The X-Ray Sky

October Night Sky

IAU Meeting China

Monochrome solar photography

Lets Talk Intereview


What’s new?

What’s new?

stronomy Wise stronomy Wise


Credits Ed & Arrangements Dave Bood

CONTENTS 4. What are comets? 6. Astro Camp 10. Lets talk interview 14. News 15. Carolian Astro Society 16. SpaceX news 18. IAU China 22. The Night Sky 28. Monochrome solar photography 32. The Dolphin of The Skies 36. Astrophotography for Beginners by a Relative Beginner 42. Our Moon and The coincidence of Mars 44. The X-Ray Universe 50. Lunar Occultation October 2012 52. Asteroids 58. Rouges Gallery 63. Halloween Across The Universe 68. Mars One News 70. Occultations 80. Competition Time 82. Android Wise 86. Dark Matter 90. Featured Astronomer– Claire Smith

Rouges Gallery Jason Ives

The Sky AT Night

John Harper

Template Edward Dutton

Articles Caroline Scott Heather Dawn Zantippy Skiphop John Harper Dave Bood Jason Ives James Adams (Bob the Alien) James Lennie Andy Devey Pepe Gallardo Ralph Wilkins Plekhanov Andrey Sophia Nasr Claire Smith

Astronomy Wise was founded in March 2012 by David Bood & Jason Ives. The EZIne is a free online magazine. The concept of the website and EZine is to bring astronomy to all and is a truly community based project. Our motto

“ Astronomy For All ”

To contact us send an email to dbood@astronomy-wise.com Twitter: @AstronomyWise @jasonives101

Image: Brian Ritchie



October is here, the nights are drawing in and there is a chill in the air, perfect, astronomy season is here. This month Rouges gallery returns. We have The Night Sky, news features, guest writers and a review from the IAU meeting in China. Astronomy wise is running it’s first ever competition. We are giving away 3 books from our 3 featured authors.

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We have Astronomy by Paul Rumsby, In The Lion’s Paw by Ninian Boyle and Edge of the Universe by Paul Halpern. See page 80 for more details. We have articles on photography from Andy Devey and James Lennie. A special thank you to Sheila Kanani for her interview. So sit back and relax and enjoy the October edition of Astronomy Wise EZine. ED: Dave Bood Cover Image: Andy Devey


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Getting established as a society and attracting hundreds of people to each monthly stargazing event in Regent’s Park has only led to ever more ambitious plans to bring astronomy into people’s lives. Tom Kerss & Ralph Wilkins) took the plunge and decided to take our relaxed brand of astronomy into the countryside and throw a camping weekend in Wales. the valleys provide protection from the wind and the campsite we found in Cwmdu was just perfect (we Londoners don’t like to be away from wifi!). whether solar and lunar observing during the day or deep sky object hunting at night. This wasn’t intended as competition to the established star parties such as Kelling Heath and Kielder (in fact Richard Deighton. rather it was an attempt to shake up the formula and make star parties more welcoming for all… The 2012 AstroCamp was born. an astrophotography section and most successfully a telescope deck (or ‘Hub’) right in the centre of the site for people to socialise.and most of all. www.000+ BSIA members because we wanted to bring friendly and relaxed astronomy to a wider audience – especially absolute beginners who might find themselves too intimidated to go to one of the established astronomy events . The attendees ranged from curious children to dedicated astroimagers. But this year.com .astronomy-wise. who arranges the Kelling Autumn Equinox events. was happy to offer invaluable advice).6 The Baker Street Irregular Astronomers (BSIA) have spent the last two years bringing free and informal astronomy events to Central London. Here. we found ourselves pitching tents on the 7th September in glorious sunshine amidst the beauty of the Brecon Beacons’ Black Mountains to the chorus of wildlife – another first for we urban astronomers. The campsite and local pub owners couldn’t do enough to help us out either. meet new people. so we set up a child friendly area. punctuated with the occasional astronomy pub quiz. three of the BSIA committee (Paul Hill. So why Wales? Well. Dawn at AstroCamp – just a bit of dew for the sun to burn away We’d deliberately spread the word on Twitter and Facebook as well as communicating with our 2. After a few months of nervous anticipation. guest speakers deliver talks on topics ranging from Aurorae to commercial spaceflight. share telescope views and experiences with others. it’s central. Last year we launched Astronomers in the Pub to add an alcohol-enabled event to our growing list of free outreach endeavours. the skies are incredibly dark.

On the Saturday we caught up on some sleep and did what anyone would’ve done to kill a few hours – we headed for the pub . Tom Kerss gave us a tour of the Hawaiian telescopes and treated us to his Transit of Venus images from earlier this year. Those of us who rarely see such inky black skies could enjoy the naked eye sights of regular meteors. Being able to see the Andromeda Galaxy and the Double Cluster in Perseus without any optical aid was quite a treat too.astronomy-wise.a lovely local country pub that we hijacked for breakfasts and our Astronomers in the Pub event in the afternoon.7 The Hub at AstroCamp But the real treat for all of us was the sky! People used to observing under pristine skies had the opportunity to learn new tricks and see objects through other people’s equipment.com . faint satellites balletically criss -crossing the sky and the ever present seam of the Milky Way glowing overhead. ‘beginners’ please!) of an astronomy themed pub quiz. Astronomers in the Pub – Paul and Tom entertain the room www. complete with a toilet roll that had each sheet representing an Astronomical Unit. Paul Hill gave a talk on Herschel and Uranus. And the clear skies stayed with us for both nights. and I gave away two scopes and a pair of binoculars to the winners and losers (ahem. the occasional fireball.

go to www. www. The feedback is already in.com/groups/astrocamp and you can book your places for next year at www.the Moore Marathon providing some quick-fire sky tours. @TomKerss & @ActiveAstro. which I’m particularly excited about – having nearly bought equipment on the back of magazine reviews that give overly-favourable accounts to ensure getting more equipment to review.AstroCamp. CowCast and PigeonView were streamed during the day! Alongside this. I’d always felt that the faint summer nebulae and teasing more detail out of nearby galaxies would be the observing highlights for the AstroCamp – especially for those of us that don’t have the luxury of truly dark skies from our gardens.com . The stars and dust lanes of the Milky Way ever-present overhead We hooked a scope up to a laptop and streamed lunar tutorials over the internet once the moon had risen. With such good reactions.org. anonymous of course.flickr. but I was surprised to find just how dynamic the familiar star clusters actually look under these conditions. Dr Chris North and the ever.absoluteastronomy.uk You can follow Paul. Tom’s starting his unbiased astronomy equipment reviews website at www.co.astronomy-wise. the advice and social ambience. The Pleiades. we’d be crazy not to do it again. Double Cluster and the globular clusters in Hercules jumped out of the eyepiece and threatened to steal the show. Paul blogged about the event on his Astronomer’s Den website and Tom & Ralph were recording for their Awesome Astronomy podcast. the BBC joined us to film for October’s Sky at Night.present cameraman wandered around the site interviewing the organisers and attendees and then settled down to some observing at the Hub . But the big news is that the feedback was so good that we’re going to make the AstroCamp a biannual event in April and September and that means more friendly astronomy each year! If you want to see more of the amazing pictures from this year’s AstroCamp.8 Hoping we’d not drunk too much at the pub. So what’s next? Well.uk. The local animals weren’t spared either – magnified SheepWatch. Tom & Ralph’s astronomy education feeds on Twitter at @Astro_Den. and everyone greatly enjoyed the spectacular views.

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so the first time we could ever have a look at Titan in the summer! http://apod.astronomy-wise. you can call yourself a planetary scientist. we are all planetary scientists because we are all interested in studying the Earth. The cloud is green. and learnt that he became an astronaut by following quite an academic path.nasa. I went home and read about Michael foale. and it was then I decided to pursue an academic career! AW: What is a planetary Scientist? SK: Planetary science is a broad field of science that doesn’t have to just be about physics. When I was really little I wanted to be a vet but when I was 13 I saw ‘apollo 13’ and I realised that I wanted to be an astronaut. It appeared quite suddenly! We think it is because summer is approaching. AW: When did you get interested in Astronomy & Science? SK: I first became interested in science when I was quite young. This months interview is with a multi talented young lady who is not only a planetary scientist but also does abit of science comedy too. the moons of Saturn or hunt for exoplanets. made up of methane. as I come from a medical science family. aren’t we! AW: I have an interest in Titan what new discoveries are being made about his exciting moon? SK:Titan is a very cool moon! A very new discovery that was recently seen on Titan was a huge whirling gas cloud at the south pole. carbon and nitrogen. So let me introduce Sheila Kanani aka Saturn Sheila. He had a degree in physics and a PhD in astrophysics. This would also explain why we hadn’t seen the cloud before.gov/apod/image/1207/ titanvortex_cassini_960. In fact. It covers anything related to planets. a British-American astronaut. because it is the first time a human spacecraft has been at Saturn in saturnian summer.com .jpg www.10 Welcome to the October Lets Talk. inside and outside of our solar system! If you study the geology of Mars.

