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Adult values for PaO2 and oxygen saturation[4] PaO2 (kPa) SaO2 (%)

Normal (range) Hypoxaemia Mild hypoxaemia Moderate hypoxaemia Severe hypoxaemia

13(10.7) 97 (95-100) <10.7 8-10.5 5.3-7.9 <5.3 <95 90-94 75-89 <75

Normal blood gas readings

pH 7.35-7.45

PaCO2 4.7-6.0 kPa (35 mm Hg-45 mm Hg) PaO2 11-13.5 kPa (83 mm Hg-102 mm Hg)

HCO3- 22-28 mmol/L Anion gap 10-16 mmol/L

Anion gap

Anion gap=(Na++K+)(Cl-+HCO3-)=10-16mmol/L

The number of anions and cations should be equal, but a standard blood analysis does not measure them all, resulting in a difference of 10-16 mmol/L. Some causes of metabolic acidosis result in an increased anion gap and others result in a normal anion gap.