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Classification of Life - Biology

Classification of Life - Biology

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12/03/2012

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Classification

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Species of Organisms

•There are 13 billion known species of organisms •This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! •New organisms are still being
found and identified
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For Example
These organisms have been classified by their color.

Green

Red

B A C D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

Possible Solutions

Plants
C
G
M

Animals
A

J

D

I

????

B

K

E

N

F

L

H

What is Classification?
Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms

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•organisms & uniformly names Accurately •starfish &misnomers that aren't Prevents such as jellyfish

really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names
Sea”horse”??

Benefits of Classifying

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Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names

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Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists

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•2000 years ago, • •

Early Taxonomists

Aristotle was the first taxonomist Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animals He subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea, or air dwellers
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•John Ray, a

Early Taxonomists

botanist, was the first to use Latin for naming His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant
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• 18th century taxonomist • Classified •

Carolus Linnaeus
1707 – 1778

organisms by their structure Developed naming system still used today
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•Called the “Father of Taxonomy” •Developed the modern

Carolus Linnaeus

system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Two-word name (Genus & species)
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•Binomial nomenclature used •Genus species •Latin or Greek •Italicized in print •Capitalize genus, but NOT species •Underline when
writing

Standardized Naming
Turdus migratorius

American Robin
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Binomial Nomenclature

Which TWO are more closely related?
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• The International Code for •

Rules for Naming Organisms
Binomial Nomenclature contains
the rules for naming organisms All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) This prevents duplicated names

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• Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a •

Classification Groups

category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species

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Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups
BROADEST TAXON Domain Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species Most
Specific

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Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup!
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A Closer Look at the Taxa
•As one goes from the Kingdom to the Species (DOWNWARD)…An increase in the similarity between organisms occur •There are fewer numbers of different kinds of organisms

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• Broadest, most inclusive taxon • Three domains • Archaea and Eubacteria are •

Domains

unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membranebound organelles
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• Kingdom - ARCHAEBACTERIA • Probably the 1 cells to evolve • Live in HARSH environments • Found in: –Sewage Treatment Plants (Methanogens) –Thermal or Volcanic Vents (Thermophiles) –Hot Springs or Geysers that are acid –Very salty water (Dead Sea;
st

ARCHAEA

Great Salt Lake) - Halophiles
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ARCHAEAN

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• Kingdom - EUBACTERIA • Some may cause DISEASE • Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones • Important decomposers for environment • Commercially important in making
cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc.
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BACTERIA

Live in the intestines of animals

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Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms

•Protista (protozoans, algae…) •Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) •Plantae (multicellular plants) •Animalia (multicellular
animals)
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•Most are unicellular •Some are multicellular •Some are •

Protista

autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic Aquatic

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• Multicellular, except yeast • Absorptive

Fungi

heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin
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Plantae

•Multicellular •Autotrophic •Absorb sunlight

to make glucose – Photosynthesis Cell walls made of cellulose

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• Multicellular • Ingestive •

Animalia

heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals

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•Most genera contain a number of similar species •The genus Homo is an •
exception (only contains modern humans) Classification is based on evolutionary relationships

Taxons

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Basis for Modern Taxonomy

•Homologous structures (same • •

structure, different function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins

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Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals.
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Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos

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Cladogram
Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales

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Primate Cladogram
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•Used to identify organisms •Characteristics given in pairs •Read both characteristics
and either go to another set of characteristics OR identify the organism

Dichotomous Keying

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Example of Dichotomous Key
1a 1b 2a 2b 3a 3b 4a 4b Tentacles present – Go to 2 Tentacles absent – Go to 3 Eight Tentacles – Octopus More than 8 tentacles – 3 Tentacles hang down – go to 4 Tentacles upright–Sea Anemone Balloon-shaped body–Jellyfish Body NOT balloon-shaped - 5

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HATUR NUHUN

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