especially not about science.astronomy-wise. in the same way my physics teacher wowed me. http://spaceschool. Magnetised planets have magnetic field lines. in theatres. I went as a student in 2000 and I won the ‘star student’ award while I was there. and with teaching I am able to take a step back and have a look at the bigger picture.11 AW: On your website you say you are studying Saturn’s magnetosphere. going to space-y lectures and learning what it really is like to be an astronaut. I loved doing my phd but I got very bogged down in the tiny pieces of the jigsaw puzzle.com . I'm not entirely sure what I’ll do next! AW: Could you tell us about your gigs? SK: I’ve somehow managed to become involved with stand up science comedy gigs over the past few years and ive weirdly found that a) I enjoy them and b) people seem to enjoy them too! I never ever thought I’d be able to make people laugh. schools and I was even asked to give a talk at a pharmaceutical conference in india! AW: What would you like to do once your PhD has been completed? SK: I finished my phd in july. but I seem to manage for short amounts of time. especially space! I have talked at music festivals. like our Earth. so I am now ‘dr’ Saturn sheila J this year I am completing my teaching qualification (in physics) so that I have another string to my bow! I think having a teaching qualification is a very valuable thing if you want to be able to present science properly. I once stood in front of 440 people with a microphone and got them all to shout ‘Uranus’ at me! AW: What is Space school SK: Space school is a residential summer camp run by Leicester university for under 18s who love physics and space.co. just like a bar magnet.uk/ www. After this year. The magnetosphere is a ‘bubble’ in space around a planet which contains these magnetic field lines. can you tell us what the magnetosphere is? SK: Some of the planets in our solar system are magnetised. they spend their days building rockets. AW: Tell us about your presenting work SK: I love presenting! I enjoy giving talks on anything physics related. By looking at science in this way I hope to be able to inspire the future generation of scientists. The magnetosphere can protect the planet from the solar wind and aid the formation of an atmosphere. which got me a place at space camp usa! Now I teach and provide pastoral care for current students. in pubs. Its a scary but exciting experience.

At lunchtime the microwave oven was kept in a big lead box so that wouldn’t interfere with data as well. How funny would it be if you thought you’d found aliens when in actual fact it was a scientist warming up their dinner! And Finally…….iop.html and I’m in a science calendar in 2013 http://www.nhm.com/ I’ll be doing ‘science uncovered’ at the natural history museum on the 28th September http://www.uk/visit-us/whats-on/events/programs/nhm/hall_of_famelab% 3A_science_uncovered_2012.sciencegrrl.html a talk during the Physics in Perspective conference for the IoP next February http://www.com . Come and see a gig of mine! You’ll find all my info on my website http://saturnsheila.astronomy-wise.12 AW: What is it like to work at Jodrell bank Observatory? SK: Working at JBO was fun because I got to go inside the dish! It had just been repainted and I got white paint all over my top! You also had to make sure your mobiles were turned off within a 2 mile radius otherwise they interfere with the radio waves.org/education/teacher/extra_resources/perspective/ page_41717.uk/#/about-us/4566816459 www.wordpress.co.ac.

good luck to her in the future.13 Checkout Sheila Kanani Videos http://saturnsheila.wordpress.astronomy-wise.com . Astronomy Wise www.com/my-videos/ A big thank you to Sheila for taking time to answer our questions.

com/jupiter. The asteroid is about 800m across and was discovered on August 26th.770. Jupiter Impact Spotted by Astronomers Jupiter Impact 10 Sept. Dan Peterson is reported to observed and photographed the impact.astronomy-wise. and Point Grey Flea 3 camera.14 The news is back for October. The Slooh camera tracked its approach. The capture software was Astro IIDC.weebly. 2012 11:35 UT Dallas. USA. More details at Asteroid 2012 QG42 Near Pass to Earth! On September the 13-14th a modest size asteroid will have passed earth at a mere 1.html Click the Image to see the Video www. in this part of the EZine we have a look at news around the internet.000 miles from our planet. 3x Televue Barlow. The video was captured with a 12" LX200GPS. http://georgeastro.com .

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a key element to radically reducing cost and increasing the efficiency of spaceflight. and a steel support structure. four steel landing legs. September 21.com . a Merlin-1D engine.astronomy-wise. with the next big milestone – a hover at roughly 100 feet -. Grasshopper consists of a Falcon 9 first stage. The short hop of approximately 6 feet is the first major milestone for Grasshopper. www. Testing of Grasshopper continues.expected in the next several months. Texas. As seen in the video.16 GRASSHOPPER TAKES ITS FIRST HOP On Friday. SpaceX’s Grasshopper vertical takeoff and landing test vehicle (VTVL) took its first test flight hop from the company’s rocket testing facility in McGregor. Click the image above to watch video of Grasshopper's first test flight hop. and a critical step toward a reusable first stage for SpaceX’s proven Falcon 9 rocket. SpaceX is working to develop vehicles that are fully and rapidly reusable.

m. Dragon will fly back carrying scientific materials and space station hardware. The launch of the Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft is scheduled for 8:34 p. expected on October 10. which is present on all humans. Dragon is scheduled to return in late October for a parachute-assisted splashdown in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of southern California.com .17 OCTOBER 7 ANNOUNCED AS TARGET LAUNCH DATE FOR SPACE STATION MISSION NASA and SpaceX have announced October 7. The launch represents the first of 12 SpaceX flights to the ISS under NASA’s Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contract. One experiment will examine the effects of microgravity on the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. and follows a successful demonstration mission in May when SpaceX became the first private company ever to attach to the ISS and return safely to Earth. Florida. SpaceX is also contracted to develop Dragon to send crew to the space station. They will attach Dragon to the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony module for a few weeks while crew members unload cargo and load experiment samples for return to Earth. SpaceX’s first manned flight is expected to take place in 2015. which include materials to support 166 experiments in plant cell biology. 2012 as the target launch date for SpaceX’s first resupply mission to the International Space Station (ISS). and materials technology. human biotechnology. The SpaceX CRS-1 mission also represents restoration of American capability to deliver and return cargo to the ISS—a feat not achievable since the retirement of the space shuttle. On this mission. www. EDT from Cape Canaveral. Expedition 33 Commander Sunita Williams of NASA and Aki Hoshide of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency will use a robotic arm to grapple Dragon following its rendezvous with the station. Another will evaluate how microgravity affects the growth of cell walls in a plant called Arabidopsis.astronomy-wise. October 8 is the backup date. Dragon will be filled with supplies.

Xiangqun Cui (Chinese Astronomical Society President).the ‘other’ Beijing Opening Ceremony.18 International Astronomical Union-Beijing-China By Caroline Scott Last month (August) saw the 28th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. One particular highlight was the Opening Ceremony (. I was lucky enough to attend the event with another two representatives from Imperial College’s astrophysics group.. Caroline Scott Astrophysics PhD Student. Jocelyn Bell-Burnell and a whole host of other entertainment by Chinese drummers. plenaries and joint discussions followed. It took place in Beijing. Imperial College & Harvard twitter.com/Astro_Caz Top Image: Jocelyn Bell-Burnell’s speech at the Opening Ceremony Left: Other entertainment at Opening Ceremony All Images By Caroline Scott www.) which saw speeches by Xi Jinping (Vice President of China).astronomy-wise.. singers. dancers and acrobatics.com . Robert Williams (IAU President). Many interesting research presentation sessions. China and was attended by astronomers from around the world. Here are some photos I took from the General Assembly to share with you all.

