POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS

Prof. Hani Obeid
PhD EE, SMIEEE, P.Eng.

Department of Electrical & Computer
Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Applied Sciences University
1
UNIT I
Introduction to energy
sources
• Units of energy
• Efficiency & caloric value of
fuels.
• Power station (conventional
energy sources).
• Renewable energy sources.
Parameters of
transmission lines.
• Introduction to power
systems.
• Parameters of transmission
lines:
Resistance, Inductance,
Capacitance.
Surge impedance & surge
impedance loading SIL.



2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Caloric Value of Fuels
The amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a
Unit weight of fuel is known as its caloric value.
11
12
13
Modern Power station
100 MW station at 50% load factor

Burn 20000 tons of coal per month
Ash produced = (10 – 15)% of coal fired = 2000 – 3000 tons

Thus, in thermal station, about 50% to 60% of the total
Operating cost consists of fuel purchasing and its handling.
14
15
5
Hydrologic Cycle
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/windandhydro/hydro_how.html
16
17
18
12
Hydro Power to Electric Power
Potential
Energy
Kinetic
Energy
Electrical
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Electricity
19
20
18
Large Hydro Power Example
21
29
Itaipú Dam (Brazil & Paraguay)
“Itaipu,” Wikipedia.org
22
32
World’s Largest Dams
Ranked by maximum power.
Name Country Year
Max
Generation
Annual
Production
Three Gorges China 2009 18,200 MW
Itaipú Brazil/Paraguay 1983 12,600 MW 93.4 TW-hrs
Guri Venezuela 1986 10,200 MW 46 TW-hrs
Grand Coulee United States 1942/80 6,809 MW 22.6 TW-hrs
Sayano Shushenskaya Russia 1983 6,400 MW
Robert-Bourassa Canada 1981 5,616 MW
Churchill Falls Canada 1971 5,429 MW 35 TW-hrs
Iron Gates Romania/Serbia 1970 2,280 MW 11.3 TW-hrs
“Hydroelectricity,” Wikipedia.org
23
Sayano shushenskaya Hydro power station
24
Dam
Length = 1066 m
Height = 246 m
Hydraulic head = 194 m
Base width = 105.7 m
Construction = 961-1978

Reservoir
Capacity = 31.3 cubic meter
Surface area = 621 square Km

Capacity

10x640 MW
Average annual production = 23.5 TWh
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
Nuclear Power Station
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
Non Conventional Sources:-
• 1.Geo-thermal energy
• 2.Tidal Energy
• 3.Wind Energy
• 4.Magneto Hydrodynamic
generation.
• 5.Solar energy.


Advantages of utilizing renewable energy
sources
• 1.These resources are locally available and
everlasting.
• 2.The conversion does not involve in emission
of green houses
• 3.The power generation is at local level and
does not involve in T&D losses.
• 4.The systems are modular in nature.

Geo Thermal energy:-
• Heat energy of interior earth -----Electrical energy.
Line Diagram:-
• Earth surface/pipe line output steam separator
steam Turbine Alternator inverter D.C
Advantages:-
• It is versatile in its use.
• It is cheaper
• The plants have highest annual load factor (85-90%)
• Pollution less.

Tidal Energy:-
• Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of
sea which are carried by the action of sun and
moon on the water of the earth.
• Tide can be used to produce electrical power
which is known as tidal power.
• The water is above the mean sea level is called
Flood tide.
• The water level is below the mean sea level is
called EBB tide.
• The average tide range is 8.5m and maximum
tide is 13.5m

Wind Energy
• It is indirect solar electric technology.
• It is energy from the WIND
Site selection consideration:-
• 1. High annual average wind speed.
• 2. Availability of anemometer data.
• 3. Availability of wind curve at the proposed site.
• 4. Local Ecology.
• 5. Distance to road or railway.
• 6. Nature of ground.
• 7. Favorable land cost
Advantages
• It is renewable sources of energy
• Non polluting system
• Avoid fuel provision and transport.
• On large scale costs can be competitive with
conventional electricity and lower costs could be
achieved by mass production.
• It is clean and plentiful source of energy.
• It produces hundreds of mega watts.
• It’s also used for water pumping,
telecommunication power supply and irrigation.


Line diagram:-
Wind----turbine-----alternator----electrical energy.

Types:-
• 1. Vertical axis machines
(The axis of rotation is vertical, the blades also be
vertical)
• 2. Horizontal axis machines
(the axis of rotation is horizontal and in the
aeroturbine plane is vertical facing the wind.

