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TITLE OBJECTIVE THEORY APPARATUS MATERIAL PROCEDURES RESULT QUESTIONS DISCUSSION CONCLUSION APPENDIX REFERENCE

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It may also exist as soil deposited at the bottom of a water body. fine. dust or silt will weaken the concrete because the dirt tends to coat the aggregate and weaken the bond between the aggregate and cement paste thus preventing the cement from setting. Silt may occur as a soil or as suspended sediment (also known as suspended load) in a surface water body. Clay. 1|Page . mud.EXPERIMENT TITLE OBJECTIVE :4 : SILT TEST FOR SAND : To determine amount and percent of silt in a nature sand THEORY Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between sand and clay whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Coarse aggregates should be for cleanliness purposes are inspected by visual inspection.

APPARATUS 1. Salt 2|Page . Sand 3. Stirring rod MATERIAL 1. Rubber hammer 3. Measuring cylinder 250 ml 2. Spatula 4. Water 2.

The cylinder was filled up to about 50 ml of salt water solution. 3. 3|Page . 4. The cylinders were placed on a levelled surface. The thickness can be explained as a percentage of sand level below the layer. More salt water was added until it reaches 150 ml. The sand considered as clean if the percentage is not more than 8% of the original volume of the sand. The sand was poured into the cylinder until the level of water reaches 100 ml. 7. 6. The silt layer was measured on top of the sand. (one tablespoon salt to 1 litre of water) 2. After 2 hours. the results were recorded. The cylinders were shakes well.PROCEDURE 1. 5.

% 4|Page . Measurement (mm) No.RESULT Calculation on amount of silt using Volume method. Description Sand inside Sand outside the lab the lab 83 mm 4 mm 80 mm 5 mm 1 2 Height of sand layer (y) Height of silt (x) Percentage of silt in sand = = x / y X 100% Standard form : percentage of silt less than ………………………………….

If we don’t use the salt. 2. the concrete will weak and cannot use it for any project. This is because the silt will weaken the bond between aggregates and cement paste. What happen to you concrete when we use the sand with silt more than 8%? If we use sand with silt more than 8%. 5|Page . we could not measure it as the water did not float or separate with the sand. Why we use salt water in this test? We use the salt in this test is for separate the water with the sand to measure the silt layer on the top of the sand.QUESTION 1.

Sedimentary rock composed mainly of silt is known as siltstone. Mineralogical. Aeolian attrition and glacial grinding. especially when produced by glacial action. 6|Page . Silt is sometimes known as "rock flour" or "stone dust".DISSCUSSION Silt is created by a variety of physical processes capable of splitting the generally sand-sized quartz crystals of primary rocks by exploiting deficiencies in their lattice. These involve chemical weathering of rock and regulate. silt is composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. The main process is abrasion through transport. including fluvial combinations. and a number of physical weathering processes such as frost shattering and haloclasty. It is in semi-arid environments that substantial quantities of silt are produced.

They can absorb water and their properties can change because of it. they can shrink or swell. causing cracks in the product. In fresh concrete. you would have to use more cement and the concrete would shrink more during the hardening process. either building internal pressure (swelling) or leaving larger voids and weakening the concrete (shrinking). 7|Page . In hardened concrete. if the silt and clay come in contact with water in air voids. Silt and clay are not as strong as typical aggregates. I would think that silt and clay would interfere with the bonding of aggregates to cement.CONCLUSION If the sand contains more than 6% silt.

APPENDIX Poured salt water into cylinder filled with sand Salt Stirring salt water Salt water Glass rod Spatula 8|Page .

html  http://sg.org/wiki/Silt  http://autonopedia.org/buildings_and_shelter/Rural_Building/Aggregates.com/question/index?qid=20100528053325AAfWt4Y 9|Page .wikipedia.REFERENCE  http://en.yahoo.answers.