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the main dome is about 8.com . Membership of the Centre is £15 per year. http://www. For scale.21 The Astronomy Centre "Dedicated to the furtherance of Amateur Astronomy" The Astronomy Centre is a major resource for both amateur astronomers and the general public. Based above Todmorden in the North West of England. plus remote access via the Internet for members. The pictures above show an aerial view of the main observatory. See the Membership Page for more details. we have facilities and on-site equipment for both members and visitors. The Observatory is open to the public every Saturday evening from 7:30pm onwards. Access for unloading of telescopes etc. including the discussion forums. Further details are on our Location Information Page. though further donations are always welcome! Groups visits can also be made at other times by arrangement. Please park on the lower plateau. full-resolution images from the 'scope cameras etc. which allows full access to the Web Site.org.uk/ www. M42 in Orion and one of the Meade 16" telescopes. Visitors are advised to wrap up warmly. as the site can get very cold at any time of year. beside images of the Moon.5m (28ft) in diameter.astronomy-wise. next to the caravans. The site offers a good compromise providing a reasonably dark site. and disabled parking is available at the highest point of the site. next to the main dome. with sensible footwear. while remaining close to the major conurbations of Manchester and Leeds.astronomycentre. There is a nominal charge for nonmember visitors of £2 per person (£1 for children and concessions).

near the constellation’s brightest star. Look for its ethereal glow in the morning sky from 15th to the 27th www. who leads the Yell Hounds across the early winter sky. the constellation of Orion the Hunter is completely clear of the SE horizon for the first time since last winter. is often called the Hunter’s Moon. on the 5th at 00h44. except the very last day. The moon passes 3° south of the sun at this time. THE MOON The Moon is at apogee. to the upper left of Orion and is one of the highest Last Quarter moons of the year. and at perigee its nearest to the earth at 01h03 on the 17th.com . in Virgo. however. Welcome to the October 2012 sky notes from John Harper. Another is that when the moon is high in the south at midnight. 9° below the constellation’s brightest star Hamal. the Sun is passing through the constellation of Virgo. Last Quarter Moon is on the 8th at 07h34 high in the constellation of Gemini. area-wise. in the entire sky – the largest being Hydra (the swamp snake). You may observe the morning cone of the zodiacal light during the second half of the month. This constellation is the second largest. Alternative ideas have been put forward for the name given to this Full Moon. October’s New Moon takes place on the 15th at 12h03.astronomy-wise. The First Quarter Moon occurs on the 22nd at 03h33 in the eastern part of Sagittarius. one is that as the moon is now higher in the sky when full. whose ‘yelping’ can be heard in the skeins of wild geese migrating at this time. at 18h50 on the 29th . its furthest from the earth. The Full Moon. During all of the month.22 The nights are drawing in and the clear winter nights are on the way. It is named after Herne the Hunter. On October 31st around 00h00. it gives more light for poachers to stalk their prey. Look for the Hunter’s Moon this year in the constellation of Aries. it passes into Libra. Spica.

with the thin waning crescent moon 10° below the planet. the gibbous waning moon may be seen rising 2° below Jupiter in the NE. Indeed. Mars is two astronomical units from earth (1 a. around 04h30 on the 12th. To see the shadow. away from external lights. Mars continues to fade during October and is always low in the SW sky. Mid month. Before Venus rises. At the end of October Mars climbs a little higher in the sky and sets almost two hours after the sun. its low position near the SW horizon prevents it from being seen. and on the 18th the planet enters Ophiuchus and is a little dimmer than most of the true bright stars in the sky. and is now shining steadily and serenely all night long. almost lost in evening twilight. At the start of twilight. Jupiter rises by 20h at the beginning of October and by 18h at the end of the month. Mars lies 2° to the lower right of the crescent. www. rising around 4 hours before the sun. near to the horizon.com . Throughout October Venus continues to shine splendidly as the morning star. On the 6th. is the mean sun-earth distance). Look for the Galilean satellites in the usual well-focussed and firmly fixed binoculars. There is an opportunity to spot the thin waxing crescent moon and Mars within 5° of the SW horizon on the 18th at 18h. Venus will be seen at an altitude of 15° in the east below the figure of Leo. hold your finger up between Venus and the paper in a dark corner of the garden. at the time of greatest elongation it sets just 25 mins after the sun. and is marginally easier to see. between the horns of Taurus the Bull.u. On the evening of the 5th. it leaves the constellation of Libra and enters Scorpius.23 THE PLANETS Although Mercury is an evening object reaching its greatest angular elongation of 24° east of the sun on the 27th. It is the brightest star-like object in the night sky and casts a perceptible shadow on a sheet of white paper. Jupiter is by far the brightest object in the night sky. At that time.astronomy-wise. when a pretty conjunction may be witnessed around 21h.

mid-month. and far beyond. This year’s event should be favourable. although not impossible. It is not likely. is due south in the sky at around 21h during October. with the Milky Way spanning the sky from east to west. but faint. producing a high rate of about 500 meteors an hour. Constellations visible in the south around midnight. Neptune is currently in Aquarius. the star which marks the right shoulder of the Giant Hunter. www. It is difficult to locate unless you have star maps as it is over five times fainter than the faintest star visible to the naked eye.e..com . which on the darkest nights is just visible to the unaided eye. The radiant. Neptune is crossing the south meridian. a broad waxing crescent. and so may interfere with the number of Draconids seen. Pisces. Aries. Earlier in the month on the morning of the 8th.24 THE PLANETS Saturn is lost in evening twilight and on the 26th lies in conjunction with. This is not so with Uranus. in order to see it. Some more remnants of Halley’s comet may be seen in the early hours of the 21st. and Uranus in western Pisces. so is not excessively bright in binoculars. when the constellation of Orion is high in the south. The moon is at last quarter later on in the day. Once again though. with its radiant in the constellation of Draco the Dragon. Triangulum and Andromeda. are as follows: Cetus. i.astronomy-wise. or point of origin of the shooting stars is some 10° above Betelgeuse. that there is a repeat this year. All times are GMT 1° is one finger width at arm’s length. a slight increase in the number of shooting stars overnight marks the peak of the Draconid or Giacobinid (whose parent body is the comet Giacobini-Zinner) meteor shower. to reappear next month as a morning object. Last year the earth passed through some concentrated filaments of particles. as the moon. it is necessary to know where the planet is. The biggest number of Orionids will be visible just before dawn. the sun. when the earth encounters the Orionid meteor stream. The meteors have the reputation of being slow moving. These meteors are fast moving and often leave persistent trains. Cassiopeia and the Milky Way lie at the zenith. will have set earlier in the evening. Up to 25 shooting stars an hour are expected.

astronomy-wise.com .25 Words: John Harper Images: Planets Wikipedia www.

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blue and green sensitive pixels that would enable it to capture and then produce colour images. 1 Clear fine structure in sunspots. 2 Some fine structure in sunspots. for October 2012. 4 Umbra and penumbra of large spots just separable.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=637%3Aobservingguide-to-the-sun&catid=81&Itemid=93 www.org/baa/index. very bad limb boiling. BAA – Seeing scale. Essentially.com .astronomy-wise. You can buy it through the BAA website at this link. Some bad limb boiling 5 Large spots only can be seen. I thought I would show you how you could maximise with your photographic results from your existing solar equipment and maybe help you generate a little more enthusiasm with your solar imaging activities? Don’t get too obsessed though or you could end up neglecting the night sky – lots of my friends will laugh at that one? I mentioned in my article last month that I use a monochrome web camera [DMK21]. http://britastro. 3 Granulation barely visible. You can check and estimate these at the eyepiece of your PST or filtered white light telescope when you initially look at the Sun.28 Monochrome solar photography – a real opportunity to push the focal length of your telescope(s) and get the very best out of your solar imaging sessions! By Andy Devey Hi Guys. it has been written by some of the top amateur solar observers/imagers in the world and it certainly is well worth a read. it is not expensive. if you use a colour CCD to photograph the Sun in hydrogen-alpha wavelength you will only be utilising 25% of your pixels [the red ones] so the bulk of your camera pixels [50% green and 25% blue] are doing absolutely nothing. no granulation visible. limb motion looks like it is boiling. By using a colour camera on the Sun. is like trying to image through a thick net – your image will also look very weak and flat! Seeing conditions The first thing you must consider even before you think about imaging is that you initially check your local atmospheric seeing conditions. The reason for this is that such a camera has a CCD chip without a Bayer colour mask placed above it to separate and produce the red. slight limb motion. The BAA have produced an excellent book called OBSERVING GUIDE TO THE SUN. small spots easily seen. granulation visible. granulation easily seen and no visible limb motion.

000km from Earth.6m [F-40]. To calculate the F-ratio for your own telescope simply divide its focal length by the diameter of its aperture.000. with this configuration and I have since calculated that each pixel is just about 260km www. I calculated that at that focal length each pixel in an image represents just less than 600km x 600km on the surface of the Sun that is approximately 150. You may have visually used a 2 x Barlow lens with your eyepiece? This combination effectively doubles the F-ratio of your system pushing it towards F-20 and most people stop there! This also doubles the magnification of your system and also reduces your field of view [or that of your CCD chip] to ¼ of the original. You have to remember your CCD chip is very sensitive for capturing light and image processing programs such as Registax 6 or Avistax can compensate to some extent for atmospheric shimmer. My trusted PST was now at a focal length of 1.8 right up to 3. when my SM90’s then became available for me to use again. I just had to have a go at a similar configuration to boost their normal focal length from 0. I was amazed and stunned by the results as I consider that they are outstanding for the most introductory of hydrogen-alpha telescopes and also that they put it way beyond its value for money! [Photo 1 taken with PST at 0. This set up will obviously never match that of a larger aperture telescope [when pushed to its limit] but you certainly get the best out of the equipment that you have and possibly exceed the performance of a larger aperture telescope that is Photo 1: being used under normal conditions! Naturally. I did some experimentation earlier this year with my PST using two separate 2 x Barlows! You will need seeing of grade 3 or better to get any worthwhile results here. I removed the lens element from one of my Barlows and screwed it directly into the nose adaptor on my DMK21 mono camera – this is the only way you will get your PST into focus with a web camera and you are starting at 0.astronomy-wise.1-class solar flare] I then made a huge number of solar movies using that configuration [check out the “Recent PST Animations” on my website.8m focal length F-20 this is an M2-class flare with attendant shock wave] [Photo 2 taken with PST at 1. I have been able to achieve an even better result.2m or just under F-35.6m focal length F-40 this is an M6.8m focal length. I then inserted this configuration into a second [complete] 2 x Barlow unit.com .29 How to get the best out of your solarscope? Most solar telescopes as manufactured have an Focal-ratio of about F10 [PST as an example] or slightly less.

