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Agriculture

Agriculture

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Published by: Samia on Jan 19, 2009
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09/24/2010

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AGRICULTURE

Presented by: Waseem Ejaz(06108074) Shahan cheema(06108051) Fahad Ashraf(06108017) Massab cheena(06108014)

Agriculture :
• Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). The practice of agriculture is also known as farming, while scientists, inventors and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture.

History :
• Farming is Pakistan's largest economic activity. In FY 1993, agriculture, and small-scale forestry and fishing, contributed 25 percent of GDP and employed 48 percent of the labor force. Agricultural products, especially cotton yarn, cotton cloth, raw cotton, and rice, are important exports. Although there is agricultural activity in all areas of Pakistan, most crops are grown in the Indus River plain in Punjab and Sindh. Considerable development and expansion of output has occurred since the early 1960s; however, the country is still far from realizing the large potential yield that the wellirrigated and fertile soil from the Indus irrigation system could produce. The floods of September 1992 showed how vulnerable agriculture is to weather; agricultural production dropped dramatically in FY 1993.

Pakistan's principal natural resources
• Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. In fact Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia now. Agriculture accounts for about 23% of GDP and employs about 44% of the labor force

Cr ops :
• The most important crops are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, and rice, which together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output. • Pakistan's largest food crop is wheat. In 2005, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons)

Lives tock :
• The livestock sector contributes about half of the value added in the agriculture sector, amounting to nearly 11 per cent of Pakistan's GDP, which is more than the crop sector. • The national herd consists of 24.2 million cattle, 26.3 million buffaloes, 24.9 million sheep, 56.7 million goats and 0.8 million camels. In addition to these there is a vibrant poultry sector in the country with more than 530 million birds produced annually. These animals produce 29.472 million tons of milk (making Pakistan the 5th largest producer of milk in the world), 1.115 million tons of beef, 0.740 million tons of mutton, 0.416 million tons of poultry meat, 8.528 billion eggs, 40.2 thousand tons of wool, 21.5 thousand tons of hair and 51.2 million skins and hides

Lives tock :
• In Pakistan, the world's fifth largest milk producing country, government initiatives are being undertaken to modernize milk collection and to improve milk and milk product storage capacity. • Pakistan has also cut the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically

Exports :
• Pakistan is a net food exporter, except in occasional years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. Pakistan exports rice, cotton, fish, fruits, and vegetables and imports vegetable oil, wheat, cotton, pulses and consumer foods. The country is Asia's largest camel market, second-largest apricot and ghee market and third-largest cotton, onion and milk market.

Grow th and s hare of GD P :
• The economic importance of agriculture has declined since independence, when its share of GDP was around 53%. The poor harvest of 1993, the government introduced agriculture assistance policies, including increased support prices for many agricultural commodities and expanded availability of agricultural credit. 1993 to 1997, real growth in the agricultural sector averaged 5.7% but has since declined to about 4%. Agricultural reforms, including increased wheat and oilseed production

Us e o f a gricultural products b y dome stic fo od in dustry :

• Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is utilized the country's growing processed-food industry. The value of processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000

RA NKI NG:
• • • • • • • • • Wheat (9th) Cotton (4th) Rice (8th) Mango (7th) Oranges (10th) Milk (5th) Sugarcane (4th) Onion (5th) Apricot (4th)

Growing Seasons
• Two growing seasons:
– Kharif – Rabi

• Kharif
– Crops: Rice, cotton, sugarcane, maze

• Rabi
– Winter – Crops: Wheat & vegetables.

• Non seasonal crops (Cereal crops):
– Bajra, Jawar, Barley, Tobacco, Sugar beet, guar etc.

Provincial Agriculture Details
• There are four provinces of Pakistan
– – – – Punjab Sindh Balochistan NWFP

Punjab • Contributes 68% of the country’s food grain production • Punjabi cotton and rice are important cash crops for the national exchequer • The total cultivated area in Pakistan is estimated at 51 million acres, out of which 39 million acres are in Punjab • Main crops, including cotton, rice, wheat and sugarcane.

Sindh
• The province’s agricultural productivity increased substantially after 1961 • Water shortage is a problem but new and proposed water-related projects, such as the controversial Kalabagh mega-dam and the military government’s recently launched Thal Greater Canal project are trying to solve it. • The soil is plastic clay deposited by the Indus that develops into a rich mould with water • Wheat (2.7 million metric tonnes), cotton (2.3 million metric tonnes), rice (1.8 million metric tonnes) and sugarcane (16 million metric tonnes) are the most important cash crops of Sindh, with secondary crops including barley, gram, pulses, rape-seeds, mustard and maize

Balo chistan
• Only 4.6 percent of the total land is cultivated but still agriculture has a major share in the province’s economy • 60 percent of total cultivated area is dry land agriculture, with wheat being a major crop • Off-season vegetables, fruits and dryfruits are also grown in some parts

NWFP
• 80% of the population (directly/ indirectly dependent on farming • The soil in NWFP is fit for growing seed and plant varieties. • Fruits and vegetables are produced in bulk in the province and orchard-cultivated areas have increased dramatically in recent years
– The production of fruit and vegetables has grown from 256,880 tonnes in 1985-86 to 493,041 tonnes in 1997-98

Problems faced by Agriculture
The gap between the supply and demand of agricultural products is widening day by day DR. S.M.Alam

Problem (Contd…..)
• Rapid increase in population
– Population growth rate in Pakistan @ 2.61%

• Limitation and hurdles in increasing crop productivity per unit of land
– Low agricultural input like fertilizers – Poor yields – Degrading soils – Dependence on import from developed countries

National Agricultural System (NAS)
• Involve both Federal and Provincial Govt. • Coordinating responsibility:
– The Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture & Livestock

• Other Federal Institutions:
– Ministries of Science and Technology – Ministries of Water and Power – Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

• Provincial Departments
– Agriculture (crops), animal husbandry/livestock and fishers

• Maximum no. of provincial research institutes
Balochistan =8 NWFP=7 Punjab=39 Sindh=10

Problems identified by NAS
• The yield of crops is low
– Low yield per unit area – Low yield per acre unit

• Scarcity of
– – – – – Water Floods Water logging Alkalinity Soil erosion

• Traditional and old methods of cultivation

Recommendations
• Research programs should include evolution of high yield varieties showing maximum potential for various climatic and soil conditions • New varieties should be evolved which should be fertilizers responsive and can grow well under right moisture supply conditions and are resistant to pests and disease • Researchers should make effort to enhance protein contents of cereals and other crops • Water Shortage can be resolved by proper storage plans and equipments

Recommendations (Contd…)
• Soil Salinity can be resolved by an extensive drainage system as well as by growing plant species tolerant to salinity and oxygen deficiency stresses • Productivity per unit area can be increased through technological change. • Increased crop yields is possible by:
– Improved irrigation techniques – Use of commercial fertilizers

Any Questions…..?

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