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Bi ging sn xut sch hn

MC LC
DANH MC BNG DANH MC HNH Chng 1. GII THIU CHUNG V SN XUT SCH HN 1.1. CHT THI V CC P NG CA CON NGI 1.1.1. S pht sinh cht thi trong qu trnh sn xut. 1.1.2. Cc loi cht thi pht sinh trong mt qu trnh sn xut 1.1.3. Cc chin lc qun l cht thi 1.2. KHI NIM CHUNG V SN XUT SCH HN 1.2.1. Gii thiu chung 1.2.2. nh ngha 1.2.3. Cc khi nim v thut ng lin quan 1.2.4. Mc tiu ca sn xut sch hn 1.2.5. Cc gii php k thut t c sn xut sch hn 1.2.6. Cc li ch ca sn xut sch hn 1.2.7. Cc ng lc v ro cn i vi sn xut sch hn 1.3. HIN TRNG V TIM NNG SN XUT SCH HN 1.3.1. Sn xut sch hn v pht trin bn vng 1.3.2. Trin vng pht trin SXSH trn th gii 1.3.3. Sn xut sch hn Vit Nam Chng 2. PHNG PHP LUN NH GI SN XUT SCH HN 2.1. TNG QUAN 2.2. QUY TRNH DESIRE 2.2.1. Giai on 1 - Khi ng 2.2.2. Giai on 2 - Phn tch cc cng on 2.2.3. Giai on 3 - xut cc c hi (gii php) gim thiu cht thi 2.2.4. Giai on 4 - La chn gii php gim thiu cht thi 2.2.5. Giai on 5 - thc thi gii php gim thiu cht thi 2.2.6. Giai on 6 - Duy tr gii php gim thiu cht thi Chng 3. H THNG QUN L MI TRNG THEO ISO 14001 3.1. GII THIU CHUNG V B TIU CHUN ISO 14000 3.1.1. Ngun gc ca tiu chun ISO14000 3.1.2. Qu trnh xy dng b tiu chun ISO 14000 3.1.3. Mc ch ca ISO 14000 3.1.4. Phm vi ca ISO 14000 1 1 1 3 4 8 8 10 12 16 16 19 22 30 30 31 35 38 38 41 42 43 47 48 52 53 54 55 55 56 58 58 3 4

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn 3.1.5. Cu trc v thnh phn ca ISO 14000 3.2. TIU CHUN ISO 14001 V H THNG QUN L MI TRNG 3.2.1. Gii thiu chung 3.2.2. Kinh nghim quc t trong vic p dng h thng qun l mi trng Chng 4. NH GI VNG I SN PHM (LCA) 4.1. GII THIU CHUNG V LCA 4.2. PHNG PHP LUN NH GI VNG I SN PHM 4.2.1. Nhu cu xc nh mc tiu v phm vi 4.2.2. Danh mc kim k (thu thp s liu) 4.2.3. nh gi tc ng 4.2.4. Din gii 4.2.5. Thit k sinh thi 4.2.7. Cc kha cnh thc tin 4.3. SN XUT SCH HN, LCA V ISO 14001 TI LIU THAM KHO

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

DANH MC BNG
Bng 1. S khc nhau gia sn xut sch hn v x l cui ng ng Bng 2. Mc tiu th nc v in trong cc nh my bia theo cng ngh Bng 3. Thi gian v tim nng thc hin Bng 4. Kt qu sn xut sch hn mt s nc Bng 5. Mt s v d sn xut sch hn gii quyt cc vn mi trng Bng 6. Thi gian hon vn trong thc hin SXSH ti mt s doanh nghip M Bng 7.Thm nh ti chnh d n u t SXSH: tnh gi tr hin ti rng Bng 8. Cc th tc Bng 9. Vn bn Bng 10. Cc ti liu Bng 11. cc giai on pht trin sn phm Bng 12. Thi gian cn thc hin mt LCA 12 12 19 21 31 35 51 69 70 70 103 106

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

DANH MC HNH
Hnh 1. S dng vt cht v nng lng ca qu trnh sn xut 1 Hnh 2. S tiu th nc nh my dt si Minh Khai 2 Hnh 3. Hiu sut s dng nng lng mt nh my nhit in 2 Hnh 4. Tiu th nng lng trong sn xut gch 2 Hnh 5. S qu trnh sn xut gch 3 Hnh 6. Dng vt cht trong qu trnh sn xut giy 3 Hnh 7. Cc chin lc qun l cht thi 5 Hnh 8. Tip cn truyn thng v tip cn hin i trong qun l cht thi 7 Hnh 9. Suy ngh ra bn ngoi hp gim u vo, cht thi v tng li nhun 8 Hnh 10. S qu trnh sn xut gy ra nhim 9 Hnh 11. S qu trnh sn xut khng cht thi. 10 Hnh 12. S cp bc trong tip cn sn xut sch hn 11 Hnh 13. S rt gn ca khu cng nghip sinh thi Kalundborg 14 Hnh 14. Mi quan h gia sn xut sch hn v cc chin lc QLMT khc 15 Hnh 15. Cu ni gia hai th gii ti chnh v mi trng 16 Hnh 16. Cc yu t nh hng n s pht thi 17 Hnh 17. S cc gii php k thut t c sn xut sch hn 18 Hnh 18. S cc ri ro lin quan n qu trnh sn xut 20 Hnh 19. Nhng li ch trc tip khi p dng sn xut sch hn 20 Hnh 20. Nhng chi ph tim n i vi s pht sinh cht thi 21 Hnh 21. Cc yu t ng lc bn trong ca SXSH 27 Hnh 22. Cc yu t ng lc bn ngoi ca SXSH 28 Hnh 23. Cc ro cn i vi SXSH 30 Hnh 24. M hnh pht trin bn vng 30 Hnh 25. S cc doanh nghip tham gia vo SXSH Vit Nam giai on 1999-2005 36 Hnh 26. S cc bc kim ton gim thiu cht thi DESIRE 40 Hnh 27. S kim ton cht thi ca UNEP/UNIDO (1991) 41 Hnh 28. Mu in hnh mt s dng qu trnh sn xut 43 Hnh 29. S dng qu trnh thuc da 44 Hnh 30. S thm nh qu trnh xc nh nguyn nhn sinh ra cht thi 47 Hnh 31. S tiu ban TC 207 57 Hnh 32. Cu trc ca b tiu chun ISO 14000 59 Hnh 33. Chu trnh DEMING 61 Hnh 34. S cc yu t ca ISO 14001 63 Hnh 35. Kha cnh mi trng v tc ng mi trng 63 Hnh 36. Cc tiu chun ng k c p dng trong vic la chn cc kha cnh mi trng ng k 64 Hnh 37. S c tin tin lc 66 Hnh 38. Ci tin lin tc ISO 900o so snh vi ISO 14001 67 Hnh 39. Lin h vi cc kha cnh mi trng trong ISO 14001 68 Hnh 40. S tng qut vng i ca sn phm 79 Hnh 41. Biu cc ni dung chnh ca bng u vo u ra cho 3 ngnh kinh t. 3 dng u tin m t s cung ng cho mi ngnh khc nhau, cho khch hng v xut khu, 3 dng tip theo ghi li vic nhp khu/mua hng. 89 Hnh 42. Vic la chn phng php nh gia tc ng ph thuc nhiu vo i tng ngi nghe 90 Hnh 43. S minh ha cc bc quan trng nht trong tiu chun ISO 14042 v cc yu B mn qun l mi trng 4

Bi ging sn xut sch hn t bt buc: phn loi, v m t c im. Cc con s c ngha tham chiu n cc iu trong tiu chun. Hnh 44. Tng quan chung v cu trc ca mt phng php nh gi tc ng. Hnh 45. M t bc la chn xp nhm trong phng php Eco-indicator99. Hnh 46. Cc ch th loi tc ng Hnh 47. Qu tnh sng to Hnh 48. Trong sut qu trnh thit k, nhiu iu v sn phm s dn c bit n v s c th tin hnh LCA tt hn. Tuy nhin, cng lc th kh nng to nh hng ti cc tc ng mi trng gim xung

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Chng 1. GII THIU CHUNG V SN XUT SCH HN


1.1. CHT THI V CC P NG CA CON NGI 1.1.1. S pht sinh cht thi trong qu trnh sn xut. Chng ta hy xem xt n cn bng vt cht v nng lng trong mt nh my (hnh 1). Cc dng vo nh my l nguyn liu th v nng lng. Dng ra khi nh my l sn phm c sn xut c thit k ban u, v c nhng sn phm sinh ra khng theo thit k, cc sn phm dng lng ph l sn phm kh, rn v lng v cc dng nhit d. V mt cn bng, qu trnh c th lin quan n thut ng hiu sut. Hiu sut cng nghip, , c tnh nh sau: (sn phm to ra) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(nguyn liu th chuyn thnh sn phm + cht thi ca sn phm) v c tnh theo n v khi lng ca dng vt liu, theo cc thut ng ti chnh hay loi khc. R rng mu s c phn nguyn liu th chuyn thnh cht thi ca sn phm. Theo cch tnh truyn thng, hiu sut tng c ngha l bng cch no tng lng sn phm t cng mt lng nguyn liu th u vo. (sn phm + sn phm to ra thm) = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(nguyn liu th chuyn thnh sn phm + cc cht thi ca sn phm)

