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1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………… 2. EXPERIMENT 1 …………………………………………. To note the time taken by the foam in each test tube to disappear i.e, its foaming capacity. 3. EXPERIMENT 2…………………. To compare the cleansing capacity by comparing the surface activity of soap. 4. LABORATORY WORK……………………………….. 5. INFERENCE…………………………… 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………

Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of higher fatty acids like stearic, palmitic and oleic acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. They contain a long hydrocarbon chain of about 1020 carbon with one carboxylic acid group as the functional group. A soap molecule a tadpole shaped structure, whose ends have different polarities. At one end is the long hydrocarbon chain that is non-polar and hydrophobic, i.e., insoluble in water but oil soluble. At the other end is the short polar carboxylate ion which is hydrophilic i.e., water soluble but insoluble in oil and grease.

face the water away from the dirt. Cleansing action of soaps decreases in hard water. gravitate towards and surround the dirt (fat or oil with dust absorbed in it).) + +2Na 2+ + 2C17H35COONa + Mg (C17H35COO) 2Mg +2Na This hardness can be removed by addition of Sodium Carbonate. The long non-polar end of a soap molecule that are hydrophobic.(Long Hydrocarbon Chain) Hydrophobic end Hydrophilic end When soap is shaken with water it becomes a soap solution that is colloidal in nature. Agitating it tends to concentrate the solution on the surface and causes foaming. 2C17H35COONa + Ca (Water soluble) 2+ (C17H35COO) 2Ca (ppt. A number of soap molecules surround or encircle dirt and grease in a clustered structure called 'micelles'. This helps the soap molecules make a unimolecular film on the surface of water and to penetrate the fabric. The short polar end containing the carboxylate ion. 2+ Ca + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + + 2Na . Hard water contains Calcium and magnesium ions which react with sodium carbonate to produce insoluble carbonates of higher fatty acids. which encircles such particles and emulsify them.

(b) the foam should remain for a longer period. its foaming capacity. glycerine (presents quick drying of lather) QUALITIES OF GOOD SOAP: (1) It must contain free alkali. (3) It should lower the surface tension of water to good extent so that soap solution should penetrate easily into the cloth. . (2) Transparent soaps : they contain glycerol or an alcohol and are obtained by dissolving soap in alcohol and evaporating it afterwards. (3) Medicated soaps : these are soaps containing some substances of medical value like dettol & neem soap.2+ Mg + Na2CO3 MgCO3 + + 2Na TYPES OF SOAPS (1) Soft soaps : these are common soaps of potassium salts of fats. EXPERIMENT 1 AIM: To note the time taken by the foam in each test tube to disappear i. (4) It should have its effect for a longer time which includes three aspects – (a) the penetration should be good. (4) Shaving soaps : they are sodium potassium sterates giving lasting lather containing gum.e. (c) Miscelles should be formed in a very short time after using the soap. it should give rich amount of foam.e. (2) It must be soft i.

In each of these flasks equal amounts (say 5 gm) of the given 3. 4. The length of the foam produced in each test tube is measured and tabulated. This can be compared for various samples of soaps by taking the same concentration of solution and shaking them. the lower is its foaming capacity. The foam is formed and the time taken for disappearances of foam in all cases is compared. EXPERIMENT 2 . PROCEDURE: 1. five big clean and dry test tubes are taken and numbered 1 to 5. 2. 9. 10. In a test-tube stand. One ml of the five soap solution is then poured in the test tubes of corresponding number. 5 flat bottom flsks. 5. Allow the foam to settle down till most of it had disappeared. The difference of both times give the time taken by each foam to disappear. test tube stand and stop watch. 6. As soon as the foam is formed. each test tube is fixed vertically and the time taken of fixing is noted. The lesser the time taken by a solution for the disappearance of foam. 7. 8. Five flat bottom flasks are taken and numbered 1 to 5. Dissolve all the soap.APPARATUS: 5 test tubes. samples of soap shavings or granules are taken and 75 ml of distilled water is added. Equal shakes are given to every soap solution by keeping the thumb on the mouth of test tube. MATERIALS REQUIRED: 5 different samples of soap and distilled water THEORY: The foaming capacity of a soap sample depends upon the nature of soap and its concentration.

of drops for a volume of 1ml. PROCEDURE: (1) Take initial solution of soap sample 1 (i. 2 Soap no. therefore. thus loosening dirt which is absorbed by soap solution (colloidal) and washed away. APPARATUS: burette. count the no. (3) Wash the burette and repeat the same process for other soap samples. 3 Soap no. (2) Slowly open the stopcock. Note the no. of drops in a table. 1 Soap no. When drops start falling at a very slow rate.AIM: To compare the cleansing capacity by comparing the surface activity of soap. Surface tension of soap solution can be easily compared by counting the number of drops formed from equal volumes of the soap solutions. THEORY: Soap lowers surface tension of water. Better soap lowers the surface tension to a larger extent. spread through the fibers of the cloth readily. LABORATORY WORK TABLE 1 Soap no.e 5gm in 75ml) and fill it in a burette. Soap solution can therefore. test tubes. Cleaning effect of some examples of soap can. 4 Surf excel Tide 555 Henko . conical compared in terms of lowering of surface tension of water by them.

1cm 2. 1 2 3 4 5 SOAP SOLUTION Surf excel Tide 555 Henko Fena NO.e HENKO because in all other case the length of the foam is less. 4 i.5cm 8hrs 30min 8hrs 40min 8hrs 36min 9hrs 50min 7hrs 55min TABLE 3 S.5cm 5.3 cm 4cm 3. 5 Fena TABLE 2 S. SOAP SOLUTION FOAM LENGTH TIME TAKEN BY FOAM TO SETTLE DOWN Surf excel Tide 555 Henko Fena 1 2 3 4 5 3.NO. 4 has maximum capacity of foam. . OF DROPS 44 43 55 46 50 INFERENCE It is clear from the observation table that maximum foam is formed in the case of soap no. The foam made from the soap solution of HENKO soap disappears much later than the foam made by other soap solutions. So it is proved that soap no.Soap no. The time taken for the foam to settle also varies in different soaps.NO.

tide. the maximum foaming capacity has hanko. Central Board of Secondary education . BIBLIOGRAPHY:: WEBSITES www. henko. www. 555 & fena.Hence it is proved that from a list of soaps i.wikipedia.e surf chemistry textbook (part 1 & 2).