)) ∩ g −1 (OL(u)). 1. Moreover. It is said that f is simplicially homotopic to g (or f and g are simplicially homotopic) if there exists a simplicial map h : |K × I| → |L| such that h(x. 3. Then. g : |K| → |L| be simplicial maps.√ x 1/ 2. 0) = f (x) and h(x. f −1 (OL(u)) ∩ g −1 (OL (u)) u ∈ L(0) is an open cover of |K|. When f = |ϕ|. Proof.16 Deﬁnition Let f. ψ is also called a simplicial homotopy (from ϕ to ϕ ). ϕ is a simplicial map which is a simplicial approximation of both f and g by Lemma 3. hence we have ϕ : (Sdn K)(0) → L(0) such that f (OSdn K (v)) ∪ g(OSdn K (v)) ⊂ OL(ϕ(v)) for each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) . Then. ϕ : K → L be simplicial approximations of a continuous map f : |K| → |L|.7 Exercise – For an ordered complex K and i = 0. By the assumption. it should be noticed that f 2 = f ◦f has a simplicial approximation ϕ : K → L deﬁned by ϕ(0) = ϕ(1) = 0 and ϕ(2) = 1. 35 単体ホモトピック 単体ホモトピー 演習 . 3. for 2 each v ∈ (Sdn K)(0) . f has no √ simplicial approximations with respect to K and L because f (OK (1)) = [0. 1) = g(x). g(x) ∈ OL(u). v ∈ L(0) .

Proof. n. j n j n OL(ψ(vi . 0). Give an order on K (0) so that K is an ordered complex. ψ(vj . 0). 0) = ϕ(v) and ψ(v. namely a simplicial homotopy from ϕ to ϕ . . ψ(vj . . 36 . We deﬁne ψ : (K ×I)(0) → L(0) by ψ(v. f (OK (v)) ⊂ OL (ϕ(v)) ∩ OL (ϕ (v)) for each v ∈ K (0) . . 0)) ∩ i=0 i=j OL (ψ(vi . . . 1) = ϕ (v) for each v ∈ K (0) . Then. . which implies that ψ(v0 . ϕ is a simplicial map. 1). . . vn ∈ K with v0 < v1 < · · · < vn and j = 0. For each n-simplex v0 . . Since ϕ and ϕ are simplicial approximations of f . . . . 1) ∈ L. ψ(vn . . . . . 1)) = i=0 n OL(ϕ(vi )) ∩ i=j OL (ϕ (vi )) n i=0 ⊃ i=0 f (OK (vi )) ⊃ f OK (vi ) = ∅.

. . . . . . vjn ) ⇐⇒ 0 is even. v0 ] v1 v0 v1 v0 v1 Note. . . .1 Deﬁnition Let σ = v0 . . . . One should observe the following: • [vi0 . . . . an ordered simplex is a simplex given a total order on the vertices. . .4 Homology of an Oriented Complex 4. . . . vn ] ⇔ [v0 . . . vin ]. . . . . . . . it is said that σ is given an orientation. n). vin ) ∼ (vj0 . . . vin ] = −[v0 . . . v1 . . In the above. . When one of them is decided. an (n + 1)-tuple (vi0 . . in is a permutation of (0. . v1 ] v0 v2 [v0 . For each n-simplex. . . . n i0 . vn be an n-simplex. vn of σ. . . v1 . vn ] ⇔ • [vi0 . . . vin ) of all vertices is called an ordered (n-)simplex. . . . . . jn an equivalence relation on the set of (n + 1)-tuples of all vertices v0 . . . . . the relation ∼ is j0 . . 順序単体 37 . . . . . . . vin ) is denoted by [vi0 . . where Remark. in (vi0 . j0 . v2 ] [v2 . v0 ] v1 v0 v2 向き (付け ) 逆向き 有向単体 0. vin ] = [v0 . For two ordered (n + 1)-tuples (vi0 . we deﬁne i . The equivalence classes are called orientations of σ and one is called the inverse of the other. 1. The equivalence class of an (n + 1)-tuple (vi0 . . . . . vn . vin ) and (vj0 . . vjn ) of all vertices v0 . which has two equivalence classes if n > 0 (only one when n = 0). An oriented simplex is a simplex given an orientation. . n i0 . . . . . in 0. Then. . in is even. . is odd. . . . (n+1)! many ordered n-simplexes are deﬁned. . vin ] and its inverse is by −[vi0 . . . . . . . [v1 . . In other words. . . . . . . . . jn def i0 . . . . .

向き (付け ) 有向 (単体) 複体 An oriented complex Note.e. . Let K be a simplicial complex such that K \ K (0) has m many simplexes. . Remark.4. The orientation of Sd K by the natural order 4. For instance. 生成元 where we write ±1γi = ±γi and 0γi = 0. By giving an order on K (0) so that K is an ordered complex (i. we can give an orientation on K. . K can be given 2m many orientations. Then. A simplicial complex K given an orientation is called an oriented (simplicial) complex. . γr }. . the free additive group over Γ (or generated by Γ) is the set of all formal sums r ai γi .. .3 Deﬁnition For a ﬁnite set Γ = {γ1. σ (0) is totally ordered for each σ ∈ K).2 Deﬁnition It is said that a simplicial complex K is given an orientation when each simplex of K is given an orientation. ar ∈ i=1 Z. with the addition deﬁned by n n n 自由加群 ai γi + i=1 i=1 bi γi = i=1 (ai + bi )γi . We call Γ the set of generators of 38 . . a1 . the barycentric subdivision Sd K is an oriented complex by the natural order. .

. . . n ∈ N. with the addition deﬁned as above.. vn ]) = i=0 n 次元 (有向) 鎖群 n 次元鎖 境界作用素 (−1)i [v0 . vi+1 . . . . we ca regard α as the n formal sum i=1 ai γi . let K[n] = K (n) \ K (n−1) . ZΓ is the group ZΓ f consisting of all functions from Γ to Z. an ∈ Z. . . . . . deﬁne δγ ∈ ZΓ by δγ (γ) = 1 and δγ (γ ) = 0 for all γ = γ. When Γ is inﬁnite. . By identifying γ = δγ . . . . vi . . . f n Then. whence ZΓ ∼ Zr ∼ Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z . .this group. In other words. that is. vn ]. . . . . where we mean [v0 . . . γr }. = = r times 階数 For each γ ∈ Γ. . vn ] = [v0 . . For each n ∈ Z+ . vn ]. a1 . γn ∈ Γ. the free additive group over Γ is deﬁned as the set n of all formal ﬁnite sums i=1 ai γi . r times We call r the rank of the free additive group over Γ. the inverse of σ. . γ1 . . (α + α )(γ) = α(γ) + α (γ)). Thus. . . 4. ∂n+1 ∂ ∂n−1 ∂ ∂ ∂ 39 . . Let ∂0 = 0. The K boundary operator ∂n = ∂n : Cn (K) → Cn−1 (K) is the homomorphism deﬁned by n K ∂n ([v0 . the rank is the number of elements of generators. . . Each c = r ki σi ∈ Cn (K) is called an i=1 n-chain. For each σ ∈ K. every α ∈ ZΓ can be written as α = i=1 ai δγi . The (oriented) n-dimensional chain group Cn (K) of K is deﬁned as the free additive group over K[n]. . This group is isomorphic to the direct sum Z ⊕ ···⊕ Z. where {γ1 . . . .4 Deﬁnition Let K be an oriented complex. we can deﬁne the free additive group over Γ as ZΓ f the additive group consisting of functions α : Γ → Z such that α(γ) = 0 except for ﬁnitely many γ ∈ Γ. . In case Γ = {γ1 . . −1σ is identiﬁed with −σ. where the addition is deﬁned point-wise (i. . . we have the following sequence: n C(K) : · · · −→ Cn (K) −→ Cn−1 (K) −→ · · · 2 1 0 −→ C1 (K) −→ C0 (K) −→ 0. Note. all oriented n-simplexes of K are generators of Cn (K). . vi−1 . To avoid ambiguity. γn } = f −1 Γ \ α (0) and ai = α(γi ) ∈ Z.e. . . vi .

Each nsimplex has n + 1 many (n − 1)-faces but we do not know how to make the alternating sum of (n − 1)-faces without orientation.5 Fact For every oriented complex K with dim K = m. . τ ∈ K. 40 . the K orientation of K is essential to deﬁne the boundary operator ∂n . τ σ or dim τ = dim σ − 1). τ ] = −1 if τ σ. . an n-chain is represented by c= σ∈K[n] 結合係数 aσ σ. def def Bn (K) = Im ∂n+1 = c ∈ Cn (K) ∃c ∈ Cn+1 (K) such that ∂n+1 (c ) = c . τ ] is deﬁned as follows: ⎧ ⎪1 if τ σ. it is not necessary to give K an orientation. . In the deﬁnition of the chain groups Cn (K). . dim τ = dim σ − 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is inherited the orientation from σ. hence Bn (K) = 0 for n m. . For two oriented simplexes σ. vn ].6 Deﬁnition For an oriented n-simplex σ = [v0 . Remark. For each n ∈ Z+ . ⎨ [σ. Each c ∈ Zn (K) is called an n-cycle and each c ∈ Bn (K) an n-boundary or (a bounding n-cycle). . 4. n 次元輪体 n 次元境界輪体 4. . .e. . vi . an (n − 1)face τ σ is said to be inherited the orientation from σ if there is some i = 0. we can obtain Cn (K) as the free additive group over the set K[n] of all n-simplexes of K without orientations. . . However. . Since K[n] = K (n) \ K (n−1) is ﬁnite. (1) Z0 (K) = C0 (K) and (2) Cn (K) = 0 for n > m. dim τ = dim σ − 1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is not inherited the orientation from σ. . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0 otherwise (i. the incidence number [σ. vn ] ∈ K. let (有向) 鎖複体 Zn (K) = Ker ∂n = c ∈ Cn (K) ∂n (c) = 0 . .K The system C(K) = (Cn (K). n such that τ = (−1)i [v0 . In fact. .. . ∂n )n 0 or the sequence above is called the (oriented) chain complex of K.

. . . vn+1 ] − i<j (−1)i+j [v0 . vi . . vi . Proof. . . . . . vi . . . .. vn+1 ] = 0. . . . . . vj . it follows that ∂n ∂n+1 = 0. we can write ∂n (c) = τ ∈K[n−1] σ∈K[n] aσ [σ. . . . Then. . . . . . . vn+1 ]) i−1 = i=0 (−1) + i j=0 (−1)j [v0 . . . . . vn+1 ] ∈ K. 4. . vi . . . . vn+1 ] = i=0 n+1 (−1)i ∂n ([v0 . . . . vn+1 ] n+1 j=i+1 = j<i (−1)i+j [v0 . vi . vn+1 ] + i<j (−1)i+j−1 [v0 . . τ ] τ. . . . . .By using the incidence number. . vj . vn+1 ] (−1)j−1 [v0 . vj . . vj . vn+1 ] = j<i (−1)i+j [v0 .8 Proposition For each n > 0. . . . . For n > 0 and [v0 . = 41 準同型定理 . . . . . . Im f ∼ G/ Ker f. . . . . . . . . . . vi . . . . . .e. . = The following is the direct consequence of this theorem. . . i.7 Lemma For each n 0. . . .1 Exercise – Prove the above equation. . . . . vn+1 ]) = ∂n n+1 n+1 i i=0 (−1) [v0 . . vi . ∂n ∂n+1 = 0. vj . . 4. . 演習 4. . vj . . . . . . . Recall the following basic theorem in Group Theory: Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem: For every homomorphism f : G → H between groups. ∂n ∂n+1 ([v0 . vi . . . . . Bn−1 (K) ∼ Cn (K)/Zn (K). . . . The case n = 0 is obvious. Bn (K) ⊂ Zn (K).

9 Deﬁnition Let K be an oriented complex and n ∈ Z+ . v2 be a 2-simplex and give the orientation of K(σ) by the order v0 < v1 < v2 . Hn (K) = Hn (C(K)). H0 ({v}) = Z0 ({v}) = C0 ({v}) ∼ Z and = Hn ({v}) = 0 for all n > 0. = C1 (K(σ)) = Z[v0 . we can naturally regard Cn (L) ⊂ Cn (K). In general. 4. Then. we denote z K = z + Bn (K) ∈ Hn (K). (一般の) 鎖複体 ホモロジー群 4. Then. For each z ∈ Zn (K). Zn (L) ⊂ Zn (K) and Bn (L) ⊂ Bn (K). = C0 (K(σ)) = Zv0 + Zv1 + Zv2 (∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). Then. Hn (K(σ)) = 0 for all n > 2. n 次元 ホモロジー群 ホモロジー類 ∂n+1 ∂ We call C = (Gn . (2) Let σ = v0 .11 Example (1) The simplicial complex {v} of only one vertex is the simplest one.10 Fact For every oriented complex K with dim K = m. v1 ] + Z[v0 . consider a system of Abelian groups and homomorphisms: n C : · · · −→ Gn+1 −→ Gn −→ Gn−1 −→ · · · . For this complex. = 42 . v2 ] + Z[v1 .4. When L is a subcomplex of K with the orientation inherited from K. Observe C2 (K(σ)) = Z[v0 . We denote H∗ (K) = (Hn (K))n 0 . v2 ] (∼ Z). Note. which is called the homology class of z (in K). v1 . v2 ] (∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). we have to make clear that the homology class of z ∈ Zn (L) means which class z + Bn (L) or z + Bn (K). (1) H0 (K) = C0 (K)/B0 (K) and Hm (K) = Zm (K). v1 . where Cn (K) = 0 for all n < 0. ∂n )n∈Z a chain complex if ∂n−1 ∂n = 0. (2) Hn (K) = 0 for n > m. so we write z L = z + Bn (L) or z K = z + Bn (K). The n-dimensional homology group Hn (K) of K deﬁned as the following factor group: Hn (K) = Zn (K)/Bn (K). The n-dimensional homology group of C is deﬁned as Hn (C) = Ker ∂n / Im ∂n+1 . Remark.