Hnh 1. S dng vt cht v nng lng ca qu trnh sn xut

Thng th tng hiu sut lin quan n tng lng sn phm sinh ra trong cng mt khong thi gian sn xut. Tuy nhin, vic tng hiu sut (s dng nguyn liu) cng c th t c bng cch gim lng cht thi sinh ra trong qu trnh sn xut. Lng nguyn liu khng chuyn thnh cht thi c th c s dng to ra nhiu sn phm hn. (sn phm + sn phm t nguyn liu khng b i vo dng thi) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(nguyn liu chuyn thnh sn phm + cht thi sau khi gim) R rng l, cch tip cn sau c u im l s dng t nguyn liu th hn to ra B mn qun l mi trng 1

Bi ging sn xut sch hn cng mt khi lng sn phm (ci thin hiu qu kinh t). Thm vo , tt c cht thi c tn dng vo sn xut s khng phi x l hoc/v thi b (ci thin hiu qu v mt mi trng) nhng, hn th na, chng c th c s dng sn xut ra sn phm. Chng ta bit rng, bt k mt qu trnh sn xut no cng khng th t c hiu sut 100%. iu c ngha l c ci g mt i vo mi trng v khng c chuyn ha thnh sn phm hu ch. Ci g y l tht thot nguyn, nhin liutrong qu trnh sn xut. Vy cht thi l mt phn tt yu ca cc hot ng sn xut ca con ngi. Cht thi l nhng sn phm ph khng mong mun, cc nguyn vt liu tha, cc sn phm hng ca mt qu trnh sn xut. Ngun th cp ca s to thnh cht thi l nng lng tha ca qu trnh sn xut hay qu trnh x l cht thi pht sinh. V d 1:

Hnh 2. S tiu th nc nh my dt si Minh Khai

V d 2:

Hnh 3. Hiu sut s dng nng lng mt nh my nhit in

Hiu sut nh my nhit in hin i ch t hiu sut 40%, trung bnh khong 33%. Nh vy, s dng ht 3 n v nng lng th ch c mt n v bin thnh nhit nng, 2 n v s tr thnh ngun nhim cho mi trng xung quanh, cha k n cc loi hnh nhim khc pht sinh i km. V d 3:

Hnh 4. Tiu th nng lng trong sn xut gch

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Qu trnh sn xut c th hin qua s sau:

Hnh 5. S qu trnh sn xut gch

V d 4:

Hnh 6. Dng vt cht trong qu trnh sn xut giy

1.1.2. Cc loi cht thi pht sinh trong mt qu trnh sn xut - Cht thi sn xut (Process waste): l cc cht thi dng rn, lng, hi, hay nng lng d tha pht sinh trong qu trnh chuyn ha, ch bin cc sn phm t nguyn liu th. Cc qu trnh ha hc thng to ra cht thi. V d: A + B + C I1 + BP1 I1 + D P1 + BP2 + BP3 Trong : A, B, C, D l cc nguyn liu th. I1 v P1 l cc sn phm trung gian v sn phm ca qu trnh sn xut. BP1, BP2, BP3 l cc sn phm ph khng c gi tr cn c x l v loi b. gim lng cht thi pht sinh th chng ta phi bin cc sn phm ph trn thnh nguyn liu u vo cho mt qu trnh khc chng c th i vo cc sn phm c ch hoc thay i cc qu trnh ha hc khng to ra cc sn phm ph na. V d: A + E P1 + P2 Cc nghin cu ch ra rng, thng thng th cht thi sn xut l loi cht thi i hi nhiu chi ph nht cho qu trnh thi b v loi tr chng. Nu mt cng ty c ngun lc B mn qun l mi trng 3

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ti chnh hn ch th vic ngn nga pht sinh cht thi sn xut s l u tin hng u. Vic to ra t cht thi sn xut khi s mang li rt nhiu li ch: Gim chi ph cn bin thp cho cc sn phm, tng hiu sut chuyn ha vt cht v nng lng vo trong cc sn phm, tiu tn t nng lng hn cho vic lu tr v thi b cc cht thi pht sinh. Gim chi ph u t cho vic xy dng cc cng trnh x l, kim sot cht thi. Cc chi ph cn thit cho vic lu tr, phn tch, x l cht thi thng chim t 1035% tng chi ph u t xy dng mt nh my sn xut. V d nu chng ta s dng khng kh loi b cc cht thi khi dng thi th khi chng ta phi s dng cc thit b x l cui ng ng, v cc thit b ny i hi phi c mt khon u t. Tuy nhin, nu khng pht sinh cht thi th nhng khon chi ph ny s c loi b. Gim chi ph cc khu vc khc v d nh gim lng dung mi, gim nng lng s dng, gim nhu cu nhn s, gim cc yu cu kim tra - Cht thi ph tr (Utility wastes): l cc cht thi dng rn, lng, hi, hay nng lng d tha pht sinh t cc h thng ph tr cn thit cho vic vn hnh mt qu trnh sn xut, v d nh: hi nc, in, kh nn, h thng x l cht thi S mt mt nhit do h thng phn phi hi nc v l hi vn hnh khng hiu qu. S r r kh Nito v cc kh nn. Cc h thng lm lnh khng hiu qu. Vic s dng d tha ha cht v nng lng cho cc h thng x l cht thi. Bn thi t h thng x l nc thi, bi, nhit d tha t cc l t, hi axit Cc thit b c cch ly km. - Cc cht thi khc: pht sinh trong qu trnh khi ng, dng my, bo dngCng ging nh i vi cht thi ph tr, s lng cc loi cht thi khc nh s tht thot theo thi gian (uptime losses), cht thi bo dng (maitainance wastes), v s tht thot trong kho ph thuc rt nhiu vo cc qu trnh sn xut cng nh cc loi cht thi ph tr pht sinh vn hnh qu trnh sn xut. V d nh cc vt liu dng trong qu trnh bo tr nh gi rch, du my, du m, dy bucS tht thot theo thi gian bao gm cc sn phm b tht thoi, cc dung mi cng nh cht xc tc. Vy khi rc thi pht sinh s xut hin hai vn : - i vi doanh nghip: b tht thot nguyn liu u vo, phi tr tin chi ph x l cht thi do nh hng n kha cnh kinh t ca qu trnh sn xut. - i vi x hi: mi trng phi tip nhn cht nhim dn n s suy gim cht lng mi trng, i khi s nhim nghim trng din ra nhiu ni lm nh hng n mi trng sng ca con ngi cng nh cc loi sinh vt. Trong thc t sn xut, vic ti u ha chi ph cho qu trnh sn xut ch tp trung vo nng sut v thng b qua kh nng pht sinh cht thi. Bi v mc tiu hng ti ca cc nh sn xut l lm th no to ra nng sut cao mc d c th tiu th nhiu nguyn liu th v nhin liu; iu dn ti gia tng cht thi v nh hng n mi trng. 1.1.3. Cc chin lc qun l cht thi Thi , cch ng x ca con ngi i vi cht thi ph thuc vo trnh v iu kin kinh t x hi. Tri qua thi gian, chng ta c th thy cc chin lc ca con ngi i vi qun l cht thi c nhng s thay i: t chin lc mang tnh cht th ng (passive environmental strategy) nh pha long phn tn (dilute & disperse), cc chin lc mang tnh cht ng ph li vi cht thi pht sinh (reactive environmental strategy) nh cc bin php x l cui ng ng (end of pipe approachs), ri cc chin lc mang tnh phng nga (proactive environmental strategy). B mn qun l mi trng 4

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 7. Cc chin lc qun l cht thi

a. Pht l nhim (Ignore Pollution): khng quan tm n nhim do nhim gy ra cha thc s nghim trng, mc pht trin ca cc ngnh cng nghip cn nh l, hay thm ch v l do li nhun m cc doanh nghip cng thng n trnh vn nhim do hot ng sn xut ca h gy ra. i khi vit pht l nhim cng c th xut pht t nguyn nhn l do chng ta cha nhn thc c nh hng ca vn nhim ti thi im . b. Pha long v pht tn (Dilute and Disperse): Chin lc ny xut hin ngay t thi c xa v n nay vn cn ph bin nhiu ni. Pha long l dng nc pha long nc thi trc khi vo ngun tip nhn/x thi. Pht tn l nng chiu cao ng khi pht tn kh thi. Ban u khi cht thi xut hin, chng lun lun c con ngi thi b theo chin lc pha long pht tn tn dng kh nng ng ha ca mi trng. Trong nn vn minh sn bn, hi lm con ngi n gin li cc loi cht thi v di di i ni khc. Trong thi k tin cch mng cng nghip v thi k u ca nn sn xut cng nghip, cc khu dn c, cc nh my thng nm gn cc con sng, con sui. Cc dng sng, sui ny khng ch ng vai tr l ngun cp nc cho hot ng sn xut m cn to ra iu kin thun li loi b cht thi pht sinh trong hot ng sn xut. Cht thi sau khi pht sinh cng c thi b v cc dng sng ny v theo dng nc chy v h lu. Trong qu trnh di chuyn cng dng nc, cc cht thi cng nh cc cht nhim cha trong b pha long, ng thi do hot ng ca cc vi sinh vt hay qu trnh bin i l ha hc trong mi trng nc m mt phn cht nhim c hp th, bin i hay lng ng trong trm tch. Nh vy, cc cht thi n gin c vo trong cc b cha (kh quyn, i dng) tng chng nh v hn l kh quyn v cc i dng. Cht thi theo cc dng sng v bin, cc thnh ph ven bin x thi trc tip cht thi ca chng vo cc i dng. Cc ng khi ca cc nh my, ca hot ng sinh hot hng ngy ca con ngi a cc cht thi l kh, l bi vo trong kh quyn. Khi bt u thi k cng nghip (Industrial Age) cch y khong 200 nm, nhiu B mn qun l mi trng 5

