1

Baseband Digital Communications
• Characteristics and Constraints of Wireless Channels
• Baseband Pulse Transmission: Line Signal Codings [NRZ, AMI, Manchester,
2B1Q, ...]
• Pulse Amplitude Modulation [PAM]: Transmitter and Receiver pulse shaping
• Intersymbol Interference [ISI]: Eye Pattern
• The Nyquist Criterion:
– Raised Cosine Pulses
– Multipath
– Performance: Mean-Square Error
– Probability of Error
2
Baseband Modulation
• An information bearing-signal must conform to the limits of its channel
• Generally modulation is a two-step process
– baseband: shaping the spectrum of input bits to fit in a limited spectrum
– passband: modulating the baseband signal to the system rf carrier
• Most common baseband modulation is Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)
– data amplitude modulates a sequence of time translates of basic pulse
– PAM is a linear form of modulation: easy to equalize, BW is pulse BW
– Typically baseband data will modulate in-phase [cos] and quadrature [sine] data
streams to the carrier passband
• Special cases of modulated PAM include
– phase shift keying (PSK)
– quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)
3
Need for Baseband Modulation

• An analog signal has a finite bandwidth.
• A digital stream or signal, with sharp transitions, has an infinite
bandwidth.

• Due to the limited available system bandwidth, only the major portion of
a digital signal spectrum can be transmitted and restored. Even if there is
no loss or noise in the communication system, the received signal will
have distortion due to the limited channel bandwidth.



To avoid or to reduce this signal distortion, we
use baseband modulation techniques
time
time
Typical Baseband PAM Signals
1 0 0 0 0 1 1
RZ
s(t) g(t) a
n
M
T 0
NRZ
2
2
2
4
3
0
1
0
1
0
1
00
01
11
10
0
1
0
1
-1
1
-1
1
-3
1
1
3
0
±1
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
→ →
BANDLIMITED
4-LEVEL
BIPOLAR/AMI [Alternate Mark Inversion]
T 0
T 0
T 0 2T
T 0
a
n
S(t)
Each technique will have different spectrum (at DC and band edge),
ease of timing recovery
S(t) = Σ Σ a
n
g(t-nT) a
n
represents data (M-ary)
1/T = symbol (baud) rate
Bit rate = log
2
M=R
T
1
n
= a
0
g(t) + a
1
g(t-T) + ...
5
State Diagram for AMI Signaling
State “+” State “-”
1/-p(t)
Branch Labels: Input bit (a
n
)/output waveform or symbol [d
n
p(t)]
1/p(t)
0/0
0/0
The modulator has two states, labeled “+” and “-”. The modulator responds to a source symbol
0 with a zero waveform and to a source symbol 1 with the waveform p(t) or -p(t) depending on
whether its state is “-” or “+” respectively.
Note that the choice of the states is not obvious. A common mistake is to choose the output levels,
0, 1, and -1 as states. But, if you make this choice, it is hard/impossible(?) to capture the memory
of the system.
6
Examples of Baseband Impulse Responses
(1) NRZ (non return to zero)
(2) Raised Cosine
(3) Bipolar (AMI)
(4) Manchester
0 T 2T
0 T t
0
T
2T
0 T
0 1/T f
0 1/T
1/2T
0 1/T
1/2T
3
T
1
T
0 2
T
E.g Equalized Voiceband,
Cellular or Microwave
LOS Modem
e.g. 1.544/2.048 Mbps
T
1
/E
1
Carrier on
Twisted-Pair
e.g. Ethernet on Coaxial
Cable (3-10 Mbps)
h (t) |H(f)|
7
Examples of Baseband Impulse Responses (continued)
(5) Multipath: Class I Partial Response
(Duobinary)
(6) Multipath: Class IV Partial Response
T 2T
0 T
0
• Multipath Nulls at DC and
Nyquist frequency
h (t) |H(f)|
(7) Minimum - Bandwidth Nyquist Pulse
1
2T
0 1
2T
• Multipath (Cellular)
• Need Powerful Equalizer
(DFE, VA)
• Regularly spaced zero
crossings
• Not Realized in Practice
0 1
2T
= W
0
sin2π π Wt
2π π WT
Typical Linear Channel Characteristics
Voiceband Telephone After Demodulation
0
Frequency Response
H(f)
Impulse Response
h(t)
Twisted Copper Pair with Transformers (DSL)
Radio
Gitlin1_8
f
0 f
0 f f
0
h(t)
Linear Equalizer
I/Q Equalizer
~DFE
t
t
t
h(t)
h(t)
|H(f)| ang H(f)
|H(f)|
ang H(f)
|H(f)|
ang H(f)
~10 ms
Nulls require a non-linear
equalizer: DFE or MLSE/VA
9
Pulse Distortion Due to MultiPath
10
Digital Baseband Modulation Techniques
• NR (Non-Return-to-zero)
• Bipolar (AMI)
• Partial response
• Manchester
• Baseband (PAM): Baseband Channels
Typical Power Spectra:
Bipolar, Partial Reponse,
or Manchester
Examples: Twisted-Pair and Coaxial Cable Channels
1
2T
1
T
to
Freq. 0
Freq. 0
NRZ
11
Doubling the Data Rate
• Date Rate =
• If SNR limited ----> double the symbol rate [3 dB SNR penalty]
• If bandwidth limited ----> only choice is to double the number of bits/symbol
by increasing the number of points
– For example: going from 4-QAM to 16-QAM [from 2 to 4 bits/symbol]
– This has a ~6-7 dB penalty
• So, assuming that the bandwidth is available it is always better to double the
symbol rate
• The above also assumes that the background noise and/or interference is flat
with frequency
N
T
2
log
1
Recall that 1/T is the symbol rate
and N is the number of modulation levels
12
Coded Baseband Digital Modulation Techniques
• Can be combined with any of the above
• Performance improvement at the cost of increased receiver delay
and complexity
• Allows rate to approach channel capacity
• Types: - block coding
- convolutional or trellis coding
• Coded Systems
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Uncoded System
Coded Systems with
Increasing Complexity
Channel Capacity Limit
Error
Probability
Examples of Application: - Cellular Phones
- Satellite Channels
- High Speed Voiceband
Telephone Modems
13
Example of a Baseband PAM System
Quantize
Receive
Filter
Baseband
Channel
Trans.
Filter
0 → → 1
0 → − → −1
r(t)
B C
r(nT)
A
a
n
1/T per
sec.
Overall Impulse Response = x(t)
Sample at
t = nT + τ τ
â
n
At A:
{a
n
}
T
• Baud = Symbols/sec x(t)
ISI
0 T
At C:
{r(nt)}
At D:

n
}
At B:
r(t)
Timing Margin
T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T 8T
Margin Against Noise
a
n
x(t-nT) r(t) =
n
∑ ∑
PAM
a
n
δ δ(t-nT)
n
∑ ∑
Intersymbol Interference (ISI) Can Cause Errors Without Noise
14
Band-Limited Signal for No Intersymbol Interference
-3T -2T -T T 2T 3T 0 -4T 4T
t
t
x(t)
• Ideal Pulse
π πWt
sinπ πWt
• Minimum Bandwidth Pulse
0
-W =
2T
1
- W =
2T
1
2W
1
X(f)
f
1/T Symbols/sec
Don’t Need Time Limited Pulses for “0” ISI
Nyquist (1928)
15
Why Equalization Is Needed
(A)
Transmitted Pulse
(B)
(C)
Amplitude
0
F1
Frequency
Amplitude
-3T -2T -T T 2T 3T 0
P(t)
P(t) + P(t-T)
Time
-3T -2T -T T 2T 3T 0
Time
16
INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE: ISI
• Cause of ISI:



• Elimination or reduction of ISI
- filtering
- equalization
17
EQUALIZATION: Pulse Shaping
Ideal pulse shaping [to satisfy the Nyquis t
criterion]:
y(t) = 0 at t = nT [n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ]
18
The Eye Pattern [as a measure of distortion]
0 T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T 8T
nT) (t (t) : Waveform PAM
n
n


= x a r
m m k k
x a x a kT r (0) ) (
0 m

+ =


Desired Intersymbol Interference = is a random variable
(pdf is difficult to compute)

By the Central Limit Theorem the ISI can be approximated by a Gaussian
Random Variable of zero mean and variance


≠0
2
n
n
x
19
Eye Pattern
“Bad” - Closed
Eye Pattern Display
“Good” - Open
Threshold
Level
Margin
for Error
Due To
Noise
Margin
for Error
Due to
Timing
Sample Instant
Symbol Timing Wave
Scope Trigger
From Modem
20
The Raised Cosine Family of Nyquist Pulses
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
-3T -2T -T T 2T 3T
0.5
0
α α = 0
0
0.5
1
Raised Cosine
(a)
Excess Bandwidth
(b)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
α α = 0
X (ω ω)
π π/T 2π π/T
Raised Cosine Pulse Shaping: (a) Frequency Response, (b) Time Response
1
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
' '
¹ ¹
· · ω ω
T
) ( X
T 2
T
sin 1
2
T
¹ ¹
; ;
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
' '
¹ ¹
1 1
] ]
1 1

¸ ¸


, ,
_ _

¸ ¸
¸ ¸ π π
− − ω ω
α α
− −
) 1 (
T
0 α α − −
π π
≤ ≤ ω ω ≤ ≤
2 2 2
T / t 4 - 1
t/T cos
T / t
T / t sin
) t ( x
α α
απ απ
π π
π π
· ·
1
0.5
Fequency
Time
) 1 (
T
) 1 (
T
α α + +
π π
≤ ≤ ω ω ≤ ≤ α α − −
π π
,
,
21
Performance of PAM Systems: No ISI/Multipath
(Gaussian Noise)
L = 2 4 8 16
1
10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
-4
10
-5
10
-6
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0
P
s
/ P
N
[SNR], dB
P
e
Probability of error P
s
for L-level PAM, where P
s
/ P
N
is the
signal-to-noise power ratio in the Nyquist bandwidth. Note
that doubling the bit rate requires about 6-7 dB of SNR
For Nyquist Pulse
{ { } }
∫ ∫
∞ ∞
π π
· ·
1 1
1 1
] ]
1 1


¸ ¸



, ,
_ _


¸ ¸
¸ ¸

, ,
_ _

¸ ¸
¸ ¸
− − · · > > η η
, ,
_ _

¸ ¸
¸ ¸
− − · ·


, ,
_ _


¸ ¸
¸ ¸ − −
· · − − · · · · · ·
− −
· ·
∑ ∑
x
dt e
2
1
) x ( Q
P
P
1 - L
3
Q
L
1
1 2 d Pr
L
1
1 P
3
1 L
T
d
1)] d(2i [
LT
2
IT a POWER XMITT P
2
2
t
2 / 1
N
s
2 e
2 2
2
L12
1 i
2
s
L/2
/ T
22
Σ Σ
Adaptive Equalization
Input
binary
data
Pulse
generator
Transmitting
filter
Channel
Receiving
filter
Adaptive
equalizer
Decision
device
{a(n)} y(n)
Output
binary
data
Block diagram of a baseband data transmission system.
Transmitter
Noise
Receiver
Adaptive equalizer with a decision-directed mode of operation.
Adaptive
equalizer
Decision
device
Switch Stored
reference
generator
Σ Σ
+
-
Input
signal
Desired Response = Replica of transmitted signal
Sampler
Error

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