v2 ] − [v0 . ∂1 (c) = 0 if and only if a1 = −a2 = a3 . v1 ]). Finally. Then. which implies that Z0 (K(σ)) = C0 (K(σ)) = Z(v2 − v0 ) + Z(v1 − v0 ) + Zv0 ∼ B0 (K(σ)) ⊕ Z. v2 ] + a[v0 . = (3) Consider the subcomplex K(∂σ) of the complex K(σ) in (2) above. Moreover. H2 (K(σ)) = Z2 (K(σ)) = 0. Then. v2 ] ∈ C1 (K(σ)). v2 ] + [v1 . v1 ] − [v0 . ∂1 (c) = (a1 − a3 )(v1 − v0 ) + (a2 + a3 )(v2 − v0 ) because v2 − v1 = (v2 − v0 ) − (v1 − v0 ). Hn (K(∂σ)) = 0 for all n > 1. v1 ]. it = ∼ Z. Now. v2 ] + a3 [v1 . Z1 (K(σ)) = Z([v0 . ∂2 (c) = 0 if and only if a = 0. H0 (K(∂σ)) = H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. Then. we can write c = a2 (v1 − v0 ) + a3 (v2 − v0 ) + (a1 + a2 + a3 )v0 . Thus. in the above.For c = a[v0 . = ∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). Then. we have B1 (K(σ)) = Z([v1 . Hence. v2 ] + [v0 . v2 ]) = B1 (K(σ)). v2 ] − a[v0 . = Then. we have C1 (K(∂σ)) = C1 (K(σ)) C0 (K(∂σ)) = C0 (K(σ)) (∼ Z ⊕ Z ⊕ Z). which means H1 (K(σ)) = 0. Moreover. it follows that B0 (K(σ)) = Z(v2 − v0 ) + Z(v1 − v0 ). Moreover. we have H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. follows that H1 (K(∂σ)) = Z1 (K(∂σ)) = Z1 (K(σ)) = 43 . v1 . ∂2 (c) = a[v1 . (= By the same argument as (2). For c = a1 v0 + a2 v1 + a3 v2 ∈ C0 (K(σ)). v2 ] ∈ C2 (K(σ)). v1 ] + a2 [v0 . consider a 1-chain c = a1 [v0 . observe ∂1 (c) = a1 (v1 − v0 ) + a2 (v2 − v0 ) + a3 (v2 − v1 ) = −(a1 + a2 )v0 + (a1 − a3 )v1 + (a2 + a3 )v2 . Therefore.

vn ∈ K is the base for On (K). vn ). Let ∂n : Cn (K) → Cn−1 (K) (n > 0) be the homomorphism deﬁned as follows: n 演習 演習 ∂n (v0 . 4. 44 . . . . b) ∈ G can be written (a. 1) + (b − a)(0. 2) ∈ G). v2 . H is generated by (2. .e. ∂n )n 0 is a chain complex. . . .22). . 2) = 2Z(1. 1). (v0 . whence rank Cn (K) = (n + 1)!αn (where αn is the number of n-simplexes of K). 1) ⊕ Z(0. Moreover. . On (K) = 0 even if n > dim K. v1 . . .. Let H be a subgroup of G = Z ⊕ Z (= Z2 ) with H ∼ Z. But it = ∼ Z in general.3 Exercise – Let K = I × I be the triangulation of I2 deﬁned in Exercise 2. For a simplicial complex K without orientation. v3 . (2) Hn (K(∂σ)) and (3) Hn (K(σ)(1) ). Then. . Although Cn (K) = Cn (K) for an oriented complex K with dim K > 0. 2n) ∈ G n ∈ Z = Z(2. we deﬁne ∂n : On (K) → On−1 (K) as follows: O ∂n (v0 . Calculate the homology groups (1) Hn (K) and (2) Hn (K (1) ). . Proposition 2. .Remark.4 whose orientation induced by the lexicographic order (cf. vn ) v0 . For example. . . 1). We call On (K) the n-dimensional ordered chain group of K. . . hence G/H ∼ = Z2 ⊕ Z. we can deﬁne the homology of K as follows: (1) We deﬁne Cn (K) as the free additive group over the set of all ordered n-simplexes of K. . vn ) = n i=0 n 次元順序鎖群 (−1)i (v0 . calculate the homology groups (1) Hn (K(σ)). . . where the orientation is given by the order v0 < v1 < v2 < v3 . . O Similarly to the above. C (K) = (Cn (K). Note. . . vn ). vi . ∼ Then. (i. . that is. where Z2 = Z/2Z is the cyclic group with order 2 4. . let should be remarked that G/H = H = (2n. rank On (K) is larger than rank Cn (K). . b) = a(1. we have G = Z(1. 1). . . vn ) = i=0 (−1)i (v0 .2 Exercise – For a 3-simplex σ = v0 . . it can be proved that Hn (K) ∼ Hn (C (K)) for all n 0. vi . . = (2) We can also deﬁne On (K) as the free additive group over the set of all (n + 1)-tuples of vertices of simplexes of K. . where it is not required that all vi are distinct. Since each (a.

avoiding orientation causes the increase in the numbers of generators of the chain groups. we have rank Bn−1 (K) = rank Cn (K) − rank Zn (K). calculate Euler-Poincar´ characteristic. it is harder to compute the homology groups even in the simple cases as in Example 4.4 Exercise – For each oriented complex in Example 4.3. = r times 自由加群に関する 定理 where r = rank Hn (K) = rank Zn (K) − rank Bn (K). Combining Proposition 4. that is.12 Deﬁnition We call rank Hn (K) the n-dimensional Betti number of K. Recall the following very important theorem in Group Theory: Fundamental Theorem on Abelian Groups: Every ﬁnitely generated Abelian group G is isomorphic to the direct sum of some cyclic groups. As a consequence. rank G/H = rank G − rank H. Moreover. even if we use orientation.11. e 45 演習 . which is called the ordered chain complex of K. 4. Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z ⊕ Zθ1 ⊕ Zθ2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zθs . It can be also proved that Hn (K) ∼ Hn (O(K)) for all n 0. By these theorems. e 4.O Thus. The following is also important: Theorem on Free Additive Groups: Every subgroup H of a free additive group G is also free and rank H rank G. ∂n )n 0 is obtained. = 順序鎖複体 In the above. each θi is a divisor of θi+1 and r = rank G is the rank of G. The alternating sum m n 次元ベッチ数 χ(K) = i=0 (−1)i rank Hi (K) (m = dim K) オイラー・ポアンカレ 標数 is called the Euler-Poincar´ characteristic of K.2 and 4.11 or Exercises 4. it is not easy to compute directly the homology. another chain complex O(K) = (On (K). In general case. we have Hn (K) ∼ Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z ⊕ Zθ1 ⊕ Zθ2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zθs . r times アーベル群に関する 基本定理 where Zθi is the cyclic group with order θi > 1.8 with the theorem above.

By this fact. which surfaces are not homee omorphic to each others? Recall that a space X is connected if X cannot be the union of disjoint non-empty open sets. we have rank Zi (K) + rank Bi−1 (K) = rank Ci (K). it follows that m χ(K) = i=0 m (−1)i rank Hi (K) (−1)i (rank Zi (K) − rank Bi (K)) i=0 m = = rank Z0 (K) + i=1 m (−1)i (rank Zi (K) + rank Bi−1 (K)) m = i=0 (−1) rank Ci(K) = i=0 i (−1)i αi . |K| ≈ |L| implies χ(K) = χ(L) for every simplicial complexes K and L. and that X is path-connected if each points x. e Remark. it follows that Euler-Poincar´ characteristic is e a topological invariant. This fact is called the topological invariance of homology.´ 4.11. apply EulerPoincar´ formula to calculate Euler-Poincar´ characteristic. y ∈ X can be connected by a path in X. 46 演習 演習 . Since rank Ci (K) = αi .6 Exercise – On each surfaces in Example 2. where a path is a continuous map f : I → X with f (0) = x and f (1) = y. Then. Proof. conﬁrm Euler-Poincar´ formula by computation. m オイラー・ポアンカレ の公式 χ(K) = i=0 (−1)i αi . As saw in the above. By e e using Euler-Poincar´ characteristic.13 Theorem (Euler-Poincare Formula) For an oriented complex K and n ∈ Z+ .11.5 Exercise – For each ordered complex in Example 4. let αn be the number of n-simplexes of K and m = dim K. we can see that |K| ≈ |L| by computing Euler-Poincar´ characteristics χ(K) and χ(L). e 4. Note that Bm (K) = 0 and Z0 (K) = C0 (K). that is. we shall show that |K| ≈ |L| implies H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (L) for = every oriented complexes K and L. Later. Then. 4.

By replacing vi and ui when ti < 0. Then. m u − v = ∂1 (c) = i=1 (ti ui − ti vi ). Assume distinct n1 . ui ] ∈ C1 (K). we have m sv = u − ∂1 (c) = u − i=1 (ti ui − ti vi ). . . it ui = v for k < i follows that k ti − i=1 k i=k+1 ti = s and m m 1− i=1 ti + i=k+1 ti − i= +1 ti + i= +1 ti = 0.. ui] is the sum of ti many [vi . u − sv = ∂1 (c) for some a 1-chain c = m ti [vi . nk can be chosen so that uni = vni+1 . . In case unk = vj for some j = n1 . Observe that if ui = u then i=1 ui = vj for some j. let nk+1 be such a j. ui ] so that vi = v for 0 < i k. Moreover. that is. Therefore. the following conditions are equivalent: (1) H0 (K) ∼ Z. . . hence we have s = 1. We can choose n1 so that v = vn1 . it suﬃces to construct a path f : I → |K| with f (0) = v and f (1) = x. . . vi = v for k < i m. = (2) |K| is path-connected. i=1 where vi = ui for every i. ui]. Otherwise.n k (uj − vj )..14 Theorem For an oritented complex K. Proof. Then.4. uK = svK for some s ∈ Z. We can rearrange [vi . it follows that m u=v+ i=1 (ui − vi ) = unk + j=n1 .. nk . we have H0 (K) = Zv K for some v ∈ K (0) .. . Let σ ∈ K be the carrier of x and u ∈ σ (0) . 47 . (1) ⇒ (2): By (1). For each x ∈ |K|. ui = v for < i m (ui = v for 0 < i k). (3) |K| is connected. u − v = m (ui − vi ). we may assume that ti > 0 for all i. Thus. since ti [vi . we may assume that ti = 1 for all i. that is. .

. u ∈ K (0) . . vi = v for k < i m. = (2) ⇒ (3) If |K| is disconnected. m. f −1 (U) and f −1 (V ) are non-empty open sets in I and I = f −1 (U) ∪ f −1 (V ). .whence u = vnk because unk = vj for any j = n1 . . . . H0 (K) is generated by only one element v K . then we have some 1-chain c = m ti [vi . . . vi−1 = vi and vi−1 . vk from {ϕ(2−n i) | i = 0. we have a path f : I → |K| with f (0) = v and 48 .14. . . . If sv K = 0 ∈ H0 (K). v1 . Therefore. we show that OK (u) ∩ U = ∅ implies OK (u) ⊂ U. . nk . ui] ∈ C1 (K) such that kv = ∂1 (c) = i=1 m (ti ui − ti vi ). we have a path f : I → |K| such that f (0) = x and f (1) = y. (3) ⇒ (2) Fix any point v ∈ K (0) and deﬁne U = x ∈ |K| x can be connected to v by a path in |K| . . vi ∈ K for every i = 1. . Since |K| is path-connected. Consequently. then |K| has disjoint non-empty open sets U. we can choose distinct n1 . Since ∂1 (c) = vk − v0 = u − v. . We can choose v0 . . . Let x ∈ OK (u) ∩ U. . f (0) = v and f (1) = x. we have a continuous map f : I → |K| such that f (0) = v and f (1) = u. ui] so that vi = v for 0 < i k<i . where note that ui = v for 0 < i k. Let x ∈ U and y ∈ V . V such that |K| = U ∪ V . whence we have s = 0. Then. Then. By Theorem 3. For each u ∈ K (0) . . f has a simplicial approximation ϕ : Sdn I → K for some n ∈ N. k Then. . Then. it follows that v K = uK . . ui = v for < i m. (2) ⇒ (1) For each distict v. H0 (K) = Zv K ∼ Z. ⎨ ni ni k+1 k+1 f (t) = ⎪ k ⎪(k + 1 − (k + 1)t)u + ((k + 1)t − k)x ⎩ t 1. We can rearrange i=1 k. . Thus. . . Note that vi = ui for each i = 1. 2n } so that v0 = v. . ui = v for [vi . . unk = u. . un1 = vn2 . k − i=1 k ti + i=k+1 m ti = s and m ti − i=1 i=k+1 ti + i= +1 ti − i= +1 ti = 0. vi ] ∈ C1 (K). vk = u. It remains to show that sv K = 0 implies s = 0. nk so that v = vn1 . if k+1 Then. . This contradicts to the connectedness of I. we have c = i = 1k [vi−1 . We can deﬁne a path f : I → |K| as follows: ⎧ i−1 i ⎪(i − (k + 1)t)v + ((k + 1)t − i + 1)u ⎪ if t . Let I be the natural triangulation of I.

. K K Since ∂n i = ∂n |Cn (Ki ) for each i = 1. Observe that. 49 . it follows that U and |K| \ U are open. = In particular. H0 (K) ∼ Z ⊕ · · · ⊕ Z. Cn (K) = Cn (K1 ) ⊕ Cn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Cn (Kr ).f (1) = x. Bn (K) = Bn (K1 ) ⊕ Bn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Bn (Kr ). .. Then Hn (K) ∼ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Hn (Kr ) for each n ∈ Z+ .e. Proof. OK (u) ⊂ U. |K| = U. 4. 3 Then.16 Theorem Let K = r Ki be an oriented complex. ⎨ 3 g(t) = (2 − 3t)x + (3t − 1)u if 1 t 2 . that is. Thus. Therefore. |K| is path-connected. Since |K| is connected. 3 3 ⎪ ⎩ (3 − 3t)u + (3t − 2)y if 2 t 1. Therefore. r. g(0) = x and g(1) = y. .15 Deﬁnition A component of a simplicial complex K is a maximal subcomplex K0 of K such that |K0 | is connected. which means that every x ∈ |K| can be connected to v by a path in |K|. we have the result. 4. = r times 成分 hence rankH0 (K) is the number of components of K. it follows that Zn (K) = Zn (K1 ) ⊕ Zn (K2 ) ⊕ · · · ⊕ Zn (Kr ). a maximal connected subset of |K|). where |K0 | is a component of a space |K| (i. we have |K| \ U = ∅. For each y ∈ OK (u). Since |K| = u∈K (0) OK (u). . where Ki ’s are i=1 diﬀerent components of K. for each n 0. we deﬁne a path g : I → |K| as follows: ⎧ ⎪f (3t) if 0 t 1 .