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ngi vn cha nhn thc c rng n mt lc no nhng th m chng ta tng nh v hn l nc sch, l khng kh trong lnh s cn kit (xt trn phm vi ton cu). l mt thc t ng bun. Ngy nay, s nhim do hot ng sn xut cng nghip ca con ngi v ang din ra khp mi ni trn th gii k c nhng vng xa xi ho lnh nht. V vy, r rng chin lc pha long - pht tn khng cn ph hp vi vn qun l cht thi na. Lng cht thi do con ngi to ra vt qua kh nng ng ha ca cc h sinh thi t nhin v cc b cha cht thi m con ngi trc y vn cho l v hn. Mt s h sinh thi t nhin hin nay b qu ti, v chng khng cn kh nng ng ha cc cht thi m con ngi a vo na. Hn na, chng cn thc s b e da bi cc cht thi , v mt i cc chc nng t nhin ca mnh. Bn cnh con ngi trong qu trnh pht trin ca mnh a vo mi trng nhiu hp cht ha hc khng quen thuc vi cc sinh vt sng trong cc h sinh thi t nhin v d nh cc nguyn t mi (Plutonium, cc yu t nhn to khc v cc cht ng v ca n), cc cht tng hp (CFCs, cc loi nha tng hp, thuc tr su v tr c tng hp, cc loi phn bn), v yu t tn ti trong t nhin vi nng rt nh nhng qua hot ng sn xut cng nghip chng dc tch ly li vi hm lng ln hn nhiu (v d nh cc kim loi nng). Nhng cht ny sinh vt i khi khng c kh nng hp th, v vy i khi ngay c di cc iu kin thun li nht th chin lc pha long khuych tn cng ch n thun l pha long v khuych tn cc cht nhim v cc h thng t nhin khng c kh nng hp th v bin i chng. V th, cc cht ng v phng x, cc hp cht tng hp kh phn hy s c tch t li trong mi trng. Tuy nhin, i vi vic pha long v pht tn th tng lng cht thi a vo mi trng l khng i. V d: mt nh my bia 1 ngy thi ra 50 m3 nc thi. COD ca nc thi l 1000 mg/l. p ng tiu chun cho php ca Vit Nam i vi COD ca nc thi cng nghip loi B l 100 mg/l, nh my bia tin hnh pha long 1 m3 nc thi vi 9 m3 nc. Khi nh my m bo p ng c tiu chun mi trng, nhng lng cht thi m mi trng phi tip nhn vn l 50kg COD. Hn th na, vic pha long cn lm tht thot mt lng ti nguyn nc ngt ng k. c. X l cui ng ng (End of pipe treatment) n u th k 20, chin lc pha long khuych tn thc s tin n gii hn thc t ca n, v mt quan nim mi c a ra l c cn v nn p (concentration and contain). Vic nn p cht thi c tin hnh trong mt phm vi no t rt xa xa. Nhng ngi M bn a chn cc tm hu v trong cc ng phn ln, cc thnh ph c i cng pht trin cc bi rc th (iu ny c chng minh bi cc nh kho c hc). Trong nhiu trng hp th vic c cn cng ch l bc u ca qu trnh phn tn cc cht nhim cui cng (ultimate dispersal). Rc thi c th c thu gom, vn chuyn n bi chn lp hoc t i v tro ca qu trnh ny s li c pht tn vo trong cc dng sng. Mt quan nim hin i hn v vic c cn v ngn chn (concentration and containment) l chng ta tin hnh thu gom cht thi v sau tin hnh cch ly chng vi mi trng vnh vin. Cc bi chn lp hp v sinh, cc khu x l cht thi nguy hi l nhng v d in hnh cho chin lc c cn ngn chn. Thng thng, hai chin lc trn lun i cng vi nhau nh trong qu trnh vn hnh ca cc l t rc. Cht thi c t trong l, sau kh thi c pht tn vo trong khng kh. Cn li tro v tro bay c thu gom (tro nm y l t, cn tro by c gi li t ng khi ca l t rc), chng thng l cc cht thi c hi v c cch ly ra khi mi trng vnh vin trong cc bi rc c thit k c bit. C mt vn rt ln tn ti i vi chin lc c cn ngn chn/ngn cch, c bit l khi p dng chng cho cc cht thi cng nghip hin i. Mt b phn ln chng l cc cht tng hp nhn to v c tnh nguy hi cao, c bit khi dng m c. V vy, chng cn c cha trong mt h thng an ton trong thi gian di, thm ch l mi mi. Tuy nhin, thc t chng minh rng lm c iu ny l rt kh khn. Nhng bi chn lp B mn qun l mi trng 6

Bi ging sn xut sch hn c thit k, xy dng cn thn nht cng c th b r r, cc thng cha c th b v, cc tai nn hoc cc thm ha t nhin c th din ra lm cho cc cht nguy hi c chn lp i ra ngoi mi trng, hay i khi l do cc hnh ng c ch ca con ngi cho cc cht c hi ny quay tr li mi trng v d nh trong cc m mu khng b. Bn cnh nhng vn thc t nu trn, chnh sch ngn chn (containment) cn vp phi s ch trch nng n v mt o c. l s khng cng bng khi m cc th h hin ti khai thc v s dng cc ngun ti nguyn ly cc yu t c ch phc v cho li ch ca mnh, tc ot cc ngun ti nguyn ca th h tng lai v li trong mi trng phn khng c ch cn li, cc cht c hi m phi loi b khi mi trng mi mi. Cc bin php x l nu trn l mt phn trong cc bin php x l cui ng ng. X l cui ng ng l cch tip cn vi cc gii php x l cht thi nh vic lp t cc h thng x l nc thi, kh thi, cht thi rn phn hy, lm gim nng ca cc cht nhim nhm p ng yu cu ca c quan qun l trc khi thi vo mi trng. Phng php ny ph bin vo nhng nm 1970s cc nc cng nghip kim sot nhim cng nghip. y l cch tip cn i vi cc cht thi c pht sinh. Cch tip cn ny khng trit v thc cht qua h thng x l cht thi cht nhim c th chuyn ha t dng ny sang dng khc, thm ch c tnh cn tng ln. Ngoi ra, cch tip cn ny cn chi ph kh ln, song li khng sinh li, khng hy vng thu hi c c hai kha cnh kinh t v mi trng, nn cc doanh nghip khng mun thc hin m thng ln trnh. Nh vy, x l cui ng ng thng ny sinh cc vn nh: Gy nn s chm ch trong vic tm gii php x l. Khng th p dng vi cc trng hp c ngun thi phn tn nh nng nghip. i khi sn phm ph sinh ra khi x l li l cc tc nhn gy nhim th cp. Chi ph u t v sn xut s tng thm do chi ph x l

Hnh 8. Tip cn truyn thng v tip cn hin i trong qun l cht thi

d. Phng nga cht thi pht sinh (sn xut sch hn) Ngn chn pht sinh cht thi ngay ti ngun ngun bng cch s dng nng lng v nguyn vt liu 1 cch c hiu qu nht, ngha l c thm mt t l nguyn vt liu na c chuyn vo thnh phm thay v phi loi b. Tip cn ny bt u xut hin t nhng nm B mn qun l mi trng 7

Bi ging sn xut sch hn 1980 vi nhng cch gi khc nhau nh "phng nga nhim" (pollution prevention), "gim thiu cht thi" (waste minimization). Ngy nay, thut ng "sn xut sch hn" (SXSH) c s dng ph bin trn th gii ch cch tip cn ny, mc d cc thut ng tng ng vn cn a thch vi ni. Trc y, li suy ngh ca chng ta trong vic gii quyt nhim mi trng vn tp trung s dng cc phng php truyn thng x l cht thi m khng ch n ngun gc pht sinh ca chng. Do vy, chi ph qun l cht thi ngy cng tng nhng nhim ngy cng nng. Cc ngnh cng nghip phi chu hu qu nng n v mt kinh t v mt uy tn trn th trng. thot khi s b tc ny, cng ng cng nghip cng ngy cng tr nn nghim tc hn. Nh vy, thi v cch tip cn ca con ngi i vi vn x l cht thi c nhng chuyn bin, t pht l nhim, ri pha long v pht tn cht thi, n kim sot cui ng ng v cui cng l SXSH l mt qu trnh pht trin khch quan, tch cc c li cho mi trng v kinh t cho cc doanh nghip ni ring v ton x hi ni chung. Ba cch ng ph u l nhng tip cn qun l cht thi b ng trong khi cch ng ph sau cng l tip cn qun l cht thi ch ng. Nh vy, SXSH l tip cn nhn xa, tin liu v phng nga. Nguyn tc phng bnh hn cha bnh bao gi cng l chn l. Tuy nhin, iu ny khng c ngha l xem nh bin php x l cui ng ng. Phng nga v ngn chn nhim l nguyn tc ch o v phi kt hp vi x l nhim. Nh vy i vi vn qun l cht thi, cch thc tip cn ca con ngi c nhng thay i ng k. Tnh phc tp ca cc gii php tng ln, nhng chi ph lu di v chiu qu v mt mi trng cao hn, nhng gii php mang tnh phng nga, gim thiu c u tin hn so vi cc bin php x l cui ng ng (Hnh 8). 1.2. KHI NIM CHUNG V SN XUT SCH HN 1.2.1. Gii thiu chung Cc chng trnh ngn nga nhim, gim thiu rc thi, v sn xut sch hn c th gim lng rc thi pht ti 40-50% vi h s hon vn ni ti c th t n 200% (internal rate of return). Tht khng may khi cc qu trnh o to cc k s sn xut hnh thnh mt khung suy ngh (thought framework or the box of thought) ci m dn n vic thit k ra cc qu trnh to ra qu nhiu rc thi do vy m lm tng chi ph u t cng nh chi ph vn hnh. Cc k s cn c ch cho cch ngh nh th no thot ra kh cc khung suy ngh c o to, t tm ra c s ci thin cc qu trnh m vi k nng gii quyt vn ca cc k s truyn thng khng c c.

