Editorial

Time is passing with its good and bad memories. On individual basis, we all need to
assess in retrospect whether our balance of noble deeds is more than bad deeds or it’s the
other way round. On the basis of nationhood, the Muslims all over the globe have been
subjected to desperate times due to their illiteracy and dormant attitude. It seems that we
have become intoxicated with our present dismal situation and are least bothered to
improve our general social, economic and political situation.
Muslim society has certain characteristics; the members of the society are working for
one another collective well being. This results in the uplift of the society and strengths
brotherhood among the members. Hence the strong bond of moral and ethnic values is
the basis of the Islamic society where no member thinks of cheating other members of the
society just for his or her benefit. The essence of the Islamic society is the promotion of
healthy work environment and practices, education and training of the masses, caring of
the elderly and children in the society, rule of justice without any discrimination at all
levels and provision of basic necessities to all.
It’s important that Muslim should adopt characteristics of the enlightened Islamic society
of the era when Europe was in the dark ages while Muslims were ruling the world of
science and technology. Do we know what the reasons for that development were and
what are the reasons of today’s dark period? In the era from 7th to 14th century, Muslims
had severe thirst to learn and discover, were spending majority of their resources for the
promotion of science and technology. This lead to the growth and development of the
society. They were practical Muslims, their personal and social lives were spent for the
welfare of the society as a whole. The religion had profound effect on their lives. They
had simple but creative living.
On the other hand, today, we want to become the champions of Islam without inculcating
any of its principles. We are aiming for the achievement of the highest standards of the
material life and for that purpose we are willing to inflict harm to anyone in the society
whether he is among our near relations or from a far off neighbourhood. This selfish
approach has insulated poison in the society. Everybody cares only for himself and in this
way society has become a symbol of jungle rule; Might is Right.
The time is running fast, sooner we will be known by the future generations as failed and
depressed states who did nothing to come out of their shameless situation. We would be
known as barbarians and astray people who were ignorant to follow the golden guiding
principles written in Holy Quran and explained and described by the teachings of the
Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him and His Family). The system of change starts
from oneself by fulfilling the oath of submitting our own self-centered wishes to the
commands of Almighty Allah. Only then there is chance of success in this world and
hereafter.
Written by Syed Ahmed Imam Bukhari

Approaches to development of spirituality; a study of ‘Sulami’s darrajat as
siddiqeen’ in the light of Ghazzal’s ‘minhaj al abideen’
Dr Musharraf Hussain Al Azhari
This is an abridgement of “Darrajat as siddiqeen” a monograph by Sulami (d;1021) that
explains the gradual spiritual development of a sufi, an aspirant, a sincere traveller on
path to God. From this monograph i have discerned seven stations during the spiritual
ascent these are; repentance, reliance, hope and fear, knowledge, acquiring divine
attributes, bestowing of Divine knowledge. I then compare this approach to Ghazzali’s
method in ‘ minhaj al abideen’.
First Station; repentance
Men of God begin their journey by practicing spiritual discipline that consists of
repentance, detachment from the world and constant watchfulness over their outward and
innermost thoughts and secrets ( Tawba, zuhd and muraqaba). They distance themselves
from all familiar things as they impose strict discipline on themselves which is displayed
as service to people and respect of mankind and preferring others over themselves and
patience at all times. They turn away from all other than God, the world, the people, even
their own wealth and possessions. They are committed to their Lord as they engage in
constant zikr, worship, night vigil, recitation and deep reflections.
Imam Ghazzali regards repentance as the second stage in spiritual development that is a
means of shedding the burden of sins, purification and preparation for Divine service.
Second Station: complete reliance
The sufi’s love of God develops deeper and deeper as he begins to relay completely on
God (tawakul), trusting God to provide daily bread at least and realising that God is the
only Benefactor or Malefactor. This trust in God leads to certainty (yaqin) and assumes a
strong reliance on God so much so that he entrusts all his affairs to him (Tafwid),
eventually leading to total submission (Taslim). This is manifested as patience and
confidence that results in an inward and outward contentment (Rida) with all that befalls
one. From now on he will not complain about adversity nor will he gloat over his
achievements, he has now aligned his will with the Divine will, he is in complete
harmony with destiny.
In ghazzali’s view the sufi faces four hindrances on his spiritual ascent they are;
sustenance, perils, destiny’s decree and adversity, the way to overcome them is to “cling
to lifeline of God, so they take no interest in the attachment of their fellow creatures”.
Ghazzali then says “ the matter of sustenance and absolute trust , tawakkul is very
important indeed.
Third Station: Hope and Fear
The reliance on the Almighty and love for Him leads the aspirant to next station of
hope and fear. The ascent from second station arises out of the fear of one’s weaknesses,
ignorance and lack of sincerity. The sufi is fearful as he realises how inadequate he is
before the majestic Lord and simultaneously cherishes the relationship with the loving
and merciful Lord gradually this state changes into hope, he now accepts God’s
promises of beneficence to his servants and believes that he will be cleansed of his
weaknesses. He is now confident that the Lord will protect him.
The author then explains that this is a cyclical process, i.e. as soon as one reaches the end
he has to return to the beginning; start again with repentance followed by reliance and

then fear and hope. A Sufi said “i travelled the stations three times, whenever I reached
the end it was said “return him to the beginning so he does not remain ignorant”. This is
like a spiral education curriculum; at each key stage of their learning students will revisit
the subject, but every year at a slightly higher level than the previous. This spiritual
development is accompanied by heightened self-awareness as manifested in the ability to
discern the right and wrong; One is able to distinguish between intuition and temptation,
self-deception and certainty.
These spiritual devotions, efforts and consistent struggles create a state of stability
istiqamat—“living in God’s presence” characterised by stability in soul, will power,
instincts, thoughts and reflections. The following verse points to this “so keep the right
course as you have been commanded, together with those who have turned to God with
you” (hud;112).
Imam Ghazzali regards fear and hope as to important ‘incentives’ that make the path easy
to travel in his scheme of spiritual development this is the fifth stage.. He believes that
fear is necessary for two reasons; its a powerful deterrence against sins and disobedience
and stops one from being proud of his devotions. Similarly, he teaches that hope is
essential for two reasons; it motivates one to worship the Lord as one becomes conscious
of mercy of God and intense longings for His blessings, secondly hope makes it easier to
bear hardships.
Fourth STATIO& OF K&OWLEDGE:
By this stage the aspirant, the traveller on Divine path has become purified, free from the
temptations of Shaitan and greed of the world. He is now a true sufi, the one who has
been purified of all weaknesses and evil so that his soul is now unveiled and capable of
moving in the realm of the unseen. He is blessed by the Divine light and intuition with
which he can understand and see the reality. This is what the prophet hinted to when he
said “Be aware of the intuitive glance of the believer for he sees by the light of God”. The
true knowledge is knowledge of the Almighty all else is false and unreal. He says “it is
through the denial of all other than Him. The servant will only know the Lord. Once all
others have disappeared and only the knowledge of Him remains. This station is
described by the saying “He who knows himself, knows his Lord”. I.e. one cannot know
God without first knowing oneself. It also implies that one needs to know the Divine
decrees, commands and prohibitions. This is well expressed in the saying, “the life of the
heart is in the knowledge of God alone.”
Imam Ghazzali regards knowledge as the first stage of spiritual development. He says
“all success depends on this”. There are two reasons why seeking knowledge is so
important; it is through knowledge that one can have correct beliefs and then perform his
duties. Secondly, knowledge will instill the fear of God that acts as motivator.
Fifth station of sincerity
These people of true knowledge have now acquired Divine proximity and a high station
with their Lord. This is due to sincerity and genuiness in their lives, so they are
classified the righteous (siddiqeen). The Messenger praised these righteous people when
he said “among the servants of Allah are people who will be envied by Prophets and
Martyrs.” He can be described as “one who has arrived at the truth” (wasil bil haq)
through his separation from the rest.
Imam Ghazzali teaches that hypocritical ostentation is a real danger for the sufi, it
constantly threatens all his endeavours and the only way to overcome it is through

sincerity. He said “you must wake up from your slumber o man! This is the toughest
hurdle that has confronted you so far “. He gives details of vain conceit and ostentation
and other subtleties his advice is “ if you pay attention , you will see the value of
obedience to God, you will see the inadequacy of creatures, their weaknesses and their
ignorance, so you must not attach importance to them with your heart. You must be
indifferent to their praise, their commendation and their high esteem, in which there is no
benefit”.
Sixth station; acquiring Divine attributes
w ho ever embarks on understanding the 99 Divine attributes and to live them in his life
will be
graced and impacted by each name in every aspect of his life...Once he has bathed
himself in the light and luminosity of these beautiful names. He is now near to God, he
Lives in his presence, breaths in his presence. This is the state described in the famous
hadith Qudsi where Allah said “ I become his tongue with which he speaks, his eyes with
he sees, ears with which he hears and hands with which he grasps... if he asks for
anything it will be granted to him and if he seeks protection he will be given
protection.”He lives each Divine name, practices it , colours himself in it, the grace of
each blessed name shines in his character... here he reaches the outer most limits as he
subsists with God, having neither station, location, name, form, pretence, quality, desire,
vision nor a goal. ”the servant is as he had never been, and God is as He never ceased to
be”.
SEVE&TH STATIO&; bestowing of DIVI&E K&OWLEDGE
Now the sufi has a sight and vision that enables him to see the hidden realities of life.
This is mystic knowledge, the knowledge of hidden things and secrets of Divine reality.
This is al-ilm al ladunni, knowledge from God as mentioned in the verse “then they found
one of our servants to whom we had shown our mercy and had taught him knowledge
from our presence “(18.66). This kind of knowledge is powerful and has an impact on the
listener like Khidr explaining the mysteries of his weird acts to Moses, Moses did not
challenge him, despite being a legislator, a man of law he conceded to these mystic
realities.
This leads to a state of witnessing of God’s glory when “All else appears deprecated in
his eyes and through his perception of the defective nature of all appearances... this is
amongst the stations of illustrious and the masters.” This is exemplified in the saying of
Abdullah ibn Abbas “God bless Omar! it is as though he views destiny through a thin
veil.” Al- Sulami then elaborates the characteristics of this state: “When God has brought
his servant to the station of realised through truthful knowledge he is free of fear...Now
the Lord may reveal him to people as a model and refuge to which aspirants may turn in
their quest for him. The servant witnesses God’s glory, omnipotence and munificence.
This is the moment where permission is granted to hear the Divine discourse and to have
its meanings unveiled to him. He is honoured by the understanding of what he hears by
being addressed, and by witnessing the inner meaning hearing and cognition thereof,
increasing his proximity and intimacy. God said, “Lo! Therein is verily a reminder for
him who has a heart, whoever listens attentively.” (50; 37).
Imam Ghazzali although does not have an equivalent stage as sulami’s ‘ bestowing of
divine knowledge’ however there is a corresponding seventh stage of gratitude, this is
how he explains it, “your duty ... after surmounting these hurdles and achieving the goal

of this worshipful service safe from disasters is to give praise and thanks to God for this
enormous blessing and generous favour. That is incumbent upon you for two simple
reasons; to ensure that the blessings will last and in order to obtain more.” There is a
similarity in the two approaches as Ghazzali points out, “ the gist of the matter is this;
you have found the treasures of knowledge and perceptive understanding and been
cleansed of sins and serious offences.”

CO&CLUSIO&
The acquisition of these seven stages according to Sulami is is rewarded by refuge (amn)
a state of calmness and solace this is granted to them through intuition, dreams or
witnessing the unseen: God said “verily the friends of Allah neither fear nor do they
grieve” (10:63). This is exemplified in the Messenger giving the ten disciples good news
of paradise, or saying to Bilal “i heard your footsteps in paradise” or foretelling the
sanctity of Owais al Qarani. Sometimes, God may reveal these wonderful men as role
models to the community, they act as guides and Masters and are standard bearers for
humanity for the rest. In concluding Sulami says “There can be no successful completion
of the journey through the spiritual stations without a sound beginning. He who has not
founded his journey upon the Quran and the practice of the prophet will in the end attain
nothing of intimate knowledge of God. The only way to attain Divine proximity (Qurb) is
through the teachings of Quran and Sunnah!

(1) Brief introduction to Sheikh Abu Adel-Rehman Sulami (d: 1021)
Abu Abdal Rahman al- Sulami was born in 937 in Nishapur a city in north eastern Iran.
He is regarded as an important early writer on matters of Sufism particularly at its
formative period. He was shafi scholar who had mastery over many fields of Islamic
learning. One reason for his substantial influence is that he had many outstanding
students and disciples like Abu Qasim Qusharyi, Abu Nuaym al Isbhani and Bayhaqi. He
was particularly interested in Tasawaff and his greatest legacy is his writing’s like the
“stations of righteous” and “the stumbling of those aspiring”. Both books give us an
access to the spiritual teachings and the methods of Sufi teachers as well as giving us
insights into the principles, attitudes and practices of Sufi’s at the time of Al- Sulami.His
contemporaries praised Sulami for his integrity. Here is a quote about him “he is one of
those we have encountered who have devoted themselves completely to the precepts and
disciplines of Sufism in accordance with that upon which the founders based their path,
rightly guided by their examples, steadfast on their path, following in their footsteps;
dissociating himself from all the deranged and confused among the ignorant of these
factions; totally disclaiming them.”
Sulami’s student, al-Khashshab (d.456/1063), praising Sulami’s ability to harmonize with
all of those around him, said “He was well considered by the elect and the masses, with
those in accord (with his views), and with those against, with the sultan and with the
subjects, in his own country, and in all the Islamic countries; and thus he passed from this
world onto God.”

In the &ame of Allah the Most Beneficent the Ever Merciful
&ew Confrontations between Christians and Muslims
Shaykh (Pir) Muhammad Muddassir (Silvio) Gualini Chishti Nizami
Introduction
Indeed we pray and ask Allah Almighty to give long life to the Archbishop of Antiochia
dei Siri, Raboula Antoine Beylouni. His Excellency has shocked the audience attending
the Archbishop Synod in Rome in the week starting 17th of October, 2010. We thank His
Excellency to give us the opportunity to write this humble collection of remarks
regarding the enduring confrontation between Christians and Muslims. We do not write
confrontation between Christianity and Islam because in principle both religions,
revealed by the Same God, cannot differ in their essence. God is One for all creatures in
this earth, from the Indian of the Brazilian forests to the New Zealand Maori.
Paraphrasing the verses of his Holiness Shaykh al-Akbar Mohyud-din Al-Arabi,
Rahmatullah Ahle, we can write that there is no difference in God of a Jew following the
Talmud, a Christian following the Injil, a Hindu following the Veda, a Chinese following
Taoism and a Muslim following the Holy Qur’an. None of them has a privilege (provided
they believe in One God, the Last Day and perform good-deeds) above the others: we are
all brothers. His Excellency has taken the opportunity to throw again on present and past
Muslims what does not belong to Islam and true Muslim: pride, aggression associated
with use of weapons, injustice towards women. His Excellency has shown the obscure
side of the clergy and the Vatican attempting to turn ignorance on Islam as a weapon
against Islam choosing the old non-sense of stating that Muslims are Terrorists. But this
is quite “old-story” the interesting accident is that the Official Vatican position has been
in defense of Islam, including the words of Pope Benedict XVI prompted to intensify the
dialogue between Christians and Muslims. Those words followed immediately after the
unlucky speech of the Archbishop of Antiochia dei Siri, Raboula Antoine Beylouni.
Commentary
Purpose of this humble effort is to discuss if Christians and Muslims have ground for a
common cooperation and they can reconcile under the same God, Allah Almighty. Being
formerly a practicing Catholic we share with His Excellency Beylouni sincere doubts.
We are absolutely not interested in Vatican politics but indeed we are mindful of two
important ayat of the Holy and Glorious Qur’an:
<<O you who believe! Do not take for close fast friends My enemies and your enemies,
you offer them love whereas they deny the Truth that has come to you…>>1 [Sûrah 60,
Al-Mumtahinah (The Woman Tested):1]
and:
<<O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and the azarens (Christians) for friends
(and helpers). They are friends to each other and whoso befriends them, then he too is
one of them. Surely Allah does not guide a wrongdoing people.>> [Sûrah 5, Al-Ma’idah
(The Table Spread):51]

1
All our quotations regarding the Holy and Glorious Qur’an in this book are from the “Jamal-ul-Qur’an”
(Urdu: The Beauteous Qur’an) by Justice Pir Muhammad Karam Shah Al-Azhari, Radhiallaho Anho,
English Translation by Prof. Anis Ahmad Sheikh (Gold Medalist). Zia-ul-Qur’an Publications. Lahore –
Karachi – (Pakistan).