Solar Energy:-
• It is energy from the sun.
• The energy in the form of heat and light.
• It is defined as the energy produced by the sun
and collected on earth.
Solar –Components:-
• 1.solar collector
• 2.storage unit.
Line diagram
Solar----solar rays----solar collector----
electricity/heat.

Types:-



• 1.Solar photovoltaic system power plants.
• 2.Solar concentration thermionic power plants
Solar photovoltaic system:-
• It is a direct conversion of light to electricity.
• Solar radiation-----PV cell---dc current.
• (Each PV cell generate the electricity
approximately 6-12volts)
Basic photovoltaic system for power generation.
• 1.Solar array.(rays---DC power)
• 2.Blocking diode.
• 3.Battery storage.
• 4.inverter/converter
• 5.Appropriate switches and circuit breaker
Basic Photovoltaic system integrated with power grid


Blocking
Diode
Solar cell
array
Inverter/
Converter
From Utility
Feeder
Battery Storage
Local Load
Advantages:;
• It is free pollution.
• The plant requires little maintenance or help
after setup
• It is Economical
• When it is connected to the grid, solar energy
can overtake the highest cost electricity at
peak demand and can also reduce grid
loading,apart from getting rid of the need for
local battery power in darkness.
DG is a another approach ,It reduces the
amount of energy lost in transmitting
electricity because the electricity is
generated very near where it is used
,perhaps even in the same building..This
also reduces the size and number of
power lines that must be constructed.

Distributed Generated System:-
• Distributed generation generates electricity from many
small energy sources.
• It is defined as the integrated use of small generation
units directly connected to a distribution system or
inside the facilities of a customer.
• It has also been called
• On site generation
• Dispersed generation
• Embedded generation
• Decentralized generation


Example—DG
1.Micro turbine,Small Wind turbine
2.Photovolatic cell ,solar water heating.
3.Small gas turbine.
Benefits-DG
1.Enhance the reliability of the power supply.
2.Reduce the need for T & D investments to serve
the growing demand.
3.Encourage efficient investments in electricity
reliability by offering a cost effective alternative
in many situations.



79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
DEVELOPMENT OF AC TRANSMISSION LINES
16-5-1888 TRANSMISSION LINE PATENT GIVEN
FIRST LINE 25 kV LINE LAUFFEN TO FRANKFURT
IN GERMANY
1912 110 kV LINE LAUCHLAMMER TO RIESA
17-4-1929 220 kV LINE BRAUWEILER TO FRANKFURT
TOWERS DESIGNED FOR 380 kV
5-10-1957 380 kV LINE ROMERSKIRCHEN TO LUDWIGSBURG-
HOHENECH
1967 735 kV LINE IN HYDRO QUEBEC
1982 1200 kV LINE IN SOVIET UNION
EXTREMEMELY HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION BEYOND 2000 kV NOT
PREFERED DUE TO HIGH CORONA DISCHARGELOSSES MORE THAN LOSSES
DUE TO LINE RESISTANCE

89
90
MAIN COMPONENTS
1. CONDUCTOR

2. CONDUCTOR ACCESSORIES
a) REPAIR SLEEVES b) COMPRESSION JOINTS
c) VIBRATION DAMPERS d) SPACERS / SPACER
DAMPERS
3. EARTH WIRE
a) COMPRESSION JOINTS
b) VIBRATION DAMPERS
c) COPPER EARTH BONDS

4. INSULATORS

5. EARTHING/ COUNTER POISE EARTHING SETS
91


6. INSULATOR STRING HARDWARE
a) SUSPENSION STRING HARD WARE
b) TENSION STRING HARD WARE

7. OPGW

8. EARTH WIRE /OPGW HARDWARE

9. TOWERS

10. TOWER ACCESSORIES
a) PHASE PLATES b) DANGER BOARDS
c) BIRD GAURDS d) ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES
e) STEP BOLTS


MAIN COMPONENTS contd..
92
CONDUCTORS
1. COPPER
2 .COPPER CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED
3. ALUMINIUM
4. ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTORS(AAAC)
5. ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTOR STEEL
REINFORCED(AACSR)
5. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR STEEL REINFORCED(ACSR)
6. ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL
REINFORCED - ACSR(AS)