Hnh 9. Suy ngh ra bn ngoi hp gim u vo, cht thi v tng li nhun

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Xem mt ngi i li trn mt con ng ngy ny qua ngy khc theo cng mt hng, th ln u tin mi th u mi m. n ln th 30 ngi li ch cn ch n nhng th bt thng xy ra. Nhng s h hng chm chp ca con dng cng nh nhng thay i nh ly tch ca cnh quan (cumulative minor changes) l khng d nhn thy (are not evident). Tuy nhin, n ln th 31 ngi i theo hng ngc li th mi th li tr ln mi l (all of a sudden everything is new). Phong cnh vn khng i nhng c nhn mt gc khc. iu ny cng ng cho cc qu trnh sn xut. Thay v tip cn theo hng thng thng t qu tnh sn xut n dng thi, chng ta s tip cn theo hng ngc li t cc dng thi n qu trnh sn xut bng cch t ra cc cu hi khc nhau v thng tin ca qu trnh, khi quan im ca chng ta chc chn s c s thay i ng k. Nhng hiu bit v k nng ca cc k s, cc nh vn hnh, cc nh c kh hc v doanh nhn gii quyt vn pht sinh cht thi l sn c, thng tin cn thit cng sn c. Vn t ra y l cn c mt cch tip cn mi vi cc thng tin ny. Sn xut sch hn v sn xut bn vng Tip cn truyn thng (traditional approach) i vi thit k mt qu trnh l xy dng hoc lp t my mc trc sau xy dng h thng x l v thi b cc cht thi. Tuy nhin, do p lc v lut l v x hi ngy cng tng i vi yu cu loi b vic pht thi cc cht nhim ra ngoi mi trng nn chi ph thi b v x l cht thi ngy cng tng cao. Kt qu l chi ph u t v vn hnh cc h thng thi b v x l cht thi ngy cng chim t l cao trong tng chi ph u t ca mt d n. Do , mt h thng tng th cn c phn tch ng thi (vn hnh cng vi x l) tm ra la chn ti u v mt kinh t. Cc nghin cu v thc tin ch ra rng gim thiu cht thi ngay ti ngun l gii php kinh t nht c bit l i vi cc nh my a vo vn hnh. Thc t cho thy ti cc nh my tn ti lng rc thi to ra c th gim mt cch ng k (trung bnh hn 30%) cng lc vi vic gim chi ph u t v chi ph vn hnh. Cc nghin cu cng ch ra rng i vi cc qu trnh sn xut pht sinh ra cht thi th i hi chi ph u t cao hn t 10-35% cha, t, di chuyn hay phn tch cc dng thi t cc sn phm, t nguyn nhin liu th c kh nng ti ch, dung dch, cht xc tc Sn xut sch hn cung cp nhng cng c gii quyt cc tc ng tiu cc v mt mi trng, tht thot nguyn nhin liu trong qu trnh sn xut vo cc dng thi, u t cho cc qu trnh sn xut c tng cng gii quyt vn cht thi (waste). Vic p dng nhng cng c ny s dn n mt qu trnh sn xut ci tin t nhng qu trnh sn xut c bn (hnh 10). thnh qu trnh sn xut khng c cht thi (hnh 11)

Hnh 10. S qu trnh sn xut gy ra nhim

B mn qun l mi trng

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 11. S qu trnh sn xut khng cht thi.

1.2.2. nh ngha Sn xut sch hn l vic p dng lin tc mt chin lc mang tnh phng nga tng hp i vi cc qu trnh sn xut, cc sn phm v dch v nhm gim tc ng xu n con ngi v mi trng.

SN XUT SCH HN

CP i vi qu trnh sn xut bao gm: Bo ton nguyn liu v vt cht Loi tr cc nguyn liu c tnh c hi Gim s lng v c tnh ca cht thi trc khi thi vo mi trng

CP i vi cc sn phm bao gm: Gim cc tc ng mi trng trong sut vng i ca sn phm, t khu khai thc, x l nguyn liu n khu thi b cui cng i vi cc sn phm CP c xem nh s thit k cho mi trng hay thit k vng i sn phm

CP i vi cc dch v bao gm: Lng ghp cc mi quan tm v mi trng vo trong vic thit k cung cp cc dch v V d cc dch v sinh thi s tp trung vo cc sn phm hn l vic s hu v tng cng cc thnh phn thng tin ca cng ty. B mn qun l mi trng 10

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Sn xut sch hn i hi thay i thi ng x, p dng b quyt (tip cn h thng v b quyt cng ngh), ci tin tng bc cng ngh hin c, chuyn sang s dng cc cng ngh mi tt hn v sch hn. Nh vy sn xut sch hn khng ngn cn s pht trin, sn xut sch hn ch yu cu rng s pht trin phi bn vng v mt mi trng. Khng nn cho rng sn xut sch hn n thun l mt chin lc v mt mi trng m n cn lin quan n li ch v kinh t. Trong khi x l cui ng ng lun lm tng chi ph sn xut th sn xut sch hn c th mang li li ch kinh t cho doanh nghip thng qua vic gim thiu s tiu th nng lng v nguyn liu hoc phng nga v gim thiu cht thi. Do , c th khng nh rng sn xut sch hn l mt chin lc mt mi tn trng hai ch

Hnh 12. S cp bc trong tip cn sn xut sch hn

S h thng cp bc trong sn xut sch hn l mt cng c tt gip chng ta xem xt cc la chn sn xut sch hn trong qu trnh vn hnh ca mnh v tp trung vo vic loi b v gim thiu cht thi ngay ti ngun (hnh 12). t c trit l sn xut sch hn, hy quan tm n vic lm th no cht thi c to ra hn l lm th no x l cc cht thi . Nhn chung cng ln cao th cc chin lc cng hiu qu. - Loi b (Eliminate): loi b nhu cu s dng cc nguyn vt liu (v d nh cc sn phm c hi nh cc cht ty ra) c th gim mt cch ng k cc chi ph vn hnh, gim thiu tim nng gy hi cho mi trng. V d, thay th cc nguyn vt liu nguy hi bng nhng nguyn vt liu thay th t nguy hi hn. - Gim thiu (Reduce): bc tip theo l gim thiu ti a vic s dng cc nguyn vt liu trong qu trnh sn xut. iu ny c th bao gm vic gim cc sai st trong cc khu chun b, ti u ha cc qu trnh lm sch lm gim lng nc s dng v tt cc thit b khng cn thit. - Ti s dng (Reuse): c rt nhiu c hi ti s dng cc sn ph phm. iu ny s lm gim nhu cu cho cc nguyn vt liu th v chi ph cho vic x l, thi b cc cht thi sau khi chng pht sinh. - Ti ch (Recylce): Mt s cht thi sinh ra trong qu trnh sn xut c th c s dng nh l nguyn vt liu th cho mt qu trnh sn xut khc, hay trong mt khu khc ca chnh qu trnh sn xut. Vic s dng cc ph phm hay cc cht thi c th ti ch ny khng ch mang li hiu qu kinh t trc tip v cn gip cho doanh nghip trnh c cc chi ph cho vic x l, loi b chng. - X l v thi b (Treat and Dispose): gii php ny ch nn c xem xt sau khi cc la chn khc khng thc hin c. Nhn chung nhng la chn ny lun km theo cc B mn qun l mi trng 11

Bi ging sn xut sch hn chi ph i vi cc nh sn xut, v cc chi ph ny s tr thnh cc khon chi thng xuyn. Tuy nhin, chng ta cng nn xem xt n nh mt phn ca ton b chin lc sn xut sch hn, nhng chi ph x l c th c gim thiu bng vic tp trung vo cc gii php trn.
Bng 1. S khc nhau gia sn xut sch hn v x l cui ng ng

Sn xut sch hn - Ci tin lin tc - Qu trnh hng ti s khp kn vng tun hon vt cht, nng lng - Thng cc gii php c a ra bi mt nhm hot ng - Ch ng phng nga nhim - Loi b cc vn mi trng ngay ti ngun - Gim tiu th nguyn liu, ha cht, nng lng - Gim chi ph sn xut do + Gim nh mc tiu th nguyn liu, nng lng + u t c hon vn

X l cui ng ng - Mt trong cc gii php cho mt vn ring l, c th - Qu trnh dn ti vic phi thi b cc cht thi pht sinh, lng ph ti nguyn - Gii php c thng c a ra bi cc chuyn gia n l - Th ng gii quyt nhim - Cc cht nhim c kim sot bi cc phng php v cc thit b x l cht thi - Khng thay i nh mc nguyn liu, nng lng - Tng chi ph sn xut do: + u t xy dng h thng x l cht thi + Vn hnh h thng (nhn cng, ha cht, bo dng)