Allah Almighty has given these words for perennial memory, so we have to look with
suspicion at Vatican words and also be careful about media words. In fact Allah
Almighty has also told us in the same Holy and Glorious Qur’an:
<<O you who believe! If any wicked person brings you any news, check it fully lest you
may harm any people in ignorance and may later on feel sorry for what you have
done.>> [Sûrah 49, Al-Hujurat (The Inner Apartments):6]
Therefore we did not trust media words and visited the Vatican official website finding
the integral speech in different languages, Arabic included,2 of His Excellency
Archbishop Beylouni. We report his text here following to find that above all the wicked
persons appear to be the journalists, twisting the reality of a speech into “slinging mud”
on Muslims. The original speech is reported here following in Italic:
<<H. Exc. Mons. Raboula Antoine BEYLOUI, Titular Archbishop of Mardin of the
Syrians,
Curia
Bishop
of
Antioch
of
the
Syrians
(LEBAO)
For several years in Lebanon we have had a national committee for Islamic-Christian
dialogue. There was also an Episcopal commission from the Assembly of Catholic
Patriarchs and Bishops of Lebanon entrusted with Islamic-Christian dialogue. It was
recently suppressed to give more importance to the other committee, also because it had
not
produced
any
results.
Sometimes dialogue occurs here and there, in the Arab countries, such as in Qatar,
where the Emir himself invites, at his expense, personalities from different countries and
from the three religions: Christian, Muslim and Jewish. In Lebanon the Télélumiere and 
oursat networks, and other television networks, sometimes broadcast programs on
Islamic-Christian dialogue. Often a topic is chosen, and each side explains or interprets
according to their religion. These programs are usually very instructive. With my
intervention, I wished to draw attention on the points that make these encounters difficult
and often ineffective. It should be clear that we are not discussing dogma. But even the
subjects of a practical and social order are difficult to discuss when the Koran or the
Sunnah discusses them. Here are some difficulties which we have faced:
- The Koran inculcates in the Muslim pride in being the only true and complete religion,
taught by the greatest prophet, because he was the last one. The Muslim is part of the
privileged nation, and speaks the language of God, the language of Paradise, the Arabic
language. This is why, he comes to dialogue with a sense of superiority, and with the
certitude
of
being
victorious.
The Koran, supposedly written by God Himself, from beginning to end, gives the same
value to all that is written: dogma that supercedes all law or practice. In the Koran, men
and women are not equal, not even in marriage itself where the man takes several wives
and can divorce at his pleasure; nor in the heritage where man takes double; nor in the
testifying before judges where the voice of one man is equal to the voice of two women,
etc... The Koran allows the Muslim to hide the truth from the Christian, and to speak and
act
contry
to
how
he
thinks
and
believes.
2

(http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/sinodo/documents/bollettino_24_speciale-medio-oriente2010/02_inglese/b21_02.html#_H._Exc._Mons._Raboula_Antoine_BEYLOUNI,_Titular_Archbishop_of_Mardin_of_the_Syrians,_Curia
_Bishop_of_Antioch_of_the_Syrians_(LEBANON))

In the Koran, there are contradictory verses which annul others, which gives the Muslim
the possibility of using one or the other to his advantage, and therefore he can tell the
Christian that he is humble and pious and believes in God, just as he can treat him as
impious,
apostate
and
idolatrous.
The Koran gives the Muslim the right to judge Christians and to kill them for the Jihad
(the holy war). It commands the imposition of religion through force, with the sword. The
history of invasions bears witness to this. This is why the Muslims do not recognize
religious freedom, for themselves or for others. And it isn’t surprising to see all the Arab
countries and Muslims refusing the whole of the “Human Rights” instituted by the United 
ations.
Faced with all these interdictions and other similar attitudes should one suppress
dialogue? Of course not. But the themes that can be discussed should be chosen
carefully, and capable and well-trained Christians chosen as well, as well as those who
are courageous and pious, wise and prudent... who tell the truth with clarity and
conviction... We sometimes deplore certain dialogues on TV, where the Christian speaker
isn’t up to the task, and does not give the Christian religion all its beauty and spirituality,
which scandalizes the viewers. Worse yet, when sometimes there are clergyman speakers
who, in dialogue to win over Muslims call Mohammed the prophet and add the Muslim
invocation, known and constantly repeated: “Salla lahou alayhi was sallam”. Finally I
would like to suggest the following: Like the Koran spoke well of the Virgin Mary,
insisting on her perpetual virginity and miraculous and unique conception in giving us
Christ; just as Muslims take her greatly into consideration and ask for her intercession,
we should turn to her for all dialogue and all encounters with the Muslims. Being the
Mother of us all, she will guide us in our relations with the Muslims to show them the
true face of Her Son Jesus, the Redeemer of mankind. If it pleased God that the Feast of
the Annunciation was declared a national feast day in Lebanon for Christians and
Muslims, may it also become a national feast day in other Arab countries.>>
This speech is a masterpiece of misunderstanding Islam and should be studied very
attentively by Muslim scholars. This speech gives a practical demonstration of Catholic’s
ignorance of Islam and Christian fundamentalism. Not only but this speech shows how
subtle Catholics are and how they proudly think of themselves as “superior”. We will
attempt a critic of this speech hoping it will offer the base for a profound debate among
senior students of Al-Azhar and its noble Faculty members. Someone in Europe said that
“to fight your enemy you got to know him”. Do we Muslims really know Christianity?
Do Christians really know Muslim?
We have noticed that in this titanic attempt of reconciling Muslims, Christians and Jews
the worst part is that very few, exceptional personalities really know their own religion
and the religion they talk about: ignorance and bias are in reality the common facts of this
field. Involuntarily His Excellency Beylouni has offered us to show to Christians and
Muslims how strong and valid are the revealed words of Allah Almighty in His Holy and
Glorious Qur’an. Among all the erroneous and untrue statements the worst is that
regarding His Holiness the Holy Prophet Muhammad, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa
Sallam. In this occasion His Excellency Beylouni confirms Allah’s words. In fact Allah
Almighty states:
<<And never will the Jews nor will the Christians be happy with you unless you follow
their own creed. Say to them: “surely the guidance of Allah alone is true guidance.”

And (supposing the impossible) were you, in spite of the knowledge that has been given
to you, to follow their desires, you would have no friend or helper to protect you
against (the seizure of) Allah.>> [Sûrah 2, Al-Baqarah (The Cow):120]
The Archbishop clearly encouraged continuing the dialogue between Muslims and
Christians but in myopic contradiction with himself he does not want Christians attending
the dialogue to please their Muslim counterparts to send blessing to our beloved Prophet
Muhammad, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, while he encourages both side
worshipping hadhrat Maryam, Alaihi Wa Sallam, and asks Muslims to make a national
feast for her. His Excellency forgetting that in the Catholic Italy – where more than 50%
of the Catholic population have the common habit to use blasphemy on Hadhrat Maryam,
but they celebrate her many names and nick-names – Islam is not recognized as a
Religion and Muslims are not allowed to celebrate their Eid days and are not allowed to
erect masjids practically. His subtle intent is to try to bring Muslims towards Christianity,
a subtle attempt of corruption and a big interference with the dogma of Islam. Sunnah is
Muslim’s dogma and our beloved Prophet Muhammad, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa
Sallam, did never recommend this union of holidays. From one side the Archbishop
wants acknowledged by Muslims the universality of Hadhrat Maryam, Alaihi Wa Sallam,
but he is not ready to acknowledge the real and perennial universality of Muhammad,
Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, who has been sent as “Mercy” to mankind. His
Excellency confirms the following ayat:
<<And (the Jews) say: “Become Jews” and (the Christian say): “Become Christians;
(only) then will you be rightly guided.” Say you to them: “My faith is the faith of
Abraham, the upright; who turned away from all Falsehood, and he was not of the
polytheists. >> [Sûrah 2, Al-Baqarah (The Cow):135]
It is true that Allah Almighty said:
<<Take it for granted, that whether it be the followers of Islam, or the Jews or the
Sabians – whosoever believe in Allah and the Last Day and work righteous deeds –
surely their reward is with their Lord; they shall have nothing to fear, nor shall they
grieve.>> [Sûrah 2, Al-Baqarah (The Cow):62]
But Allah’s Mercy will be upon those Jew, Christians and Muslims who believe in Allah,
the last Day and do good-deeds. While it is quite easy accepting to believe in Allah and in
the last day it appears quite difficult to do good-deeds. What are these good-deeds? Is it
giving charity? Is it showing good sentiments towards the others? Is it being tolerant on
other’s religions? Our answer is “Yes and o”. Yes because we cannot deny that those
are good deeds, but following a religion and believing in Allah and the last day is not just
simply behaving like a good boy-scout3 - this may perhaps considered the first step
3

Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated
aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, so that they
may play constructive roles in society. Scouting began in 1907 when Robert Baden-Powell,
Lieutenant General in the British Army, held the first Scouting encampment at Brownsea Island in
England. Baden-Powell wrote the principles of Scouting in Scouting for Boys (London, 1908),
based on his earlier military books, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham
(Chief of Scouts in British Africa), Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William
Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, and his publisher Pearson. During the first half of the 20th
century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups each for boys (Cub Scout,
Boy Scout, Rover Scout) and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls
(Brownie Guide, Girl Guide and Girl Scout, Ranger Guide).

towards a spiritual development – whose duty is to “make at least a good-deed per day”.
In our humble opinion a true follower of religion must act logically. If a true believer and
follower of religion (Judaism, Christianity, Islam) has a logic behavior (i.e. he is coherent
with his words) he must have in mind exclusively Allah and coordinate his life and his
behavior exclusively for the pleasure of Allah. Anything different means that in reality
we are hypocrites (munafiqun) because we say by movement of tongue that we believe in
Allah but in reality we act thinking in the best of the cases that “He is in the heaven and
heaven is far from here”. When our beloved Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa
Sallam, pointed at the land between his hujra and the mimbar of masjid un nabi telling
that blessed land is also a piece of paradise (ryadh-ul-jannat) he, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa
‘Alii Wa Sallam, wanted to teach us also that Paradise and this earth are interlinked. The
first level of Paradise is an extension of earth in the sense that Terrestrial Paradise
contains earth but our eyes can only see earth except Muhammad’s eyes, seeing beyond
limitations through the vision acquired by his third eye, the heart eye4.
Indeed His Excellency the Archbishop did not show much eye opening in commenting
negatively an act of respect to a Prophet, rather the last of the Prophets who has been sent
by Allah as a Mercy to mankind. He did not do a good-deed continuing to hide the truth
revealed in the Gospels when Jesus (prophet Issa, Alaihi Wa ‘Sallam) states that he born
into this world from a Virgin in order to testify the future arrival of the “Comforter” the
“Spirit of Mercy” mentioned several times in the Gospels with the Latin name of
Paracletus5. In full respect of what Allah says in the above mentioned ayat 135 of Surah
Al-Baqarah, Christians have twisted the meaning of Paracletus pretending and saying that
he is the Holy Ghost.
The Archbishop has shown complete ignorance regarding the issue of women in Islam.
We outline here following the rights and advantages given to women from the Holy and
Glorious Qur’an and Ahadith in order to make clear that women in Islam are considered
equal to men but owing to their intrinsic constitution almost opposite to that of men Allah
Almighty, knowing His Creatures, has given for women different approaches6 to certain
4

When a true awlya-Allah and a real Sufi with the rank of the fanâ-e-billahi and above passes away those
remained in this word require him to open his eyes. This is a clear example of his being firmly placed in the
station of those who have achieved angelic state and ascend or descend Hadhrat Yaqoob, Alaihi Wa
Sallam, stairs. Those fortunate have complete control of their faculties even after physical death: they open
their physical eyes at a clear demand in order to witness that their inner eye, the eye of the heart never
closes. In doing so they witness their sublime state of total submission to Allah Almighty because
ultimately they open their physical eyes after Allah grants them His Permission. Surely the grave of those
fortunate is a medium of communication with Allah since those fortunate will carry to Allah the requests of
those who visit them. We take the opportunity to confirm that we witness personally that His Holiness Pir
Karam Shah Al-Azhari, Rahmtullah Ahle, was requested to open his eyes instants before his dead body
went lifted inside his grave in Bhera Sharif the great Shaykh opened his eyes silently.
5
From
late
Latin,
it
means
Comforter,
derived
from
Ancient
Greek
παράκλητος (paraklētos, “called to help, helper”) from παρά (para, “beside”) + καλέω (kaleō, “I
call”). In Qassidah Burdah sharif we learn that in this universe there is none who can help us than
Muhammad, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam. What a sublime confirmation that Muhammad,
Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, is the real Paraklētos.
6
Anyone of our respectable and patient male readers who has or had contacts with women may convene
with us that they seem have a brain “connected” in a totally different way from that of men. Hadzrat Umar
Farooq, Alaihi Wa Sallam, the third righteous Caliph surprised his Muslim brothers saying them that he
would have always asked suggestions to his wife … but would have always acted the opposite …
Obviously women may think just the same about men …

issues. For example FBI studies have proven that women react different to men in
remembering a crime scene focusing on details rather than the global picture7.
Allah Almighty in the Holy and Glorious Qur’an establishes that there is spiritual
equality between women and men. In fact in Surah Al-Ahzab (Surah The Confederates N
33) we read at the verse (ayah) 35:
<<Surely Muslim men and Muslim women, the believing men and the believing
women, the obedient men and the obedient women, the truthful men and the truthful
women, the patient men and the patient women, the humble men and the humble
women, the charitable men and the charitable women, the fasting men and the fasting
women, the men who guard their chastity and the women who guard their chastity, the
men who remember Allah much and the women who remember Allah much – for them
all Allah has kept ready forgiveness and a mighty reward>>8 [Surah 33, Al-Ahzab (The
Confederates):35]9
Another ayah of the Holy and Glorious Qur’an teaches Muslims the right attitude
towards women. In fact in Surah An-Nisa (Surah the Women 4) at ayah 19 we read:
<<O you who believe! It is not allowed to you to become heirs of women by force, nor
detain them with the design that you may take away some portion of what (dowry etc.)
you had given them, except in case they are guilty of open indecency. And lead your
life with your wives fairly. Then if you dislike them, (have patience) perhaps you may
detest a thing and yet Allah has placed therein for your abundant good>> [Sûrah 4, AlNisa’ (The Women:19]
As one can read women are equal to men in the spiritual world as long as they practice
the same virtues as men and they must be respected unless they have been guilty of open
lewdness. But this is not all. In Islam women have to cooperate with men and men have
to consult them in order to make consensual decisions. In fact in the Holy and Glorious
Qur’an we can read the following ayah. In Surah Al-Taubah (9) we read about
collaboration and consultation at ayah 71.
<<And the believing men and the believing women, are all friends to one another. They
enjoin good and forbid evil, and they establish prayer, pay the Zakah (poor-rate) and
obey Allah and His Apostle. It is these on whom Allah will surely pour His Mercy. And
verily Allah is the All-Powerful, the All-Wise.>> [Sûrah 4, At-Taubah (Repentance):71]
In Surah Al-Baqarah (2) we read about collaboration and consultation at ayah 233.
<<And mothers shall suckle their children for two years; this period is for him who
desires to complete the suckling period. And on him to whom the child belongs, is the
(responsibility of) feeding and clothing of those mothers in a reasonable manner. ot a
soul shall be burdened beyond as scope. o mother shall be made to suffer on account
7
This may be well the reason why in Islamic trials there must be two women witness of a crime and a
single man witness of the same crime.
8
We cannot refrain here to underline the universality of Islamic message because in the quoted ayah Allah
addresses categories of blessed men and women who not necessarily must be Muslims, otherwise why
making such a distinction?
9
In this book we will use the English translation of the Urdu version of Jamal-ul-Qur’an (the Beauteous
Qur’an) by Justice Pir Muhammad Karam Shah Al-Azhari, Radziallaho Anho. The English translation has
been made by Gold Medalist Prof. Anis Ahmad Shaykhh. Jamal-ul-Qur’an is available for sale at Zia-ulQur’an Publications (Lahore-Karachi, Pakistan, www.zia-ul-quran.com).

