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Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment

Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment

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Published by ADBGAD
ADB presentation at the JICA and JRO on 4-5 October 2012
ADB presentation at the JICA and JRO on 4-5 October 2012

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Published by: ADBGAD on Oct 09, 2012
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The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment
Shireen Lateef
Senior Advisor (Gender)

• Progress on Gender Equality • Asia Pacific Gender Equality • Unfinished Gender Agenda • ADB’s Contribution to Gender Equality • ADB Case Studies

Progress Gender Equality
Asia Pacific
Impressive progress over decade
More girls in schools Fewer women die in childbirth More women in wage employment outside agriculture More women in parliament and decision-making

Progress not widespread or evenly distributed.

Asia Pacific Gender Equality Unfinished Agenda

Education & Health
 More girls than boys still out of school
 Afghanistan, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea (off-track)

More girls than boys will not complete secondary
 Afghanistan ; Bangladesh; Cambodia, Lao PDR; Nepal, Pakistan, Solomon Islands  13 countries in the region have MMR over 200. Afghanistan, Bangladesh Lao PDR, Indonesia, Philippines

 Maternal mortality remains stubbornly high  More girls than boys will die before age 5  More girls than boys will not be born due to pre-natal sex selection
 In PRC & India 1.25m girls missing at birth in 2008

Economic and Political Participation
Economic Participation
 Labor force participation rates
Women in low paying and informal jobs Vertical and horizontal segregation of labor market Only 30% of women in non-agriculture wage employment Gender wage gaps - 70-90% of male wage for the same job (low as 50% in Bangladesh)  Limited access to productive resources (land, assets, property, finance)    
 56% female - 81% for male

Political participation
 Women in national parliament  18% Asia; 15% Pacific  4 Pacific Island countries have no women in national parliaments

Violence Against Women
• Large numbers of women in Asia and Pacific report experiencing violence from their intimate partners
30% of women in Viet Nam 40% in Bangladesh, Samoa, Timor-Leste 60% in Kiribati, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu

Women’s Time Poverty
“Time poverty” due women’s productive and
reproductive roles  Large numbers of women in Asia/Pacific (70% in low-income countries) have no access to water supply/sanitation; electricity and all weather roads

What helps reduce time poverty?
 Access to basic infrastructure to reduce women’s time for collecting water, firewood and market activities  Labor-saving technology (lighting, clean cook stoves, WSS, food processing equipment)  Shared reproductive roles  Public support for child care

Vulnerability to Risks and Shocks
• Extreme climate events and natural disasters disproportionately affect women and girls • Civil wars and other conflict situations increase vulnerability of women and girls to violence • Impacts of economic and financial crisis have gender dimensions • Need to build women’s resilience against risks and shocks

Gender Equality
• Economic growth alone is insufficient to deliver gender equality outcomes
 Best performing economies: best performers on gender equality?  Some of the worst gender indicators in high growth performing countries
 India - 20% women in wage employment  PRC – highest levels of “missing” women

• Targeted public policies and priority investments required

ADB’s Contribution to Gender Equality
 Nearly 50% ADB Projects are designed with gender equality & women’s empowerment objectives

• Projects support
 Reducing gender gaps in education  Supporting women’s economic empowerment  Reducing women’s time poverty -basic infrastructure  Giving women “voice” in decision-making  Supporting gender related legal and policy reforms

Nepal: Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Project
Economic Empowerment

Gender Results
•62,274 women involved in cooperatives - savings and loan groups • 8,963 women received skills development training • 1,351 women wage laborers provided with skills training • 5,000 women engaged in income-generation projects • 50% have sustainable incremental income •82 women’s multipurpose centers built
•52,000 households benefited from community infrastructure including toilets, drinking water facilities, road/trails, small irrigation schemes and micro hydropower to meet women’s basic infrastructure needs • 10,973 households installed improved cooking stoves and water mills that reduced women’s work burdens/time-savings, improved health • 8,000 women provided with knowledge on their legal and administrative rights and obligations •30% utilized paralegal services •police, prosecutors, and judges trained in women’s legal rights; • 80% of women in the project area received citizenship certificates; • 76.5% registered their marriages and obtained birth certificates. • Gender Equality Act 2006 • Removal of gender discriminatory provisions in 64 different laws

Social Empowerment

Legal Empowerment

Policy Support

Bangladesh: Crop Diversification Project

• • • •

• •

• •

150,000 women farmers provided access to extension services, new technologies, skills training, and microcredit Assisted to switch from rice to cultivating more lucrative cash crops such as vegetables Farmers trained (50% female) on high value crop (HVC) production technology Demonstration plots on HVC (40% plots women) 25, 000 women farmers trained on value addition options, market opportunities, pricing. 10,000 women SFG members trained in post-harvest handling techniques, bargaining and negotiation skills for marketing Female farmers supported for supply contract with large farmers, traders, seed merchants and processors Physical infrastructure: improvements to market access roads; construction of new markets with special facilities and selling spaces for women vendors 6,300 women Small Farmer Groups (SFGs) formed 167,811 women received loans

Cambodia Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
• 2583 drill wells, 1387 combined wells, 227 hand dug well • 4000 (56%) women participated in village meetings • 2000 women (40%-60%) in planning, technology choice and design • 11,000 (40%) in supervision of well construction • 39% women in O & M training • 35% female NGO staff • GAP targets all met or exceeded • nearly 5,700 WSUGs, • 43% women board members

Policy and Capacity Support
• Gender equality policy dialogue
 gender-responsive policy or law reforms  engage national machinery for CGA/CPS  partnerships with development partners & civil society organizations

• Gender capacity development
 technical assistance for gender capacity development to sector ministries & national gender focal agencies  regional studies – labor markets, trafficking of women and children, legal empowerment

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