- C th t c thng qua thay i thi - Ph thuc ch yu vo nhng ci tin v tip cn, phng thc qun l cng ngh i vi cc cng ngh hin ti 1.2.3. Cc khi nim v thut ng lin quan a. Cng ngh sch (Clean technology) Bt k bin php k thut no c ngnh cng nghip p dng gim thiu hay loi b qu trnh pht sinh cht thi hay nhim v tit kim c nguyn liu v nng lng u c gi l cng ngh sch. Cc bin php k thut ny c th p dng t khu thit k thay i quy trnh sn xut hoc l p dng trong cc dy chuyn sn xut nhm ti tn dng ph phm trnh tht thot (OECD, 1987). b. Cng ngh tt nht (Best Available Technology - BAT) L cng ngh sn xut c hiu qu nht hin c trong vic bo v mi trng ni chung c kh nng trin khai trong cc iu kin thc tin v kinh t, k thut, c quan tm n chi ph trong vic nghin cu, pht trin v trin khai bao gm thit k, xy dng, bo dng, vn hnh v loi b cng ngh (UNIDO, 1992). BAT gip nh gi tim nng sn xut sch hn.
Bng 2. Mc tiu th nc v in trong cc nh my bia theo cng ngh Vit Nam hin nay v BAT Vit Nam* BAT** Tim nng tit kim Vit Nam

Tiu th nc 16-24 m3/m3 bia 4-6 m3/m3 bia 60-75% 3bia 3 bia Tiu th in 200-285 kWh/m 120 kWh/m 40-60% * Kt qu nh gi ca d n UNIDO 1998-2000. ** Kt qu nh gi sn xut sch hn trong sn xut bia ca UNDP 1999 c. Hiu qu sinh thi Hiu qu sinh thi l khi nim c hi ng thng mi th gii da ra vo nm 1992, v c nh ngha l s phn phi (delivery) cc hng ha v dch v c gi c cnh tranh tha mn cc nhu cu ca con ngi v mang li cht lng cuc sng trong khi lm B mn qun l mi trng 12

Bi ging sn xut sch hn gim cc ng sinh thi v s khai thc cc ngun ti nguyn trong sut vng i sn phm ti mc trong kh nng chu ti ca Tri t. Tuy nhin, cc khi nim hiu qu sinh thi v sn xut sch hn hu nh ng ngha vi nhau. S khc bit nh gia hai khi nim ny l: hiu qu sinh thi bt ngun t cc vn hiu qu kinh k, ci m c li ch mi trng dng; trong khi sn xut sch hn bt ngun t cc vn v hiu qu mi trng m c hiu qu dng i vi cc li ch kinh t. d. Phng nga nhim (Pollution Prevention) Hai thut nh CP v PP thng c s dng thay th cho nhau. S khc bit gia hai khi nim ny l v mt a l. Thut ng PP thng c s dng Bc M, trong khi CP c s dng cc ni khc th gii. C CP v PP u tp trung vo chin lc lin tc nhm gim nhim v tc ng mi trng thng qua vic gim pht thi ti ngun, loi b cht thi trong qu trnh sn xut hn l x l cui ng ng. CP v PP khng bao hm x l cht thi bi v n khng ngn nga vic to thnh cht thi C quan mi trng Canada nh ngha PP l vic s dng cc qu trnh, vic lm, vt liu, sn phm, v nng lng m trnh hoc gim ti mc ti thiu vic to thnh cc cht nhim v cht thi, qua gim cc nguy c, ri ro ti sc khe con ngi v mi trng. Cc bo v mi trng M nh ngha PP l vic gim thi ti ngun, ngn nga hoc gim thiu cht thi ti ni n sinh ra bao gm cc vic lm nh: bo tn cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin bng vic gim hoc loi b cc cht nhim thng qua vic tng cng hiu sut trong vic s dng nguyn liu th, nng lng, nc v t ai. T nm 1990, sau khi quc hi thng qua o lut Ngn nga nhim, PP l chnh sch mi trng quc gia ca Hoa K. e. Gim thiu rc thi (Waste minimization). Khi nim v gim thiu ti a cht thi c a ra bi cc bo v mi trng M vo nm 1988. Trong khi nim ny bin php ngn nga cht thi v cc k thut ca n c xc nh l vic gim cht thi ti ngun ti ni pht sinh bng vic thay i nguyn liu th, thay i cng ngh, cc hot ng vn hnh qu trnh v cc thay i lin quan n sn phm. Vic s dng li trc tip cc cht thi sau ti ch mt ni no cng c coi l k thut ti thiu ha lng cht thi, nhng khng c u tin bng gii php trn. Hin nay, cc thut ng WM v PP thng c s dng thay th cho nhau. PP mun ni khng to ra cht thi ti mt ni bng vic gim thiu n ngay ti ngun ni . WM l thut ng rng hn bao gm c vic ti ch v c vic gim cht thi thng qua s l hoc thi b. Gim thiu rc thi tp trung vo vic ti ch rc thi v cc phng tin khc gim thiu lng rc bng vic p dng nguyn tc 3P (Polluter Pays Principle) v 3R (Reduction, Reuse and Recylce). f. Nng sut xanh (Green Productivity) Nng sut xanh l thut ng c s dng bi t chc nng sut Chu (Asian Productivity Organization APO) gii quyt thch thc t sn lng bn vng. GP l mt chin lc tng cng nng sut v hot ng mi trng cho s pht trin kinh t - x hi tng th. g. Sinh thi cng nghip (Industrial Ecology) Vic qung b v nng cao nhn thc v SXSH t c nhiu tin b ng k nhiu ni trn th gii. Tuy nhin cc n lc v SXSH thng ch tp trung vo cc qu trnh sn xut n l, cc sn phm c th hoc cc vt liu c hi mang tnh cch c nhn hn l mt bc tranh ton cnh v cc tc ng mi trng do mt h thng sn xut cng nghip gy ra. Do vy, song song vi s pht trin ca SXSH, cc nh khoa hc, cc k s v cc nh qun l cng nghip nhn ra rng cn phi xy dng mt h thng sn xut cng nghip B mn qun l mi trng 13

Bi ging sn xut sch hn mang tnh cht tun hon dn n vic tt c cc u ra ca qu trnh sn xut ny tr thnh cc u vo ca cc qu trnh sn xut khc gim thiu ti a lng cht thi. Chnh cc mi quan h phc tp gia cc sinh vt v vt cht trong cc h sinh thi t nhin cung cp cho con ngi mt bi hc gi tr v vic lm th no thit k tt hn cc h thng cng nghip. Tng ta nh cc h sinh thi trong t nhin m cht thi ca mt sinh vt ny tr thnh ngun thc n ca mt sinh vt khc, con ngi cn phi pht trin cc h thng sn xut m trong khng cn cht thi. Chnh tng ny dn n khi nim v sinh thi cng nghip (STCN). iu ny c ngha l tt c cc u ra ca mt qu trnh sn xut s l cc u vo ca cc qu trnh sn xut khc theo mt vng tun hon.

Hnh 13. S rt gn ca khu cng nghip sinh thi Kalundborg

- H nc Tisso: cung cp nc cho nh my in, cc nng tri v nh my lc du. - Nh my sn xut in bng than cung cp ph gia (tro bay) cho nh my xi mng, cung cp hi nc cho nh my sn xut insulin v enzyme cng nghip v nh my lc du, cung cp thch cao cho nh my sn xut tm va bng cch lp 1 h thng chit xut lu hunh t khi thi nh my to ra CaSO4 (thch cao), cung cp nhit tha cho th trn dng un nc nng. - Nh my lc du cung cp lu hunh cho nh my sn xut H2SO4.. - Nh my sn xut insulin v enzyme cng nghip cung cp sinh khi tha lm phn bn cho cc nng tri. Mi quan h gia SXSH v STCN - Tng t nh SXSH, mc tiu ca STCN l nng cao hiu qu sinh thi v gim thi nguy c ri ro i vi mi trng v sc khe con ngi, nng cao hiu qu kinh t. - Tuy nhin STCN c 1 tm nhn rng hn vt qua khi ranh gii ca 1 cng ty. mc trong cng 1 cng ty, STCN lin kt cc qa trnh sn xut vi nhau v vi cc qu trnh t nhin xc nh cc c hi s dng cht thi ca 1 qu trnh ny cho 1 qu trnh khc. mc khu cng nghip, STCN c gng cc i ho nng sut v hiu qu chung B mn qun l mi trng 14

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ca c khu cng nghp hn l tnh n hiu qu ca tng cng ty n l. V d nh cc c hi ca vic thu gom rc thi, vic mua kt hp cc vt liu sn xut, x l v loi b rc thi, v.v Cc li ch ca STCN Gi thnh sn xut gim nh hiu qu s dng nng lng v nguyn vt liu. Nh vy sn phm s mang tnh cnh tranh hn, Gim thiu nhim v cc yu cu v s dng ti nguyn thin nhin, Vic tn dng rc thi gip cc doanh nghip trnh c b pht v gy nhim mi trng, S phn chia v cc chi ph lin quan n c s h tng, cc nghin cu v pht trin (R & D), vic duy tr cc h thng thng tin ... vic mua kt hp cc vt liu sn xut. Cc mt hn ch ca STCN Cc k hoch kinh doanh ca cng ty khng c bo mt, Kh nng b l thuc vo cc c s sn xut khc. VD: Nu 1 cng ty chuyn i ni khc th cc cng ty ph thuc s gp rc ri, Cc vn v lut php v trch nhim. VD: 1 sn phm c s c th kh hu qu s do cng ty no chu trch nhim. Nh mt bin php tng hp mang tnh cht h thng, sn xut sch hn c lin h vi nhiu bin php bo v mi trng mang tnh cht phng nga.