. For chain homomorphisms f = (fn )n 0 : C(K1 ) → C(K2 ) and g = (gn )n 0 : C(K2 ) → C(K3 ). In case K = L (with n the same orientation). that is. When all hn are isomorphisms. h∗ (z + Bn (K)) = hn (z) + Bn (L)) for each z ∈ Zn (K). The homologies H∗ (K) and H∗ (L) are deﬁned by using the chain complexes K C(K) = (Cn (K). h is called a chain isomorphism. the composition gf = (gn fn )n 0 : C(K1 ) → C(K3 ) is a chain homomorphism. Hence.1 Deﬁnition Let K and L be oriented complexes. we denote h−1 = (h−1 ). 50 演習 .5 Homomorphisms and Simplicial Maps 5. K2 and K3 be oriented complexes.1 Exercise – Complete the proof above. hn (Zn (K)) ⊂ Zn (L) and hn (Bn (K)) ⊂ Bn (L) for each n 0. 5. h induces the homology homomorphism h∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) deﬁned by L h∗ (z K ) = hn (z) (i. which is called the homology homomorphism induced by h. ∂n )n 0 . Moreover.e. 5.2 Proposition Let K1 . (gf )∗ = g∗ f∗ : H∗ (K1 ) → H∗ (K3 ). idC(K) = (idCn (K) )n 0 is the chain isomorphism. Obviously (idC(K) )∗ = idH∗ (K) . A sequence h = (hn )n 0 of homomorphisms hn : Cn (K) → Cn (L) is called a chain homomorphism from C(K) to C(L) (denoted by h : C(K) → L K C(L)) if ∂n hn = hn−1 ∂n for each n > 0. the following diagram is commutative: h Cn (K) − − −n→ Cn (L) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ L ⏐ K ∂n ∂n 鎖準同型 (写像) Cn−1 (K) − − Cn−1 (L) −→ hn−1 Then. Remark. Proof. which is called the inverse of h. See the following diagram: −n→ Cn (K2 ) − − −n→ Cn (K3 ) Cn (K1 ) − − ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ K2 ⏐ K3 K1 ⏐ ∂n ∂n hn−1 hn−1 h h 鎖準同型 (写像) の 導入するホモロジー 準同型 (写像) 鎖同型 (写像) ∂n Cn−1 (K1 ) − − Cn−1 (K2 ) − − Cn−1 (K3 ) −→ −→ The proof is easy. ∂n )n 0 L and C(L) = (Cn (L).

vn ]) = ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . .5 Lemma In the above. . ϕ(vn ) = n. ϕ(vn )] (−1)i ϕn−1 ([v0 . In the above. . ϕ(vi ). . . . . . 5. . Let [v0 . vn ]) i=0 n i i=0 (−1) [v0 . we have (f −1 )∗ f∗ = (idC(K) )∗ = idH∗ (K) . . vn ]). f∗ is an isomorphism −1 and f∗ = (f −1 )∗ . vn ] of K. . vi . . . ϕ = (ϕn )n C(K) to C(L). Therefore. . (1) In case all ϕ(vi ) are distinct. . . vn ] = = ϕn−1 K = ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . . . . we show that L K ∂n ϕn ([v0 . . . K2 = L and g = f −1 . In Proposition 5. . . . . . 51 . . . . .3 Corollary Let K and L be oriented complexes. . dim ϕ(v0 ). 0 is a chain homomorphism from Proof. . . . . Remark. . ϕ(vn ) < n. . Similarly. Then. .2. A chain isomorphism f = (fn )n 0 : C(K) → C(L) induces a homology isomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K) → −1 H∗ (L) and f∗ = (f −1 )∗ . ϕn ([v0 . . vi . vn ]). . . . that is. . . . L L ∂n ϕn ([v0 . . . . . vn ]) = ∂n ([ϕ(v0 ). . . vn ]) = [ϕ(v0 ). 5. let K1 = K3 = K (with the same orientation). it follows that f∗ (f −1 )∗ = idH∗ (L) . . . ϕ(vn )] if all ϕ(vi ) are distinct. . ϕ(vn )]) n = i=0 n (−1)i [ϕ(v0 ). . . . . .4 Deﬁnition Let K and L be oriented complexes and ϕ : K → L a simplicial map. Proof. . . . 0 otherwise for each oriented n-simplex [v0 . . we deﬁne the homomorphism ϕn : Cn (K) → Cn (L) by ϕn ([v0 . . . . . vn ] be an oriented n-simplex of K. .5. . Dividing three cases. For each n 0. . . vn ]) = 0 ⇔ dim ϕ(v0 ).

. . ϕ(vn )] + (−1)j−1 [ϕ(v0 ). . k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . which is also called the homology homomorphism induced by f . . ϕ(vn )] L = 0 = ∂n ϕn ([v0 . . . . ϕ(vn ) < n − 1 for all i = j. . . . . hence ϕn−1 ([v0 . . ϕ(vn )] = (−1)k−1 [ϕ(vj ). . . ϕ(vj ). it follows that K ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . . . . . . . . . vn ]) = 0. . . . . .(2) In case dim ϕ(v0 ). ϕ(vn )] = (−1)k+j−1[ϕ(v0 ). . . . . . vi . . . . . . .6 Deﬁnition Let K and L be oriented complexes and ϕ : K → L a simplicial map. ϕ(vi ). . ϕ(vk ). . we have 0 that ϕ(vj ) = ϕ(vk ) and the other ϕ(vi ) are distinct. ϕ(v0 ). . . . . . . ϕ(vn ) < n − 1. for all i = 0. ϕ(vn )] + (−1)k [ϕ(v0 ). . ϕ(vk ). vn ]) = ϕn−1 n n i i=0 (−1) [v0 . . . . . ϕ(vn )] = (−1)j [ϕ(v0 ). L K Thus. . . . . ϕ(vi ). . vi . vn ] n such = i=0 (−1)i ϕn−1 ([v0 . Then. n. . vn ]). . . . vn ]) = 0 = ∂n ϕn ([v0 . In case f = |ϕ| : |K| → |L|. . ϕ(vk ). . ϕ∗ is also denoted by f∗ . . ϕ(vk ). The chain homomorphism ϕ : C(K) → C(L) is called the chain homomorphism induced by ϕ. it follows that K L ϕn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . vn ]) = (−1)j [ϕ(v0 ). . . . Observe that [ϕ(v0 ). . . ϕ(v0 ). . ϕ(vn ) = n − 1. . . . . . ϕ(vj ). . . . . ϕ(vn )] = (−1)k−1 [ϕ(vk ). ϕ(vj ). . . . whence dim ϕ(v0 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . ϕ(vn )]. vn ]). that is. . . dim ϕ(v0 ). . . . . . ϕ(vj ). . . Then. . ∂n ϕn = ϕn−1 ∂n . ϕ(vj ). . . 5. . vi . . ϕ is a chain homomorphism. . . . . j <k (3) When dim ϕ(v0 ). . . . . ϕ(vn ) < n − 1. . . . . . 52 単体写像の導入する 鎖準同型 (写像) 単体写像の導入する ホモロジー準同型 (写像) . . The homomorphism (ϕ )∗ is called the homology homomorphism induced by ϕ and simply denoted by ϕ∗ . . . . ϕ(vj ). .

. it follows that ϕ∗ (ϕ−1 )∗ = idH∗ (L) . . . (1) In case K = L (with the same orientation). Thus. a simplicial homeomorphism f : |K| → |L| induces ∗ −1 a homology isomorphism f∗ and f∗ = (f −1 )∗ . .7 Proposition Let K1 . vn ]) = ψn ϕn ([v0 . To this end. A simplicial isomorphism ϕ : K → L induces a homology isomorphism ϕ∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) and ϕ−1 = (ϕ−1 )∗ . . vn ]) = [ϕ(v0 ). . (ψϕ) = ψ ϕ . When all ψϕ(vi ) are distinct. vn ]). . (2) In case L is a subcomplex of K (with the orientation inherited from K). . vn ]) = 0 = ψn ϕn ([v0 . it follows that ψn (ϕn ([v0 . ϕ(vn )] ∈ K2 . vn ]) = [ψϕ(v0 ). ψϕ(vn )]. vn ] ∈ K1 . In Proposition 5. . whether ϕ(vi ) are distinct or not. . . . K2 and K3 be oriented complexes.8 Corollary Let K and L be oriented complexes. ϕ(vn )] ∈ K2 or −[ϕ(v0 ). In this case. since all ϕ(vi ) are also distinct. vn ]) for each [v0 . We may only prove that (ψϕ) = ψ ϕ . Note that [ϕ(v0 ). . . Proof. . . . Otherwise. . (id|K| )∗ = (idK )∗ = idH∗ (K) . . . ϕ(vn )]. . . Similarly. . . K2 = L and ψ = ϕ−1 . let K1 = K3 = K (with the same orientation). For simplicial maps ϕ : K1 → K2 and ψ : K2 → K3 . . we have (ψϕ)n ([v0 . hence (ψϕ)∗ = ψ∗ ϕ∗ . . . Then. . Hence. . (ψϕ)n ([v0 . (gf )∗ = g∗ f∗ . vn ])) = [ψϕ(v0 ).Remark.11 (K(∂σ) ⊂ K(σ)). we have (ψϕ) = ψ ϕ . each chain group Cn (L) is a subgroup of Cn (K) and the boundary opL K erator ∂n is the restriction of ∂n . .7. 5. . ϕn ([v0 . . . Then. . Therefore. . . 5. . . ϕ∗ is an isomorphism and ϕ−1 = (ϕ−1 )∗ . . . vn ]). it suﬃces to show that (ψϕ)n ([v0 . ψϕ(vn )] = (ψϕ)n ([v0 . . . but Hn (L) is not a subgroup of Hn (K) in general as seen in Example 4. . . . . . . . . . . . In case f = |ϕ| and g = |ψ|. ∗ 53 . . . Proof. we have (ϕ−1 )∗ ϕ∗ = (idK )∗ = idH∗ (K) . .

We shall show that they induce the same homology homomorphism. in case both K and L are connected.9 Proposition Let ϕ : K → L be a simplicial map. an epimorphism). By Proposition 5. . . 0). 1). . if L is connected. Proof. . By this remark. On the other L hand. . Then. Let L0 be the component of L containing u0 . . Let v ∈ K (0) . If K is connected.1 Hence. ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is an isomorphism. For each n > 0. We deﬁne 0. ϕn (Cn (K)) = 0. where K (0) is given some order so that K is an ordered complex. Let h : K × I → L be a simplicial homotopy with h0 = f and h1 = g. ϕ∗ (Hn (K)) = 0 for each n > 0 and ϕ∗ (H0 (K)) ∼ Z. In case of necessity. n [v0 . ϕ∗ (H0 (K)) = H0 (L0 ) ∼ Z. then H0 (K) = Zv K and ϕ∗ (vK ) = L ϕ(v) = 0. . . hence ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is a monomorphism.Remark. . hence ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is an epimorphism. vn ]) = i=0 1 (−1)i [(v0 . L) is connected. Then. . . hence ϕ∗ (Hn (K)) = 0. 1)]. (vn . where ϕ(K (0) ) = {v0 }. = In Deﬁnition 3. 5.10 Proposition Let ϕ : K → L be a constant simplicial map. we use the term “a simplicial complex” instead of “an oriented complex”. hereafter we do not take care any orientation of a simplicial complex. In case L is the same simplicial complex as K with a diﬀerent orientation from K. If f and g are simplicially homotopic then f∗ = g∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). 5. . we apply the above corollary to idK : K → L to show that H∗ (K) is determined independent from an orientation of K. that is. A homomorphism is called a monomorphism or an epimorphism according to being injective or surjective.9. then H0 (L) = Zϕ(v) . = Proof. then ϕ∗ : H0 (K) → H0 (L) is a monomorphism (resp. 54 . 0). as follows: for each homomorphisms Dn : Cn (K) → Cn+1 (K × I). the homology H∗ (K) is deﬁned for a simplicial complex K. . . Proof. Sometimes. 5. g : K → L be simplicial maps. n Dn ([v0 .11 Theorem Let f. .16. vn ] ∈ K. it is deﬁned that two simplicial maps are simplicially homotopic. (vi. . (vi . we may consider its orientation. If K (resp.

0). . 1). (vi . . . . 0). (vi . . vj . 0)]. . . (vn . . . . 1). . . . 1)] . (vi . . . . . . 0). 1). . (vn . . . . 0). (vn . . . . (vi−1 . (vi . vn ]) = i=0 (−1)i j<i (−1)j [(v0 . . . 0). . . . 1). . . 0). . . . (vn . we denote ∂n+1 = ∂n+1 and ∂n = ∂n . . . . (vi. . . . 0). . . (vi. (vn . By summing these equations. 0). . . . . 1)] + i>j (−1)i−1 [(v0 . 55 . 0). 1). (vn . . . .K×I K For simplicity. 1). 1). . vn ]) n = i=0 [(v0 . (vi . 1)] + (−1)i+1 [(v0 . . . . . . . . . vj . 0)]) = gn ([v0 . (vi+1. . 1). . . (vn . . hn ∂n+1 Dn + Dn−1 ∂n ([v0 . we have ∂n+1 Dn + Dn−1 ∂n ([v0 . 1). . 0). . vn ]) − fn ([v0 . . . (vj . . . . . (vj . vn ]) = Dn−1 j=0 n (−1)j [v0 . . . . . . . . (vi+1 . (vn . 1)] − [(v0 . (vi . . (vn . 0). Then. . . . . . (vi−1 . 1). (vi . . . . . . . Therefore. 1)] n + j>i (−1)j+1 [(v0 . . 0). . . . (vi. . . . 0). (vi . . vn ]) (−1)j j=0 i<j = (−1)i [(v0 . . 1)] = [(v0 . . . . vn ]). . . 0). (vn . . observe n ∂n+1 Dn ([v0 . 1)] + (−1)i [(v0 . (vj . . and n Dn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . . (vn . (vi. 0). 0). vn ]) = hn ([(v0 . . . 0). . . 0). . . . vn ] = j=0 n (−1)j Dn−1 ([v0 . 0). . . . 1)] . (vn . 1)] − [(v0 . (vj . . 1). . . . . . . . . 1). . . 0). . . . . 1)] − [(v0 . . . .