93
ADVANTAGES OF ACSR
1. MORE SPAN-LESS SAG
2. LARGER DIA -LESS CORONA LOSS FOR UHV LINES

94
STANDARDS
1. IS:398 IEC-1098-1991:
SPECIFICATION FOR ALUMINIUM
CONDUCTORS FOR OVERHEAD
TRANSMISSION LINES
2 IS-398 PART-II : ACSR
3. IS-398 PART-V : ACSR FOR 400 kV AND ABOVE
4. IEC-1232 : ALUMINIUM CLAD STEEL WIRES FOR
ELECTRICAL PURPOSES
5.IS-1778 :REELS AND DRUMS FOR BARE
CONDUCTORS

95
PRINCIPAL PARAMETERS OF ACSR
1. APPLICABLE STANDARDS
2. NO./WIRE DIA.AL./STEEL
3. SECTIONAL AREA OF ALUMINIUM (SQ,mm)
4. TOTAL SECTIONAL AREA (SQ,mm)
5. OVERAL DIA.(mm)
6. APPROXIMATE WT(.KG / KM)
7. DC RESISTANCEAT 20 DEG.C( OHM/KM)
8. ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH ( KN)
9. FINAL MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (KG/cm)
10. COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION (PER DEG.C)
11.LAY RATIO( MAX./MIN.)
12.TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF STEEL AND AL.STRANDS
a) strand dia. b) cross sectional area c) wt./km d) min.breaking load befor stranding
and after stranding KN e)zinc coating of steel wire f) joints in strands g) chemical
composition of steel wire




96
INSULATOR STRINGS
TYPES OF INSULATORS
1. PORCELAIN DISC INSULATORS,LONG ROD INSULATORS
2.TOUGHENED GLASS
3.POLYMER SILICON RUBBER/ALLOY OF SILICON RUBBER AND EPDM

NORMAL SIZES

1.254 X 145 mm 70KN/90KN EMS. 280mm CREEPAGE

2.280 X 170 mm 120 KN/160KN,

280mm/330mm/430mm CREEPAGE

3.305 X 145 mm 120 KN,

280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE

4.305 X 170 mm 160 KN

280mm /330mm/430mm CREEPAGE

BALL DIA--16mm, 20mm




97
INSULATOR STRINGS---- CONTINUED
TYPES OF STRINGS
1.SINGLE SUSPENSION
2.DOUBLE SUSPENSION
3.SINGLE TENSION
4. DOUBLE TENSION
5.V-SRTING

98
COST COMPONENTS
1. TOWERS AND ACCESSORIES 28%
2. ACSR CONDUCTOR AND ACCESSORIES 36%
3. EARTH WIRE AND ACCESSORIES 01%
4. INSULATOR AND STRINGS 06%
5. FOUNDATIONS 04%
6. ERRECTION 14%
7. CENTAGES 11%

PARAMETERS OF TRANSMISSION LINES
THE TRANSMISSION LINE HAS FOUR PARAMETERS:
1. Resistance

2. Inductive reactance

3. Capacitive reactance

4. Shunt conductance
R
L
X
C
X
g
99
100
For usual spacing of overhead lines at 50 Hz, the
Proximity effect is neglected.

The effective resistance is found from power loss:
2
I
Loss Power
R
ac
=
| |
| | m x
m x
Al
copper drawn hard
. 10 83 . 2
. 10 77 . 1
8
8
O =
O =
÷
÷
µ
µ
101
The standard temperature for resistance is 20 degrees,
Therefore R depends on temperature in normal range
As per the following equation:

( ) | | 20 1
20 20
÷ + = T R R
t
o
20
o
00932 . 0
20
= o
Temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 degrees
For copper
102
LINE INDUCTANCE
Inductance of a single phase two wire line
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
TRANSPOSITION OF LINE CONDUCTORS

110
111
112
113
114
BUNDLE CONDUCTORS
Where S is the spacing between sub-conductors.
A is the bundle radius.
Bundle conductor
115
Reichman has shown that the spacing of conductors
In a bundle affects voltage gradient and the optimum
Spacing is of the order of 8-10 times the conductors
Diameter irrespective of the number of conductors
In the bundle.

Regarding the bundle radius, usually

( ) mm A 530 200 ÷ =
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
LINE CAPACITANCE
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
SURGE MPEDANCE LOADING SIL
C
produced
X
KV
M
2
var =
139
L used
X I M
2
var =
2
2
2
2
I
V
X X or
X
V
X I
C L
C
L
=
=
140
The term
C
L
In the above equation is by definition
The “surge impedance”.
141
( )
impedance surge
KV
MW in SIL
L L
2
÷
=
142
143
144
145