Hnh 14. Mi quan h gia sn xut sch hn v cc chin lc qun l mi trng khc

Nh thy trn s , cc chin lc trong SXSH c mt s c im chung l: Tp trung vo cc thit b v vng i sn phm (ch khng phi l tp trung vo cht thi pht sinh) C th c iu khieerno bi cc lut l hay cc ng lc kinh doanh c lp. Bao gm c cc hot ng nhm mc tiu gim thiu cc tc ng mi trng n l (nc thi, cht thi) cng nh cc tc ng chung nh vn tiu th nng lng, nguyn nhin liu v vic sn sinh ra cc cht nhim. B mn qun l mi trng 15

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Mang tnh phng nga hn l cc hot ng phn ng li vi bin i mi trng khi n xy ra. 1.2.4. Mc tiu ca sn xut sch hn Cc ngnh sn xut s dng ngy cng nhiu nguyn liu, nng lng ng thi to ra mt lng cht thi ngy cng ln i hi cc cng ty phi u t nhiu hn cho cc cng trnh x l cht thi, v chng cn c th gay ra cc tc ng mi trng nu khng c qun l mt cch hiu qu. Cc cng ng dn c v chnh ph cng c th phi i mt vi cc chi ph ng k cho vic x l, thi b cht thi cng nh cc chi ph cho phc hi mi trng. Nhng chi ph ny thng l ng k v c xu hng ngy cng tng khi cc p lc ln mi trng ngy cng ln. Cch tip cn truyn thng trong bo v mi trng l tp trung vo cht thi sau khi chng pht sinh. X l, chn lp cht thi thng ch gii quyt c mt ni ca vn v l mt qu trnh khng hiu qu. Cht thi nh l mt ch th cho s tin khng cn thit m con ngi mt i. Mc tiu ca sn xut sch hn l ngn nga vic pht sinh nhim ngay ti ngun. Vi vic lm ny chng ta c th ct gim chi ph, gim cc ri ro v xc nh c nhng c hi mi cho qu trnh pht trin. Sn xut sch hn l mt chin lc gip gim cht thi v s khng hiu qu ngay ti ngun, gip pht trin, vn hnh mt cch hiu qu nht cc qu trnh sn xut, cc sn phm cng nh cung cp cc dch v. Ci thin cc hot ng mi trng (environmental performance) bng vic gim thiu cht thi l mt trong nhng trng tm ca sn xut sch hn. Sc khe v an ton c ci thin cng c th coi nh mt u ra ca qu trnh sn xut. Nhng li ch khc bao gm nhng c hi kinh doanh, nhng th trng mi. Sn xut sch hn cung cp mt bin php tng hp nhn mnh vo vic ci thin c kha cnh kinh t v mi trng. Bng vic p dng bin php ny s ci thin c cc hot ng mi trng, gim thiu ri ro ca cc nguy c v mi trng v tr thnh u ra ca mt qu trnh sn xut hiu qu.

Hnh 15. Cu ni gia hai th gii ti chnh v mi trng

1.2.5. Cc gii php k thut t c sn xut sch hn Trong thc t sn xut c rt nhiu yu t nh hng n qu trnh pht thi cc cht nhim vo trong mi trng: qu trnh qun l ngi lao ng, nguyn nhin liu u vo, B mn qun l mi trng 16

Bi ging sn xut sch hn yu t khch hng hay yu t cng ngh do vy vic thay i cc yu t ny c th dn n vic thay i qu trnh pht thi cht nhim vo trong mi trng.

Hnh 16. Cc yu t nh hng n s pht thi

Nhiu ngi cho rng cc k thut sn xut sch hn khng tn ti hoc nu c tn ti th chng c cp bng sng ch v ch c th t c thng qua vic chi tr nhng khon tin ln nhn c quyn s dng. y l mt iu sai lm, mt s lm tng gia sn xut sch hn vi cng ngh sch (clean technology). Th nht, sn xut sch hn ch ph thuc mt phn vo cng ngh mi hay cc cng ngh thay th. N c th t c thng qua vic nng cao, hon thin cc k thut qun l, thay i cch thc tin hnh qu trnh sn xut hay nhng bin php n gin khc. Sn xut sch hn quan tm n vic thay i thi , thay i cch tip cn gii quyt vn n, thay i cch thc qun l cng nh vic quan tm ti cc cng ngh mi/cng ngh thay th. Mt iu quan trng cn nhn mnh l sn xut sch hn da trn c s thay i v thi cng nh s thay i cng ngh. Trong nhiu trng hp, nhng li ch ln nht ca sn xut sch hn li t c thng qua cch suy ngh gii quyt vn mt cch c bit m khng cn c cc gii php v mt k thut no. Mt s thay i trong thi ca ngi qun l, iu hnh cng ty hay ca cc cng nhn cng s ng mt vai tr v cng quan trng Th hai, cc bin php sn xut sch hn rt rng v sn c, ng thi cc phng php lun cho vic p dng nhng bin php ny c pht trin. Thc t cc cng ngh sn xut sch hn cha tn ti cho tt c cc qu trnh sn xut, cc sn phm v cc dch v nhng theo cc tnh ton 70% ca tt c lng cht thi pht sinh trong cc qu trnh sn xut cng nghip hin nay u c th ngn nga ngay ti ngun thng qua vic s dng th tc vn hnh ng n v cng ngh mang li hiu qu v kinh t. Vic p dng cc tri thc thc t cn thit c ngha l nng cao hiu qu, p dng cc cng ngh tt hn, qun l ni vi tt, v hon thin cc chnh sch th tc ca cng ty. Nhn chung, vic p dng cc hiu bit k thut dn n vic ti u ha cc qu trnh sn xut ang c. Ci thin cng ngh c th din ra theo nhiu cch khc nhau. Nh vy thc cht ca qu trnh sn xut sch hn l: - Qun l ni vi tt. - Thay i qu trnh sn xut v cng ngh. - Thay i u vo. B mn qun l mi trng 17

Bi ging sn xut sch hn - Thay i sn phm, pht trin cc sn phm thay th. ioo- Tun hon cht thi v sn phm ph ngay ti ch.

Hnh 17. S cc gii php k thut t c sn xut sch hn

a. Qun l ni vi tt (Good housekeeping) Qun l ni vi l mt loi gii php n gin nht ca sn xut sch hn. Qun l ni vi thng khng i hi chi ph u t v c th c thc hin ngay sau khi xc nh c cc gii php SXSH. Qun l ni vi ch yu l ci tin thao tc cng vic, gim st vn hnh, bo tr thch hp, ci tin cng tc kim k nguyn vt liu v sn phm. V d: Pht hin r r, trnh cc ri vi, Bo n tt ng ng trnh r r, ng cc van nc hay tt thit b khi khng s dng trnh tn tht. Mc d qun l ni vi l dn gin nhng vn cn c s quan tm ca ban lnh do cng nh vic o to nhn vin. b. Thay th nguyn vt liu (Raw material substitution) L vic thay th cc nguyn liu ang s dng bng cc nguyn liu khc thn thin vi mi trng hn (t c hi, hay c kh nng ti to). Thay di nguyn liu cn c th l vic mua nguyn liu c cht lng tt hn t c hiu sut s dng cao hn. V d: Thay th mc in dung mi hu c bng mc in dung mi nc, Thay th acid bng peroxit (VD: H2O2, Na2O2) trong ty r ... c. Ti u ha qu trnh sn xut (Process optimization) dm bo cc iu kin sn xut c ti u ho v mt tiu th nguyn liu, sn xut v pht sinh cht thi, cc thng s ca qu trnh sn xut nh nhit , thi gian, p sut, pH, tc ... cn c gim st, duy tr v hiu chnh cng gn vi iu kin ti u cng tt, lm cho qu trnh sn xut t c hiu qu cao nht, c nng sut tt nht. V d: Ti u ha tc bng chuyn v hiu chnh nhit thch hp ca my mng co, Ti u ha qu trnh t ni hi ... Cng nh qun l ni vi, vic kim sot qu trnh tt hn di hi cc quan tm ca ban lnh do cng nh vic gim st ngy mt hon chnh hn. B mn qun l mi trng 18