0) = v and ϕ(v. since Dn−1 ∂n (z) = Dn−1 (0) = 0. H∗ (St(v0 . 5. we have a simplicial homotopy h = |ϕ| such that h0 = id|L| and f = h1 : |L| → |L| is the constant map with h1 (|L|) = {v0 }. = Proof.12 Corollary For any simplicial complex K and any vertex v0 ∈ K (0) . K)) is isomorphic to H∗ ({v0 }).For any z ∈ Zn (K). Hn (K(σ)) = 0 for n > 0 and H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. L L 56 . Thus. we have the result by Proposition 5. we have gn (z) − fn (z) = hn ∂n+1 Dn (z) ∈ hn (Bn (K)) ⊂ Bn (L). We deﬁne ϕ : (L × I)(0) = L(0) × {0. In particular. Let L = St(v. for every simplex σ. K)) ∼ H∗ ({v0 }). Since f∗ = (id|L| )∗ = idH∗ (L) . which implies that g∗ (z K ) = gn (z) = fn (z) = f∗ (z K ). K) with an = order on L(0) such that L is an ordered simplicial complex. We show that H∗ (St(v0 .10. 1} → L(0) by ϕ(v. Then ϕ is clearly a simplicial map. 1) = v0 for all v ∈ L(0) .

where p is the quotient homomorphism. r. For each z ∈ Zn (K0 ). Remark. . A homomorphism f : G → H is injective (resp. If H is a subgroup of G then p ⊂ 0 −→ H −→ G −→ G/H −→ 0 is exact.6 Mayer-Vietoris Exact Sequences and the Subdivision Operator G1 −→ G2 −→ · · · −→ Gr+1 f1 f2 fr 6. K Then. z2 K2 ) = (j1 )∗ (z1 K1 ) + (j2 )∗ (z2 K2 ) = z1 + z2 . let i1 : K0 ⊂ K1 .2 Theorem (Mayer-Vietoris) Let K be an oriented complex and K0 . K2 ). . j1 : K1 ⊂ K and j2 : K2 ⊂ K be the inclusions and let ϕn : Hn (K0 ) → Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) and ψn : Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) → Hn (K) be homomorphisms deﬁned by ϕn (z K0 ) = ((i1 )∗ (z K0 ). G −→ H −→ 0) is exact. −(i2 )∗ (z K0 )) = (z K1 . −z K2 ). . −z K2 ) = z − z 57 K マイヤー・ヴ ィエト リス 完全系列 = 0 ∈ Hn (K). Recall that a monomorphism is an injective homomorphism and an epimorphism is a surjective homomorphism. K1 and K2 be subcomplexes of K such that K = K1 ∪ K2 and K0 = K1 ∩ K2 . First. ψn (z1 K1 完全 (系列) マイヤー・ヴ ィエト リス の定理 (1) (2) . n the following sequence is exact: · · · −→ Hn (K0 ) −→ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) −→ Hn (K) n 1 −→ Hn−1 (K0 ) −→ · · · −→ H1 (K) −→ H0 (K0 ) 0 such that δn+1 ϕn ψn δ ϕn−1 ψ1 δ 0 −→ H0 (K1 ) ⊕ H0 (K2 ) −→ H0 (K) −→ 0. i2 : K0 ⊂ K2 . surjective) if and only if f f 0 −→ G −→ H (resp. K1 . .1 Deﬁnition A sequence of groups and homomorphisms is said to be exact if Im fi = Ker fi+1 for each i = 1. there are homomorphisms δn : Hn (K) → Hn−1 (K0 ). we show Im ϕn = Ker ψn . ψn ϕn (z K0 ) = ψn (z K1 . ϕ0 ψ0 δ This sequence is called the Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence for (K. 6. Proof. .

Then. ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. Therefore. where z1 ∈ Zn (K1 ) and z2 ∈ Zn (K2 ). z2 K2 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K). 2). hence ϕn (z0 K0 ) = (z0 K1 . −z0 K2 ) = (z1 K1 . To see Ker ψn ⊂ Im ϕn . (Note that Bn−1 (K1 ) ∩ Bn−1 (K2 ) = Bn−1 (K0 ) in general. z ∈ Hn (K). Therefore.. 2). K0 δn (z K ) = ∂n (c1 ) K0 (3) where z = c1 + c2 .Hence. c1 ∈ Cn+1 (K1 ). where we write c = c1 + c2 . n 0. 2). δn (z K ) = 58 . ψn ϕn = 0. 2). Each z ∈ Zn (K) can be written as z = c1 + c2 . Since ∂n (z) = 0. i. ci ∈ Cn+1 (Ki ) (i = 1. Im ϕn ⊂ Ker ψn . z − z = ∂n+1 (c) for some c ∈ Cn+1 (K). it follows that ∂n (c1 ) = −∂n (c2 ) ∈ Zn−1 (K1 ) ∩ Zn−1 (K2 ) = Zn−1 (K0 ). Ker ψn = Im ϕn . z0 K1 = z1 K1 ∈ Hn (K1 ) and z0 K2 = −z2 K2 ∈ Hn (K2 ). ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. we can deﬁne = −∂n (c2 ) . z = c1 + c2 ∈ Zn (K). Then. Then. let z K . where z = c1 + c2 . ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. z2 K2 ) ∈ Ker ψn ⊂ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). ci . let (z1 K1 . We can write c = c1 + c2 . z0 K0 ∈ Hn (K0 ). we have ∂n (c1 ) − ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n (c1 − c1 ) ∈ Bn−1 (K0 ). K To verify that δn is a homomorphism.) Assume z K = K z ∈ Hn (K) for other z ∈ Zn (K) and z = c1 + c2 . ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. which means that ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n (c1 ) δn : Hn (K) → Hn−1 (K0 ) by K0 K0 ∈ Hn−1 (K0 ). it follows that c1 − c1 − ∂n+1 (c1 ) = c2 − c2 + ∂n+1 (c2 ) ∈ Cn (K1 ) ∩ Cn (K2 ) = Cn (K0 ). Then.e. Next. there is some c ∈ Cn+1 (K) such that ∂n+1 (c) = z1 + z2 . c2 ∈ Cn+1 (K2 ). 2). Since z1 + z2 K = ψn (z1 K1 . Let z0 = z1 − ∂n+1 (c1 ) = ∂n+1 (c2 ) − z2 ∈ Zn (K1 ) ∩ Zn (K2 ) = Zn (K0 ). z2 K2 ). we will deﬁne the homomorphisms δn : Hn (K) → Hn−1 (K0 ). Thus.

Since (z K1 . 2). ci ∈ Cn+1 (Ki ) (i = 1. Since z = z1 + z2 . δn+1 (z K ) = ∂n+1 (c1 ) ∈ Hn (K0 ). K2 ∂n+1 (c1 ) = −∂n+1 (c2 ) ∈ Bn (K2 ). there is some c0 ∈ Cn (K0 ) such that ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n (c0 ). Therefore. where z1 ∈ Zn (K1 ) and z2 ∈ Zn (K2 ). z2 K2 ) = δn (z1 + z2 ) = ∂n (z1 ) K K0 = 0 ∈ Hn−1 (K0 ). Im ψn ⊂ Ker δn . −∂n+1 (c1 ) ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). we have δn (z K − z ) = δn (z − z ) = ∂n (c1 − c1 ) = ∂n (c1 ) K0 K K K0 K K0 K0 K K0 − ∂n (c1 ) = δn (z K ) − δn (z ). we have z1 K1 ∈ Hn (K1 ) and z2 K2 ∈ Hn (K2 ). hence ∂n+1 (c1 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K2 ). 2). ϕn δn+1 = 0. where z = c1 + c2 ∈ K0 Zn (K). Im ψn = Ker δn .∂n (c1 ) and δn (z ) = ∂n (c1 ) . which means z ∈ Zn+1 (K). 59 . Then. ci ∈ C(Ki ) (i = 1. let z K ∈ Ker δn ⊂ Hn (K). it follows that K ψn (z1 K1 . we have ϕn δn+1 (z K ) = ϕn (∂n+1 (c1 ) ) = (∂n+1 (c1 ) . z1 = c1 − c0 ∈ Zn (K1 ) and z2 = c2 + c0 ∈ Zn (K2 ). Let z K ∈ Hn+1 (K). 2). where z = c1 + c2 ∈ K0 Zn+1 (K). we have c1 ∈ Cn+1 (K1 ) and c2 ∈ Cn+1 (K2 ) such that z = ∂n+1 (c1 ) = ∂n+1 (c2 ). ∂n+1 (z ) = ∂n+1 (c1 ) − ∂n+1 (c2 ) = 0.e.. Then. To see Ker δn ⊂ Im ψn . −z K2 ) = ϕn (z K0 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). Since z − z = (c1 − c1 ) + (c2 − c2 ) and ci − ci ∈ Cn (Ki ) (i = 1. Thus. i. It remains to show Im ψn = Ker δn . Let z = c1 − c2 ∈ Cn+1 (K).e. K Thus. Then. To see Ker ϕn ⊂ Im δn+1 . where z ∈ Zn (K0 ). Im δn+1 ⊂ Ker ϕn . z2 K2 ) = z1 + z2 = z K . Hence. Therefore. we have Im δn+1 = Ker ϕn . On the other hand. i.. Since ∂n (c1 ) = δn (z K ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K0 ). Let (z1 K1 . z2 K2 ) ∈ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ). z1 + z2 ∈ Zn (K) and δn ψn (z1 K1 . Observe that z K0 = ∂n+1 (c1 ) K0 K0 K1 K2 = δn+1 (z ) ∈ Im δn+1 . ∂n+1 (c1 ) = 0 ∈ Hn (K1 ). δn ψn = 0. We show Im δn+1 = Ker ϕn . Then. Thus. let z K0 ∈ Ker ϕn ⊂ Hn (K0 ). K1 Since ∂n+1 (c1 ) ∈ Bn (K1 ).

. . bθ ]. The barycentric subdivision Sd K is considered as an oriented complex with the orientation given by the natural order in Example 2. . . . let sgn θ be deﬁned by ⎧ ⎪ 0. . bθ ]. . . vn ] be an oriented n-simplex of K. vij of σ. . Let σ = [v0 . One should note that bθ is the 0 n n barycenter of σ for any θ ∈ O(σ). . . . Then. Proof. . . . δn+1 ϕn ψn δ ϕn−1 ψ2 δ ϕ1 ψ1 δ 6. 0 n i θ∈O(σ) i=0 = 60 . vn ].17 (2). . . . . Then. bθ ] of Sd K(σ). vn ]) = θ∈O(σ) n sgn θ ∂n ([bθ . Let K be an oriented complex. .4 Lemma The subdivision operator Sd : C(K) → C(Sd K) is a chain Sd homomorphism. . bθ ]) 0 n (−1)i sgn θ [bθ . . let O(σ) be the set of all ordered (n + 1)-tuples (vi0 . . ∂n Sdn ([v0 . . . Then. . . . . . ∂n Sdn = Sdn−1 ∂n for each n 0. . . . . . For each θ = (vi0 . . . . vin ) ∈ O(σ). .9. . bθ . We deﬁne the homomorphisms Sdn : Cn (K) → Cn (Sd K) as follows: Sdn ([v0 . . . . . . . ⎪ ⎩ i0 . . . . vin ) of all vertices v0 . . . n is odd. . vn ]) = θ∈O(σ) sgn θ [bθ . . 6. . ϕ0 is a monomorphism by Proposition 5. 0 n 細分作用素 We call Sd = (Sdn )n 0 the subdivision operator.Remark. we have the following exact sequence: · · · −→ Hn (K0 ) −→ Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K2 ) −→ Hn (K) n 2 −→ Hn−1 (K0 ) −→ · · · −→ H2 (K) −→ H1 (K0 ) 1 −→ H1 (K1 ) ⊕ H1 (K2 ) −→ H1 (K) −→ 0. In case K0 is connected. . . . hence δ1 = 0.3 Deﬁnition For an oriented n-simplex σ = [v0 . . . n ⎪ ⎪1 if ⎪ is even. in and let bθ be the barycenter of the j-face vi0 . . we have j the oriented n-simplex [bθ . in sgn θ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪−1 if 0. vn of σ. . . ⎪ ⎨ i0 . that is. . . . where ∂n = ∂n K K and ∂n = ∂n . . . .

. . . vi ) ∈ O(σ). The proof is completed. vki = vki+1 . . Hence. . vkn−1 . . i i (v0 . bθ ]. bθ ]. Observe that O(σ) = follows that n i=0 O(σi ) and O(σi ) ∩ O(σj ) = ∅ if i = j. . . . vki+1 = vki and vk = vk for − sgn θ . . . . bθ ] 0 n−1 = ∂n Sdn ([v0 . that is. sgn θ = (−1)n sgn θ [bθ . sgn θ = (−1)n−i sgn θ and [bθ . . . . . i + 1. . . Then. . . . . . . . bθ ] 0 n−1 i=0 θ∈O(σi ) n = = θ∈O(σ) ˜ (−1)n sgn θ[bθ . bθ ] 0 n−1 i=0 θ∈O(σi ) ˜ ˜ ˜ (−1)n sgn θ[bθ . . . bθ ] = [bθ . vn ]) = = (−1)i sgn θ[bθ . ˜ ˜ ˜ Then. i i For each θ = (vk0 . bθ ] = [bθ . Applying Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. . . . . . . . we deﬁne σi = [v0 . vi . . . vkn ) ∈ O(σ) such that θ = θ but [bθ . . . . . Let 0 n−1 0 n−1 = i. . . . . it n i i (−1)i Sdn−1 ([v0 . n. there exists a unique θ = (vk0 . . vn ]). . 0 n 0 n i i Indeed. vn ]) = θ∈O(σ) i i i For each i = 0. . . vn−1 ] by vj = vj for j < i i and vj = vj+1 for j i. . . . we denote i i ˜ θ = (vk0 . vkn−1 ) ∈ O(σi ). . . vn−1 ]) i=0 n Sdn−1 ∂n ([v0 . . bθ ]. . . 0 n−1 ˜ O(σi ) = θ θ ∈ O(σi ) ⊂ O(σ). . . . . . . . . . . it follows that ∂n Sdn ([v0 . . . . Then. . .For each θ = (vk0 . . . . . bθ . . . vn−1 ) = (v0 . . . . vn ). we shall prove the following theorem: 61 . bθ . . . . . . . . . vkn ) ∈ O(σ) and i < n. . . . .