2m focal length approx F-35 you can see the surface structure resembles a corn field in some places] I shall keep a movie of one of my high-resolution sequences shot at 3. Have fun with our Sun Very best wishes Andy Devey www.net www.com . Here is a look at a huge prominence that detached from the Suns north-west limb on the morning of 4 September 2012 between 09:48 and 12:28UT – I was lucky enough to capture and make a crisp movie of the whole event [reasonable seeing and no clouds all day. Here I present a mosaic still of this event. The UT stands for Universal Time and is used by Astronomers world-wide it is the same as Greenwich Mean Time [GMT].2m focal length on the top of my home page.thesolarexplorer.30 Photo 2: x 260km on the surface of the Sun and the system holds it really well but only in good to reasonable seeing conditions! [Photo 3 taken with Triple-stacked SM90 at 1. I shall discuss double and triple-stacking techniques in hydrogen-alpha systems amongst other things in the forth coming November issue.6m focal length approx F-17 this is a C8-class solar flare] [Photo 4 taken with Triple-stacked SM90 at 3. I love Spain for this].astronomy-wise.6m focal length approx F-17 at 11:54UT] The movie I created shows the evolution of this prominence as it lifts off and it can be viewed near the top of the home page of my website. The results are there to be seen and I trust that they will serve to inspire you to experiment and push those boundaries even further? An interesting solar event during September 2012. [Photo 5 taken with Double-stacked SM90 at 1.

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but because the distance www. the reverend Thomas William Webb. which is the second brightest star of the trio. Visually. the Dolphin. Delphinus is worth looking at through binoculars as there are many faint stars in the region of the constellation. which is the Latinised form of the name Nicolo Cacciatore. four of them in a diamond shape marking the body of the dolphin. which were something of a mystery to astronomers. in order to find Delphinus. Now. lying as it does close to the Milky Way. all three are to be found in the southern sky. and about half way up in the southern sky. Vega to the right (west) of Deneb. You must of course use your imagination as the ancient people did to “see” a dolphin there in the night sky. and Altair. “An old print showing Arion and a most unusual representation of a dolphin!” your thumb will be near the distinctive pattern of the celestial dolphin. At around 8. Altair. THE DOLPHIN --The Dolphin of The Skies. with Deneb. find the “Summer Triangle” consisting of the bright stars Vega. One of the smallest but easily recognisable constellations of autumn evenings is Delphinus.astronomy-wise. Two of the stars in the diamond shape have proper names. Then. is the animal’s tail. you will need the higher powers of a small telescope to detect the pale yellow and green contrast the components are said to show. its pattern is quite easy to find although its stars are not so very bright. The top star of the diamond shape is also a double star. of contrasting colours so it is said. solved the mystery. and Altair below. Most star names are either Arabic or Latin/Greek.com . discoverer of the first asteroid called Ceres. Having found the “Triangle” look at the lowest star. whilst the fifth star. seem to be neither. the overhead point. Sualocin is seen to be a close double star. in sharply focussed. He noticed that if the two names are read backwards they are: Nicolaus Venator. the “River of Heaven”. assistant to. to the upper left of Altair.30 PM. at about the 10 o’clock position. but I think you will agree with me that the pattern is quite a distinctive one. During October evenings. At the time I mention. but the names. quite near to the zenith. Deneb. Sualocin and Rotanev. The shape of the dolphin is outlined by five stars of almost equal brightness. Eventually the famous 19th century visual astronomer. and successor of Giuseppi Piazzi.32 DELPHINUS. However. firmly fixed binoculars. you should hold your open right hand out at arm’s length with your little finger covering Altair. and director of the Palermo Observatory in Sicily. to the lower right.

who listened greatly pleased. The dolphin then swam with its unusual cargo to Greece where Arion was deposited unharmed by his ordeal. around 600 BC there was an accomplished musician called Arion who played the lyre. Let me conclude with one of the ancient stories about how the dolphin got up there into the sky: Once. however saw all that was happening. Arion therefore played and sang a wonderful song in praise of Apollo. which it did. the god of music. S. As soon as the song finished the sailors threw poor Arion into the sea! Apollo. a harp like instrument and sang so well that he gained notoriety and great wealth. Apollo eventually placed the statue amongst the stars so that mankind would see the brave and friendly little Words: John Harper Former director of the occultation section. and had a little statue of the dolphin placed in Apollo’s temple as a memento of the event. but grant me one request. a small telescope is required to split them. and plunged under Arion and lifted him safely. “I will jump overboard.A. so that he would not sink beneath the waves. Arion then thanked Apollo for the safe return to his homeland. (Society for Popular Astronomy). he fell foul of the sailors. said. One day on a sea journey to his homeland. Arion however overheard what the sailors were planning and so quite unperturbed.astronomy-wise.P. and summoned a gentle dolphin to go to Arion’s rescue. that I may play my lyre one last time!” The sailors had no objection. who knowing that he was rich decided that they would kill him and share the money out amongst themselves.com .33 between the two components is far less than in the case of Sualocin. www.

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I have been a keen amateur astronomer since I was 8 years old but have been mainly an observer and not a photographer. Now that digital cameras are the norm it makes this learning curve much easier to negotiate as you can see almost immediately what you have just photographed and at no cost to you. www. This understanding will be essential later on when we start to use the camera attached to a telescope as this brings a whole host of new problems for us solve and work around.36 Astrophotography for Beginners by a Relative Beginner A Four Part Guide by Jim Lennie The majesty of a clear night sky in winter. The sun. ( Left: Example DSLR Camera) In this first instalment I’m going to go through some basic fundamentals which when understood and practiced will give the newcomer to this fascinating and rewarding hobby a good foundation upon which to build from. The moon shining brilliantly at night and against a daytime sky.astronomy-wise. Many of us have seen these things and have tried to photograph them usually with disappointing results. I have been actively photographing the night sky for almost a year now and have picked up lots of tips on how to improve pictures taken of these objects. The ISS sailing silently across the heavenly vista. save for the time and initial outlay of the equipment. I am going to concentrate on the DSLR ( digital single reflex camera ) as that is what I have most experience with. It doesn’t matter what make it is and what lenses you have for it as the basics will apply to all of them. our nearest star. The flash of a meteor. Mars glowering red when at opposition.com . It will be fun ! Since astrophotography will normally be undertaken in the dark I’m going to list the things that you need to be aware of and be familiar with to maximise your enjoyment and the resulting photographs.

Have a red light torch available so you don’t ruin your night vision. 2) Image: DSLR connected to a telescope: http://www. What I do when using camera lenses is this. You may be able to see brighter stars through the viewfinder but not clearly enough to focus on properly in manual mode. if the moon is available or brighter planets such as Venus. Most lenses have a infinity mark on them for focus but it’s easy to go past this mark or it’s not accurate.html 3) Focussing will be a problem at night when using camera lenses as the autofocus feature likely won’t work on stars. 4) You will need a tripod to mount your camera on as star pictures require long exposures compared to normal photography.com/ astronomy/celestron-nexstar-5se. Be familiar with your camera’s controls and buttons so that you know where they all are without having to continually look for them in the dark. The camera live view screen. As things in the sky are at infinity depth of field is not important. Jupiter are visible I get focus lock on them and then turn autofocus off. if you have one. Full manual will mean setting your aperture ( when using a camera lens ) and shutter speed and ISO speed. will not show stars either.astronomy-wise. This will be especially true when your camera is connected at prime focus of a telescope. it’s usually a slider switch on the lens. Get used to making sure the tripod is www. If your lens is a zoom then decide what level of zoom you are going to use before doing the focus lock and if your lens has a zoom lock button then lock it. I place red cellophane over the liveview screen on my camera to stop it dazzling me at night.celestron. If going to a truly dark site then pre focus your lenses before you go.com . What do you do if there is no moon or brighter objects to get focus lock on ? I focus on a distant streetlight at least 300 meters away and turn autofocus off as described earlier. Astrophotography needs a sharp focus. this then leaves the lens pre-focussed at infinity so your star shots will be nice and sharp.37 1) You need to be comfortable with using your camera in full manual mode and that will include focussing.

