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Objects of Singeing: 1 To remove hairy fibres projecting on the surface of cloth and given a smoothen surface. 2 Optical levelness of the dyeing and clean-out lines of a printing design. 3 To increase lusture in the finished fabric. 4 To prepare the fabric for next process.
Types of singeing m/c: 1. Plate singeing m/c. 2. Roller singeing m/c. 3. Gas/ Flame singeing m/c. 1. Plate-Singeing m/c: The main parts of plate singeing m/c :i) Two copper plate & ii) Fire clay. Copper plates are set up on the fire clay which is heated with farness (gas and oil or oil jet). At first the fabric opening with guide roller is passed over the plate with drawn roller. When the plate was red heated with farness, copper plates drawn with draw roller which speed 135-225 m/min. Projecting fibres is burnt contact with heated plate. In this process, one side of fabric is singed. Advantages: Very suitable for back filter in finishing process. A certain amount of lusture is produce due to friction between the fabric & hot surface of curved plate. Improved lusture. Uniform singeing. More effective in case of valvet & pile fabric. Disadvantage: Very difficult to maintain the proper heat control of the plate. Only one side of the fabric is singed. Discontinuous process so more time taken. More labour cost.
2. fabric is singed the both side. The burners are usually supplied with a suitable mixture of gas and air. At first fabric is drawn onto the guide roller then brushing is done on both side of fabric such that. 3. Not uniform singeing in stitch portion. Ideal singeing. the fabric is singed one side also by heat but not red heat. Both side of the fabric can be singed. After singeing the fabric is immersed in the water or de sizing tank to prepare next process. After singeing. there is no hamper in production. Advantage: The surface temp of cylinder is more uniform than plate singeing m/c. Uniform singeing. As the process is continuous. generally. In double burner. 6. the heat is not even for this the result is not good. This m/c may be single or double burner. Disadvantage: Only one side of the fabric is singed. Standard process. fabric are cleaned in water / de sizing tank. flying and projecting fibre stands sufficiently. small tinny groove created on the cylinder. Strength decrease. hence all sparks are easily removed. . Then fabric is passed over the burner. 150-250 m/min. 7. Roller singeing m/c: This is more improved process than plate singeing m/c process. 4. Height of the flame depends upon the fineness or coarseness and speed of the fabric. Lustre increase. The fabric in inter-stitches of warp and weft are singed. 3. Local cooling may arise on cylinder due to contact between cold fabric & cylinder surface. Advantages: 1.Gas or flame singeing m/c: This is the most commonly used process for woven fabric. If the fabric is singed by red heated roller. Uniform temperature ensure to proper singeing. Fabric speed in this m/c. This method is very suitable for valvet & pile fabrics. In this process. The burner should be adjusted with the width of the fabric. 2. Due to over use. 5. The machine may be horizontal or vertical. Source of gas are -Coal -Petrol -Natural gas.
(ZnCl2 or MgCl2) in size ingredients. 3. Flame height. 6. Synthetic blend must operate carefully otherwise shrink in flame and beet formed and during dyeing uneven dyeing. Controlling points of singeing m/c: Motor and other moving parts. 2. If any anticeptic /anti mildew agents. 2. uneven in processing. Uniform temp can be controlled than roller and plate m/c.Disadvantages: 1. Speed of fabric must be consistent with the flame height. The fabric in interstiches of warp and weft can be singed but. In gas singeing. Brush. 7. 3. Air blowing suction hood. Fabric must be evenly dried before singeing. brush is used which stands the lying projecting the fibres but not in plate and roller singeing. Possible causes of defects of gas singeing and its precution. otherwise fabric may be burnt. not in plate and roller. Plates not decay on gas but decay in plate and roller singeing. Fabric speed. 5. Compare Plate. then singed fabric produce spot which result. Fabric width control. 4. After singeing the fabric is dipped in the water tank hence all sparks are extinguished. Fabric may be burnt due to power failure. Gas singeing is preferable than plate & roller singeing: Both side of fabric is singed in gas singeing m/c. Due to in consistent of fabric speed. One side of fabric is singed. Both side of fabric . The singeing may not be even due to folding of selvedge. ZnCl2+H2O ZnO + 2 HCl So fabric must be free from those agents. it may be burnt. is singed. 1. 1. Burner should be cleaned. Automatic gas must stop the power failure. Speed of the motor. Dirty burner can produce spot on the fabric. (Care should be taken on gas singeing) 1. otherwise singed fabric will be faulty and as a result stripe found during dyeing. One side of fabric is singed. Gas speed. Roller & Gas singeing m/c: Plate Singeing m/c Roller singeing Gas singeing 1. Electricity supply. The process is not suitable for synthetic fabric.
Brush is used for proper singeing. 5.2. Extra lusture produce. 2. Uniform temp can be maintained. Extra lusture produce. 3. . 5. 4. 6. Plate may decay due to friction. 5. Brush is not used for proper singeing. 2. No extra lusture is produced. Very suitable for dyeing & printing. due to friction between fabric & surface. 3. 6. 4. Not suitable for dyeing & printing. Uniform temp can not be maintained. due to friction between fabric & surface. 4. Uniform temp can not be maintained. Plate may decay due to friction. Brush is not used for proper singeing. No decay. 6. Not suitable for dyeing & printing. 3.