Since h1 is an epimorphism. h2 (x ) ∈ Ker g2 = Im g1 .e. Sd K(σ)).e.e. y − h3 (x) ∈ Ker g3 . let x ∈ Ker h3 ⊂ A3 . the theorem holds when K = K(σ) for some simplex σ. 62 . f4 (x ) = 0. so x = f2 (x ) = f2 f1 (x ) = 0. whence h2 f1 (x ) = g1 h1 (x ) = h2 (x ). x ∈ Ker f4 = Im f3 .5 Theorem For every oriented complex K. Therefore h3 (x + f2 (x )) = h3 (x) + h3 f2 (x ) = y. x ∈ Ker f3 = Im f2 .. The theorem is trivial if dim K = 0 because Sd K = K. hence y − h3 (x) = g2 (y ) for some y ∈ B2 . hence x = f3 (x) for some x ∈ A3 . hence h2 (x ) = g1 (y ) for some y ∈ B1 . i. Since h2 is a monomorphism. i. Since h5 is a monomorphism. Proof of Theorem 6. the subdivision operator Sd : C(K) → C(Sd K) induces the homology isomorphism Sd∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (Sd K). Furthermore. hence x = f2 (x ) for some x ∈ A2 .5. h3 is an isomorphism. we have x ∈ A1 such that h1 (x ) = y . let y ∈ B3 . Then. f3 (x) = 0.. To show that h3 is injective. −→ −→ −→ −→ g1 g2 g3 g4 Suppose that the top and bottom sequences are exact. h5 f4 (x ) = g4 h4 (x ) = g4 g3 (y) = 0. Then. Since h4 f3 (x) = g3 h3 (x) = 0 and h4 is a monomorphism. g3 (y) = h4 (x ) for some x ∈ A4 . Indeed. h2 and h4 are isomorphism. f1 (x ) = x . Since h2 is an epimorphism. Then. i. = To prove this theorem. h1 is an epimorphism and h5 is a monomorphism. Proof.. since Sd K(σ) = St(b(σ). Since h4 is an epimorphism.. hence H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (Sd K). i. g2 h2 (x ) = h3 f2 (x ) = h3 (x) = 0.e. whence h3 f2 (x ) = g2 h2 (x ) = g2 (y ) = y − h3 (x).6 Lemma (Five Lemma) Consider the following commutative diagram of groups and homomorphisms: −→ −→ −→ −→ A1 − − A2 − − A3 − − A4 − − A5 ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h h h h 1 2 3 4 5 項補題 f1 f2 f3 f4 5 B1 − − B2 − − B3 − − B4 − − B5 . g3 (y − h3 (x)) = g3 (y) − g3 h3 (x) = h4 (x ) − h4 f3 (x) = 0. To see that h3 is surjective. we need the following lemma: 6. Then.6. we have x ∈ A2 such that h2 (x ) = y .

−→ −→ −→ ψn δn ϕn−1 where the top and bottom sequences are Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. we may assume that dim K > 0. where v is a vertex of σ. Sd K = Sd K1 ∪ Sd K(σ) and Sd K(∂σ) = Sd K1 ∩ Sd K(σ). Then. Sd∗ : H∗ (K(∂σ)) → H∗ (Sd K(∂σ)) and Sd∗ : H∗ (K1 ) → H∗ (Sd K1 ) are isomorphisms by the inductive assumption. Sd∗ : H0 (K(σ)) → H0 (Sd K(σ)) is also an isomorphism. By the above remark.Hn (K(σ)) = Hn (Sd K(σ)) = 0 for all n > 0 by Corollary 5. where z ∈ Zn (K). hence Sd∗ : Hn (K(σ)) → Hn (Sd K(σ)) is an isomorphism for each n > 0. that is. K1 = K \ {σ} is a subcomplex of K. Moreover. it has proved in the above. Now. Consider the following diagram: −→ ··· − − δn+1 Hn (K(∂σ)) ⏐ ⏐ Sd ∗ −− −→ ϕn Hn (K1 ) ⊕ Hn (K(σ)) ⏐ ⏐ Sd ⊕ Sd ∗ ∗ · · · − − Hn (Sd K(∂σ)) − − Hn (Sd K1 ) ⊕ Hn (Sd K(σ)) −→ −→ δn+1 ϕn −− −→ ψn Hn (K) ⏐ ⏐ Sd ∗ −− −n→ δ Hn−1 (K(∂σ)) ⏐ ⏐Sd ∗ − − ··· −→ ϕn−1 − − Hn (Sd K) − − Hn−1 (Sd K(∂σ)) − − · · · . whence Sdn (c1 ) ∈ Cn (Sd K1 ) and Sdn (z)− 63 . Assume that the theorem holds for simplicial complexes with m − 1 many simplexes and that K has m many simplexes. K = K1 ∪ K(σ) and K(∂σ) = K1 ∩ K(σ). let z K ∈ Hn (K).12. we prove the theorem by induction on the number of simplexes of K. It is easy to see that (Sd∗ ⊕ Sd∗ )ϕn = ϕn Sd∗ and Sd∗ ψn = ψn (Sd∗ ⊕ Sd∗ ). Since Sd0 (v) = v by the deﬁnition. dim σ = dim K > 0. Sd K1 and Sd K(σ) are subcomplexes of Sd K. H0 (K(σ)) = Zv K(σ) and H0 (Sd K(σ)) = Zv Sd K(σ) . Let σ be a maximal dimensional simplex of K. Choose c1 ∈ Cn (K1 ) so that z−c1 ∈ Cn (K(σ)). To see Sd∗ δn = Sd∗ δn . In the case K has the only one simplex (hence dim K = 0).14. and as seen in the above. By Theorem 4. Sd∗ : H∗ (K(σ)) → H∗ (Sd K(σ)) is also an isomorphism.

Then. Let v be the vertex of σ with v ∈ τ . Now. we have the following exact sequence: Hk (K(τ )) ⊕ Hk (St(v. hence Hn (K(∂σ)) = 0. Hn (K(σ)) = 0 if n > 0 and H0 (K(σ)) ∼ Z. Cn (K(∂σ)) = 0. K(∂σ)) and K(∂τ ) = K(τ ) ∩ St(v. K(∂σ)). k. It remains to show that Hk (K(∂σ)) ∼ = ∼ Z in case k = 1 (Example 4. K(∂σ)). hence H0 (K(∂σ)) ∼ Z ⊕ Z and Hn (K(∂σ)) = 0 = for all n > 0. applying Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences.12. Thus. If n K(∂σ) K(σ) k. It follows from Lemma 6.7 Proposition Let σ be an (k + 1)-simplex (k > 0). then Cn (K(∂σ)) = Cn (K(σ)) and ∂n = ∂n . ∂σ consists of just two points. In the above. Therefore. We have shown that Hk (K(∂σ)) = In case k > 1. we have Hk (∂σ) ∼ Hk−1(∂τ ). In this case.11). Since = K(∂σ) = K(τ ) ∪ St(v. In the above sequence. In Corollary 5. Therefore Zn (K(σ)) for n Hn (K(∂σ)) = Hn (K(σ)) for n < k. = Remark. 6. the both side groups are trivial by Corollary 5. Proof. Hence Zn (K(∂σ)) = k and Bn (K(∂σ)) = Bn (K(σ)) for n < k.Sdn (c1 ) ∈ Cn (Sd K(σ)). K(∂σ)) −→ Hk (K(∂σ)) −→ Hk−1 (K(∂τ )) −→ Hk−1 (K(τ )) ⊕ Hk−1 (St(v. we have shown that for every simplex σ. For n > k = dim ∂σ. δn (z K ) = ∂n (c1 ) Sd K0 ∂n Sdn (c1 ) . it suﬃces to show that Hk (∂σ) ∼ Hk−1 (∂τ ).12. Then. It follows from the Five Lemma that Sd∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (Sd K) is an isomorphism. 64 .4 that Sd∗ δn (z K ) = Sd∗ (∂n (c1 ) ) = Sdn−1 ∂n (c1 ) = ∂n Sdn (c1 ) Sd K0 K0 K0 and δn (Sdn (z) Sd K ) = Sd K0 = δn (Sdn (z) Sd K ) = δn Sd∗ (z K ). Z. = we can calculate the homology groups of K(∂σ). Hn (K(∂σ)) ∼ = Z if n = 0. we have excluded the case k = 0. 0 otherwise. the above diagram commutative. let τ be an k-face of σ. By induction.

. . . ⎪ ⎨ i0 .. . j Now. .1 Lemma Let K be an oriented complex. . . we can show γ Sd = idC(K) . . . . in sgn θ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪−1 if 0. vin ) of all vertices v0 . γn Sdn = idCn (K) for every n 0. . ⎪ ⎩ i . . Since the subdivision operator Sd : C(K) → C(Sd K) induces the homology isomorphism Sd∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (Sd K) by Theorem 6. vin . . . Proof. . . . . γ(b(σn−1 )) = vin−1 . ϕ∗ Sdn = ψ∗ Sdm : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). . . . then γ∗ : H∗ (Sd K) → H∗ (K) is an isomorphism −1 with γ∗ = Sd∗ . bθ is the barycenter of the j-face vi0 . . . vn ] = σ. Thus.5. . Then. . . . . If γ : Sd K → K a simplicial approximation of id|K|. . . . . . if such a θ0 exists. .7 Topological Invariance of Homology 7. Let σn−2 be the (n − 2)-face of σn−1 which does not contain vin−1 . .. 7. . vn ]) = θ∈O(σ) sgn θ γn ([bθ . . n ⎪ ⎪ if ⎪1 is even. . Therefore. bθ ]. Indeed. . n is odd. bθ ]) = 0. Since all γ(bθ0 ) are distinct. . then each γ(bθ0 ) is a j j vertex of vi0 . .2 Lemma Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map and ϕ : | Sdn K| → |L| and ψ : | Sdm K| → |L| simplicial approximations of f . it suﬃces to show γ∗ Sd∗ = idH∗ (K) . . .i 0 n We shall observe that there is a unique θ0 = (vi0 . . vin−1 .. n and j θ = θ0 implies γn ([bθ . Let n 0 and σ = [v0 . . γ(b(σ)) = vin . Recall Sdn ([v0 . . . ∗ ∗ 65 . .. . . Let j j σn−1 be the (n − 1)-face of σ which does not contain vin . . . . . . . vn ]) = θ∈O(σ) sgn θ [bθ . . vij of σ and j ⎧ ⎪ 0. Then. vin ) ∈ O(σ) such that all γ(bθ0 ) are distinct. vin ] = [v0 . vn ] each oriented n-simplex of K. . bθ ]) 0 n = sgn θ0 [vi0 . vn . . . . . whence θ0 ∈ O(σ) is a unique element such that all γ(bθ0 ) are distinct. 0 n where O(σ) denotes the set of all ordered (n + 1)-tuples θ = (vi0 . In fact. . . it follows that 0 n γn Sdn (σ) = γn Sdn ([v0 . Then. . we have γ(bθ0 ) = vij . . vij because γ is a simplicial approximation of id|K| . . . . . In particular. . vi0 are inductively determined. . it should be noticed that γ(bθ0 ) = vij for each j = 0. Then γ(b(σn−2 )) = vin−2 .

Let γ : Sdn K2 → K2 and ϕ : Sdm K1 → Sdn K2 simplicial approxi∗ mations of id|K2 | and f . let γ i : | Sdi K| → | Sdi−1 K| be a simplicial approximation of id|K| .4 Theorem Let K1 . ∗ ∗ ∗ H∗ (K) R m6 mmm mmm mmm mmm Sdn ∗ H∗ (Sdn K) S RRR RRR RRR Sdm RRR( ∗ Sdm−n ∗ m (γn )∗ QQQ QQQϕ∗ QQQ QQQ Q( m6 mmm mmm mmm mmm ψ∗ H∗ (L) H∗ (Sdm K) 7. m respectively. We deﬁne the homology homomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) induced by f as g∗ Sdn : ∗ H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) (i. Let ψ : Sdn K2 → K3 be a simplicial approximation of g. For each i > 0.17 that ϕγn is simplicially homotopic to ψ. m Since (γn )∗ Sdm = Sdn by Lemma 7.13. f : |K1 | → |K2 | and g : |K2 | → |K3 | continuous maps. (gf )∗ = g∗ f∗ : H∗ (K1 ) → H∗ (K3 ). Then. It follows from Theorem 3. Recall that (id|K| )∗ = idH∗ (K) . Then. K2 and K3 be oriented complexes. ψϕ : Sdm K1 → K3 is a simplicial approximation gf by Proposition 3. Then. it follows that ∗ ∗ m ϕ∗ Sdn = ϕ∗ (γn )∗ Sdm = ψ∗ Sdm : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). we have (gf )∗ = (ψϕ)∗ Sdm = ψ∗ ϕ∗ Sdm = ψ∗ Sdn γ∗ ϕ∗ Sdm = g∗ f∗ . m γn = γ n+1 · · · γ m−1 γ m : | Sdm K| → | Sdn K| m and ϕγn : | Sdm K| → |L| are also simplicial approximations of id|K| and f . Then. By Theorem 5. respectively. where g : | Sdn K| → |L| is a simplicial ∗ approximation of f .13. we have m m ϕ∗ (γn )∗ = (ϕγn )∗ = ψ∗ : H∗ (Sdm K) → H∗ (L). g∗ = ψ∗ Sdn .11. ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ 66 ホモロジー準同型 (写像) .2.e.. the homomorphism f∗ is determined independently from a simplicial approximation of f .1. Since γϕ : Sdm K2 → K2 is a simplicial approximation of f by Proposition 3. Remark. ∗ ∗ On the other hand. f∗ = g∗ Sdn ).3 Deﬁnition Let f : |K| → |L| be a continuous map. we have f∗ = (γϕ)∗ Sdm = γ∗ ϕ∗ Sdm .13. Proof. by Proposition 3. We may assume that m > n.Proof. 7. By Lemma 7.

|K| ≈ |L| implies H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (L). we deﬁne f∗ = (h−1 f hX )∗ : H∗ (X) = H∗ (KX ) → H∗ (KY ) = H∗ (Y ) Y which is called the homology homomorphism induced by f . By using this observation.6 Deﬁnition For a (topological) polyhedron X. by identifying (hY −1 f hX )∗ : H∗ (K ) → Y H∗ (L ) with (h−1 f hX )∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L). Then. For a continuous map f : X → Y . n = m implies Sn ≈ Sm . The following follows from Theorem 4. hY ). identifying H∗ (KX ) = H∗ (KX ) by the isomorphism (h−1 hX )∗ . hX ) of X. for another triangulation (KX . (f −1 )∗ f∗ = (id|K| )∗ = idH∗ (K) and f∗ (f −1 )∗ = (id|L| )∗ = idH∗ (L) . given a triangulation (KX . Remark. 67 . we can show the topological invariance of dimension of Euclidean spaces. = For each n > 0. it follows from Corollary 5. Let Y be another polyhedron with a triangulation (KY . = Proof. n. we deﬁne the homology H∗ (X) = H∗ (KX ). we can show that H∗ (K) is a topological invariant of |K|. every homeomorphism f : |K| → |L| induces a homology isomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) with (f∗ )−1 = (f −1 )∗ . hence (f∗ )−1 = (f −1 )∗ . Then.5 Theorem (Topological Invariance of Homology) Let K and L be oriented complexes.8. where H∗ (KX ) is determind independent from an orientation of KX as observed in Remark for Corollary 5. In the above. 7.7 that Hi (Bn ) = Z if i = 0. hX ).Using this theorem. we can deﬁne the X homology H∗ (X) independently from a triangulation of X. the homology homomorphism Y f∗ : H∗ (X) → H∗ (Y ) can be deﬁned independently from triangulations of X and Y . 連続写像の導入する ホモロジー準同型 (写像) ホモロジーの 位相不変性 (位相的) 多面体の ホモロジー By comparison between the homology groups. hY ) of Y . 7.14.7 Theorem A (topological) polyhedron X is connected if and only if H0 (X) ∼ Z. 7. H∗ (KY ) is identifying with H∗ (KY ) by the isomorphism (h−1 hY )∗ . 0 otherwise. Moreover. Hence. and Hi (Sn ) = Z if i = 0. 0 if i > 0. that is. that is. for another triangulation (KY . By the above theorem.12 and Proposition 6.