6 . x10 etc for binoculars and x40. In a telescope this distance where the image is formed is then magnified by an eyepiece. Focal length is the distance from the light collecting lens or mirror that the image is formed at. Nikon crop bodies usually have a crop value of x1. Finally. I’m often asked how much a lens when used with a dslr magnifies as telescopes. Most DSLR’s have sensors smaller than 35mm so are known as cropped cameras. The answer depends on the sensor size that is used with your particular camera and is known as the crop value. We multiply the diameter of the lens/mirror ( 150mm ) by 8 to give 1200mm focal length.38 level and if you have IS ( image stabilisation ) either in your lenses or in the camera body then turn it OFF. Ok. this format captures all the data from your camera’s sensor when you take a picture and is not compressed in any way. I will go into a lot more detail with this when we come to the image processing part of this guide. In other words at F8 1200mm the image is magnified more. this will magnify the image at x4. The crop value of Canon sensors is x1. check to see if yours does. if the focal length was 900mm the F ratio of this scope would then be F6. The answer is that the image at F8 is much larger than it is at F6 so appears dimmer because the light has been spread over a larger area than it does at F6. It’s all based on 35mm film when that was the dominant media for photography. I am now going to fit a 200mm zoom to my full frame DSLR. I’m now going to explain what this is and how it applies to both camera lenses and telescopes and it is important to understand how this varies and what impact it will have on your photographs. So.6 so that 200mm lens becomes 320mm because the sensor is smaller and sees only a cropped light cone from the lens. binoculars etc are always expressed as x7. This telescope is collecting exactly the same amount of light at F8 as it is at F6 but the image at F6 is much brighter so would need less exposure time to capture it. bodies will auto detect a tripod and turn IS off. some lenses. 5) Focal Length. www. If we have a 150mm F8 telescope then this point would be 1200mm from the lens or mirror. This will become clear over the next 3 parts of this guide as to why you need to be aware of these differences. Full frame DSLR’s have a sensor size equivalent to 35mm film but are very expensive and for astronomical purposes don’t provide the needed reach of the cropped sensors. Next part is using your camera under a night sky with suggested targets and settings and what to expect ! Also an introduction to using a telescope with your dslr and why focal length is so important.com . 6) To conclude this first part of the guide get used to taking your pictures in RAW.astronomy-wise. x200 etc for telescopes.5 so a useful gain. The same lens when fitted to my Canon cropped sensor DSLR will now magnify at x7.5 and Olympus 4/3rds sensors have a crop value of x2. If you don’t you will likely get soft images. how can this be ?. Regard RAW as your digital negative from which you can generate tiffs and jpg’s from without altering your original capture data. an introduction to the rule of 600 in which you will see why I have mentioned focal length and crop values so often !.

39 Examples of DSLR for astrophotography.com . Image Credit: Pentax Forums Image Credit: OptexCom www.astronomy-wise.

40 In the Lion's Paw Ninian G Boyle www.com .inthelionspaw.astronomy-wise.com www.

ideal for browsing on a journey.paulrumsby. ground breaking.astronomy-wise. The Perfect Introduction The Perfect Catch-up Available from Amazon in Kindle and Paperback Formats For more information go to www. No maths. Can't wait for the next edition… …Margarita Re- Although the lifetimes of stars and galaxies are played out over hundreds and thousands of millennia. the field of Astronomy itself is fast paced. headline making stories that have come out of Astronomy throughout 2011-12 and presents them in an easy to read. just plenty of illustrations in glorious colour. sprinkled with explanations and anecdotes. An excellent read for kids and grown-ups alike.facebook. easy to understand format.41 ASTRONOMY Recent Discoveries & Developments cent From the Reviews: This book is packed with interesting new topics in easily readable chunks.com Facebook page: www.com/AstronomyRecentDiscoveriesAndDevelopments Follow the Author on Twitter @PMRumsby www. This book delves into the most significant.com . with hardly a week going by without a new discovery or development hitting the headlines.

I hope this article gets some of you thinking about the solar system and it's "coincidences" although that word doesn't sit too well with my questioning mind. I decided that as a full time mum and freelance writer I was in no position to answer these questions so I decided to ask some professionals including an Astro biologist and Professional Astronomer. Millions maybe even billions of years ago when the Moon was much closer to earth a day was only 6 hours long and as it has drifted further away over the years our rotation has slowed down. stars twinkling back at me.com freelance. I have previously been educated that our moon plays a huge part in the length of an earth day. I got to thinking about time. I find it very baffling that earth and mars have such similar day lengths when they are so different and am going to carry on my investigations to try discover why. Venus has an extremely slow day at a rotation of 243 earth days which also gives food for thought. if this debris had been any closer to earth it would have crashed back down due to the gravitational pull of our planet and we would not have our moon today.42 Our Moon and The coincidence of Mars During one of my regular evenings laying in my gold silk sheets looking up at a clear sky.astronomy-wise. I was quite taken aback to find a day on Mars is extremely similar to earths at just 24 hours and 37 minutes and as it has no large moon I set out to discover the answer to how this could be! Taking into consideration that Mars is much smaller than earth would surely mean that it would rotate more quickly not take slightly longer? Due to its distance from the sun being further away than that of earths you can expect the year to be much longer. www.com . Ok so what actual influence does the moon have over our planet? I wanted to find someone with a computer that could simulate mars with a moon like ours placed in a position that represented earths relationship with our moon but apparently the calculations of this experiment could not equate an accurate reading. I was taken aback slightly upon reading their answers because they both agreed that the conclusion is that it's a pure coincidence! How can this be? does this mean the moon actually has no influence over our rotation here on earth I wondered. 4 1/2 billion years ago earth was assaulted by rocks and comets and some hypothesise that a smaller planet impacted the earth creating an enormous fountain molten rock that formed a sphere 40 thousand miles from earth creating our moon. Heather Dawn hdhotwriter@yahoo. but the day would surely be much different especially with no gravitational influence from a large moon. The earth takes just over 24 hrs to rotate giving us our day.

buy this book in traditional form. Firstly the book is well laid out and easy to follow. It is not over complex and the beginner to Astronomy and those with an interest of the universe will quickly be absorbed into the pages. I downloaded the book onto my Galaxy Pad. There are ideas on multi-universe and unseen dimensions. Download this book.43 Book Review This month we are reviewing Paul Halperns new book ‘Edge of the Universe’ A voyage to the cosmic horizon and beyond. We can peer out into the galaxy from our back gardens with small telescopes and see the stars and planets. The universe is a vast and complex place. Dr Paul Halpern who is an American Professor of Physics and a well publisher author may have the answers I am looking for.astronomy-wise.com . It is full of mystery and wonder. However have you ever thought when gazing up how did this magnificent spectacle begin? How big is the universe? Is there more than one Universe? Like you I have asked myself these and many more questions. using the Kindle app from amazon. http://edgeofuniverse.com/ www. We soon learn that the universe is full of dark energy and dark matter. Astronomy Wise Rating 5/5 We are offering this book as part of our competition. which ever you choose get yourself comfortable and begin your journey to the cosmos.

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Our instruments can see a wider range of the electromagnetic spectrum and part of this spectrum are x rays.45 We can view many wonders through our telescopes on a dark clear night. Images: Right: Nasa Below: http://www. Just sitting and looking up with the naked eye we can see the milky way. Over the next few issues Pepe Gallardo from Spain will introduce us to the X Ray sky. planets and our nearest neighbour the Moon.webexhibits.org www. The light we see or visible light is a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Even using a small telescope in the back garden we can view stars.astronomy-wise.com .


When we look at our Universe through a telescope we get amazed by its beauty, but we are not viewing the whole story. The Universe has an invisible face which cannot be detected by the naked eye but can be by other instruments. These observations give new details about our current Universe and the past. This is one of the most striking results from observing the x-ray universe. The aim of studying the X-ray Universe comes from the fact that these rays are absorbed by our atmosphere. Though it may seem empty and scattered, the global atmosphere is thick. If we want to collect data from X-ray we have to launch a telescope into outer space. Not the first but NASA's Chandra observatory, is observing the X Ray universe, named in honour of the great cosmologist, Indian-born Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Looking at X-rays is to look for high energy and short wavelengths, smaller than those wavelengths the eye can detect. These high energy beams have to come from high energy events in the Universe. For example, if a neutron star is orbiting another star it will catch gas from the companion. Intense gravity moves the gas and heats it up. This produces an X-ray glow which can be detect, not by our earthly telescopes though. These kind of events are where X-ray astrophysics focuses. Binary systems, black holes and supernova remnants. Usually the image X-ray telescopes see, are not as dramatic as you will see here. The glow, whose emission spectrum astronomers can study. From these studies astronomers can see the early make up of the universe. These observations not only provide beautiful images (composed with another ones) but are a crucial key to study our Universe and its origin. We can try to solve the puzzle called dark


matter and dark energy and, finally, to give new clues to that fundamental moment called 'big bang'.