Bi ging sn xut sch hn d. B sung thit b (Equipment modification): Lp t thm cc thit b t c hiu qu cao hn v nhiu mt. V d: Lp t my ly tm tn dng bia cn, Lp t cc thit b cm bin (sensor) tit kim in, nc. VD: thit b cm bin thi gian (time sensor), thit b cm bin chuyn ng (motion sensor)... e. Thu hi v ti s dng ti ch (On-site recovery and reuse) Tn dng cht thi tip tc s dng cho qu trnh sn xut hay s dng cho mt mc ch khc. V d: S dng siu lc thu hi thuc nhum trong nc thi, Thu hi nc ngng dng li cho ni hi ... f. Sn xut cc sn phm ph hu ch (Production of useful by-products) Tn dng cht thi tip tc s dng cho mt mc ch khc. V d: Sn xut cn t r ng ph thi ca nh my ng, S dng lignin trong nc thi sn xut giy lm ph gia pha ch thuc tr su, g. Thit k sn phm mi (New product design) Thay i thit k sn phm c th ci thin qu trnh sn xut v lm gim nhu cu s dng cc nguyn liu c hi. V d: Sn xut pin khng cha kim loi c nh Cd, Pb, Hg..., Thay np y kim loi c ph sn bng np y nha cho mt s sn phm nht dnh s trnh c cc vn v mi trng cng nh cc chi ph sn hon thin np y . h. Thay i cng ngh (Technology change) Chuyn i sang mt cng ngh mi v hiu qu hn c th lm gim tiu th ti nguyn v gim thiu lng cht thi v nc thi. Thit b mi thng t tin, nhng c th thu hi vn rt nhanh. V d: Ra c hc thay v ra bng dung mi, Thay cng ngh sn t bng sn kh (sn bt) ... Gii php ny yu cu chi ph u t cao hn cc gii php sn xut sch khc, do d cn phi dc nghin cu cn thn. Mc d vy, tim nng tit kim nguyn liu v ci thin cht lng sn phm c th cao hn so vi cc gii php khc.
Bng 3. Thi gian v tim nng thc hin

Tim nng SXSH (% cht thi gim c) 20 30 30-50

Thi gian thc hin (nm) <1 1-3

Cc gim php SXSH Qun l ni vi, kim sot tt hn qu trnh Ci tin thit b, tun hon cht thi, thay i cng ngh Thy i sn phm hoc qu trnh

>50 <3 1.2.6. Cc li ch ca sn xut sch hn Cc qu trnh sn xut lun lun phi ng u vi nhiu yu t ri ro. Nhng yu t ny c th l cc yu t n t cc tc nhn bn ngoi nh khc hng, cc t chc ti chnh, cc co quan chnh ph, hay pht sinh ngay t chnh bn trong ca qu trnh sn xut nh vic qun l ni vi khng tt gy ra tht thot nguyn vt liu, nng lng, gy ra cc ri ro v mi trng trong qu trnh sn xut. Nhng ri ro c th c m t nh hnh di y.

B mn qun l mi trng

19

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 18. S cc ri ro lin quan n qu trnh sn xut

u t cho sn xut sch hn, ngn nga nhim v gim thiu vic tiu th ti nguyn ngay ti ngun l mt cch tip cn c hiu qu hn l vic chng ta tip tc ph thuc vo cc gii php x l cui ng ng ngy cng t . Khi cc la chn sn xut sch hn v kim sot nhim c mang ra so snh, nh gi, th nhn tng th cc gii php sn xut sch hn s mang li hiu qu cao hn. u t ban u cho cc la chn sn xut sch hn v cho vic lp t cc cng ngh kim sot nhim c th tng ng vi nhau, nhng chi ph duy tr hot ng ca cc thit b kim sot nhim s ln hn rt nhiu so vi cc la chn sn xut sch hn. Hn na, mt la chn sn xut sch hn s to ra s tit kim thng qua vic gim chi ph cho nguyn vt liu th, nng lng, x l cht thi cng nh cc tun th lut php. Cc li ch ca sn xut sch hn c th l cc li th trn th trng cho cc sn phm xanh. Nh vy cc li ch ca sn xut sch hn mang li c th l cc li ch trc tip hoc gin tip.

Hnh 19. Nhng li ch trc tip khi p dng sn xut sch hn

V kinh t, nh nng cao hiu qu bo ton c nguyn liu th v nng lng, gim chi ph x l cui ng ng, ci thin c mi rng bn trong v bn ngoi cng ty. C th l: - Nng cao hiu qu sn xut do p dng sn xut sch hn dn n hiu qu sn xut tt hn, ngh l c nhiu sn phm c to ra hn trn mt n v u vo ca nguyn liu B mn qun l mi trng 20

Bi ging sn xut sch hn th. - Bo ton nguyn liu th v nng lng: do gim tiu th nguyn liu th v nng lng nn gim c chi ph u vo; ng thi cng gim c chi ph x l. y l cc yu t doanh nghip c bit quan tm v ngun ti nguyn ngy cng cn kit, gi c tng cao. - Ci thin mi trng bn ngoi: thc hin sn xut sch hn s gim c lng v mc c hi ca cht thi nn s lm gim tc ng tiu cc n mi trng bn ngoi. - Ci thin mi trng bn trong cng ty (mi trng lm vic): iu kin mi trn lm vic ca ngi lao ng c ci thin do cng ngh sn xut t r r cht thai hn, qun l ni vi tt hn nn mi trng lm vic sch s v trong lnh hn, t pht sinh ra tai nn lao ng, gim ng k cc bnh ngh nghip. - Gim chi ph u t cho cc gii php x l cui ng ng. - Thu hi ph liu v ph phm. - Tun th cc quy nh lut php tt hn. - Cc c hi th trng mi v hp dn. Nhng li thch gin tip khi p dng sn xut sch hn. - Tip cn d dng vi cc ngun ti chnh to ra hnh nh mi trng c tnh tch cc cho cng ty i vi ph cho vay vn do s tip cn tt hn vi ngun ti chnh. - Tun th tt hn cc quy nh v mi trng: do sn xut sch hn gip x l cc dng thi d dng hn, n gin v r hn nn tun th c cc tiu chun x thi. - Cc c hi th trng mi v tt hn: do nhn thc ca ngi tiu dng v mi trng ngy cng tng ln i hi cc doanh nghip phi th hin c s thn thin vi mi trng trong cc sn phm v qu trnh sn xut ca h. Do khi thc hin sn xut sch hn s nng cao c hnh nh ca cng ty trong cng tc bo v mi trng, v vy ngi tiu dng v cc i tc s d dng chp nhn cc sn phm ca cng ty hn. - Hnh nh tt hn i vi cng ng: sn xut sch hn to ra hnh nh xanh cho doanh nghip, s c x hi v cc c quan hu quan ghi nhn. Chnh vic nng cao hnh nh ca cng ty s gip cho doanh nghip trnh c cc mu thun vi cng ng dn c xung quanh, trnh c nhng ri ro khng ng c i vi danh ting ca cng ty.

Hnh 20. Nhng chi ph tim n i vi s pht sinh cht thi Bng 4. Kt qu sn xut sch hn mt s nc

B mn qun l mi trng

21

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Tn nc Ngnh cng nghip S c hi SXSH Li ch mi trng Li ch kinh t (USD) u t Tit kim trong nm u 509.000 360.000 1.630.000

H Lan

Hng nm gim 2400 tn ct 50-75% CTR lin quan n l nu 25-35% ct thi Trung 3 cng ty bia 23-31 Gim 33% nc tiu th Quc cn Gim 7% malt Gim 40% BOD Tng 2,4% sn phm n 2 Cng ty sn 50-65 Gim 30% tiu th nc xut giy v Gim 40% tng lng CTR bt giy t Gim 29-34% BOD ph thi nng Tng 25-38% cht thi tun nghip hon M-hi- 6 cng ty va 5-19 Hng nm gim cc cht b c v nh m thi b: Ni, Cr, Zn, 4.450kg Cr6+, 5.686kg Ni Al 785kg CN-, 6.750kg Atkalis 551kg H2SO4, 500kg H2O 1.2.7. Cc ng lc v ro cn i vi sn xut sch hn a. Cc ng lc

4 cng ty c 9-26 va v nh

4.910.000 9.820.000 739.100 1.167.000

2.713.000 10.198.000 1.245.000 1.416.000

19.000 36.000

36.000 500.000

Qun l mi trng c th gip cc cng ty tip cn cc vn mi trng mt cch c h thng v lng ghp vic chm sc mi trng v nh l mt phn tt yu trong cc hot ng v chin lc kinh doanh ca h. Nhng ng lc ch yu i vi cc cng ty trong bi cnh ny l: Ti chnh Cc tit kim chi ph thng qua sn xut sch hn v hiu qu sinh thi; Nhng tc ng ca cc ti nn v nhng tht bi trong vic kim sot qun l mi trng (cc vn v trch nhim php l, chi ph gin xp li, ngng kinh doanh) ln hot ng kinh doanh. Vic a cc cng c kinh t (ti chnh) nh l thu hoc thu pht thi (cht thi chng hn), khuyn khch gim mc nhim. S thc y t pha chnh ph (cp giy php), ngn hng (cc hnh thc tn dng hp dn hn) v cc cng ty bo him (Cc ph bo him hp dn hn). Sc p c ng, nhn thc, hnh nh v danh ting S gia tng sc p ca bn th ba nh l cc c quan ti chnh, cc cng ty bo him; Cc sc p t pha cc c ng v cng nhn; S ch t pha cc nhm hot ng mi trng, ngi tiu dng, cc t chc ca h, v x hi ni chung (trong khu vc); Nhn thc tng ln trong cng ng kinh doanh v mi trng (chm sc trch B mn qun l mi trng 22