If Rn ≈ Rm .e. Such a map r is called a retraction. we have the result. we can show the following ﬁxed point theorem: 7. r∗ : Hn−1 (Bn ) → Hn−1 (Sn−1 ) is surjective. Proof. where s : Bn → [0. Proof.9 Theorem (No Retraction Theorem) For each n ∈ N. Therefore. This is a = contradiction. f (x0 ) = x0 . s(x) is the non-negative root of the following equation: x − f (x) 2 t2 + 2 f (x). we can also show the following: 7. we can deﬁne a continuous map r : Bn → Sn−1 as follows: r(x) = (1 − s(x))f (x) + s(x)x = f (x) + s(x)(x − f (x)).. However. Then. B1 is connected but S0 is disconnected. Proof.10 Theorem (Brouwer’s Fixed Point Theorem) For each n ∈ N. Hence. Since ri = idSn−1 . assume that there exists a retraction r : Bn → Sn−1 . n = m by the above observation. When n = 1. Applying this No Retraction Theorem.8 Theorem (Topological Invariance of Dimension) If n = m ∈ N then Rn ≈ Rm . hence S0 is not the image of any continuous map of B1 . respectively. where Rn ∪ {∞} and Rm ∪ {∞} are the one-point compactiﬁcations of Rn and Rm . it follows that r∗ i∗ = (ri)∗ = idH∗ (Sn−1 ) . ∞) is a map satisfying r(x) = 1. Let i : Sn−1 ⊂ Bn be the inclusion. there exist no continuous map r : Bn → Sn−1 such that r|Sn−1 = idSn−1 .7. Hn−1 (Bn ) = 0 and Hn−1 (Sn−1 ) ∼ Z. Suppose that there exists a continuous map f : Bn → Bn such that f (x) = x for any x ∈ Bn . In case n > 1 (i. n − 1 > 0). that is. x − f (x) t + f (x) 2 次元の位相不変性 レトラクション 不存在定理 レトラクション ブラウワー 不動点定理 不動点 − 1 = 0. 68 . that is. equivalently Rn ≈ Rm implies n = m. Applying the homology. then Sn ≈ Rn ∪ {∞} ≈ Rm ∪ {∞} ≈ Sm . every continuous map f : Bn → Bn has a ﬁxed point x0 ∈ Bn . Then.

s(x) = 1 x − f (x) 2 − f (x). ε). B(x. Y ⊂ Rk . Actually. y is the inner product of x. r(x) = x for each x ∈ Sn−1 . ε)) ≈ (Bk . x − f (x) 2 − x − f (x) 2 ( f (x) 2 − 1) .11 Theorem (Invariance of Domain) For each X.1 Exercise – Let A be a closed subset of a space X (⊂ Rk ). x − f (x) + f (x). The above is valid for every normal space X. bd B(x. X ≈ Y implies int X ≈ int Y . ε) = {y ∈ Rk | x − y < ε}. ε) = {y ∈ Rk | x − y Then. Every continuous map f : A → I has a continuous extension ˜ f : X → I. r(x) x f (x) Bn Sn−1 We can apply No Retraction Theorem to prove the following theorem mentioned in §1: 7. y ∈ Rn . 演習 . (B(x. For each x ∈ Rk and ε > 0. ティーチェ拡張定理 領域不変定理 7. Sk−1 ). Note. As is easily observed. We use also the following extension theorem: Tietze Extension Theorem: Let A be a closed subset of a space X (⊂ Rk ). we denote B(x. Applying Tietze Extension Theorem coordinate-wise. 69 ε}. show that every continuous map f : A → In extends to a continuous map ˜ f : X → In . This contradicts to No Retraction Theorem 7.9.where x.

e. B(x..7. δ) is a retract of B(x. Then. δ) ⊂ X. Let h : X → X \ B(z. Then. Let h : X → Y be a homeomorphism.12 Lemma Let X be a closed subset of Rk and x ∈ X. Since Bk ≈ Ik . every continuous map f : X \ V → Sk−1 can be extended to a continuous map g : X → Bk by Tietze Extension Theorem (cf. ε) ∩ X. bd B(x. Sk−1 ). Exercise 7. The following is the topological version of Theorem 6. Let V = B(x. for each neighborhood U of x in X. To see the “if” part. Then. ε − δ) \ X. Let r : Bk \ {0} → Sk−1 be the canonical radial retraction (i.2.9 because (B(x. λ). λ) ⊂ B(x. Let λ = δ + x − z > 0. whence gh : X \ V → S extends to a continuous map f ˜ f h−1 : Y → Sk−1 is a continuous extension of g. δ). δ)) ≈ (Bk . which contradicts to No Retraction Theorem 7. δ). δ) be the continuous map deﬁned by h|X \ B(z. rgh : X → Sk−1 is a continuous extension of f . h(V ) is a neighborhood of h(x) in Y such that h(V ) ⊂ U.11. Proof. Then. Therefore. ˜ bd B(x. we have z ∈ B(x. r(y) = y −1y) Since x ∈ bd X. ε). x ∈ bd X if and only if each neighborhood U of x in X contains a neighborhood V of x such that every continuous map f : X \ V → Sk−1 extends to a continuous ˜ map f : X → Sk−1 . Proof of Theorem 7. which contains a neighborhood V of x such that every continuous map ˜ f : X \ V → Sk−1 extends to a continuous map f : X → Sk−1 . Then B(x. δ) ⊂ B(z. and every continuous map ˜ g : Y \ h(V ) → Sk−1 extends to a continuous map g : Y → Sk−1 . By the condition. we can ﬁnd 0 < δ < ε so that g(X \ B(x. ε) ∩ X ⊂ U. y−z Then. choose ε > 0 so that B(x. δ) ≈ Sk−1 . δ) ⊂ X for some δ > 0. λ) = id and h(y) = z + λ (y − z) for y ∈ X ∩ B(z. k−1 ˜ : X → Sk−1 . δ) contains a neighborhood V of x such that every continuous map f : X \ V → Sk−1 extends to a continuous map ˜ f : X → Sk−1 . Since B(x. λ) ⊂ X \ B(x. h−1 (U) is a neighborhood of x in X. It is easy to construct a retraction r : Rk \ {x} → bd B(x. assume that x ∈ int X. r|X \ V extend to a retraction r : X → bd B(x. x ∈ bd X. Indeed. δ)) ⊂ Bk \ {0}. For each x ∈ bd X and each neighborhood U of h(x) in Y . δ). To see the “only if” part. 70 . Observe that B(x.1).

n the following sequence is exact: · · · −→ Hn (X0 ) −→ Hn (X1 ) ⊕ Hn (X2 ) −→ Hn (X) n 1 −→ Hn−1 (X0 ) −→ · · · −→ H1 (X) −→ H0 (X0 ) 0 −→ H0 (X1 ) ⊕ H0 (X2 ) −→ H0 (X) −→ 0. i2 : X0 ⊂ X2 .13 Theorem (Mayer-Vietoris) Let X be a (topological) polyhedron and X0 . α2 ) = (j1 )∗ (α1 ) + (j2 )∗ (α2 ). Then. j1 : X1 ⊂ X and j2 : X2 ⊂ X be the inclusions and let ϕn : Hn (X0 ) → Hn (X1 ) ⊕ Hn (X2 ) and ψn : Hn (X1 ) ⊕ Hn (X2 ) → Hn (X) be homomorphisms deﬁned by ϕn (α) = ((i1 )∗ (α). ψn (α1 . there are homomorphisms δn : Hn (X) → Hn−1 (X0 ). X1 and X2 be subpolyhedra of X such that X = X1 ∪ X2 and X0 = X1 ∩ X2 . let i1 : X0 ⊂ X1 . マイヤー・ヴ ィエト リス の定理 0 such that δn+1 ϕn ψn δ ϕn−1 ϕ0 ψ1 δ ψ0 δ 71 . −(i2 )∗ (α)).7.

so every simplex is contractible. Z). or X and Y have the same homotopy type (denoted by X Y ) if there exist continuous maps f : X → Y and g : Y → X such that gf idX and f g idY . If h : f f and h : f f . 2t) if 0 t 1 . Proof. t) for all x ∈ X. f ∈ C(X. (1) The relation is a equivalence relation on C(X.8 Homotopical Invariance of Homology and Homologies of Surfaces 8. or X has the homotopy type of Y . g ∈ C(Y. A space X is contractible if X has the homotopy type of a one point space. Y ) and g. X ≈ Y implies X Y . f ∈ C(X. A homeomorphism f : X → Y is a homotopy equivalence with f a homotopy inverse.3 Deﬁnition It is said that X is homotopically equivalent to Y . g . 8. (1) Let f.2 Proposition Let C(X. f and g g imply ホモトピー 零ホモトピック (2) For each f. where ht : X → Y (t ∈ I) are deﬁned by ht (x) = h(x. t) = h (x. Y ). 2 (2) Let h : f f and h : g deﬁned by ht = ht ht .1 Exercise – The relation spaces. Every convex set is contractible. 2t − 1) if 1 t 1. t) = by ht = f . A map f : X → Y is said to be null-homotopic (denoted by f 0) if f is homotopic to a constant map. that is.1 Deﬁnition Let f. we call h a homotopy from f to g and denote h : f g. Y ) be the set of all continuous maps from X to Y. If h : f f . gf g f by the homotopy 8. It is said that f is homotopic to g (denoted by f g) if there exists a continuous map h : X × I → Y such that h0 = f and h1 = g. is an equivalence relation among −1 ホモトピー同値 ホモトピー型 ホモトピー同値 (写像) ホモトピー逆写像 可縮 演習 72 . 1 − t). g : X → Y be continuous maps. Here. Hence. the identity idX is null-homotopic. Remark. then f h(x. namely the homotopy type of X is a topological invariant of X. whence f is called a homotopy equivalence and g a homotopy inverse of f . Y ). 2 h(x. f . 8. Then. f gf g f . Then. then f f by the homotopy deﬁned by h (x. f f by the homotopy deﬁned f by the homotopy deﬁned by h (x.

e. t) = (1 − t)f (x) + tg(x). |K| |L| implies H∗ (K) ∼ H∗ (L).8.4 and 8. Since h(i−1)/n and hi/n have a common simplicial approximation by Proposition 3. every simplicial approximation of a continuous map f : |K| → |L| is contiguous to f . every simplicial approximation of f is homotopic to f . g : X → |L| continuous maps. If f is contiguous to g. Using Theorems 7. so any two simplicial approximations of f is homotopic to each others. 8. Proof. Since |K| × I is compact.2 Exercise – Let f : X → Y be a continuous map. = 73 演習 隣接する ホモロジーの ホモトピー不変性 . if f g then f∗ = g∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L).8 Theorem (Homotopical Invariance of Homology) Let K and L be simplicial complexes. Let h : |K| × I → |L| be a homotopy with h0 = f and h1 = g. they induce the same homology homomorphism. and any two simplicial approximations of f are contiguous to each others. each {x} × [(i − 1)/n. 8.6 Corollary Let K and L be simplicial complexes. i/n]) ⊂ OL (u). 8. hence f∗ = (h0 )∗ = (h1/n )∗ = · · · = (h1 )∗ = g∗ . By Deﬁnition 3.10. Choose n ∈ N so that 1/n < δ. Hence. Proof.7 Theorem Let K and L be simplicial complexes. h({x} × [(i − 1)/n. For each x ∈ X.7. Then.5 as follows: 8. i. then f is homotopic to g.15. If X or Y is contractible then f is null-homotopic. g : X → |L| continuous maps. we can deﬁne the homotopy h : f g by deﬁned by h(x. For each continuous map f : |K| → |L|.4 Deﬁnition Let L be a simplicial complex and f. For continuous maps f. g : |K| → |L|. f (x) and g(x) are contained in the same simplex of L. we can strengthen Theorem 7. then f∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (L) is an isomorphism with (f∗ )−1 = g∗ .5 Proposition Let L be a simplicial complex and f.. i/n] is contained in some h−1 (OL(u)). Remark. 8. there is a Lebesgue number δ > 0 for the open cover h−1 (OL (u)) u ∈ L(0) of |K| × I. Then. It is said that f is contiguous to g (with respect to L) if each f (x) and g(x) are contained in the same simplex of L. If f : |K| → |L| is a homotopy equivalence with a homotopy inverse g : |L| → |K|.