Welcome to the journey with X-rays through Universe! [Credit for Kepler's supernova: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/D.Patnaude, Optical: DSS]

Words: Pepe Gallardo (Spain) Images: NASA

Image: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4346-heavens-dimmed-for-chandra -space-telescope.html



What you see is a dramatic image showing Galaxy M100, which is a spiral one (like our Milky Way) in the constellation Coma Berenices. M100 is about 50 millions light-years far away. It is among the first galaxies spirals ever discovered in 1850. It is reported

that this galaxy may contain the youngest black hole in our neighbourhood. The image is a composite one, meaning that it is not as if you could see it through a telescope. The components are the following:

Image ESO Very Large Telescope Optical data, from ESO's Very Large Telescope, shown in yellow-white and blue colors. X-Ray, from Chandra, show colors in golden yellow. Infrared, from Spitzer, in red colors. In the arms you can see blue stars, formed recently; they are hot and young. The galaxy shows some kind of asymetry, as on the lower side (the southern most) where new stars are also formed. Just in that southern arm you can see (labelled) an object called SN 1979C which is a supernova discovered in 1979 (so its name). Astronomers think that this supernova formed when a star of about 20 times our Sun's mass collapsed. Data from several observatories revealed that a bright and steady (from 1995 to 2007) source of X-rays. Details from this source tend to think that in the core of SN 1979C there is a black hole and either the material falling into it or a binary companion feed it. Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/D.Patnaude et al, Optical: ESO/VLT, Infrared: NASA/JPL/Caltech Words:Pepe Gallardo (Spain) @aechmu


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astronomy-wise.com .50 Lunar Occultation October 2012 by John Harper www.

This is the star’ more common name. The predictions are for Scarborough. It is measured clockwise through west. 7 Al. 13 PA = Position Angle. 9 Sun Alt = the angular distance of the sun. www. This is the star’s designation in the US Naval Observatory catalogue of over 32.43 deg. = The azimuth (angular distance along the horizon. Proper Name.) 4 Occulted star’s visual magnitude 5 P = Phase tells you whether the event is a disappearance (D) or reappearance (R) or a Graze (C). W00. This indicates whether the event takes place at the dark (D) or bright (B) lunar limb. 11 & 12 the name or catalogue number of the star being occulted. (Society for Popular Astronomy).51 Key to the Occultation Table The columns of the table give data specific to each of the Lunar Occultation events listed. 6 L = Limb. = the Altitude of the moon at the time of the occultation event. (N54. which lies midway between London and Edinburgh. John Harper Former director of the occultation section. From left to right they are: 1 Day of the Week 2 DATE in the format: dd-mm-yyyy 3 Universal Time of the event (add one hour when British Summer Time is in force for Local Time. south . within 8 degrees of the ecliptic. S. Some fainter stars are included in this total as well. 10. This is the angular position on the limb of the moon where the reappearance or disappearance will occur it helps you look at the right part of the moon’s limb.astronomy-wise. on the North Sea coast of the UK. clockwise.P.com . east and back to north.A. The Zodiacal Catalogue of 3539 stars brighter than visual magnitude +7. a total of 360 degrees. XZ Cat No.000 stars that can be occulted by the moon. 8 Az.. Position Angle is measured from Celestial North (the line of Right Ascension running through the centre of the moon’s disc. measured from the North Point. if it has one! ZC No.27 deg. below the horizon at the time of the event.

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com .astronomy-wise.53 ASTEROIDS BY D BOOD Image: NASA www.

astronomy-wise. Asteroids are thought to be left overs from the formation of the solar system. Astronomers call this a near earth asteroid. There are some collisions and asteroids have clumped together to from bigger bodies.com . Some astronomers think it is possible that the formation of Jupiter prevented a planet from forming. It passed the Earth at a distance of 7.54 Rouges of the Solar System D Bood In September an asteroid called 2012 QG42 swung past the Earth. www. these lumps of rock orbit our sun much like the planets do.5 moon distances. over time they have collided and formed the cratered and pitted Objects we see today. There are many bodies in this belt which range from small pieces of rock to dwarf planet size such as Ceres. and prevented larger Source: Images Wikipedia Layout: D Bood Software: MS Paint bodies forming. Not To Scale: Most asteroids are irregular in shape however Ceres is almost spherical. Unlike the movies. the main or inner asteroid belt and the Kuiper belt. the asteroid belt is Meteoroids are generally quite small. However asteroids seem to be concentrated in two main locations. dwarf planet and meteoroids. The main or inner asteroid belt lies between the planets Mars and Jupiter. not a dense orbiting body of rocks less than 50km in size. orbiting our sun (Sol). Spacecraft such as DAWN have been able to fly through and visit different larger asteroids such as Vesta. The belt is home to asteroids. The huge gravitational force of The main asteroid belt or the inner asteroid belt which lies between Jupiter may have caused the lumps of rock to collide Mars and Jupiter. The solar system contains many asteroids.

There are 26 known asteroids larger than 200 km across.spectra and albedo.com .3 astronomical units) from the Sun and may contain over a million objects bigger than 1 km across.aerospaceguide.space. some orbit near Jupiter called ‘Jupiter Trojans’ and some orbit near Mars called ‘Martian Trojans’. www.  Location: The Asteroid Belt is a region between the inner planets and outer planets where thousands of asteroids are found orbiting around the Sun. Others orbit close to the sun and some orbit near Earth.003 km). but what else? Scientist have been able to look at the structure and composition of asteroids.15 to 3.55 Facts about the Asteroid Belt * Area: The main asteroid belt extends from 255 to 600 million km (2. From the research carried out scientists and astronomers have been able to classify asteroids depending on there composition.net/asteroidbelt.com There are some asteroids that do not orbit in the inner asteroid belt. * Diameter: The largest objects are Ceres (1. orbits . They have done this by collecting specimens when they have crashed through our atmosphere and fallen to earth. Pallas (608 km) and Vesta (538 km). Source: http://www. but what are asteroids made of? We now they contain rock.html NASA's Dawn spacecraft obtained this image of the giant asteroid Vesta Image Source: http://www. So far we have looked at the asteroid orbits of the inner main belt. * Total Mass: The total mass of all the asteroids is less than that of the Moon. called Near Earth Asteroids.astronomy-wise.

org/kuiperbelt. Some well known dwarf planets such as Pluto and Eris can found in this region.com . objects of all sizes and composition can be found here. a measure of the reflectivity or intrinsic brightness of an object (a white. Source: http://nineplanets.org KUIPER BELT Image Source: Buko Blog Beyond the orbit of Neptune sits the huge disc shaped region of the Kuiper Belt. Beyond this region we also have the Oort cloud.html www. Together as well as other objects astronomers refer to them collectively as TNOs (Trans Netunian Objects). Image opposite: Eris taken the Hubble telescope Objects in the Kupier belt are referred to as KBOs (Kuiper Belt Objects).56 Albedo the ratio of the amount of light reflected by an object and the amount of incident light. These objects are called TNOs because they orbit the sun beyond Neptune.0).0.orderoftheplanets. Like the main asteroid belt. a black perfectly absorbing surface would have an albedo of 0. Image: http:// www.astronomy-wise. Here icy cold worlds billions of Kilometres from the sun orbit. perfectly reflecting surface would have an albedo of 1.

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When we look at the horrific beauty in a nebula. Rigel. Barnard's Loop may be the ionized inner surface of a hydrogen cloud. and has placed heartless reminders in the form of nebulae. The universe knows this. Credit Peter Erdman.com . the universe is impatiently waiting to call you home. Credit: NASA/STScl/ Digitized Sky Survey/Noel Carboni “Waning moon” around the chilly mist of the Orion cloud: Barnard's Loop (SH 2-276) . while Rigel is the left foot of the Orion constellation. and to stardust we will return.we will one day be in a cosmic cemetery. www. This nebula is in the constellation Eridanus (the river). So here are some creepy nebula pictures to help you remember that no matter how cheerful you are at this moment. the churning nurseries and graveyards of stars. The bright star hanging off to the lower right of the “moon” is the star. I actually think she looks sweet but apparently she gives a lot of people nightmares. pretending it won't actually happen to us. Rigel. That bright blue star she is wearing as an earring is the supergiant star.astronomy-wise. we know that is our awful fate . but inwardly knowing that from stardust we came. Image Left: The Witch Head Nebula (IC 2118).63 Halloween Across The Universe BY Zantippy Skiphop Halloween is all about laughing in the face of Death.