of her child. And the same kind of duty falls upon the (father’s) heir. And then if they
both decide on weaning by mutual consent and consultation, there is no sin. And if you
desire that your child should be suckled by a nurse, there is no sin on you while you
handover whatever you had already settled in a reasonable manner. And keep fearing
Allah, and know that Allah is Aware of what you do.>> [Sûrah 2, Al-Baqarah (The
Cow):233]
There are Ahadith stating that Women can attend masjids and offer prayers there
regarding the husband’s or father’s will. See Bukhari Volume 2, Book 13, Number 22
and 23, Sahih Muslim Book 004, Number 0890, 0891. See also Sunan Dawud Book 14,
Number 14.5.14. There is a Hadith (Bukhari 1, chapter 45, Book of Ablution) allowing
women to perform ablutions together with men.
Western media periodically raise hue and cry about combined marriages in many Islamic
countries and Islamic communities in the West. In reality Muslim women have the right
to propose a prospective husband for marriage. It is stated in Bukhari Volume 7Book 62,
Number 72, not only can women propose men for marriage but they also cannot be
forced to marry the man proposed by her parents. This is as reported in two Ahadith:
Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 62, Number 67 and 69. In addition nobody can force a woman
against her will.
Women have the right to free will and may not be forced to take any decision against it as
explicitly narrated in a Hadith of Bukhari Sharif. In Islam women have the right to refuse
a proposal offered to them for marriage and this can be done even after the marriage. In
order to emphasize this point we wish to narrate an incident that should establish a clear
distinct precedent about Islam’s injunctions on the matter and the noble personality of the
Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, and to show what Islam really
empowers women to do10: As narrated in Bukhari Hadith Number 206 of the Book 36
and Volume 7 <<arrated Ibn ‘Abbas: Barira’s husband was a slave called Mughith, as
if I am seeing him now, going behind Barira and weeping with his tears flowing down his
beard. The Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, said to ‘Abbas, “O
‘Abbas! Are you not astonished at the love of Mughith for Barira and the hatred of
Barira for Mughith?” The Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, then said
to Barira, “Why don’t you return to him?” She said, “O Allah’s Apostole! Do you order
me to do so?” He said, “o, I only intercede for him”. She said, “I am not in need of
him.”>> Are we realizing that this tradition concerns a slave and his wife? A slave is one
who does not have rights and the chief of the Muslims interceded for him to his wife!
Can you imagine a modern head of state interceding for a man before his wife? On the
contrary we should ponder also why there are Muslims harassing their womenfolk and
even kill them to cite religious obligations. This is total ignorance of one’s own faith!
We continue in this brief exposition of women’s rights in Islam producing full evidence
that women in Islam have more rights and enjoy more rights than in other civilizations.

10

In reading this narration one should keep in mind the context that a woman directly approaching the
leader of the Muslims, head of a fearless army with demonstrated capability to win against an enemy three
times superior in number and quality of weapons (the battle of Badr) – in the first battle of Badr the
Muslims had only one horseman … - while in the remaining part of the world women were subjected to
men domination.

Asserting Women's Rights even after the passing away of the Holy Prophet,
Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, as Hadzrat Ibn Al-Jauzi, Rahmatullah Ahle,
narrated underlining the virtues and merits of Umar bin Al-Khattab, Alaihi Wa
Sallam, in the following words: <<Umar forbade the people from paying
excessive dowries and addressed them saying: “Don't fix the dowries for women
over forty ounces. If ever that is exceeded I shall deposit the excess amount in
the public treasury”. As he descended from the pulpit, a flat-nosed lady stood up
from among the women audience, and said: “It is not within your right". Umar
asked: "Why should this not be of my right?” she replied: “Because Allah has
proclaimed: <<even if you had given one of them (wives) a whole treasure
for dowry take not the least bit back. Would you take it by false claim and a
manifest sin?>> (Al Nisa 4, 20)”. When he heard this, Umar said: “The woman
is right and the man (Umar was meaning himself) is wrong. It seems that all
people have deeper insight and wisdom than Umar”. Then he returned to the
pulpit and declared: “O people, I had restricted the giving of more than four
hundred dirham’s in dowry. Whosoever of you wishes to give in dowry as much
as he likes and finds satisfaction in so doing may do so”.11
Men should seek advice and comfort from women. Hadzrat ‘Aisha, Alaihi Wa
Sallam (the mother of the faithful believers), narrated that the Holy Prophet,
Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, rushed home after the first meeting he had
with Hadzrat Jibrail, Alaihi Wa Sallam, in the cave of Jabbal-Noor (the mountain
of Light): ... << Then Allah's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his
heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadija bint Khuwailid12 and said, “Cover
me! Cover me!” They covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her
everything that had happened and said, “I fear that something may happen to
me.” Khadija replied, “Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep
good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your
guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones.” Khadija then
accompanied him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal bin Asad bin 'Abdul 'Uzza >>
... (Bukhari Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3)
Love and respect are among the characteristics of a believing man. Narrated Abu
Hurayrah: <<Allah's Messenger (the Holy Prophet), Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa
Sallam, said: “a believing man should not hate a believing woman; if he dislikes
one of her characteristics, he will be pleased with another” >>. (Muslim Book 8,
Number 3469)
The Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, himself took care of
Women’s Education. In fact Abu Said narrated: <<A woman came to Allah's
11

From the web site “On the Position and Role of Women in Islam and Islamic Society” by Dr.
Hassan Al-Turabi.
12
Hadzrat Khadija bint Khuwailid, Alaihi Wa Sallam, is the first wife of the Holy Prophet, Sallallaho
Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam. She was a rich and very influent lady in the Arab society of Makkah
Mukarramah. Quite interestingly she firstly proposed the Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa
Sallam, for marriage and he, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, was also five years younger than her.
They were a wonderful couple and loved each other intensely.

Apostle and said, “O Allah's Apostle! Men (only) benefit by your teachings, so
please devote to us from (some of) your time, a day on which we may come to
you so that you may teach us of what Allah has taught you.” Allah's Apostle said,
“Gather on such-and-such a day at such-and-such a place.” They gathered and
Allah's Apostle came to them and taught them of what Allah had taught him>>.
(Bukhari Volume 9, Book 92, Number 413). This Hadith teaches that Muslim
women had right to access and pursue their education in the early middle age
when in Europe women were not allowed to access any form of education,
something Western women could experience 1300 years later than Islamic
women. We want to underline here that Western Christian inspired mercy seems
did not work on western women for many years. Actually for almost two centuries
Western women have been exploited in various forms. Women joining work
places triggered family instabilities and exploitations to the extent that it has
affected their way of dressing introducing provocation as a way to be noticed and
thus assumed or promoted or simply win the competition of other women. Only
recently due to modern education systems and a pretended equality between the
two sexes women have blended with the traits of men thus becoming suitable to
occupy key postings in the public and private management. While men are
experiencing the opposite: this intermixing of sexes was forecasted 1400 years
ago by the Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, in some Ahadith
concerning the signs of the end of this world13.
The Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, made clear statements
on how Muslims shall treat women. Here following we report two Ahadith from
two different collections14 Narrated Mu'awiyah al-Qushayri: <<I went to the
Apostle of Allah, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, and asked him: "What do
you say (command) about our wives?" He replied: "Give them food what you
have for yourself, and clothe them by which you clothe yourself, and do not beat
them, and do not revile them.>> (Sunan Abu Dawud: Book 11, Number 2139).
<<The best of you is one who is best towards his family and I am best towards
the family>>. (At-Tirmithy). <<None but a noble man treats women in an
honorable manner. And none but an ignoble treats women disgracefully>>. (AtTirmithy).

13

Quite curiously something of this type was described by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Da Ponte in
their “Magic Flute” when the Queen of the Night turns to be the bad character and attempts to enter the
holy Place dwelled by Sarastro, the Holy Chief of a spiritual order. It is curious to note that Mozart and Da
Ponte make the Queen of the Night to ally with Monostato (literally Single State) who betrays his master
(Sarastro) for ignorant greediness.
14
Basically there are five different collections of Ahadith (plural of Hadith). Each of these collections
belongs to a “collector”. These “collectors” of Ahadith are holy persons who sacrificed all their lives to
find as many Ahadith as they could and then classified them selecting from them the soundly true to the
less true. They founded a science – the science of Ahadith – based on sound, rigorous logic, in other words
if A is a true narrator of A1 Hadith and he has transmitted A1 to B who has narrated A1 in the form A2. If
B is also a true narrator, then also A2 is sound. We know four main collections of Ahadith each related to a
narrator: Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu-Dawud and Malik’s Muwatta. There is also the
collection of Al-Tirmidhy who has focused on the Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam.

Women have the right to not be exposed for any of the facts of their private life
therefore husbands must keep safeguarded the privacy of their wives. Narrated
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: <<Allah's Messenger, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam,
said: the most wicked among the people in the eye of Allah on the Day of
Judgment is the man who goes to his wife and she comes to him, and then he
divulges her secret>>. (Muslim Book 8, Number 3369).
Another episode is worthy of mention from the life of Hadzrat Umar Farooq,
Alaihi Wa Sallam, he narrated that a man came to his house to complain about
his wife. On reaching the door of his house, he hears ‘Umar’s wife shouting at
him and reviling him. Upon seeing this, he decided to turn back thinking that
‘Umar himself was in the same position and therefore could hardly suggest any
solution for his problem. ‘Umar, Alaihi Wa Sallam noticed him turning back, so he
called him and enquired about the purpose of the visit. He said that he had come
with a complaint against his wife, but turned back on seeing the Caliph in the
same position. ‘Umar, Alaihi Wa Sallam, told him that he tolerated the excesses
of his wife for she had certain rights against him. He said, “Is it not true that she
prepares food for me, washes my clothes and suckles my children? Thus saving
me the expense of employing a cook, a washer-man and a nurse, though she is
not legally obliged in any way to do any of these things? Besides, I enjoy peace
of mind because of her and am kept away from indecent acts on account of her. I
therefore tolerate all her excesses on account of these benefits. It is right that
you should also adopt the same attitude” quoted in Rahman, Role of Muslim
Women page 149.
Contrary to thousands of people trying to impress the ignorant, Islam does not
contemplate beating women. Islam forbids any form of violence and disrespect
against women, beating wives in particular. Patient behavior was the practice of
the Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, even when his wife dared to
address him harshly. Once his mother-in-law- saw her daughter strike him with
her fist on his noble chest. When the enraged mother -in-law began to reproach
her daughter, the Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, with a smile on
his face said, “Leave her alone; they do worse than that.” And once Abu Bakr,
Alaihi Wa Sallam, his father-in-law, was invited to settle some misunderstanding
between him and Aishah, Alaihi Wa Sallam. The Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa
‘Alii Wa Sallam, said to her, “Will you speak, or shall I speak?” Aisha, Alaihi Wa
Sallam, said, “You speak, but do not say except the truth.” Abu Bakr, Alaihi Wa
Sallam, was so outraged that he immediately struck her severely, forcing her to
run and seek protection behind the back of the Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii
Wa Sallam. Abu Bakr, Alaihi Wa Sallam, said, “O you the enemy of herself! Does
the Messenger of Allah say but the truth?” The Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii
Wa Sallam, said, "O Abu Bakr, we did not invite you for this [harsh dealing with
Aishah, Alaihi Wa Sallam], nor did we anticipate it.” Quoted in: Mutual Rights and
Obligations.

Moreover and in addition to the above it is true that in a pure and authentic
Islamic society women do not inherit sharing with men the same quota but this
has to be related with the fact that in a Islamic marriage a man should have the
money in cash for the dowry, which beside cash includes also dresses and
jewels for the wife and other expenditures. On the other side women have the
right to receive from their parents the complete furniture of the house along with
special gifts for the bridegroom. The dowry issue is so important that some
Islamic countries, like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, do not allow marriages
unless the bridegroom shows owning a minimum amount requirement.
The word jihad is more used by certain Muslim commentators of the Hoy Glorious
Qur’an (for example Mohsin Khan uses at least 23 times the word jihad in his translation
of the Holy and Glorious Qur’an but it is never associated with killing of innocents. Only
in Surah Muhammad, 47, ayat 4 Allah refers to killing of non-Muslim fighters during
battle and tells specifically Muslims to hit their enemies. His Excellency Archbishop
Beylouni must relax, his life is not at risk, in fact the ayat reads:
<<Then when you meet the infidels in the battlefield smite their necks until you have
slain good many of them, then tie fast the ropes. Therefore set them free as a favor or
for ransom till the war lays down its burdens. That is the command and had Allah so
willed, He would certainly have avenged Himself upon them, but He wills to test some
of you by others. And those who have been slain in the Way of Allah, Allah will never
render their deeds vain.>> [Sûrah 47, Muhammad (Il Lodato):4]
The tense used by Allah Almighty (fadarba, root dwaraba) does not allow any doubt it
correspond to the English “smite” and not “kill”15, thus Allah Almighty does not invite
Muslims to kill but to inhibit the infidels (Kafirun) enemies rather making them losing
their senses and them ask ransom for them or even send them back to their families as
losers. We know from medicine that neck bones can displace quite easily against a blow
in the neck, thus to smite can produce death but as it is quite clear from the rest of the
ayat, death is Allah’s Decision and the Muslims fighters have to leave it to Allah, the
immediate reward for Muslim fighters is the ransom or the satisfaction to have fought
(striven) in the path of Allah because Allah will “ … never render their deeds vain …”.
Another important remark we want to underline about this ayat is that Allah defines by
Himself the “rules of engagement”, enemies are the Kafirun, who must be armed and find
themselves in a battlefield. It is not the Muslims who have changed so much the rules of
engagement in war along the centuries that today the death toll of enemies is far lower
respect the innocent victims made by modern armies belonging to the most rich and
culturally advances societies“. Daily we learn from the media that unlucky Muslim
civilians (men, women, and old people) have been killed in place of soldiers and to the
best of our records those civilians are unarmed Muslims while it looks that NATO
soldiers are in majority Christians.