By Euler-Poincar´ Formula 4. Then.13.8. メビウスの帯 のホモロジー Let j : S1 → M2 be the natural embedding of the circle S1 to the boundary circle ∂M2 of M2 . Hn (M2 ) ∼ Hn (S1 ) ∼ = = Z if n = 0. M¨bius band M2 : Let i : S1 → M2 be the natural embedding of the o circle S1 to the middle circle of M¨bius band M2 . hence i∗ : H∗ (S ) → H∗ (M ) is an isomorphism. i is a homotopy r : M2 → S1 such that ri = idS1 and ir 1 2 equivalence.11 Corollary For every contractible polyhedron X.9 Corollary For simplicial complexes K and L. hence (rj)∗ (α) = 2α for each α ∈ H1 (S1 ) ∼ Z. = 74 . we have the result.Proof. |K| |L| implies dim K i=0 dim L (−1) i K αi = i=0 L (−1)i αi . αn be the numbers of n-simplexes of K and L. 8. X Y implies H∗ (X) ∼ H∗ (Y ). The following is the topological version of Theorem 8. Then. Then. then f∗ : H∗ (X) → H∗ (Y ) is an isomorphism with (f∗ )−1 = g∗ . There is a continuous map o idÅ 2 . rj : S1 → S1 is the map winding S1 round itself 2 times. Since g∗ f∗ = (gf )∗ = (id|K| )∗ = idH∗ (K) and f∗ g∗ = (f g)∗ = (id|L| )∗ = idH∗ (L) . Hn (X) ∼ = Z if n = 0. let αn . Hence. If f : X → Y is a homotopy equivalence with a homotopy inverse g : Y → X. respectively. 0 otherwise. Consequently. = In case Y is a singleton. 1. we have the following: 8. 0 otherwise. we have the following: e K L 8. we calculate the homologies of surfaces. ホモロジーの ホモトピー不変性 Homologies of Surfaces In the rest of this section.10 Theorem (Homotopical Invariance of Homology) Let X and Y be (topological) polyhedra.

Then. P2 = M2 ∪ B2 (cf. Since P2 is connected. 75 . We can consider P2 as the space jointed M¨bius band M2 and the disk B2 along the boundary circles o 1 ∂M2 and ∂B2 . ⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise. we o 2 have H2 (P ) = 0. and H1 (P2 ) ∼ Z/2Z = Z2 by Fundamental Homomorphism = Theorem of Group Theory.Using the homology of M¨bius band M2 and the Mayer-Vietoris exact o sequences. From the deﬁnition of ϕ1 and the observation in calculation of the homology of M¨bius band. H0 (P2 ) = Z. we can calculate the homologies of the projective plane P2 and Klein bottle K2 as follows: Projective plane P2 : First. ⎨ 2 ∼ Hn (P ) = Z2 if n = 1. Let S1 = ∂M2 = ∂B2 . ϕ0 is a monomorphism by the deﬁnition of ϕ0 and Proposition 5. In the above. it follows that ϕ1 is a monomorphism. Consequently. we have the following Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence: 0 = H2 (M2 ) ⊕ H2 (B2 ) − − H2 (P2 ) − − −→ −2→ epi 0 ψ2 δ 射影平面の ホモロジー H1 (S1 ) − − H1 (M2 ) ⊕ H1 (B2 ) − − H1 (P2 ) −→ −→ mono epi ϕ1 ψ1 Z −− −→ (2.−1) Z ⊕ Z. ⎧ ⎪Z if n = 0.9.0) Z⊕0=Z − − H0 (S1 ) − − H0 (M2 ) ⊕ H0 (B2 ) −1→ −→ 0 mono δ ϕ0 Z −− −→ (1.11). Remark (1) for Example 2. that is. note Hn (P2 ) = 0 for all n > 2 because dim P2 = 2. Thus.

−2). o 2 we have H2 (K ) = 0 and H1 (K2 ) ∼ Z2 ⊕ Z by Homomorphism Theorem. From the deﬁnition of ϕ1 and the observation in calculation of the homology of M¨bius band. ∗) The group G = Z ⊕ Z is generated by (1. −1) = (1. h(H) = 2Z ⊕ 0 ⊂ G = Z ⊕ Z. In the above. ⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise. Let H be the subgroup of G generated by (2. 0) = (1.11).−2) Z⊕Z − − H0 (S1 ) − − H0 (M2 ) ⊕ H0 (M2 ) −1→ −→ 1 2 0 mono δ ϕ0 Z −− −→ (1. H0 (K2 ) = Z. 0) and (0. We deﬁne an isomorphism h : G → G by h(1. 1 2 1 2 Then. 1) and h(0. Since h(1. ⎧ ⎪Z if n = 0. = 76 .−1) Z ⊕ Z. We can consider K2 as the space jointed two M¨bius band M2 and M2 along the boundary circles ∂M2 and ∂M2 . ⎨ 2 ∼ Hn (K ) = Z2 ⊕ Z if n = 1. Remark (2) for Example 2.Klein bottle K2 : Since dim K2 . that is. ϕ0 is a monomorphism by the deﬁnition of ϕ0 and Proposition 5. whence G/H ∼ G/h(H) = Z/2Z ⊕ Z = Z2 ⊕ Z. Thus.9. it follows that ϕ1 is a monomorphism. Hn (K2 ) = 0 for all n > 2. o 1 2 1 2 2 K = M2 ∪ M2 (cf. 1). 0). By connectedness of K2 . Let S1 = ∂M2 = ∂M2 .∗) = Consequently. we have the following Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence: −→ −2→ 0 = H2 (M2 ) ⊕ H2 (M2 ) − − H2 (K2 ) − − 1 1 epi 0 ψ2 δ クラインの壷 のホモロジー H1 (S1 ) − − H1 (M2 ) ⊕ H1 (M2 ) − − H1 (K2 ) −→ −→ 1 2 mono epi ϕ1 ψ1 Z −− −→ (2. 1). 1) = (0.

Take a disk D ⊂ T2 missing Sl ∪ Sm and let C = ∂D be its boundary circle. Sl and Sm meet each other at a single point v. Observe that r|C : C → Sl ∪ Sm is a map winding C round Sl and Sm and then conversely Sl and Sm . = ⎧ ⎪Z if n = 0. Consequently. By using the Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence. We have a map r : Tp → Sl ∪Sm such that ri = r|Sl ∪ Sm = id and ir idÌp .Punctured torus T2 : Let Sl and Sm be a latitude circle and a meridian p circle of T2 . ⎨ ∼ Hn (Sl ∪ Sm ) ∼ Z ⊕ Z if n = 1. = 77 . hence the homomorphism (r|C)∗ : H1 (C) → H1 (Sl ∪ Sm ) ∼ H1 (Sl ) ⊕ H1 (Sm ) is the null homomorphism. hence i∗ : H∗ (Sl ∪ Sm ) → H∗ (Tp ) is an isomorphism by the Homotopical Invariance of Homology. We call Tp = T2 \ (D \ C) a punctured torus. i is a homotopy equivalence. T2 = Tp ∪ D and Tp ∩ D = C. it is easy to see that Hn (Sl ∪ Sm ) ∼ Hn (Sl ) ⊕ Hn (Sm ). Hn (Tp ) = = ⎪ ⎩ 0 otherwise. Then. 孔開きトーラス のホモロジー 孔開きトーラス Sm v S C D S r C v Sm D v v Sm S v Let i : Sl ∪Sm → T2 be the inclusion. Then. Then.

−1) Z ⊕ Z. Consider the following Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences: −→ −2→ 0 = H2 (Tp ) ⊕ H2 (D) − − H2 (T2 ) − − 0 iso ψ2 δ トーラスの ホモロジー H1 (C) − − H1 (Tp ) ⊕ H1 (D) − − H1 (T2 ) −→ −→ 0 iso ϕ1 ψ1 Z −− −→ (0.9.Using the homology of Tp and the Mayer-Vietoris exact sequences. if n = 2. Consequently. note Hn (T2 ) = 0 for all n > 2 because dim T2 . 78 . H2 (T2 ) ∼ H1 (C) ∼ Z and H1 (T2 ) ∼ H1 (Tp ) ∼ Z ⊕ Z. = = = = ⎧ ⎪Z ⎪ ⎪ ⎨Z ⊕ Z 2 ∼ Hn (T ) = ⎪Z ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0 if n = 0. we can calculate the homologies of the torus T2 as follows: Torus T2 : First. Then. if n = 1. otherwise. where ϕ0 is a monomorphism by the deﬁnition of ϕ0 and Proposition 5.0) (Z ⊕ Z) ⊕ 0 − − H0 (C) − − H0 (Tp ) ⊕ H0 (D) −1→ −→ 0 mono δ ϕ0 Z −− −→ (1.

we can regard C(K. L) be the subgroup of the n-chain group Cn (K) generated by K[n] \ L. L) : · · · −→ Cn (K. L) is a chain homomorphism from C(K) to C(K. L) −→ C0 (K. L) = (Cn (K. the following diagram is commutative: Cn (K) − − − → Cn (K. ∅) = C(K). The (oriented) (K. τ ∈ K. L) −→ qn−1 Moreover. τ ]L = −1 if τ σ. Then. L) is naturally isomorphic to (K. But it should be noticed that ∂n = ∂n |Cn (K. 79 i qn 相対結合係数 . For such a pair (K. L). L) of oriented complexes means a pair of an oriented complex K and its subcomplex L with the orientation inherited from K. τ ∈ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is not inherited the orientation from σ. L) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K. L).L) K ∂n ∂n qn Cn−1 (K) − − Cn−1 (K. L). the relative n-chain group Cn (K.9 Relative Homology for Polyhedral Pairs 有向複体の対 9. we have the following short exact sequence: 0 − − Cn (L) − − Cn (K) − − Cn (K. L) → Cn−1 (K. all oriented n-simplexes in K \ L. dim τ = dim σ − 1. L). the n-dimensional (oriented) relative chain group Cn (K. The relative (K. −→ −n→ −→ −→ where i : L ⊂ K is the inclusion simplicial map. L) − − 0. When L = ∅. L) −→ · · · n 次元相対鎖群 相対境界作用素 n 次元相対鎖複体 ∂n+1 (K.L) ∂0 (K. L). (2) For two simplexes σ. Remark.L) relative chain complex is the system C(K. L) is the homomorphism K induced by the boundary operator ∂n : Cn (K) → Cn−1 (K). ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩0 otherwise.L) ∂1 (K.L) ∂n−1 (K. ⎨ [σ. L) −→ 0 (K.1 Deﬁnition A pair (K. as is easily observed. the relative incidence number relative with respect to L is deﬁned as follows: ⎧ ⎪1 if τ σ. dim τ = dim σ − 1. L) −→ Cn−1 (K.L) ∂ (K. L) is deﬁned as the factor group Cn (K)/Cn (L). ∂n )n 0 : n C(K. that is.L) boundary operator ∂n : Cn (K.L) K Cn (K.L) The sequence q = (qn )n 0 of the quotient homomorphisms qn : Cn (K) → Cn (K)/Cn (L) = Cn (K.L) ∂2 −→ C1 (K. (1) Let Cn (K. τ ∈ L ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and τ is inherited the orientation from σ.

For z ∈ Zn (K. L) = Im ∂n+1 . we have ∂n = ∂n by identifying Cn (K. L) = Ker ∂n (K. L ∩ K0 ) ∼ H∗ (K. H∗ (L) and H∗ (K. let (K. 9. n > 0. L) → Hn−1 (L).L) The following factor group is called the n-dimensional relative homology group: Hn (K. L) of oriented complexes. L) as in (1). ∅) = H∗ (K). 80 ホモロジー完全系列 . L) → Cn−1 (K. L) by the natural isomorphism. When L = ∅. which is the relative homology class of z. L). L) = (Hn (K.1. Then. L) of oriented complexes. L) −→ 0.4 Theorem For a pair (K. L). 演習 9. If K0 is a subcomplex of K such that K = L ∪ K0 (i. L)/Bn (K.2 Deﬁnition For a pair (K.We deﬁne ∂n : Cn (K. L). then C(K0 .. such that the following sequence is exact: ∗ ∗ · · · −→ Hn (L) −→ Hn (K) −→ Hn (K. we have the following: 9. 9. L) ∈ Hn (K. L) as follows: ∂n (c) = τ ∈K[n−1]\L σ∈K[n]\L aσ [σ. we denote z (K. L). We denote H∗ (K.L) aσ σ. = hence H∗ (K0 .L) = z + Bn (K. The above sequence is called the homology (long) exact sequence for (K. L). L). τ ]L τ for each c = σ∈K[n]\L (K.e. there exist homomorphisms ∂ : Hn (K.1 Exercise – Prove the remark (1) and (2) above. K \ L ⊂ K0 ). L) −→ Hn−1 (L) −→ ∗ · · · −→ H0 (K) −→ H0 (K. = The following shows the relation between H∗ (K). L). L) = Zn (K. L))n 0 . L ∩ K0 ) ∼ C(K. L) = Cn (K. By the remark for Deﬁnition 9.3 Theorem (Excision Theorem) Let K be an oriented complex with a subcomplex L. 相対ホモロジー群 相対ホモロジー類 切除定理 ∂ i q∗ ∂ i i q∗ 0 where i∗ is the homomorphism induced by the inclusion i : L ⊂ K and q∗ is the homomorphism induced by the quotient chain homomorphism q = (qn )n 0 : C(K) → C(K. Zn (K. we can regard H∗ (K.L) and Bn (K.

we have (K. it follows that ∂n (c) ∈ Ker qn−1 = Im in−1 . i. As same as above. L Since in−2 is a monomorphism. where z ∈ Zn (K.L) y ∈ Cn+1 (K.L) K Zn (K. L Consequently. we can deﬁne ∂ : Hn (K. we show that the homology class d of d is uniquely determined for (K.L) L K ∂n ∂n ∂n i qn 0 − − Cn−1 (L) − − Cn−1 (K) − − Cn−1 (K. L). L) − − 0 −→ −→ −→ −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K. it follows that L K K K K in−1 ∂n (b) = ∂n (c − c − ∂n+1 (x)) = ∂n (c) − ∂n (c ) = in−1 (d) − in−1 (d ) = in−1 (d − d ) L Since in−2 is a monomorphism. L). L) − − 0 −→ −→ −→ −→ For each z ∈ Zn (K. See the following commutative diagram: 0 − − Cn+1 (L) − − Cn+1 (K) − − Cn+1 (K. L) = Cn (K)/Cn (L). (K. Thus. it follows that ∂n−1 (d) = 0.L) = z . z−z ∈ Bn (K.L) ) = d . Then. L) → Hn−1 (L) by ∂(z (K. we have K d ∈ Cn−1 (L) such that ∂n (c) = in−1 (d). we have b ∈ Cn (L) such that in (b) = c − c − ∂n+1 (x). L) such that z (K. L) ⊂ Cn (K. L) − − 0 −→ −→ −→ −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K. it follows that d − d = ∂n (b) ∈ Bn−1 (L).L) of z. choose c ∈ Cn (K) and d ∈ Zn−1 (L) K so that qn (c ) = z and ∂n (c ) = in−1 (d ). On the other hand.L) ⏐ ∂L ∂K n+1 n+1 in+1 qn+1 ∂n+1 −n→ Cn (K) − − − → Cn (K. L Now. Observe that K qn (c − c − ∂n+1 (x)) = qn (c − c ) − ∂n+1 (y) = 0. Let z ∈ Zn (K.Proof.L) ⏐ ∂L ∂K n−1 n−1 in−1 qn−1 ∂n−1 0 − − Cn−2 (L) − − Cn−2 (K) − − Cn−2 (K. Since qn−1 ∂n (c) = ∂n qn (c) = (K.. L) − − 0 −→ 0 −− − → Cn (L) − − ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ (K. there is c ∈ Cn (K) such that qn (c) = z because (K. which implies that d ∈ Zn−1 (L).L) the homology class z (K.L) K Since Ker qn = Im in . L) and d ∈ Zn−1 (L) such that z = qn (c) and in−1 (d) = in−2 qn−2 81 . d = d . L L Therefore. whence L K K K in−2 ∂n−1 (d) = ∂n−1 in−1 (d) = ∂n−1 ∂n (c) = 0.L) K ∂n (z) = 0. L) such that ∂n+1 (y) = z − z . whence there is x ∈ Cn+1 (K) such that qn+1 (x) = y.e.