It includes the nebulae M78 (blue cloud near the curve in the werewolf's tail).. Fabian (IoA Cambridge) et al. In fact. There is no empathy in those eyes at all. Credit: Griffin/Hunter Observatory This looks like a Death Eater was casting a cosmic Dark Mark. they look kind of eager for our flesh. at least from the 1960s. www. Credit: A.64 This part of the Orion B molecular cloud looks to me like a werewolf. NGC 2071 (next to the werewolf's left ear) and the bright area near the top of the tail is McNeil's Nebula.com . And that's what it is! This image is of xrays ejected from an unfathomably huge black hole in the middle of the Perseus Cluster of galaxies as the center galaxy gobbles up others. although back research shows it in some older exposures. and NASA.astronomy-wise. with a scorpion for a tail. a nebula just recognized in 2004.

Those two people on the left are running away from something scary. Acknowledgment: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit. something wrapped in a burial shroud made of cosmic dust. The Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) Credit: ESA/ VISTA/ J. It looks like they are caught in the shroud like a bug in a web. Emerson. NOAO. Yikes. Cioni/VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey. Dragon! A dragon attacking the Tarantula Nebula! Credit: ESO/ MR. *SHIVER* Credit: Adam Block. NSF. Maybe the creature needs to capture them in order to feed the binary star system hidden in his cloak.com . This one seriously creeps me out.65 “Ghost of the Cepheus Flare” (SH2-136). AURA. www.astronomy-wise.

66 Ghosts playing poker in nebula IRAS 05437+2502.com . Credit: NASA/ ESA/Hubble/R.astronomy-wise. Sahai (JPL). I'm glad I could share our grim but exquisite future with you all. Have a great Halloween! www.

67 Words: Zantippy Skiphop www.astronomy-wise.com .

68 Mars One Announces First Sponsors Press Release AMERSFOORT. Unlike anything ever conducted in the history of space exploration. A little more than a year ago we embarked down this path. "We consider landing humans on Mars an imperative mission for the future of human exploration.com . established aerospace companies from around the world. calling upon industry experts to share in our bold dream. We are proud to support this initiative and in a small way.” states Gruus van Woerkom. General Director for Byte Internet. less total risk. As such. and faster than any other existing organization. a comprehensive technical design of the various components of the Mission to Mars. Mars One is a private Dutch organization whose intent is to land the first humans on Mars in 2023. Once the conceptual design studies are complete. giving our dream a foundation in reality. Mars One intends to make possible the opportunity for any qualified applicant from any nation to become an astronaut. conceptual development and initial technical development is complete. General Director of Dejan SEO: "Mars One is not just a daring project. Dan Petrovic. we have moved from a technical plan into the first stage of funding. Following a fully robotic construction of a habitable outpost between 2016 and 2020. but the core of what drives human spirit towards exploration of the unknown. help Mars One achieve it … having invested in a prior initiative headed by Lansdorp. We are privileged to be a supporter of this incredible project. Conceptual design studies will be completed for all components of the mission. “Receipt of initial sponsorship marks the next step to humans setting foot on Mars. Mary Roach." Mars One corporate sponsorship funds will be used primarily to finance the conceptual design studies provided by the aerospace suppliers. THE NETHERLANDS. Mars One is a non-political integrator capable of delivering humans to Mars with less overhead. author of best selling Packing for Mars: The Curious Science of Life in the Void. Bas Lansdorp.” Self-funded for the prior eighteen months. states. we have confidence in the success of this bold.” www. From mid 2013 forward. subsequent crew arrivals will occur every two years. funding will largely be generated through a growing. global media event built around the selection and training of astronauts for the manned mission. These design studies demand 500 to 2500 man-hours each. from robotic construction of the outpost to the arrival of the first humans. “The Mars One concept takes [colonizing Mars] to another level by adding an element of global audience participation. the selection of astronauts will commence. Today. 29 August 2012 – Mars One is pleased to announce receipt of initial funding through sponsorship revenue. The existing technical plan of Mars One is unique in that it requires incorporation of only readily available technologies developed by major. challenging objective. Yet at their core the Mars One team are aerospace professionals with the background and contacts to pull together the technical aspects of the mission. In the latter half of 2012 and early 2013 Mars One will move to enable growth of its technical and management staff. founder and President of Mars-One offers.astronomy-wise. a major step towards sending a manned mission to Mars.

but bright enthusiastic minds are working on realizing this dream.dejanseo. readily available technologies from industry leaders world-wide.” Aart Veldhuizen.” About Mars One Mars One is a non-government.byte.com www.tv: “New Energy also stands for facing the future. Unique in its approach.au) Roelf van Til. owner of New-Energy.astronomy-wise.eu) New-Energy. believing in progress and the ancient human dream to discover unknown lands.new-energy.nl) MeetIn – Contributor (www.vbcnotarissen. The Media may contact Mars One at: info@mars-one.nl) VBC Notarissen – Contributor (www.meetin. private organization whose intent is to establish a colony on Mars through the integration of existing. reality TV style broadcast from astronaut selection to robotic construction of the outpost. Mars One intends to fund this decade-long endeavor through an interactive. notary at VBC Notarissen: “This project may sound fantastic.com .com. from the seven month flight through the first years on Mars. VBC notarissen is proud that we can contribute to this ambitious plan.tv) Dejan SEO – Contributor (www.tv – Contributor (www.69 Initial sponsors include: Byte Internet – Silver Sponsor (www.

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All you have to do is answer this question.com . iii. So for the first time.com All correct answers will be placed into a bucket and drawn out Winner must take a photo of themselves on books for the EZIne v.80 Well I hope you have enjoyed the October Edition. The prize is 3 signed books (as shown above).astronomy-wise. ii. Email Subject line: Astronomy Wise Competition Good Luck! www. Open to UK residents only Answers must be emailed to dbood@astronomy-wise. ”what is the closest star to Earth” Rules: i. iv. Winner will be notified by email and/or phone vi. Astronomy Wise is hosting it’s first competition.

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82 Android Wise By D Bood Welcome to Android Wise. looking at apps available on the Android system.1 tablet. Most apps featured are free however now and again I will have a look at paid for apps. All listed on these pages have been tried.astronomy-wise. Meteor Shower Calendar Screen Shots www.com . tested and tweeted on my Samsung Galaxy 10.

You can also go to search and with an internet connection. It works nicely on the Galaxy tablet. the peak and the end date.com . The calendar will give you the meteor shower name. Where you can get more info. Google User Rating stars 4 stars 3 stars 2 stars 1 star 454 182 58 21 27 Average rating: 4.astronomy-wise.4 742 AW Rating 5/5 www. it will take you to Google. Average velocity at peak and Zenith hourly rate. date it starts. Other bits of information are also available such as. Now if you download another free program called SkEye it will help you find the meteor shower location.83 The meteor shower calendar is a nice free application. If you press on a shower you wish more details on it will take you too a screen and give you the moon phase.

www. You can manually set your location.astronomy-wise. Once set up you can search the skies for objects.84 Android Wise SkEye SkEye can be used with the Meteor Shower Calendar or as a standalone application.com .

5 2. If you have a telescope.0 Images: Google Play www. constellations and deep sky objects from the Messier and NGC catalogs. for a free app it is well worth a download.0/5. The app. Is not bad however there are better paid for applications. just strap the phone onto the OTA and you get a PUSHTO guide! (Google Play).astronomy-wise.051 AW RATING 4. SkEye is an advanced Planetarium that can also be used as a PUSHTO guide for telescopes.com . Ever been on a camping trip and wondered what objects are up in the sky? Now you can get familiar with Astronomy by identifying stars.439 374 122 37 79 Average rating 4.85 Explore the night sky with your Android. Google User Ratings 5 stars 4 stars 3 stars 2 stars 1 star 1.

that is not what is observed.com . one of the mysteries that I find truly captivating is dark matter. the slower its orbital velocity. and I am studying astrophysics at York University. That is. We are aware of its effects on objects in space. But. www. However.86 DARK MATTER My name is Sophia Nasr.edu/ astro801/content/ l8_p8.astronomy-wise.eeducation. and remains a mystery in the realm of physics and astronomy. Plot of orbital velocities of objects in the Solar System. Image source: https://www. the slower its orbit about the central mass). But after the Higgs boson (a particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics) was finally discovered on July 4.html) It is natural to expect to observe the same behaviour to be exhibited in a galaxy (the farther the object is from the galactic centre. the particle responsible for dark matter has yet to be observed directly. what is dark matter? The answer to this question may surprise you: we just don’t know yet.psu. you will find that the gravitational force between the Sun and the planet or object is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. particle physicists at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) will undoubtedly be vigorously working on finding the particle responsible for dark matter. nearly 50 years after physicist Peter Higgs proposed it. the most distant the orbiting object is from the Sun. However. Plotting the orbital velocities of objects in the Milky Way from those closest to the centre to those at the edge of the galactic disk on a graph called a rotation curve reveals a curve that is nearly flat. 2012. However. I find many things in the astronomical field fascinating. When you observe objects orbiting the Sun in our solar system. and we have an idea of what it may be.