15
Many translators prone to favor physical jihad use the tense “kill” referred to their preferred word jihad
in this ayat (47:4) whereas Allah uses the tense “smite”. Anyone knowing some basics of Arab can use online translators and dictionaries to find out that the tense “kill” has other translations in Arabic and none of
them fits with “dwaraba”.

How can His Excellency trigger the media reaction against Muslim when the Holy
Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, said:
<<Faith is a restraint against all violence; let no Mu’min commit violence>>
[Tradition narrated by Abu – Hurayrah, Abu Dawud Sulayman bin Al Ash’ath a’sSajistaniy, A.H. 202 – 275]
<<Of all men, the people who have faith abstain most from killing>>
[Tradition narrated by Ibni Mas’ud, Abu Dawud Sulayman bin Al Ash’ath a’s-Sajistaniy,
A.H. 202 – 275]
We deliberately have left aside the old question that Christians accuse Muslims and
consequently Allah of having made certain statements and then changed them. Moreover
His Excellency seems confusing Shiite and Sunni approach towards Truth, Sunni are not
allowed to speak falsehood. Rather a Muslim must speak the Truth even against himself.
Rather Allah invites Muslims to speak exclusively Truth.
Conclusions
From the above it seems that Christians and Jews want Muslims to take their habits and
for this purpose they are so determined that they do not accept Muslims being obedient to
the Holy and Glorious Qur’an and misunderstand Muslim’s attitude to obey exclusively
to Allah Almighty without conceding any possibility of reconciling with Jews and
Christians views (Allah speaks in reality of distorted truth and errors from the side of
Jews and Christians accusing them to have forgotten Hadhrat Ibrahim, Alaihi Wa Sallam,
- Abraham – true teachings, see above 2:135). So Muslims should avoid this offer of
dialogue which turns to be an upsetting dialogue among deaf?
Indeed not. Muslim should take these dialogue opportunities as real jihad not to kill
humans but kill error carried by centuries of darkness especially in Christianity. To do so
Muslims should remember the character of the Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii
Wa Sallam, who was so merciful that he tolerated the infidels of Makkah relieving their
call of nature inside his sacred Masjid at few meters from his hujrah forgiving their
ignorance. The Holy Prophet, Sallallaho Alaihi Wa ‘Alii Wa Sallam, mission is to seed
Mercy of Allah in this suffering humanity, who are we to decide on human lives? Muslim
pertain humbleness and forgiveness along with patience in the meaning of sabr, which is
a reflex of Divine Mercy. Ignorance can only be fought with knowledge subservient to
love. This statement should not be taken as “sentimental love”, which is ephemeral but as
a reflex of the Infinite Love of Allah to whom we bow our head thanking Him of the
greatest gift a human being could have in his life: embracing Islam by the hands of a
person who could open his eyes before entering his grave. We humbly suggest those who
had the patience to read our humble effort to ponder about the fortune to be born in Islam
or have reverted into Islam.

‫ﻗﺼﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺡ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺃﺒﻲ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺸﻤﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺩﻝﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺤﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺒﺈﺒﻥ ﺠﺎﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﻨﺩﻝﺴﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺒﺎﺒﻥ ﺠﺎﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﻭﻝﺩ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪698‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﺏ ﻗﺼﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻰ ﻤﺩﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭل ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺴﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺒﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺤﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻤل ﻤﺎ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺡ ﺭﺴﻭل ﺍﷲ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺁﻝﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻗﺼﻴﺩﺘﻪ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ /‬ﺤﻕ ﺍﻝﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻌﻭﺙ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﻘﺭ‪‬ﻩ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻜ ّل ﻓﺎﺘﺤﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﻭل ﻤﻌﺘﺒﺭﺓ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺁل ﻋﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﻗ‪‬ﺩﻤ ﹰﺎ ﺸﺎﻉ ﻤﺒﻌﺜﻪ ‪ /‬ﺭﺠﺎﻝﻬﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﻀﺤﻭﺍ ﺨ ‪‬ﺒﺭ‪‬ﻩ‬
‫‪ /‬ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺕ ﻓﻠﻴﺴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﻌﺎﻡ ﻤﻘﺘﺼﺭ‪‬ﻩ‬

‫ﻗﺩ ﻤ ‪‬ﺩ ﻝﻠﻨﺎﺱ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻌﻤﺎﻩ ﻤﺎﺌﺩﺓ‬

‫ﺃﻋﺭﺍﻑ ﻨﻌﻤﺎﻩ ﻤﺎ ﺤل ﺍﻝﺭﺠﺎﺀ ﺒﻬﺎ ‪ /‬ﺇﻻ ﻭﺃﻨﻔﺎل ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺩ ﻤﺒﺘﺩﺭ‪‬ﻩ‬
‫ﺒﻪ ﺘﻭﺴل ﺇﺫ ﻨﺎﺩﻯ ﺒﺘﻭﺒﺘﻪ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺭ ﻴﻭﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﻅﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻌﺘﻜﺭ‪‬ﻩ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻑ ﺒﻪ ﺃ ‪‬ﻤﻨﺎ ‪ /‬ﻭﻝﻥ ﻴﺭﻭ‪‬ﻉ ﺼﻭﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺫ ﹶﻜﺭ‪‬ﻩ‬
‫ﻫﻭﺩ ﻭ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﻜﻡ ﺨﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻲ ‪/‬‬
‫ﻱ ﺍﻝﻨﺤل ﺫﻜﺭﻫﻡ‬
‫ﺫﻭ ﺃﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﻜ ‪‬ﺩ ﹺﻭ ‪‬‬

‫ﺒﻴﺕ ﺍﻹﻝﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺱ ﺃﺜ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫‪ /‬ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻗﻁﺭ ﻓﺴﺒﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻓﻁ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﺒﻜﻬﻑ ﺭﺤﻤﺎﻩ ﻗﺩ ﻻﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺭﻯ ﻭﺒﻪ ‪ /‬ﺒﺸﺭﻯ ﺒﻥ ﻤﺭﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻴل ﻤﺸﺘ ﹺﻬ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﻪ ﻋﻤ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫‪ /‬ﺤ‪‬‬

‫ﺽ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺴﻤ‪‬ﺎﻩ ﻁﻪ ﻭﺤ ‪‬‬

‫ﻗﺩ ﺃﻓﻠﺢ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺸﻬﺩﻭﺍ ‪ /‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺭ ﻓﺭﻗﺎﻨﻪ ﻝﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺠﻼ ﻏ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻋﺠﺯﻭﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺎﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻌﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﹼﻠﺴ‪ ‬ﹺ‬
‫ﻭﺤﺴﺒﻪ ﻗﺼﺹ ﻝﻠﻌﻨﻜﺒﻭﺕ ﺃﺘﻰ‬

‫‪/‬‬
‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻜﺎﻝﻨﻤل ﺇﺫ ﺴﻤﻌﺕ ﺁﺫﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﺴﻭ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﺫ ﺤﺎﻙ ﻨﺴ‪‬ﺠﺎ ﺒﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺘ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺸﺎﻉ ﻗﺩﻤﺎ ﺃﻤﺭﻩ ﻭﺒﻪ ‪/‬‬

‫ﻝﻘﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻰ ﻝﻠﺩ ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻨﺜ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﻜﻡ ﺴﺠﺩ ﹰﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻁﹸﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺤﺯﺍﺏ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺠﺩﺕ ‪ /‬ﺴﻴﻭﻓﻪ ﻓﺄﺭﺍﻫﻡ ﺭﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻋ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫‪ /‬ﻝﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺒﻴﺎﺴﻴﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺴل ﻗﺩ ﺸﻬ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﺴﺒﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻼ ﻜﺭﻤﺎ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺏ ﻗﺩ ﺼﻔﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻼﻙ ﺘﻨﺼﺭﻩ ‪ /‬ﻓﺼﺎﺩ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﺎﺯﻤ ﹰﺎ ‪‬ﺯ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻝﻐﺎﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻨﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻪ ﺴﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻗﺩ ﻓﺼ‪‬ﻠﺕ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺤﺼ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﺸﻭﺭﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻬﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻓﺯ‪‬ﺨﺭﻓﹸﻬﺎ ‪ /‬ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﺩﺨﺎﻥ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻐﺸﻲ ﻋﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻅ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﺯ‪‬ﺕ ﺸﺭﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﺘﻰ ‪/‬‬
‫ﺢ ﻤ ﹼﺘﺼ‪‬ﻼ‬
‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺠﺎﺀﻨﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺘ ‪‬‬

‫ﻑ ﺒﺩ ﹴﺭ ﻭﺠﻨﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺩ ﺤﻀ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺤﻘﺎ ﹶ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺤ‪‬ﺠﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﷲ ﺃﻗﺴﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻘﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﺫﺍﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍ ُ‬

‫ﻕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻗﺎﻝﻪ ﺤ ﱞ‬
‫ﺃ‪‬‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻕ ﺇﺠﻼﻻ ﻝﻪ ﻗﻤﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﻭﺭ ﺃﺒﺼﺭ ﻤﻭﺴﻰ ﻨﺠﻡ ﺴﺅﺩﺩﻩ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻕ ﻗﺩ ﺸ ﹼ‬
‫ﺃﺴﺭﻯ ﻓﻨﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ‬

‫‪ /‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺏ ﺜﺒ‪‬ﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺭﺒﻪ ﺒﺼﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﺭﺍ ‪‬ﻩ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﻻ ﻴﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻝﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺼﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺴل ﻜ ﱞل ﺘﺎﺒﻊ‪ ‬ﺃﺜﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺸﺭ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻤﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻕ ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺒل ﻓﻲ ‪ /‬ﺼ ﱟ‬
‫ﻑ ﻴﺴﺒ‪‬ﺢ ﷲ ﺍﻝﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻜ ﱞ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻗﺩ ﺃﺒﺼﺭﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﺘﻐﺎﺒﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺏ ﻝﻠﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺭﻏﺒﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺭﻴﻤﻪ ﺍﻝﺤ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻗﺒلْ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀﻙ ﺍﻝﺤﻕ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻨﺸﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫‪/‬‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻨﺎﻝﺕ ﻁﻼﻗﺎ ﻭﻝﻡ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻨﻅﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺯﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻙ ﺤﻘﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺨﺒﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺤﻘﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺩﺍﺡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺒﻤﺎ ‪ /‬ﺃﺜﻨﻰ ﺒﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﺫ ﺃﺒﺩﻯ ﻝﻨﺎ ﺴ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺒﺠﺎﻫﻪ' ﺴﺄل' ﻨﻭﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻔﻴﻨﺘﻪ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺠﺎﺓ ﻭﻤﻭﺝ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺭ ﻗﺩ ﻏﻤ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﻥ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺤﻕ ﻓﺎﺘﺒﹺﻌﻭﺍ ‪/‬‬
‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻤﺩﺜﺭﺍ ﺸﺎﻓﻌﺎ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻤﺔ ﻫل‬

‫ﻤﺯﻤ‪‬ﻼ ﺘﺎﺒﻌﺎ ﻝﻠﺤﻕ ﻝﻥ ﻴﺫ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻲ ﻝﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﻼ ﺫﺨ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺘﻰ ﻨﺒ ‪‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺴﻼﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻨﺠﻠﻰ ﻨﺒﺄ ‪ /‬ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﺜﻪ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﺩ ﺴﻁ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﻝﻁﺎﻓﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺯﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻀﻴﻡ ﺤﺴﺒﻙ ﻓﻲ ‪ /‬ﻴﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻋﺒﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺼﻲ ﻝﻤﻥ ﺫﻋ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﺫ ﻜﻭﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻨﻔﻁﺭﺕ ‪ /‬ﺴﻤﺎﺅﻩ ﻭﺩ‪‬ﻋﺕ ﻭﻴلٌ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﺠ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻠﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻨﺸﻘﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﺝ ﺨﻠﺕ ‪ /‬ﻤﻥ ﻁﺎﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺸﻬﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻼﻙ ﻤﻨﺘﺜ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﺒﺢ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻕ ﺸﻔﹼﻌﻪ ‪ /‬ﻭﻫل ﺃﺘﺎﻙ ﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺽ ﺇﺫ ﻨ ‪‬ﻬ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻜﺎﻝﻔﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺭﻭﺱ ﻋﺯﺘﻪ ‪ /‬ﻭﺍﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﺎﺡ ﻤﺨﺘﺼ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻠﻴل ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻀﺤﻰ ﺇﺫ ﻻﺡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻝﻡ‪ / ‬ﻨﺸﺭﺡ ﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺨﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻁ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻭ ﺩﻋﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺯﻴﺘﻭﻥ ﻻﺒﺘﺩﺭﻭﺍ ‪ /‬ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺭ ﻓﺎﻗﺭﺃ ﺘﺴﺘﺒﻥ ﺨﺒ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻝﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭ ﻜﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺤﺎﺯ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻑ ‪ /‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺨﺭ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺩ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﻜﻡ ﺯﻝﺯﻝﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﻝﻪ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻝﻪ ﺘﻜﺎﺜﺭ ﺁﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﻬﺭﺕ‬

‫ﺃﺭﺽ ﺒﻘﺎﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻭﻴﻑ ﻤﻨﺘﺸ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻋﺼﺭ ﻓﻭﻴل ﻝﻠﺫﻱ ﻜﻔ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﻝﻡ ﺘﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﺘﺼﺩﻴﻘﺎ ﻝﻪ ﺤﺒﺴﺕ ‪ /‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺭﻴﺵ ﻭﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺩ‪‬ﻭﺡ ﺇﺫ ﺃﻤ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺭﺃﻴﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺇﻝﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺵ ﻜﺭﻤﻪ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﺒﻜﻭﺜﺭ ﻤﺭﺴل ﻓﻲ ﺤﻭﻀﻪ ﻨﻬ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺎﻓﺭﻭﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻭﺭﻯ ﻁﺭﺩﻭﺍ ‪ /‬ﻋﻥ ﺤﻭﻀﻪ ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﺘﺒ‪‬ﺕ ﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬
‫ﺇﺨﻼﺹ ﺃﻤﺩﺍﺤﻪ ﺸﻐﻠﻲ ﻓﻜﻡ ﻓﻠ‪‬ﻕ‬

‫‪/‬‬

‫ﻝﻠﺼﺒﺢ ﺃﺴﻤﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﻤﻔﺘﺨ ‪‬ﺭﻩ‪‬‬

‫ﺃﺯﻜﻰ ﺼﻼﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻋﺘﺭﺘﻪ ‪ /‬ﻭﺼﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﻋﺸﺭﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ‬

‫ﻭﻻﺸﻙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺴل ﺼﻠﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﷲ ﻭﺴﻼﻤﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬

‫ﺘﺠﺎﻫل ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺤﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﺇﺴﻡ ﻝﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭل ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻝﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻷﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺴل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻌﺼﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﻭﻤﺤل ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﷲ ﻋﺯ‪‬ﻭﺠ ّل ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻜﺭﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ ﺒﺈﻨﺯﺍل ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻲ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﻡ ﻝﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ‬
‫ﻤﺒﻠﻐﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺸﺎﺩ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺃﺠﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻓﺈﻨﻬﻡ ﺨﻴﺭﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺃﺤﺩ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺸﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‪..‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻻﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺒﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺼﻭﻡ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻝﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻤﺘﺜﺎل ﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ ﺍﷲ ﻜﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺸﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ﹶﻨﺫ‪‬ﻴﺭ‪‬ﺍ ِﻝ ﹸﺘﺅْ ‪‬ﻤﻨﹸﻭﺍ ﺒﹺﺎﻝﱠﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭﺴ‪‬ﻭ ِﻝ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ‬
‫ﻙ ﺸﹶﺎ ‪‬ﻫﺩ‪‬ﺍ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﺒ ﱢ‬
‫ﺴﻠﹾﻨﹶﺎ ‪‬‬
‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻋﺯ‪‬ﻭﺠ ّل ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻘﻭﻝﻪ "ِﺇﻨﱠﺎ َﺃﺭ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﺒﻜﹾ ‪‬ﺭ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭَﺃﺼ‪‬ﻴﻠﹰﺎ"‬
‫‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬ﻭ ﱢﻗﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻁﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻵﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﻀﺤﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ"ﺍﻝﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﷲ ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺄﻭﻴل " ﹸﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬ﻭ ﱢﻗﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ" ﺃﻱ ﺘﺜﺒﺘﻭﺍ ﻝﻪ ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻭﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻪ ﻭﻝﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺸﺭﻴﻙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺨﺘﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ" ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﺍﻝﻘﺸﻴﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﻡ ﺭﺍﺠﻌﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﷲ ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ ﻭﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ ﻭﻫﻭ" ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﺨﻼﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﻀﻪ ﺭﺍﺠﻌﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺭﺴﻭل ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﻫﻭ " ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬ﻌ ‪‬ﺯﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﺘ ‪‬ﻭ ﱢﻗﺭ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ" ﺃﻱ ﺘﺩﻋﻭﻩ ﺒﺎﻝﺭﺴﺎﻝﺔ‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﺒﺤ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻩ" ﻭﺠﻬﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﺘﺴﺒﻴﺤﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺯﻴﻪ ﻝﻪ ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻗﺒﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺒﻭﺓ ﻻ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ " ﹸﺘ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ" ﺃﻱ ﻏﺩﻭﺓ ﻭﻋﺸﻴﺎ" ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺒﻴﺢ " ‪‬ﺒﻜﹾ ‪‬ﺭ ﹰﺓ ‪‬ﻭَﺃﺼ‪‬ﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻜﻌﻘﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺌﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﻨﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺒﻘﺭﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﺩ‬
‫ﻥ َﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻕ ‪‬ﺒﻴ‪ ‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ﹶﻻ ﹸﻨ ﹶﻔ ‪‬ﺭ ﹸ‬
‫ﻥ ﺒﹺﺎﻝﹼﻠ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭﻤ‪‬ﻶ ِﺌ ﹶﻜ ‪‬ﺘ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ﹸﻜ ﹸﺘ ﹺﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﻥ ﹸﻜ ﱞل ﺁ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻥ ﺍﻝ ‪‬ﺭﺴ‪‬ﻭ ُل ﹺﺒﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃُﻨ ﹺﺯ َل ِﺇ ﹶﻝﻴ‪ ‬ﻪ ﻤ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺒ ‪‬ﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﺍﻝﹾ ‪‬ﻤﺅْ ‪‬ﻤﻨﹸﻭ ‪‬‬
‫"ﺁ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﺴ ‪‬ﻠ ‪‬ﻪ"‬
‫ﻤ‪‬ﻥ ‪‬ﺭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺘﺅﻜﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻵﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺼﺭﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﻨﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻗﺭﺭﻩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﻝﻴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺒﻬﻡ ﻻﺴﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﻴﺔ ﺴﺎﻝﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻻﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻵﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻘﺘﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺹ ﻓﻴﻔﻭﺽ ﺃﻤﺭﻩ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻭﻝﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﻻﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﻜﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﺴﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻴﻔﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﺸﺨﺹ ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﻁﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻝﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺜﺒﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻘﻭل ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﻘﻭل‪.‬‬

‫ﺒﻘﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﻨﻴﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻠﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ)ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ(‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺎﺽ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻌﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﻨﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺒﻨﺎﺕ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺭ‬

‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺩﻴﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺄ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﺠﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﻤﺴﻜﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﺨﻔﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﺅﻗﺘﺎ ﻓﺤﺴﺏ‪ ،‬ﻝﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻝﻠﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﻏﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻁﺭﺡ ﺤل ﻝﻸﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻤﺎﺴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺸﺎﻤل ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﻝﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺅﻜﺩﻩ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺤﻭل ﺃﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﺼﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻌﺩل ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻜﻠﻪ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﻅﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻻﺤﻅﻪ‬
‫ﺠﺎﻝﺒﺭﻴﺙ ﺒﻘﻭﻝﻪ‪" :‬ﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺇﻗﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺘﺅﻜﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻋﻅﻡ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺴﺭﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻝﻺﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻱ")‪.(48‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﻁﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺈﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺠﺴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬
‫ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻝﻠﻨﺎﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘ ﹰﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﻴﺔ‪ ...‬ﺇﻝﺦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ )ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ )ﻜﺎﻝﺭﺒﺎ(‪ ..‬ﻝﻴﺱ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺭ ﻭﻜﻑﺀ ﻭﻋﺎﺩل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﺘﺄﺘﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺇﻻ ﺒﺈﺼﻼﺡ ﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﻴﺸﻤل‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‪،‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺃﺨﻼﻗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺌﻬﺎ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﺎﺕ –ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﻗﻭﻋﻬﺎ‪ -‬ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻨﻁﺭﺡ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺭﺽ ﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺩﺍل ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻲ ﺍﻨﺴﺠﺎﻤﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺸﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻗﻴﻭﺩﺍ‬
‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ)‪ ،(49‬ﻓﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻨﺩﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺎ ﻻﻋﺘﺩﺍل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺭﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺒﻴﺜﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺤﺭﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻲ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ‪" :‬ﻓﻭﺍﷲ ﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭ ﺃﺨﺸﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺸﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺒﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺒﺴﻁﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻭﻫﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻬﻠﻜﻜﻡ‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻫﻠﻜﺘﻬﻡ" )ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﻤﺴﻠﻡ()‪ ،(50‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﺴﺭ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻭﻱ ﻗﻭﻝﻪ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ‪" :‬ﺍﻝﻠﻬﻡ ﺍﺠﻌل ﺭﺯﻕ ﺁل‬
‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻗﻭﺘ ﹰﺎ"‪ ،‬ﻗﻴل‪ :‬ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺇﺴﺭﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻗﻭﻝﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ )ﻜﻔﺎﻓﺎ()‪.(51‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻨﻲ }ﻜﻠﻭﺍ ﻭﺍﺸﺭﺒﻭﺍ ﻭﻻ ﺘﺴﺭﻓﻭﺍ ﺇﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﺤﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺭﻓﻴﻥ{]ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﻑ‪ ،[31 :‬ﻭﻗﺎل‬
‫ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ‪} :‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻨﻔﻘﻭﺍ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺴﺭﻓﻭﺍ ﻭﻝﻡ ﻴﻘﺘﺭﻭﺍ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻗﻭﺍﻤﺎ{]ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﺀ‪.[67 :‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻴﺭﺒﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺯﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻴﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﺨﺭﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﻜﻭﻨﻪ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺠﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ)‪ ،(52‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻝﺤﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﺈﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺭﺘﺏ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﺤﺎﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺘﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﻤﺎﺀ ﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺒل ﺘﺒﺩﺩﻫﺎ)‪ ،(53‬ﺃﻭ ﻫﺩﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻌﻁﻴل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل)‪.(54‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺜﺎﺒﺘ ﹰﺎ ﻤﻤﺘﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺠﺎﻤﺩﺍ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻴﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻝﻤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ)‪ ،(55‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﺩﺕ ﻷﺜﺭ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻓﺭﻴﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻝﻠﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﻲ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻠﻔﻴﻥ ﺒﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻝﻤﺤﺔ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻴﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻜﻠﻔﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﻓﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻝﺘﻬﺎ)‪.(56‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻴﺒﺭﺯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻲ ﻜﺄﺤﺩ ﻤﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻲ ﻻ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻝﻪ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻝﻎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺘﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻴﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺨﻀﻭﻋﻪ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺘﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻨﺯﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻝﻡ ﺘﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﺇﻻ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺒﻬﻴﻜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺎﺒﺕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺄﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻁﺎﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺤل ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺤﻼ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻐﺎﻻﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﻭل "ﺠﺎﻝﺒﺭﻴﺙ" ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻪ "ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﻑ"‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ ﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﺤﺎﺯ ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻬﻤل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻫﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﻓﺎﺩﺤ ﹰﺎ)‪.(57‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻌﻲ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻌﺩﻻ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺎ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻴﻜﻔل ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺭﻓﺎﻫﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺔ ﻝﻜل ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺩﻓﺎ ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻝﻜﻨﻪ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻓﻲ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﻤﻔﺭﺩﻩ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﺭﻨﺎ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﺎ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺘﺯﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﻴﻨﻘﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ )ﺴﻠﻊ ﻤﺤﺭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺨﺒﻴﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺭﻓﻴﻪ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬

‫ﻼ ﻜﺴﻠﻊ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻴﻡ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ ﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻌﺘﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﺼ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﻌ ﹰﺎ ﻴﺸﻜﻼﻥ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻝﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﻘﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻻﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻨﺤﺭﺍﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﺔ ﺘﻜﻔل ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﺒﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺃﺫﻭﺍﻕ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺯ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺯﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﻝﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺠﺎﺫﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻓﻴﻪ )ﺴﻌﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ( ﻗﺩ ﺍﺘﺠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﺘﺠﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﺩﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﻘﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ‪13‬‬
‫ﺒﻠﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ‪ 17.5‬ﻭ ‪ %17.6‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ ‪– 60‬‬
‫‪ 1971‬ﺇﻝﻰ )‪ %10.7‬ﻭ ‪ %10.8‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.(58)(1987 ،80‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺌﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻁﻼﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﻥ ﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ ﻷﻱ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻀﻊ ﻗﻴﻭﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺩﺍﺀ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﻝﻠﺴﻭﻕ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻘﺼﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺀ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺒﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺩﺨﻠﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻨﺄﺨﺫ ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻝﻠﺭﺒﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ‪%10‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺩﺨﺭ ‪ %27.5‬ﻤﻥ ﺩﺨﻠﻬﺎ )ﺃﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺒﺎﺤﻬﺎ( ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻤﺎﻝﻬﺎ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺠﻨﺏ ﻨﻘﺼﺎﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ )ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ %2.5‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﺼل ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻭﻤﺎ ﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺒﺎﺡ( ﺘﻌﺎﺩل ‪ %27.5‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﺭﺒﺎﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻗﻭﺭﻨﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺃﻀﻔﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺩﺍﺓ ﻝﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻘﻁ ﻜﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻴﺔ ﺒل ﺇﻥ ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻴﻕ ﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻝﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل)‪..(59‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻠﻑ ﺒﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺩﺨﻠﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺼﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‪ :‬ﺃﻭﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺨل‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻝﻠﺩﺨل‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻴﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻥ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﻼﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻴﻨﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ ﻓﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻓﺭﺼﻪ ﻭﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻴﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻨﺎﺘﻴﻥ ﻭﺤﻴﺩﺘﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﺜﺭﻭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻤﻁﻠﻘ ﹰﺎ)‪.(60‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻭﻱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻲ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ‪" :‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻴﻐﺭﺱ ﻏﺭﺴ ﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻴﺯﺭﻉ ﺯﺭﻋ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻴﺄﻜل ﻤﻨﻪ ﻁﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻬﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﻪ ﺒﻪ ﺼﺩﻗﺔ")ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﺴﻠﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﻬﻰ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺒﻘﻭﻝﻪ‪" :‬ﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻉ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺜﻡ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺜﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻝﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ")‪.(61‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺒﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺎﺏ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻝﻠﻨﺎﺱ‪" :‬ﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﻪ ﻤﺎل ﻓﻠﻴﺼﻠﺤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻝﻪ ﺃﺭﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻌﻤﺭﻫﺎ)‪ ،(62‬ﻭﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺠﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﺭ ﺩﺨﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻜﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻔﻀل ﻤﺎﻝﻜﻭ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺃﻤﻭﺍﻝﻬﻡ ﻁﺎﻝﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻝﻠﺭﺒﺢ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺯﺍل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺭ)‪ ،(63‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺘﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻌﺎﻗﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﻭﻜﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻨﺨﻔﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺼﺎﺏ ﻝﻠﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﺘﺠﺭﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻴﺘﺎﻤﻰ ﻻ‬
‫ﺘﺄﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪) .‬ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﺭﺍﻨﻲ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻴﻁﺒﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﻝﻼﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻴﻬﻜل ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺭﻓﺎﻫﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺼﻴﻎ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻜﺒﺩﺍﺌل ﻝﻼﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬
‫ﺸﺭﺍﺌﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﺜﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻭﻉ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ )ﺒﻴﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺒﻴﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺠﺎل ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ)‪.(64‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﻀﺒﻁ ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ )ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﺸل ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺘﻡ ﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺨﻡ ﻭﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺨﻀﻊ‬
‫ﻝﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻝﺸﻌﺏ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺘﺴﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺒﺎﻹﺴﺭﺍﻑ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻴﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻡ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻭﺸﺭﺍﺌﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺸﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺃﻤﺭﺍﺽ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺯﺍﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺃﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺼﺩﻗﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﻗﻑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺸﻤل‪ :‬ﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﻼﻜﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺜﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﺌﺽ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺒﺭﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻜﻭﻙ )ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﺩﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪.‬‬
‫*ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻓﻲ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻤﻴﺯﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﺒﺭﺯ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻴﻤﻪ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺭﺍﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺒﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺤﺩ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﺵ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﻴﻡ ﻝﻜل ﺇﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺎﺌﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻬﻔﻭ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻭﺱ ﺍﻝﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻻ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺯﻕ ﺍﷲ ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻀﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﻌﻘل‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﻨﺴل )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺽ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﻹﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺸﻤل‪ :‬ﻓﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺴﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺎﺌﺙ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻡ ﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﻤﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻭﻫﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺸﺘﺭﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﻔﻅ ﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺸﺩ ﺒﻀﺭﺭ ﺃﺨﻑ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﻓﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺓ‬
‫ﻝﻸﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺹ ﻝﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ)‪.(65‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﺩﻋﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺘﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻹﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﷲ ﻭﺍﻝﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺴﺌﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻔﺘﺢ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻫﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻌﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﺍﻝﺸﻭﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﺒﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻅﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻀﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻝﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻭﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻫل ﺍﻝﺤل ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻘﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺤﺴﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،...‬ﻓﻼ‬
‫ﻴﺨﻀﻌﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻫﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻝﻠﻘﻠﺔ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺸﻭﺭﻯ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻨﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺭﺍﺴﺨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻭﺱ ﻭﺘﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪-5‬ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺒﺄﺩﻭﺍﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ )ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ( ﻭﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﺍﻤﺭﻩ ﻭﻨﻭﺍﻫﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺽ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﻗﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺼﺩﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﻤﻨﻊ ﺃﻜل ﺃﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺎﻁل ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻔل ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻝﻠﺩﺨﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﺒﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﺭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ ﺒﺄﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻜﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻨﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺴﻭﺀ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل }ﻜﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻨﻜﻡ{]ﺍﻝﺤﺸﺭ‪.[7 :‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺒﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻬﺩﻑ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺘﺩﻋﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺨل ﻴﺨﻀﻊ ﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺍﺴﺘﻬﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺤﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺨل ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ)‪.(66‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﺸﻤل ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺔ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻪ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺒﻘﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬
‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ‪-‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺄﺘﻲ‪ ،-‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴﺩﻋﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﻔﺎﻝﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻝﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﻓﺭﺽ ﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻋﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺴﻜﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻤﻭل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴ ﹰﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﻼﻜﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﻡ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺼل‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺭﺴﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻤﺒﺭﺭ ﻝﻠﺩﻋﻡ ﺒﺎﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﺎﺘﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻪ ﻭﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺤﺼﻭل ﻏﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﻜﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ )ﺼﻜﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺼﻨﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺄﺠﻴﺭ‪ ،(..‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺼﻜﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻝﻰ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻪ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻪ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻵﺘﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻓﺼل ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﻀﻤﺎﻨ ﹰﺎ ﻝﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻓﺼﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻭﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﻌل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻘﻭﻗﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻋﺏﺀ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻜﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺯﺍﺌﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺼﺭﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺸﻭﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻌﻴﺭ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﻋﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﻴﺩﻓﻌﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﺤﻘﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺼل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺒﺸﺭﺍﺀ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪-‬ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺎﻤﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻝﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻓﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻀﻴﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺩﺨﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﺜﻭﺭ ﺘﺴﺎﺅل ﻫل ﻴﻌﺘﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻐﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﻓﺭﻀﻬﺎ‪ ...‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﻘﺭﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﺼﻭل ﻭﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻝﻔﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻨﺒﺭﺯ ﻤﻼﻤﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﻓﺭﺽ ﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻝﻠﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻺﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻤﺒﺭﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻤﺴﻭﻍ ﺸﺭﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ‪" :‬ﺘﺼﺭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻭﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ "ﻝﻴﺱ ﻝﻺﻤﺎﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨﺭﺝ ﺸﻴﺌﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻴﺩ ﺃﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺒﺤﻕ ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ")‪.(67‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻴﻀﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺩل ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺘﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﻔﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪-3‬ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺒﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻓﺭﺽ ﺤﻕ ﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﻠﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل‬
‫ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ )ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻁﺒﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤل ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﺘﻘﺩﺭ ﺒﻘﺩﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﺼﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ()‪.(68‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﻭﺠﻭﺏ ﺍﺘﺼﺎﻑ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺸﺩ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺯﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﻭﻝﻠﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻜﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺨﺼﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻋﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻭل ﻭﺨﺼﻭﻤﻪ‪) ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻼﻙ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺼل()‪ ،(69‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩﻴﺔ)‪.(70‬‬
‫ﺩ‪-‬ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻗﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﺠﺯ ﻤﺅﻗﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯ ﻤﻭﺴﻤﻴﺎﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﺴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨل‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻓﺤﺹ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ؟ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻜﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺙ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬
‫ﻭﻴﻨﺘﻅﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﺭﺴﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺜﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻁﺭﺡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻝﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻨﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻨﺔ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻀﺒﻁﺔ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺃﺤﻜﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﻤﻁﻠﻘ ﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻹﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺜﺭﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‪ ، ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻝﻭ ﻝﺠﺄﺕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻝﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺘﻔﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﻭﺍﺒﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻲ ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺃﻤﺭﺍ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻤﻭﻗﻭﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺁﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻤﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻫﻭ ﻏﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺔ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺼﻭﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺁﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﺎﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻁﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺨﻼﻓﺎ ﻝﻠﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻀﻐﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻨﺩ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺯﺍﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﻤﻠﺯﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺌﻭﻝﺔ‪ .‬ﻗﺎل ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ‪} :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻴﺄﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻌﺩل ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺇﻴﺘﺎﺀ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺒﻰ‪]{..‬ﺍﻝﻨﺤل‪.[90 :‬‬
‫ﻭﺜﻤﺔ ﻓﺎﺭﻕ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻴﺒﺭﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺠﺫﻭﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺤﺩﺓ ﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺃﻋﺭﺍﻀﻬﺎ)‪.(71‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺸﺎﻤل ﻝﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺃﻤﺭﺍ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﺴﻨﺫﻜﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺈﻴﺠﺎﺯ)‪:(72‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻹﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ )ﺍﻝﺼﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ )ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﻴﺙ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺭﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪) ،‬ﻝﻠﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﻭﺍﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺒﻁﺭﻕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ( ﻭﻜل ﻋﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻻ ﻴﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﺤﺎﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﺒﻥ ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﻓﻲ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ‪ :‬ﺭﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻀﻭﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺩل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻴﺩﻱ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﺤﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻘﺼﺩ ﻋﻅﻴﻡ ﺸﺭﻋﻲ‪ ،...‬ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺸﺭﻋﺕ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ‪...‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼ ﻝﻠﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺸﺭﻋﺕ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ ﻤﺸﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺭ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻤﻐﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺯﺍﺭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺽ‪ ،...‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺒﺄﻴﺩ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﻻ ﺤﺭﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻝﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﻪ‪ ،...،‬ﻓﻴﺘﻴﺴﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﺨﺭﺍﺠﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻴﺩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺘﻨﻘﻼ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻘﺼﺩ ﺸﺭﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻤﺕ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻭﻝﻪ ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ‪} :‬ﻜﻴﻼ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻜﻡ{ "‪ ..‬ﻜﻴﻼ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻔﺊ ﻴﺘﺴﻠﻤﻪ ﻏﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻏﻨﻲ‪ "...‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻤﻘﺼﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺄﻋﻁﺕ ﻝﻤﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺤﻕ ﺘﻤﺘﻌﻪ ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﺴﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻊ ﻓﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻭﺱ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺠﻌﻠﺕ ﻝﻪ ﺤﻜﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻭﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﻪ ﻓﺸﺭﻋﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﻴﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻗﺭﺍﺒﺔ ﺼﺎﺤﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺸﺭﻋﺕ ﻝﻪ ﺜﻠﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻝﻴﺘﺼﺩﻕ ﺒﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺃﻴﻀ ﹰﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻗﺼﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﻔﺎﺩ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺒﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﻘﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺩل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﻓﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺼﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻅﺎﻝﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﺼل‬
‫ﺒﻌﻤل ﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﻭﺽ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎﻝﻜﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺘﺒﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﺈﺭﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺩل ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻀﺭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻏﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﻗﻭﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺭﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺼﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻁﻴﺏ ﻨﻔﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻨﻌﻘﺎﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺭﻉ ﺫﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻕ ﻭﺍﺭﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺍﺌﻥ)‪.(73‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﺩﻑ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺘﺩﻋﻭ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺩﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻠﻙ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻴﺭﺍﺙ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤل ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ‪ ..،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺒﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﺎﺏ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺭﻓﺽ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺘﺤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺤﺭﻤﺕ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ ﻷﻨﻪ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻴﺩﻱ ﻓﺌﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺩﻋﻴﻡ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﺇﻝﻐﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ‬
‫)ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ( ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻬﺭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻜﻭﺱ)‪.(74‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻫﺩﻑ ﻗﺩ ﺴﺒﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺩﻑ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﺒﻴﻼ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل ﻫﺩﻑ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻻ ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬
‫ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻴﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ)‪.(75‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻔﻜﺭ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﻘﻭﻝﻪ )ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻫﺩﻑ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻻ ﻫﺩﻑ‬
‫ﻏﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺸﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺴﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺨﺎﺀ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻝﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻤﻜﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﻁﻼﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﻫﺒﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺭﺴﺎﻝﺘﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻥ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ()‪.(76‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨﻭل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﺽ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ‪ ..،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﺯﻭﻉ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻋﺎﺩل ﻴﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝﺔ ﺸﺭﻋﺎ)‪.(77‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﺩﻓﺎ ﺃﺼﻴﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻴﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ...،‬ﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻷﺠل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎ ﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻔﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺒﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﻔﺼل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻫﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻵﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻵﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪) ،‬ﻭﺸﺠﻊ ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻝﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ‪.(...‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺒﻨﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﺴﺨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺤﺠﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻜل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﺠل ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎ ﺒﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﻗﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻜﻨﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺒﻌﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻝﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ)‪.(78‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل ﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺎﻓل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ)‪.(79‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺒﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺼﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺎﺭﻓﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺼل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻴﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺴﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺩﻝﻴل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻹﻝﻬﻲ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻨﺎﺓ ﺃﻱ ﺇﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻠﺒﻲ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺼل ﻫﻭ ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﺒﺩﻓﻌﻬﺎ ﻁﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻫﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁ ﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺼﺭﻓﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺏﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻨﻅﻡ ﻭﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺎﻓل‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺁﻝﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺒﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ)‪.(80‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻠﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺜل ﻤﻭﺭﺩﺍ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺼﺎﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﻤﺤﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻜﺘﻨﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ )ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻐﻴل‪ ،‬ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﺎﻓل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻜﺎﻓل‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﻘﻑ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﺭﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ)‪.(81‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺃﺤﻜﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﺘﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻤﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻀﺨﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺅﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ)‪.(82‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺜﻭﺭ ﺘﺴﺎﺅل ﻫل ﺘﻜﻔﻲ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻺﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺎﺅل ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺩﺍﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﺼﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل‪) ،‬ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ‪ %2.5‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺩﺍﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %5‬ﺇﻝﻰ ‪ %10‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺼﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ( ﻭﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %2.5‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺘﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ )ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎ( ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %25‬ﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﺩ ‪ ،%10‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﺩ ‪ %20‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺘﻌﺎﺩل ﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪ %15‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺨل‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩل ﻝﻠﻌﺎﺌﺩ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺭﻭﺍﺝ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﺎﺠﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ‪ ،%5‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺤﺼﻴﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻀﻌﻑ ﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒ ﹰﺎ )ﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،(%25‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻨﻜﻤﺎﺵ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﺘﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻨﻘﺼﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﻭل ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻨﻅﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ %1‬ﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﺎﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ %5‬ﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻓﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻨﺴﻠﻡ ﺒﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻨﺘﺼﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ)‪.(83‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺩﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﺎﺭﺯﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻀﺨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺭﺍﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻌﺏ ﺩﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺤﻴﻭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﻨﻤﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﻪ ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﺍﻤﺞ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺇﺯﺍﻝﺔ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻀﻁﺭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻑﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻴﺙ ﺇﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﺠﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻝﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻝﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﺜﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻭﻴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ)‪.(84‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻐﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻫﻭ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻻ ﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﻜﻑﺀ ﻭﻋﺎﺩل‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻴﻜل ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺩﻋﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺩ ﺃﺴﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭل ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺸﺄ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻤﺭﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﺼﺭﺍﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺌﻭﻝﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻜﻨﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻘل ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﻪ ﺃﺜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺼﺒﻎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﻤﺢ)‪.(85‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺅﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺅ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻫﻭ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻝﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺭ ﻝﻠﺩﺨل ﻝﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺨﻁﺭ ﻋﺠﺯﻫﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻗل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻻ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺼﺎﺭﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻐﺩﻭ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﺎﺤ ﹰﺎ ﻷﻱ ﻏﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﺒﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍ ﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﺃﻡ‬
‫ﻻ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﺨﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻝﻐﺎﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺘﻭﺴﻌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﻤﺘﺩﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻤﻔﺭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﺴﺭﻑ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺇﺯﺍﻝﺔ ﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒل ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﺘﺼل ﺒﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﻨﻲ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺴﺱ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺴﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻘﻭﻕ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺤﻘﻭﻗﺎ ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻻ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻝﻠﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺨﻠﻕ ﻭﺩﺍﺌﻊ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ)‪،(86‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﺼﻔﻪ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﺘﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺘﺼل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﻝﻜﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺘﻭﻅﻑ ﺃﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺩﻋﻴﻥ ﻝﺩﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﻗﺭﻭﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺼﻭل ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻤﻊ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﻭﺩﺍﺌﻊ ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ‬
‫ﺘﻬﺘﻡ ﻗﺒل ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ ﺒﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺘﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺘﺭﺽ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻔﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻝﺴﺩﺍﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻴﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻝﻺﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺘﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻓﻊ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻷﻫﻡ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻭﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﻤﻭﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺩﺍﺩ ﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺭﻭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺒﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﻲ ﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ )ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ( ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩل‬
‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺎ ﻝﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻘﺩ ﺃﻓﺴﺩﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل )ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺽ ﺒﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ( ﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺩﺨل ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ )ﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﻜﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ )ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻓﺴﺩﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻼﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩ ﻓﻬﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻴﺘﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻗﺼﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺠل )ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻴﻎ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺠل)‪.(87‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﺘﻀﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻗﺎﺌﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻑ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺼﻭل ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺼﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺼﻴﻎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻷﺠل‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺘﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺠﺫﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻭﺤﺩ ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺩﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻤﻌﺩل ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﻔﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻓﻼ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺇﻻ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺭﺒﺤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺸﺄﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻝﻴﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻗﺩﺭﻩ ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭﻯ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﻔﺭﺹ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬
‫ﻭﺃﺨﻼﻗﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻜﻔﺎﺀﺘﻪ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻴﻅل ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻜﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻝﺘﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻤﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﺤﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻝﻐﻴﺭ ﺃﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺒﻐﺭﺽ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل‪ ،‬ﻴﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺃﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺭﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺫﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﻭﺘﺨﺼﻴﺼﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬
‫ﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻝﻘﺩ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل ﺴﻤﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻴﻘﻭل ﺁﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﺠﺴﺘﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻴﻤﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل ﻝﺭﺃﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎل)‪ ،(88‬ﻓﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﻤﺕ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺘﻤﺜل ﻀﻤﺎﻨﺎ ﻝﻠﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﻼﺤﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ ﺃﻻ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺭﺽ‬
‫ﻗﺭﻭﻀﺎ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺘﺭﻀﻴﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻗﺭﻭﻀﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬
‫ﺃﻴﺴﺭ ﻝﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻝﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻀﻤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺤﻘﻘﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻝﻁﺎﺌﻔﺔ ﺃﻭﺴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺁﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻼ ﻤﻼﺌﻤﺎ ﻝﻠﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﻅﺭﺍ ﻝﺴﺠﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬
‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﺘﻨﻭﻴﻊ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺃﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻝﺼﻴﻎ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﺠﻴﺏ ﻝﻼﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺌﻡ ﻝﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻭل ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﻫﻤﺎ –ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺎﺕ‪ -‬ﻋﺎﺌﺩﺍ ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﺼﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻋﺎﺩل‪.‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻝﺜ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻤﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﻪ ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﻐﻴﺔ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﺍﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬
‫– ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﺤﻘﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻝﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠ ﹰﺎ ﻭﺘﺒﺎﺩﻻ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻜل ﺒﺤﺙ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻝﻪ ﻤﺭﺠﻌﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺘﻪ)‪ ،(89‬ﻭﺇﻝﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻡ ﻝﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻴﻀﻡ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﺸﻑ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﻜل ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺘﺤﻜﻤﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ)‪ ،(90‬ﻭﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻷﻭل ﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻋﺎ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻜل ﺇﻁﺎﺭﺍ ﺸﺭﻋﻴﺎ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺨﺹ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻤﺨﺽ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺸﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻁ ﺒﺴﻴﺎﺝ ﻴﺼﻨﻌﻪ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺝ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻫﻭ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﻘﺩﺍﺕ ﻜل ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻴﻭﺩﻩ ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺭﻀﺎ ﻤﻜﺭﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻘﻀﺎﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻼل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺄﻜﻭﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ )ﻝﻪ ﻋﻘﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ(‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻫﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩ ﹰﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ)‪.(91‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﻀﻭﺤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﻨﻁﺎﻗﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻤﺩﻨﺎ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻼﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻝﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬

‫‪-2‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻋﻘﻼﻨﻲ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻝﻠﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ)‪ ،(92‬ﻓﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻐﺯﻯ ﺍﺒﺘﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻜﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻌﺩﻯ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﻐﺯﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺒﺼﺩﻕ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺜﺎﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﻤﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ)‪.(93‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻜﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻫﺎﺩﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻐﺯﻯ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺸﺘﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﻬﺎ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻝﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ‬
‫ﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ)‪.(94‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺅﺼل ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﻤﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﺃ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻼﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺜﺒﺕ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺭﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻁﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﺸﻑ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻀﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﺒﻥ ﺨﻠﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻻﺒﻥ ﺨﻠﺩﻭﻥ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺼل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻁﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬
‫ﻋﺸﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻼﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺴﺒﺒﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻘل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻨﺴﺤﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﻀﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺴﻜﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻓﺭﻀﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﺭﺒﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﻝﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺒﻴﻥ ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺴﺒﺏ ﺜﺎﻝﺙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌ ﹰﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ ﻻ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻵﻝﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻵﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺭﺠﻡ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺼﺤﻲ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬
‫ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ)‪.(95‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﻭﻥ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل "ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ"‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺫﻫﺏ" ﻭﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ" ﺇﻝﻰ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻜﻨﺎ ﻨﻔﻀل‬

‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺫﻫﺏ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﺭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻴﺘﻔﺭﻉ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻭﻕ ﻝﺨﺎﻝﻕ ﻤﺩﺒﺭ ﺤﻜﻴﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺴﺨﺭ ﻝﻪ‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻓﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺯﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻔﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻗﺭﺃﻨﺎ ﻭﺴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺩﺭﻙ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻘل ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺘﻌﺎﺭﺽ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺼﺩﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﷲ ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻘﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ )ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻬﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻨﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺨﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻘﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻠﻙ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ }ﻜﻼ ﻨﻤﺩ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﻭﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺭﺒﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺭﺒﻙ ﻤﺤﻅﻭﺭﺍ{]ﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،[20 :‬ﻓﻠﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻨﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﷲ‬
‫ﺴﺒﺤﺎﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﺭﻱ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺼل‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻨﻤﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺼﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻶﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺼﺭﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺸﺘﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻅﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺤﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﺨﻭل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺼﻭ ﹰﻻ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺒل‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺴﻘﻑ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻜﻤﺨﻠﻭﻕ ﻋﺎﺒﺩ ﻹﻝﻪ ﺨﺎﻝﻕ ﻴﻠﺘﺯﻡ ﺃﻭﺍﻤﺭﻩ ﺴﻌﻴﺎ ﻹﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﺴﺎﺅل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻋﺭﻀﻪ‪ ،‬ﻝﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺒﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻤﻨﺔ؟ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺸﺭﻭﻁﻬﺎ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺘﺤﻘﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻴﻨﺒﺜﻕ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻜﺭ )ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺴﻠﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻤﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻥ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺨﻠﻑ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﻏﻴﺎﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ‪ .‬ﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺨﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ :‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻥ ﻭﺍﻵﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻝﻘﺩ ﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻨﻁﻼﻗ ﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠﻔﻴﺎﺕ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻭﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻔﺭﺍﻍ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺨﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ ﺍﻨﺘﻘل ﻨﻤﻁ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻝﺠﺫﻭﺭﻩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻨﺒﻬﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺤﻘﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫"ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻴﻨﺼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﷲ")‪ ،(96‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺭﺸﺎﺩﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺤﺜﻪ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﻓﻌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﻓﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺩ ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻭل ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﺒﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻗﺴﻤﺎ ﻗﺴﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻲ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ)‪.(97‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻏﺎﻝﺒﻴﺔ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﻤﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻝﻠﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﻋﺯﻝﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﺒﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻓﺭﺽ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺍﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ ﻝﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻭﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﺘﻜﺸﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺍﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻻ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﻨﺩ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﻝﻠﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻜﻔﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺩﻑ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺒﺤﺩ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺅﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﺍﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﺤﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻴﺩﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻴﻨﻴﻭﺭ)‪.(98‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻪ ﻝﻭﻅﺎﺌﻔﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺒﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻝﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻴﺱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻗﺼﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻝﻤﺎ ﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﻝﻜل ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﺇﻤﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺴﻌﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺘﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻌﺫﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻀﻤﻨﻪ ﻝﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩﹰﺍ )ﺍﻝﺼﺩﻗﺎﺕ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻭﺘﺠﻤﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺤﺎﻓﺯﹰﺍ ﻝﻠﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺒﺫل ﺍﻝﻤﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪-‬ﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﻤﺎﺀ ﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ )ﺍﻝﺠﺴﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺘﺒﺩﺩﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻻ ﻴﺠﻴﺯ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻨﺎﻓﻊ ﻝﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﺩﻝﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﺤﺎﺡ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ‪ :‬ﺴﻠﻊ ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻠﻊ ﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺘﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺴﻠﻌﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻨﺎﻓﻌﺔ ﻝﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ)‪ ،(99‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻝﻺﺴﻼﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻴﻘﺭﺭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺘﺭﺸﺩ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻤﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻴﻨﺸﺊ ﻋﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻴﺴﻌﻰ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻹﺘﻘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻹﺨﻼﺹ ﻭﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﻭﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻁﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺽ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺒﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﺭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻋﺎﺌﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻭﻴﺤﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻨﻤﺎﺌﻪ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‬

‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻝﻌﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻭﻝﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻔﺴﺭ ﺍﺒﻥ ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‪" :‬ﻓﺎﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻹﺜﻤﺎﺭ –ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‪ -‬ﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﻘﺼﻭﺭﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺼﻴل ﻤﺎ ﺘﺩﻋﻭ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‪ ..‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻼﺒﺱ‪ ..‬ﺒل ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺘﺩﻋﻭ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺍﺌﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﻁﻤﺌﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺩﻭﺀ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﻨﻴﺕ‪...‬‬
‫ﻗﺎل ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ‪} :‬ﻭﺠﻌل ﻝﻜﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺒﺎل ﺃﻜﻨﺎﻨﺎ ﻭﺠﻌل ﻝﻜﻡ ﺴﺭﺍﺒﻴل ﺘﻘﻴﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺭ ﻭﺴﺭﺍﺒﻴل ﺘﻘﻴﻜﻡ ﺒﺄﺴﻜﻡ{]ﺍﻝﻨﺤل‪:‬‬
‫‪ ،[81‬ﻭﻗﺎل ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪} :‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﺼﻭﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻭﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺸﻌﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺜﺎﺜﺎ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﻋﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﻴﻥ{]ﺍﻝﻨﺤل‪ ،[80 :‬ﻭﺃﻴﻀ ﹰﺎ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺴﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺏ ﺍﻝﺯﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﻤل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻝﻁﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻅﺭﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺄﺫﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺸﺭﻋﺎ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎل ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ‪} :‬ﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺤﺭﻡ ﺯﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﺨﺭﺝ ﻝﻌﺒﺎﺩﻩ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺯﻕ{]ﺍﻷﻋﺭﺍﻑ‪،[32 :‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻝﺒﺴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺯﻕ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻁﻤﺢ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﺠل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺩﺤﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺴﺒﻙ ﻗﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻲ ﺼﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺴﻠﻡ‪" :‬ﻤﻥ ﺴﺭﻩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﺴﻁ ﻝﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺯﻗﻪ ﻓﻠﻴﺼل ﺭﺤﻤﻪ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻭﺡ ﻓﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺘﻪ ﻝﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻨﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺃﺏ ﻻﺴﺘﺯﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻤﻴﺭ)‪.(100‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻅل ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺃﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺼل –‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺯﻭﻡ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺨل ﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﻤﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻊ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻓﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺈﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻜﻔﺄ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻊ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﻝﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻝﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﺠﺭ ﻤﺴﺎﻭ ﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﺫﻝﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺠﻭﺍﺯ ﺍﺴﺘﺤﻭﺍﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻡ ﺒﺄﻴﺔ ﺼﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﺎل‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺴﻌﺭ ﺃﻗل‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬

‫ﺘﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩ )ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ(‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻲ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺴﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻴﺭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻜل ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻴﻁﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻠﻴﺒﺭﺍﻝﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻜل ﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻴﻤﻴل –ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎ‪ -‬ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻁﺎﺒﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﻴﻨﻔﺭﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ)‪.(101‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻨﻅﻴﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻝﻜل‬
‫ﻋﻨﺼﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺃﻭﻝﻰ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻤﻲ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺼﻴﻎ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﻌل ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺘﺘﺠﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﺤﻼل ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻤﺤل ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻌﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻝﻌﻨﺼﺭ‬
‫ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﺌﺩ ﻤﺴﺒﻕ‬
‫ﻝﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل )ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ( ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻭل‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻴﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺒﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺠﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺘﺠﻤﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻥ‪-:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﻭﻀﺔ )ﻋﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻨﻅﻴﺭ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺘﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺒﻴﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺒﻌﻀﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻓﺘﻀﻡ ﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺇﻝﺯﺍﻤﻲ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻝﻠﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻴﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﺩﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺘﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻪ ﺃﺜﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻀﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﻭﻀﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺤﺭﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺩﺨل ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺘﻠﻘﺎﺌﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻝﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻴﻘﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻤﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻤﺠﻤﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﺩﺩ ﻗﺩﺭﺍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﻅل ﺴﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻻ ﻴﺸﻬﺩ ﻤﺜل‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺨﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل‪ ،‬ﻨﺫﻜﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪-:‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺒﺎﻝﺭﺒﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﺇﺤﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﺤل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺒﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬
‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ)‪.(102‬‬
‫‪-5‬ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺤﺭﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻜﺘﻨﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﻝﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺌﺩ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻝﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ)‪.(103‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﺭﺯ ﻗﺴﻤﺎﺘﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩﻩ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﺨﻼﻗﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻘﺎﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﻪ ﻭﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻋﺭﺍﻑ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﻴﻁﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻠﺒﻲ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺭﻓﺎﻫﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﷲ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺒﺭ ﻝﻠﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺤﻜﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺸﺭﻉ ﻝﻪ ﻤﻨﻬﺠ ﹰﺎ ﻴﻨﻅﻡ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻝﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺒﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻨﻅﺭﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺭﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻀﻀﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺤﻭﺍل ﺍﻝﻁﻭﺍﺭﺉ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻁل ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻜل ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﻌل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻋﻨﻪ – ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺠﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺘﺴﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻤﻊ ﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،..‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻤﻠﺘﻘﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺜل ﻭﺍﻝﻠﺫﺍﺕ)‪.(104‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺘﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻊ ﻜﺩﺡ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺡ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺴﺨﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺸﻭﺍﻗﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻨﺤﻁﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﻨﺠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺨﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻤﺒﺭﻴﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺠﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻌﻜﺱ ﺒﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﻝﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻅﻤﻰ‬

‫ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺸﻌﻭﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،...،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺴﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺯﺍﻝﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺎﻭل ﺤل ﻤﺸﺎﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻨﺸﺄﺕ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺸﺎﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺘﻔﺎﻗﻤﺕ ﻭﺍﺒﺘﻌﺩﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻓﺄﻜﺜﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭ ﻝﻡ‬
‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﺴﻭﺀﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻘﻴﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﺸﻌﻭﺒﻬﺎ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺸﺒﻊ‪.(105)...‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‪:‬‬

‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﻠﻲ ﻭﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %86‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻭﻨﺤﻭ ‪ %20‬ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺤﻭ ‪ %28‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻝﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻜﻤﺤﺭﻙ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺩﻴﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻫﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺜل ‪ 4/3‬ﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﻫﻡ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪%64‬‬‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪ %74‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ %43 ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻝﻨﺼﻴﺏ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫‪.%34.5‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﻠﻲ ﻜﻤﻘﺘﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﻴﻥ‬‫ﻜﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻝﻸﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻔﺴﺭ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ :‬ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻝﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺌﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻗﻴﻭﺩ ﺘﺤﺩ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼل ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺘﻔﺠﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺭﻫﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻝﺘﻌﻠﻥ ﻓﺸل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻠﺨﻠل ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻜﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﺎﺌﻼﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻭﻝﻡ( ﻭﺘﺩﻓﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺎﺌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﺍﺕ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺩﻭل ﺸﺭﻕ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺒﺘﺭﻭﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻜﺎﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺤﻔﻅﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺩﻴﻥ‪) ،‬ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬

‫ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻴﻐﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﻘﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﺘﺂﻜل ﻭﻫﺸﺎﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﺎﻝﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺃﺤﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ )ﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺼﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺼﻭل ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﺠﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﺩﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺼﻨﺎﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺤﻭل ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺨﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺤﻔﺯ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺩﺨل ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ )ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ( ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺯﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ )ﻋﺠﺯ ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ‪ 700‬ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺨﻠل ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻫﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻫﻥ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﺩ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺴﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﺸﻭﻴﻪ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺴﻪ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﻫﻴﺎﻜﻠﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻭﺩ ﺒﻼ‬
‫ﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺠﺫﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﺃﺴﺎﺴ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺩﻴﻭﻥ‪) ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ( ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻁﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻻﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻫﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ‪ ..‬ﺇﻝﺦ‪ ،‬ﺒﺄﻀﻌﺎﻑ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺜﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻴﺠﺫﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل )ﻻ ﻝﻜﻲ ﻴﻭﺠﻬﻬﺎ ﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل( ﺒل ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺒﺘﻭﻅﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻝﺼﺎﻝﺤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺁﻝﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺼﻠﺢ ﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﻭﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻌﺕ ﺃﻀﺭﺕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﻀﺕ ﺃﻀﺭﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺩﺨﺭﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻭل ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺫﺒﺫﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻴﺠﻠﺏ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺠﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﺕ‬
‫ﻀﻐﻅ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺫﻝﻙ ﺴﺒﺒﺎ ﻝﻸﺯﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺴﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻫﻨﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻨﻨﻜﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺤﻘﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻲ‪ ..‬ﻝﻘﻴﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻫﻨﺔ ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬
‫ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺤﺸﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠل ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻲ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬
‫ﺨﻠل ﺒﻨﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺴﺎﺀﺓ ﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻁﺎﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺒﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻤﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻫﺩﺍﺭ ﻭﺴﻭﺀ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ )ﻭﺘﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻑ( ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺘﻜﺭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻀﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺩﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻐﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﻌﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﺽ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺭﻓﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺠﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻲ ﺍﻹﻝﻬﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ )ﺍﻝﺤﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﻘل(‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺭﻓﺽ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺎﻏﻡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺏ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻵﺨﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻬﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺭﺍﻉ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺸﺤﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺯﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﻜﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻫﺩﻓﺎ ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺨﻠﻕ ﻭﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺒﺘﺩﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ )ﺍﻝﻼﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ( ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ )ﺍﻝﻼﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ(‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﻫﺩﻑ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‪ ..‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺸﻬﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻝﻼﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺒﺢ ﻭﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﻝﻐﺎﺀ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻫﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻜﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ )ﻴﻤﺜل ﻨﺤﻭ ‪ %27‬ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻲ( ﻭﻨﺼﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺘﺩﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ ..‬ﺇﻝﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻼﺩ ﻏﺭﺏ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺩﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻭﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﺽ ﺘﻭﻅﻑ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺩﺍﺌﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻏﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻌﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺘﺤﺠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺤﺭﻙ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺒﺩﻴل‬
‫ﻝﻠﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺘﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠﻕ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺼﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪) ،‬ﻭﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻴﻥ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺘﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻲ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺘﺒﻌﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺢ‬
‫ﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﺌﺘﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻗﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻝﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻁﺎﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠل ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻴﺭ ﻜﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺠﺫﺭﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠل ﺍﻝﻁﻭﻴل‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺜﻼﺜﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤ ﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ‪:2008‬‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻤﻔﺎﺠﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺩﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2006‬ﻭﺍﻨﻔﺠﺭﺕ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ 2007‬ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻫﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌﻭﻝﻤﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪2008‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺭﺍﺨﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺼﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﺴﻤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺫﻋﺭ ﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻡ ﺘﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻁﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻭﺘﻭﻝﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﺩﺍﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻨﻁﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﻭﻯ ﻓﺎﻨﺘﻘﻠﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻨﻁﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻁﻠﺒﺕ ﺘﺩﺨل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻨﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺔ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻅﻨ ﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ ﻴﻤﺜل ﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺫﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻜﺭ ﻝﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺭﺠﻊ ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻼل ﺃﻭﻀﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺴﺩﺓ ﻭﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺴﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﻁﺅ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸﺎﺒﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﻝﻤﻲ ﻝﻸﺴﻭﺍﻕ‪،...‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﺨﺘﻼل ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﻝﻌﻼﺝ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺸﺎﻤﻼ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻤﺎﻨﻊ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺡ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺨﻁﺔ ﺘﻨﻔﺫ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻝﻺﺼﻼﺡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺴﺘﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﺍﻨﻔﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﺩﺙ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ‪ ،1997‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻀﻌﻑ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺼﻼﺡ ﺠﺫﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ ﻝﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁﻲ )ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻔﻴﺯ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻫﻠﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺭﻭﺸﺘﺔ ﻤﻭﺭﻭﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺼﻔﺔ ﻜﻴﻨﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻋﻼﺝ ﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﻭﻤﺅﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻨﻔﺫ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺼل ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺨﻠل ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻴﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻜﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻻﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺨﻠل ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻫﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﺝ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻤﻭﺠﻪ ﺤﺎﻜﻡ ﻝﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻝﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻁﺭﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻝﻙ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺽ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻝﻜﻲ ﺘﻭﻅﻑ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﻝﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﻝﻴﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻀﺒﻁ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺃﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺨﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻭﺩ ﺒﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﺘﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﻝﻺﻗﺭﺍﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺇﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺭﺸﻴﺩ ﻭﻤﻅﻬﺭﻱ ﻭﻝﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ ﻤﻐﺎﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )ﻜﺎﻝﺤﺭﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ( ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﺩﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﻤﺫﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻁﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺭﺍﻑ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﺠﻠﺒﻪ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺭﻭﺸﺘﺔ ﻜﻴﻨﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﺴﻌﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤل‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ ﻭﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻴﻀ ﹰﺎ ﺸﺠﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺭﻓﻌﺎ ﻭﺨﻔﻀﺎ‬
‫ﻜﻤﻭﺠﻪ ﻝﻠﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺎ ﻤﺴﻠﻤﺎ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺠﻠﺒﺕ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻷﺴﻭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﺼﻭل ﻭﺘﺴﺒﺒﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪،‬‬
‫)ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺸﺠﻌﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﺽ ﺴﻌﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻁﻭﺍل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻜﻠﻴﻨﺘﻭﻥ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺵ‪ ،‬ﻝﺨﻠﻕ ﻁﻠﺏ ﺯﺍﺌﻑ ﻝﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﻀﻌﻑ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺠﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺴﻭﺀ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻔﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﻭﻕ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺜﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺒﺩﻋﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺭﻜﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻴﻥ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺩﻋﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻡ ﺘﺩﻓﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺴﻘﻁ ﻋﻨﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺄﺨﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﺤﺒﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺘﺤﻤل ﺃﻋﺒﺎﺌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﻤﻠﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻁﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل ﻫﻭ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺃﻭﻝﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻝﻠﺴﻠﻊ ﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﺭﺸﻴﺩﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﺭﺹ ﻋﻤﺎﻝﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻝﺩ ﺩﺨﻼ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺩﺨل ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺩﺍل ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺒﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺤﻭل ﺃﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻴﺭﺸﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻋﻴﻪ ﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻡ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺁﺜﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ )ﺘﻘﺩﺭ ﺒﺄﺭﺒﻊ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺃﺜﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﺝ ﻭﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺤﻜﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺜﺭﺕ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻭﻑ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺠﻴﻡ ﻝﻼﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻝﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺴﺭﻴﻌ ﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ ﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ ﻝﻠﺼﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻭﻴل ﻓﺴﻭﻑ ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﻐﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﺠﺫﺭﻴ ﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﺼﻼﺤﺎﺕ ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺸﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻭﻝﻥ ﻴﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺭﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،...‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺭﻜﺘﻪ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻬﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻝﻥ ﺘﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺎ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻤﺭﻴﻜﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩل ﻝﻠﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺭﻭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻝﺠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺁﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻝﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻴ ﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺱ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﺄﺴﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﻅﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻴﻤﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺘﺭﻯ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺡ ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻘ ﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻋﺙ ﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻴﻭﻓﺭﻩ ﺘﺯﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﻐﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺘﺯﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻨﺒﺜﻕ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻴﻡ ﻭﻀﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻹﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻓﺭﻉ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻏﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﻫﺏ ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻤﻭ ﺇﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ ﻝﻸﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻓﺎﻫﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺒﺭﺯ ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺸﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺸﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻌﺎل ﻝﻠﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﺴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺭﺍﻑ ﻤﺤﻅﻭﺭ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺒﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﻋﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻓﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺩﻯ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻨﺨﻠﺹ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻭﻋﺭﺽ ﺴﻠﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺒﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻭﺒﺄﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻝﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺈﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ ﺴﻠﻊ ﻜﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺒﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻗل‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﺭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺩﺓ ﻝﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺃﻜﻔﺄ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻪ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻝﻪ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻴﺯﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻀﺭﻴﺒﻲ ﻋﺎﺩل ﻴﻭﺯﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺨﻀﻭﻉ ﻝﻠﻀﻐﻁ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﺸﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﺩﻴﻤﻘﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻭﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻭﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺇﻻ ﺒﻘﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺯﺍﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺌﻪ‪ ،‬ﻻ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻔﺎﺨﺭ ﺒﺘﺭﺍﺜﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻻ ﺘﺤﺘﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻁﺒﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺤﺎﻝﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺴﻨﺔ ﺇﻝﻬﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻭﺤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻲ ﺇﻻ ﻝﻤﻥ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺂﻝﻴﺎﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﺸﻌﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﺒل ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻌﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺼﻴﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺼل ﺒﺎﻹﺒﺩﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺒﺘﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ‪ ،‬ﻴﻭﻅﻔﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺯﺍﻭﺝ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻹﻴﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻹﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻴﻭﻓﺭ ﺭﻏﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﺩﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﺓ ﻤﺤﻘﻘﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺒﺩﻴﺔ ﻗﺎل ﺘﻌﺎﻝﻰ‪} :‬ﻭﻋﺩ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺁﻤﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﻨﻜﻡ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻭﺍ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻝﺤﺎﺕ ﻝﻴﺴﺘﺨﻠﻔﻨﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻡ‪]{...‬ﺍﻝﻨﻭﺭ‪،[55 :‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﻭﻝﻪ‪} :‬ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤل ﺼﺎﻝﺤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﺜﻰ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺅﻤﻥ ﻓﻠﻨﺤﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻁﻴﺒﺔ{‪) ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻨﻴﺎ( ﻭﻝﻨﺠﺯﻴﻨﻬﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺠﺭﻫﻡ )ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﺓ( }ﺒﺄﺤﺴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ{ ]ﺍﻝﻨﺤل‪.[97 :‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺼل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺌﻪ ﻭﺁﻝﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل‬
‫ﺒﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺤﺩﺙ‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﻼل ﻤﺅﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ )ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺤﺭﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻭﺒﺌﺔ‪ ...‬ﺇﻝﺦ( ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻜﻔﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻭﺩﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺫﺍﺘﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺩﺙ ﻀﻌﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻤﺒﺎﺩﺌﻪ‪) ،‬ﻻ ﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺍﺜﻪ( ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬
‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‪:‬‬
‫‪-48‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻨﺤﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩل‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1987 ،1‬ﺹ‪ ،30‬ﻨﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﻙ‪ .‬ﺠﺎﻝﺒﺭﻴﺙ )ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ( ﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﺭﻙ‪ ،1972 ،‬ﺹ‪.153‬‬

‫‪-49‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.111‬‬
‫‪-50‬ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﺒﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻲ ﺃﻤﻴﻥ ﻗﻠﻌﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻐﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪.409/8 ،1987 ،‬‬
‫‪-51‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.429/8 ،‬‬

‫‪-52‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺎﺒﺩ‪ ،‬ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،2006 ،‬ﺹ‪.145‬‬
‫‪-53‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.147‬‬
‫‪-54‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.113‬‬
‫‪-55‬ﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﺒﻭ ﺇﺴﺤﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻁﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‪ /2 ،‬ﺹ‪.12-8‬‬

‫‪-56‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﻨﺫﺭ ﻗﺤﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻴﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1979 ،1‬ﺹ‪.126‬‬

‫‪-57‬ﻨﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.73‬‬
‫‪-58‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.98‬‬
‫‪-59‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﻨﺫﺭ ﻗﺤﻑ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.121‬‬
‫‪-60‬‬
‫‪Shaikh Mahmud Ahmad: Economics of Islam, Lahore Ashraf Puplications, 1968, p. 88.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﻨﺫﺭ ﻗﺤﻑ‪ ،‬ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.122‬‬
‫ﻨﻘ ﹰ‬
‫‪-61‬ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻁﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺼﻐﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1981 ،1‬ﺝ‪ ،2‬ﺹ‪.584‬‬

‫‪-62‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﻫﻴﻜل‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﻋﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪.229/2 ،1963 ،‬‬

‫‪-63‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻨﻌﻤﺕ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﻁﻴﻑ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺯﻜﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻹﻨﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1993 ،1‬ﺹ‪.277‬‬
‫‪-64‬ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﻜﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺭ ﻝﻠﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،2003 ،2‬ﺹ‪.292‬‬
‫‪-65‬ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻁﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،119/5 ،1982 ،‬ﺍﻝﻐﺯﺍﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺼﻔﻰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻤﺼﺭ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‪،‬‬
‫‪.310/1‬‬

‫‪-66‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﺒﻬﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﺎﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪ ،1986/6‬ﺹ‪.123‬‬
‫‪-67‬ﺃﺒﻭ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻤﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.66 ،65‬‬

‫‪-68‬ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻁﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺼﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‪.122/2 ،1982 ،‬‬
‫‪-69‬ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﻜﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،2004 ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻡ‪.59 ،‬‬
‫‪-70‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻫﺎﺸﻡ ﻋﻭﺽ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ‪ :‬ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﻨﻅﺭ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻙ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‪،1989 ،‬‬
‫ﺹ‪.86‬‬

‫‪-71‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.50 ،‬‬

‫‪-72‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﻴﺩ ﺍﻹﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪،1997 ،‬‬
‫ﺹ‪.33‬‬

‫‪-73‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻫﺭ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﺎﺼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻨﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺘﻭﻨﺱ‪ ،1978 ،‬ﺹ‪.192 – 175‬‬
‫‪-74‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺯﻫﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﻬﻭﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﻨﺱ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﻗﺎﺀ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺒﻠﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‪1996 ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.329‬‬
‫‪-75‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻨﻌﻤﺕ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﻁﻴﻑ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.337‬‬

‫‪-76‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﺎﻗﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻝﻠﻤﻁﺒﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‪ ،1982 ،‬ﺹ‪.632‬‬
‫‪ -77‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﺭﻭﺕ‪ ،2007 ،‬ﺹ‪.178‬‬

‫‪-78‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﺎﻗﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﺩﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.669‬‬
‫‪-79‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻨﻌﻤﺕ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.340‬‬

‫‪-80‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻤﻨﺼﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.184‬‬
‫‪-81‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻨﻌﻤﺕ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.415 ،‬‬

‫‪-82‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﻭﺡ‪ ،‬ﺃﺜﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺭﺴﺎﻝﺔ ﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺍﻩ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﻗﺎﺯﻴﻕ‪ ،1994 ،‬ﺹ‪.145‬‬

‫‪-83‬ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﻜﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﻪ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.61‬‬

‫‪-84‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.387 ،‬‬
‫‪-85‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﻌﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﺭﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻨﺤﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺇﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻬﻴﻜل ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻲ ﻝﻠﺒﻨﻭﻙ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،1981 ،‬ﺹ‪.22‬‬
‫‪-86‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.15‬‬

‫‪-87‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.25‬‬

‫‪-88‬ﻨﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.388 ،‬‬
‫‪-89‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺸﻭﻗﻲ ﺩﻨﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺅﻴﺩ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ )‪ ،(103‬ﺩﻴﺴﻤﺒﺭ‬

‫‪ ،2001‬ﺹ‪.72‬‬

‫‪-90‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﻨﺫﺭ ﻗﺤﻑ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.30‬‬
‫‪-91‬ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.22‬‬
‫‪-92‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻓﻌﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻼﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪1997 ،‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺹ‪.180 ،179‬‬

‫‪-93‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺎﺒﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.57‬‬

‫‪-94‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ 77‬ﻭﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪-95‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻓﻌﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.180‬‬
‫‪-96‬ﺠﻭﺭﺝ ﺼﻭل‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺫﺍﻫﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﻀﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ ‪ ،1965‬ﺹ‪ ،53‬ﻨﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.10‬‬
‫‪ -97‬ﺘﺸﺭﺍﻨﺯ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﻜل‪ ،‬ﺃﺯﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ ،‬ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻓﺭﺍﻨﻜﻠﻴﻥ‪ ،1959 ،‬ﺹ‪ .55 – 54‬ﻨﻘﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﻜﻤﺎل‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،2001 ،‬ﺹ‪.9‬‬

‫‪-98‬ﺇﻗﺒﺎل ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻤﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﺴﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ :‬ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻨﻘﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬
‫‪ ،26‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ ‪ ،1998 ،2‬ﺹ‪.36-32‬‬

‫‪-99‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺎﺒﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.148 ،‬‬
‫‪-100‬ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻫﺭ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺎﺸﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻁ‪.192 ،2005 ،1‬‬

‫‪-101‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻋﺎﺒﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ ،144‬ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﺍﻝﺯﺍﻤل‪ ،‬ﺒﻭﻋﻼﻡ ﺒﻥ ﺠﻴﻼﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻨﺤﻭ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﻵﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻭﻕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻠﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺸﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ‪ ،‬ﺨﺭﻴﻑ‪ ،‬ﺸﺘﺎﺀ ‪ ،1992‬ﺹ‪.146‬‬

‫‪-102‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﻨﺤﻭ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩل‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.222‬‬
‫‪-103‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﻌﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﺭﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.89‬‬
‫‪-104‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻤﻨﺫﺭ ﻗﺤﻑ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪.214 ،‬‬
‫‪-105‬ﺩ‪ .‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺸﺎﺒﺭﺍ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.38‬‬

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