Each homomorphism hn : Cn (K) → Cn (M) induces ¯ the homomorphism hn : Cn (K. 9. N). 9. To see that ∂ is a homomorphism. L) − − 0 −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ ⏐¯ h |C (L) n n n 演習 i qn hn 0 − − Cn (N) − − Cn (M) − − Cn (M.L) : ¯ h ∂n Cn (K. N) − − Hn−1 (N) −→ −→ q∗ ∂ 82 . N). N) be pairs of oriented complexes. L) and (M.L) )=d−d L =d −d . and the relative homology homomorphism ¯ h∗ : H∗ (K.2 Exercise – Complete the proof above by proving the exactness of the homology sequence.N ) ∂n Cn−1 (K. z ∈ Zn (K. L) − − Hn−1 (L) −→ −→ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ ⏐(h|L) h ∗ ∗ 相対ホモロジー 準同型 (写像) q∗ ∂ ∗ Hn (M) − − Hn (M.K ∂n (c) for some c ∈ Cn (K).N ) ¯ ¯ hn = hn−1 ∂n (K.L) − z (K.5 Deﬁnition Let (K. Then. L) → C(M. −→ −→ −→ −→ in qn whence ∂n (M. ∂(z (K. Observe that z − z = K qn (c − c ) and in−1 (d − d ) = ∂n (c − c ). The proof of the exactness is left to the reader. N) ⏐ ⏐ (M. N) − − 0. L) → Cn (M. c ∈ Cn (K). in−1 (d) = K K ∂n (c) and in−1 (d ) = ∂n (c ) for some c.L) ¯ hn−1 Cn (M. Then. L) − − Cn−1 (M.L) ) = ∂(z − z (K. z = qn (c ). d ∈ Zn−1 (L) such that z = qn (c). h induces the relative chain homomorphism ¯ ¯ h = (hn )n 0 相対鎖準同型 (写像) : C(K. L L which means that ∂ is a homomorphism. N). let z. L) − − −n→ ⏐ ⏐ (K. L) and d. L) → H∗ (M. N): −n→ −→ −→ 0 − − Cn (L) − − Cn (K) − − Cn (K. and h = (hn )n 0 : C(K) → C(M) a chain homomorphism such that hn (Cn (L)) ⊂ Cn (N ) for every n 0. −→ that is. the following diagram is commutative: Hn (K) − − Hn (K.

. (1) By Proposition 5. show that the relative homology homomorphism induced by the relative subdivision operator is an isomorphism.5 Exercise – By using Five Lemma 6. L). L) → (M. L) → C(M. the following diagram is also commutative: −∗→ Hn (L) − − Hn (K) ⏐ ⏐ ⏐h ⏐ (h|L) ∗ ∗ 演習 i Hn (N) − − Hn (M) −→ i∗ (2) The isomorphism H∗ (K0 . for simplicial maps ϕ : (K1 . ϕ(σ) ∈ N for every σ ∈ L). In this case. L3 ). is the chain homomorphism induced by the subdivision operator Sd = (Sdn )n 0 : C(K) → C(Sd K).7 Deﬁnition When a simplicial map ϕ : K → M satisﬁes f (L) ⊂ N (i. Let (K. 2. L3 ). 9. 9. be pairs of oriented complexes. N). 9.L) )∗ = idH∗ (K. Li ).L) . Sd L).8 Proposition Let (Ki .1. which induces homomorphism ϕ∗ : H∗ (K. L2 ) and ψ : (K2 .6. ϕ induces the relative chain homomorphism ϕ = (ϕn )n 0 : C(K.9.3 is induced by the inclusion i : (K0 . L1 ) → (K2 . L) in the Excision Theorem = 9. 3. L) be a pair of oriented complexes. Then. N). we write ϕ : (K. ∅) ⊂ (K. Remark.7. 83 演習 相対鎖準同型 .e. L).4 Exercise – Prove the remark (2) above. and (2) for the inclusion j : (K. (1) (id(K. j = q in Deﬁnition 9. L) → H∗ (Sd K. L1 ) → H∗ (K3 . L) → H∗ (M.3 Exercise – Show that the above diagram is commutative. Then. 9. L) → C(Sd K. ψ∗ ϕ∗ = (ψϕ)∗ : H∗ (K1 . L ∩ K0 ) → (K. This relative subdivision operator induces the relative homology isomorphism Sd∗ : H∗ (K. N). Sd L). L∩K0 ) ∼ H∗ (K. L2 ) → (K3 . L).6 Deﬁnition The relative subdivision operator Sd = (Sdn )n 0 演習 相対細分作用素 : C(K. 9. hence j∗ = g∗ : H∗ (K) → H∗ (K. i = 1. Remark.

g∗ f∗ = (f g)∗ : H∗ (K1 . N)).6 Exercise – Prove the proposition above. N). |L|) ≈ (|M |. f : |K| → |M | has a simplicial approximation g : Sdn K → M such that g(Sdn L) ⊂ N (i. (|K|.12 Deﬁnition For a continuous map f : (|K|. N) are relative simplicial approximations of f . |N |) be a continuous map. N).10 Deﬁnition A simplicial map g : (Sdn K. 9. then g∗ Sdn = g∗ Sdm : H∗ (K. For any continuous maps f : (|K1 |. For each pair (K. Sdn L) → (M. which is called the relative homology homomorphism induced by f . (id(K. be pairs of oriented complexes. L) → H∗ (M. |L3 |). If g : (Sdn K. |N |). L) → H∗ (M. |L2 |) and g : (|K2 |.9 Lemma Let f : (|K|. N) and g : (Sdm K. i = 1. g : (Sdn K. |L2 |) → (|K3 |. Sdm L) → (M. L) → H∗ (M. |N |) be a continuous map..13 Theorem Let (Ki . |L|) → (|M |. 9. N) as in the above lemma a relative simplicial approximation of f : (|K|. L) ∼ H∗ (M. L) of oriented complexes. whence g| Sdn L is a simplicial approximation of f ||L| : |L| → |N |.L) )∗ = idH∗ (K. N). |L1 |) → (|K2 |. |L|) → (|M |. 9. |N |). N).9. by using its relative simplicial approximation g : (Sdn K. L1 ) → H∗ (K3 . = 演習 演習 相対単体近似 演習 相対ホモロジー 準同型 演習 84 .9 Exercise – Prove the theorem above. L3 ). |L|) → (|M |. 9. |N |) induces to a relative homology isomorphism f∗ : H∗ (K. 9.e. Sdn L) → (M. Remark.L) . 9. N).14 Corollary A homeomorphism f : (|K|. 9.7 Exercise – Prove the lemma above.11 Lemma Let f : (|K|. Hence. 3. Then. Sdn L) → (M. Sdn L) → (M. Li ). we deﬁne the relative homology homomorphism f∗ = g∗ Sdn : H∗ (K. |L|) → (|M |. 9. 9.8 Exercise – Prove the lemma above. 2. |N |) implies H∗ (K. |L|) → (|M |.

L) → H∗ (M. If X0 is a subpolyhedron of X such that X = A ∪ X0 . L) → H∗ (M. A) be a polyhedral pair. we deﬁne f∗ = (g −1f h)∗ : H∗ (X. N) = H∗ (Y. A). g). then the inclusion i : (X0 . there exist homomorphisms ∂ : Hn (X. by identifying (g −1 f h )∗ : H∗ (K . H∗ (M . A) = H∗ (K. The above sequence is called the homology (long) exact sequence for (X.7. N ) is identifying with H∗ (M. A) independently from a relative triangulation of (X. B). identifying H∗ (K . N) by the isomorphism (g −1 g )∗ . A). L . A) = H∗ (K. N). A ∩ X0 ) → H∗ (X. In the above. A) and (Y. B). ∅) → (X. the relative homology homomorphism f∗ : H∗ (X. For a continuous map f : (X. B). A) −→ 0. L). Let (Y. h ) of (X. A) → H∗ (Y. A ∩ X0 ) → (X.15 Deﬁnition For a polyhedral pair (X. L.9. Then.16 Theorem (Excision Theorem) Let (X. B) can be deﬁned independently from relative triangulations of (X. B). A).4: 9. we have the following topological version of Theorem 9. Remark. L) by the isomorphism (h−1 h )∗ . N ) with (g −1 f h)∗ : H∗ (K. we deﬁne the relative homology H∗ (X. A). which is called the relative homology homomorphism induced by f . Moreover. N . such that the following sequence is exact: ∗ ∗ · · · −→ Hn (A) −→ Hn (X) −→ Hn (X.17 Theorem For a polyhedral pair (X. A) → Hn−1 (A). L ) = H∗ (K. A) −→ Hn−1 (A) −→ ∗ · · · −→ H0 (X) −→ H0 (X. L ) → H∗ (M . ホモロジー完全系列 85 . B) be another polyhedral pair with a relative triangulation (M. By the remark after Deﬁnition 9. A) induces to the isomorphism i∗ : H∗ (X0 . we can deﬁne the relative homology H∗ (X. n > 0. A). h). The following is the topological version of Theorem 9.3: 9. A). for another relative triangulation (M . A) → (Y. g ) of (Y. A) with a relative triangulation (K. for other relative triangulation (K . N. 相対ホモロジー 相対ホモロジー 準同型 (写像) 切除定理 ∂ i j∗ ∂ i i j∗ 0 where i∗ is the homomorphism induced by the inclusion i : A ⊂ X and j∗ is the homomorphism induced by the inclusion j : (X.

80. 42 homology group. 45 e Euler-Poincar´ formula. 72 homotopy type. 50 homology homomorphism induced by a chain homomorphism. 39 chain homomorphism. 4 Hauptvermutung. 22 Betti number. n-dimensional. 49 contiguous. 13 chain. 69 carrier. 85 homology class. — ordered. 42 chain complex. 52 homology isomorphism. 50 combinatorially equivalent. 4 generator of the free additive group. — a continuous map. 4 barycenter of a simplex. 20 cycle. 8 Five Lemma. 31 component. 40 Brouwer’s Fixed Point Theorem. 62 ﬁxed point. 57 Excision Theorem. 40 derived subdivision. 52 chain isomorphism. 4 convex set. 68 free additive group.Index aﬃnely independent. 3 homology (long) exact sequence. 50 chain homomorphism induced by. 10 convex hull. 85 face. 42 homology homomorphism. 33 homeomorphism between pairs. — ordered. 7 barycentric coordinate. 45 — oriented. bounding cycle. 7 boundary operator. 73 contractible. 72 incidence number. 80. 72 convex body. 7 86 . 38 Fundamental Homomorphism Theorem. 74 homotopically equivalent. 72 homotopy inverse. 11. 73. 22 dimension. 40 interior of a simplex. 50 homology homomorphism induced by. 72 homotopy. 12 epimorphism. 67 — a simplicial map. 67 Homotopical Invariance of Homology. 4 cross cap. — a simplicial map. 39 boundary. 45 boundary of a simplex. 46 e exact sequence. 41 Fundamental Theorem on Abelian Groups. 45 general position. 72 homotopy equivalence. 38 geometrically independent. 5. 57 Euler-Poincar´ characteristic. 66. 5 barycentric subdivision. 39 chain complex. 68 Brouwer’s Theorem on Invariance of Domain. 44 — oriented. 40 chain group. 50 homology of a polyhedron.

85 — homology class. 83 — homology. 19. 15 retraction. 80 — homology homomorphism. 31 polyhedral pair. 83 — triangulation. 68 simplex. 12 simplicial embedding. 82. 12 locally ﬁnite-dimensional. 15 Theorem on free additive groups. 17. 45 Tietze Extension Theorem. 21. 37 — of a simplicial complex. 76 linearly independent. 13 pair of spaces. 13 subdivision operator. 19. 79 — simplicial approximation. 23 Klein bottle. — of a simplex. 5 87 . 57 Mayer-Vietoris’ Theorem. 33 simplicial complex. 28. 12 Minkowski functional. 72 open star. 84. 79 — chain homomorphism. 8 monomorphism. 24 ordered simplex. 79 — chain group. 35 simplicially isomorphic. 38 oriented simplex. 57. 17. 31 PL homeomorphism.J. 68 Topological Invariance of Homology. 37 orientation. 37 pair of oriented complexes. — boundary operator. 75 proper face. 13 locally ﬁnite simplicial complex. 3 Mayer-Vietoris exact sequence. 21 surface. in a simplicial complex. 15 vertex. 13 subcomplex. 31 skeleton. 18. topological. 4 link. 30 simplicial homotopy. 77 rank. 71 mesh. 74 o manifold. 31 PL embedding. 38 oriented complex. 39. in a simplicial complex. 68 null-homotopic. 15 projective plane. 31 simplicial map. 35 simplicial isomorphism. 79 pair of simplicial complexes. 45 relative. 16 star.H. 67 torus. 14 ordered complex.C. 5 simplicial approximation. 30 simplicial homeomorphism. 15 polyhedron. 3 PL (piece-wise linear) map. Whitehead Theorem on subdivision. 8 punctured torus. 69 Topological Invariance of Dimension. 80 — homology group. 20. 12 M¨bius band. subdivide. 79 — chain complex. 82. 85 — incidence number. 57 No Retraction Theorem. 60 subdivision. 78 triangulation. 15 map between pairs. 12 polyhedron. 84 — subdivision operator. 29 simplicially homotopic. 12 sphere.

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