and clusters of galaxies gravitationally bound together to form superclusters) is not enough to explain the amount of mass necessary for gravity to prevent them from flying apart (http://astro.com . While some of the dark matter can be accounted for by MACHOs (Massive Compact Halo Objects) in the form of black holes. it may seem that it was named such since it cannot be seen. that earned it that name.gov/docs/teachers/ galaxies/imagine/dark_matter.pdf). physicists and astronomers are certain of what it cannot be. red dashed line represents expected speeds according to “Keplerian” orbits like objects orbiting our Sun. galaxies gravitationally bound together to form galaxy clusters. Analyses of the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) have revealed that dark matter is definitely not in the form of normal baryonic matter (in other words.87 Rotation curve of the Milky Way.gsfc. blue line represents actual speeds of objects orbiting the central mass in the Milky Way. named Sagittarius A* Image source: http://abyss. matter composed of protons and neutrons. But rather. and brown dwarfs. and is something unknown.nasa.nasa. these objects only contribute to about 20% of dark matter (http:// imagine.berkeley. Additionally. it is that it is veiled in mystery.astronomy-wise.uoregon. neutron stars.jpl. the amount of observable matter within galaxies providing a gravitational force to bind galaxy clusters and superclusters together (that is.gov/ educate/scimodule/Cosmogony/ CosmogonyPDF/ MilkyWaySurpriseST. suspected to be a supermassive black hole. These observations have prompted astronomers and physicists to infer a particle that is responsible for the behavior observed in the universe. like www. You may be wondering why this particle is called “dark matter”.html) What this means is that all objects orbit the central mass in the Milky Way at nearly the same speeds throughout the galactic disk! This was one of the observations that led astronomers to postulate a particle that gives the additional mass necessary for such behavior—dark matter. While we have yet to discover the particle and do not know exactly what it is.edu/ ~js/ast123/lectures/ lec16.html).html). Well.edu/~mwhite/ darkmatter/dm. There is said to be about 10 times as much dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy as there is normal matter (http://genesismission.

html).harvard. attempts at constructing a unified theory of all elementary particles suggest that they were produced in mass abundances only a fraction of a second after the Big Bang (http://chandra.astronomy-wise.edu/ xray_astro/dark_matter/index5.edu/xray_astro/ dark_matter/index5. Because it is weakly interacting.html).harvard. but does not interact with normal matter (http://chandra. www. Antimatter has also been ruled out as a candidate for dark matter. and dark matter has not yet been detected in this manner (http://science.nasa. The reason for this is because clouds of baryonic matter are detectable by an absorption spectrum.html). What astronomers and physicists think is that it must be is a particle that is massive (predicted to be 100 times as massive as the hydrogen atom). planets. These particles have been named WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). dark matter has not yet been discovered. and interstellar matter) (http://chandra.nasa. While WIMPs are not predicted in the Standard Model of particle physics. as none of the unique gamma rays produced upon the collision and subsequent annihilation between antimatter and matter have been observed with respect to dark matter (http://science. and will be difficult to detect.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-isdark-energy/).88 stars.edu/xray_astro/ dark_matter/index5.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-isdark-energy/).com .harvard.

which accelerates particles at nearly the speed of light (299. However. Since direct and indirect observations of a dark matter particle have failed. may be our best bet of finding the particle.harvard. as it does not interact with matter. the LHC.html). when everything was an extremely hot soup at a temperature of a quadrillion degrees. then it would make the search for it difficult. is looking for.792.edu/ xray_astro/dark_matter/index6.html). physicists have proposed a method akin to that which revealed the Higgs boson—create the particle at the LHC by reproducing the conditions that were present only a fraction of a second after the Big Bang (http://chandra.458 m/s) and reproduces just these conditions. they have yet to detect a WIMP. located half a mile underground in a Minnesota iron mine.harvard.edu/xray_astro/dark_matter/index6. Since the particle is predicted to have been created in large quantities just a fraction of a second after the Big Bang that gave rise to our universe. follow Sophia on twitter @pharaoness www. billions of these particles would be passing through our bodies (and the Earth) every second (http://chandra.com . It is also possible that WIMPs may at times knock a nucleus out of its atom upon a collision—and THIS is what the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search. However.astronomy-wise.89 If the dark matter particle is a WIMP.

that took most of my afternoon and evening away. At about this time I bought a small bright yellow telescope. then another article further into the magazine. but I quickly learned they moved across the frame very fast! It also had a small bit of chromatic aberration by the time I had done all that.com . I remember reading about the fact that at that time. which also did well at the time. I loved and used to delve into two subjects.astronomy-wise. It was later. there was a theory about them emitting radiation and I read a small caption near the picture and thought this was the best thing I have ever thought about ever! I couldn’t put the magazine down and ended up taking it home with me. at about age 7-8 years old.90 Featured Astronomer—Claire Smith When I was about 6 years old. Later some of my work was used in books and exhibitions and one of my ideas was put into another book. Jump forward another 30 or so years and I still have that same magazine. even if that did move past very quickly! In about 1999 I decided to set up a website that had all my passions rolled into one www.php?cno=59908 this book set me off on a journey into the wonderful world of science and ultimately astronomy. but the Catadioptric was the next step up. The website has generated lots of other things since. Jump forward to the early 90’s. then put the lowest magnification one loosely onto the main one and got great Moon pictures.cthisspace. which I still have. especially physics. I remember seeing a fantastic picture of an electricity bolt near the front and a saying at the start of the book. One example was that I went to a party at astronomer Sir Patrick Moore’s house in 2008 due to being interested in astronomy and having a www. My website has my ideas about science and some space art that I used to create with an art programme. that I came across a copy of Scientific American magazine. called a short tube 3” Catadioptric. I also used to create a lot of art and loved space pictures.com this website was really a spin off from a free non-profit internet magazine called FTL that a friend had started. that I was in my Aunt and Uncles house. referring to science as a wonderful ‘carpet’ and this was enough for me to read more! The book was printed in 1931 so the science then was very different to about the early to mid 70’s but it served as a precursor to what became an interest that I could never stop. science and art. I used to stack the normal eye pieces on. which got me into astronomy. At about the same age. someone in my family gave me a book called ‘The Wonder Book of Science’ by Harry Golding http://childrensbookshop.com/book. and it all started to fire up really well since then. I had still had an interest in astronomy and science and kept a notebook that I used to jot ideas down onto. as I continue to build it now. be it rolled up in my drawer! At around the time of school age. which was about Black Holes and radiation. which was lead me into yet another world of interest and wonder! This time it was an article in the magazine about light and lasers complete with diagrams. astronomy and art. I already had a hand held captain cook type of telescope. but it was worth seeing the Moon craters.

At the time I thought there must be one nearer. art. we can capture the imagination of the public using social clues that make the subject welcoming and interesting. astronomy and children. In November 2011. physics. and it’s taken off since then. Because women can easily get children’s interest at an early age. photography etc. has great reaching power that communicates the subject on more concrete levels because there is directness in her work that can reach beginners and professionals alike. With this I got many images of the Moon and stars. At about the same time I bought another telescope which was a 6” white Russian Tal 2 reflector. and women have that unique talent in making that happen.astronomy-wise. so something must be going right! Claire Smith www. It has a motor mount so it can get clearer pictures which have been good to capture since.com . Carolyn C. It has attracted lots of followers because of our unique location. an American planetary scientist. which is an even greater thing. how amazing the stars and planets are and not only that. I have noticed over the time that I have been a member. and see. I also think that. for free. it makes you think how wonderful our universe really is. as a way to make children see the relevance of science in general. mainly science. It is an art and science in itself to capture people’s imagination into astronomy. Porco. they have a unique capability to connect the two together. For example. Astronomy is very accessible and ‘live ‘because anybody can just go and look at the night sky. which wasn’t in my hometown at that time. Blackpool! I will always be interested in astronomy because it combines so many subjects. At my local astronomy society. that there are more women attending the group. who is in the area of exploration of the outer solar system. Women in Astronomy I think women have a very important part to play in astronomy because. The Sky at Night. I thought about doing my local Astronomy Society’s twitter page.91 friend who had his work regularly shown on the BBC programme. because women are closely tied to children. so looked online and joined that too. In about 2006 I went to my first Astronomy Society. There is more about this fantastic event on my site. I am now only a member of my local town astronomy club where I live. but near a place of work. it enables the use of astronomy as a vehicle.

com . Words and opinions belong to the stated authors.com @AstronomyWise dbood@astronomy-wise. *Area for image* Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the ezine are those of the authors.astronomy-wise.com Be sure to visit us at: Astronomy-Wise. Please do not copy without the owners permission. Astronomy Wise is a FREE non profit online magazine.92 Astronomy Wise We would like to thank all our writers for the October Astronomy Wise EZine.com www.astronomy-wise. Copyright: Images belong to the stated owners. Get in touch: www.

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