Bi ging sn xut sch hn nhim); Hnh nh hp tc (x hi, cc c quan chnh quyn); Nhng tc ng ln hot ng kinh doanh ca cc tai nn v s tht bi trong kim sot qun l mi trng (cc qung co tiu cc, gy tn hi ti hnh nh hp tc); Cnh tranh: Nhng nhn thc tng ln v cc kha cnh mi trng ca cc sn phm v cc qu trnh c th ng mt vai tr trong cnh tranh quc t; S e ngi v cc ro cn thng mi quc t c hnh thnh bi cc tiu chun khc nhau i vi kt qu hot ng v mt mi trng; Php lut v s thi hnh php lut: Mt s gia tng s lng ca cc chnh sch, lut php, cc quy nh v vic thi hnh chng. Ti chnh Cc doanh nghip bng cch gim thiu hay ni cch khc l hn ch nhim, cht thi v tiu th nng lng c th mang li s tit kim ch ph quan trng, v t c kh nng cnh tranh tt hn. Cc c hi sn xut sch hn thng thng c tm thy trong cc khu vc nh: nguyn liu, hiu qu nng lng, gim pht thi, ti s dng hoc tn thu cht thi c gi tr, gim ti a s dng nguyn liu th, v.v... y cn phi nhn mnh rng, tt c nhng nguyn liu hay nng lng m khng b chuyn ho thnh cht thi, c th (tip tc) c dng trong cc quy trnh sn xut cc sn phm m c th em bn c. Do , ci thin hiu sut s dng nng lng v nguyn liu bao hm hai li ch. Cch ng x ny ca cc doanh nghip thng c khuyn khch bi cc cng c kinh t nh l cc khon thu hay l l ph pht thi. Cc ngn hng s tng cng vic xem xt cc ngha v php l v mt mi trng ca mt cng ty trc khi bo lnh ti chnh bng ti sn vn, ging nh nhng g ang din ra vi cc cng ty bo him. Mt doanh nghip vi cc ri ro v mt mi trng thp hn c th ginh c d n ti chnh d dng hn vi cc iu kin hn dn hn v bo him vi ph thp hn. Trch nhim php l nghim ngt hn cng c th dn n chi ph sn xut cao hn, khng ch v i hi cc khon u t mi ca doanh nghip m cn v nhng yu cu mi t ra cho cc nh cung cp ca doanh nghip, bao gm c tim lc ca doanh nghip. Cc doanh nghip m c kh nng nhn thy trc c nhng nhng tc ng ca nhng pht trin v m ln cc hot ng ca h s c kh nng gim cc chi ph c hi. Mt doanh nghip khng c cc vn mi trng nghim trng th cc nhn vin ca h hon ton thnh thi tp trung vo nhng cng vic chnh yu ca h m khng phi lo ngi n nhng thit hi nghim trng do nhng tai nn mang li hoc do s biu tnh ca cng chng v nhng tc ng mi trng do cc hot ng ca cng ty gy ra. Gnh nng trnh c ca cc hot ng gy ri v thiu thc ca cng nhn c th rt ln. p lc c ng, nhn thc, hnh nh v danh ting. Cc doanh nghip buc phi phi l nhng cng dn tt, v c mt p lc ngy mt tng duy tr nhng tiu chun mc ti thiu nht nh, v c mt mc thn trng chp nhn c phng cc vn mi trng. Nhiu ngi cho rng mt doanh nghip vi mt hin trng mi trng ti khng th c kh nng sn xut nhng sn phm cht lng cao. Ngi tiu dng ngy cng a chung nhng sn phm c sn xut di nhng iu B mn qun l mi trng 23

Bi ging sn xut sch hn kin c cho l t gy nh hng n mi trng hn. Nhng c ng khc nh l cc t chc ti chnh, cc cng ty bo him cng ngy cng nh gi hin trng mi trng ca mt cng ty trong tin trnh nh gi tng th nh l nh gi mt khch hng tim nng hoc mt khch hng hin c, trc khi nhng dch v tip theo c theo c cung cp hoc cc iu kin hp dn c th c m phn. Mt "Khch hng" ht sc quan trng ca tt c cc doanh nghip l cng ng dn c trong a bn doanh nghip hot ng. Nhng cng ty thnh cng nht trong lnh vc cng nghip hin nay c quan im cho rng h phi "Ginh quyn" hot ng mi a phng ni h c mt. Cc cng ty ny dng ln cc tiu chun v hin trng mi trng cho cc i th cnh tranh ca h. Cc doanh nghip khng ch n nhng mi quan tm ca ngi dn trong vng i vi vn nhim i khi nhn thy vic xin giy php ng k kinh doanh, cng ra vo ca h b ngn cn bi nhng ngi phn i. Trong mt trng hp qu khch, mt m ng nhng ngi dn Thi Lan, trong cn gin gi ca mnh tn cng v t chy hon ton mt nh my trong khu vc ca h bi mt v nhim nc ung. Mt khc, s phn khng thng dn n nhng chm tr tai hi trong vic ginh c giy php thit k v xy dng, cng nh nhng kh khn h gp phi trc cc c quan chnh quyn. nhiu quc gia, nhiu t chc tiu dng v t chc mi trng ang tr nn c nh hng hn, cha k n tin tc bo ch. Tt c nhng iu ny c th lm nh hng n hnh nh ca doanh nghip c trong nc v nc ngoi, cng nh l kh nng bn hng v ginh c nhng khon cho vay hoc u t vn. Nhng bt ho v mi trng khng nhng lm tn hi danh ting ca cng ty m cn c th khin cho s quan tm ca nhng ngi qun l v nhng ngi cng nhn quay lng li vi nhng ngha v chnh ca h, n c th lm gim gi tr o c, cng c th y cng ty v tnh trng khng hong v mt n nh. Cc doanh nghip "Sch" thng c v nh nhng ngi lng ging tt tnh v cc hng c trch nhim s gy c thin cm ca cc c quan chnh quyn v cc khch hng. H d dng nhn c s t vn ca nhng nh hoch nh chnh sch, nhng ngi ang chun b nhng lut l mi. Nhng cng ty "Sch" ny cn c th c mt v tr m phn tt hn i vi cc c quan cp php trong trng c s c, hoc s tho thun v kim sot nhim hoc cc k hoch ci thin mi trng Do hin trng mi trng ca doanh nghip ci thin, h c th cng b tin thc hin nng cao gi tr v th phn c th ca cng ty. Ly v d, nhiu cng ty c nhng chnh sch mi trng v cc k hoch hnh ng cng khai. H lp thnh vn bn tin ca mnh v gim nhim, cht thi cng nh p ng cc mc tiu v ch tiu mi trng. Nhng cng ty khc cng b vic s dng nhng nguyn liu ti sinh ca h hoc l s dng cng ngh sch hn. Mt s khc xy dng cc sn phm m dng cc nguyn liu ti sinh hoc c kh nng phn hu sinh hc, hoc p ng cc nhu cu khch hng v t cc cht thi nguy hi, bn ra th trng cc sn phm "Xanh" ca h. Kh nng cnh tranh Mt cng ty c th mt v th cnh tranh ca mnh ti th trng quc t cng nh ni a nu nh khng ch ti cc vn mi trng. Mt iu hon ton hin nhin l cc chi ph cao thng lin quan ti nng lng v nguyn liu b lng ph. Mt doanh nghip qun khng cp n cc vn mi trng c th sn xut ra cc sn phm km cht lng c th b khch hng loi b. nhim v cht thi c th l dn n s tn hi sc kho v bnh tt cho cng nhn v c dn trong vng. B mn qun l mi trng 24

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Ngy nay, M, Nht Bn, Cng ng cc quc gia Chu u v mt s cc quc gia giu c trn th gii, cc doanh nghip phi gnh vc trch nhim mi trng v trong nhiu trng hp phi chp nhn trch nhim php l i vi cc tc ng mi trng do cc hot ng ca mnh gy ra, nh l mt ni dung quan trng ca thng l kinh doanh cn bn. Cho n gn y, xu th ny khng p dng cho cc doanh nghip trong cc nn kinh t cng nghip ho v mi ni. Nhng thng l kinh doanh ton cu tin trin nhanh chng v cc tho thun quc t bt buc phi thay i iu ny. Cc doanh nghip vi nhng ngha v php l mi trng nghim trng c th b loi ra khi cuc chi. Hin nay, "Bo v ngi tiu dng xanh" l mt sc mnh th trng (Green Consumerism). Cc nh sn xut, cc hng, nhng ngi ang cung cp sn phm thng xuyn cho khch hng, yu cu cc nh cung cp ca h phi p ng c cc tiu ch mi hn, cht ch hn v mt mi trng. Nhng yu cu , c th l mt s m bo rng cc sn phm c cung cp p ng tt c cc yu cu bt buc trong nc cho n nhng g m n c xut i phi m bo rng cc nh cung cp p ng c cc tiu chi ti thiu t ra v mt mi trng trong cc nh my v doanh nghip m h s hu. Cc tiu chun cao i vi cht lng ca mt sn phm c th ng ngha vi vic p t tng ng c tiu chun cao ln nh cung cp. Mt vi cng ty c th p t cc tiu chun quy trnh sn xut trc tip i vi nh cung cp v theo di tnh ph hp vi cc tiu chun ca h. Tt c nhng iu ny, cng cho thy mt iu l mi quan tm ngy mt tng ln trong chui cung ng, t nguyn vt liu tri qua qu trnh sn xut, s dng cho ti khi thi b cui cng ca cc sn phm c lin quan ti s qun l v mt php l i vi chng. trch nhim i vi cc yu t khc nhau v cng ng trong sut chui cung ng. iu ny c ngha l nh sn xut ca 1000 mt vi khng ch chu trch nhim v mt c tnh ca sn phm m cn phi chu trch nhim i vi cc iu kin m t nguyn liu c sn xut ra, vn chuyn nguyn liu, quy trnh sn xut sn phm m ngi s hu, vn chuyn sn phm t c s ca ngi , v sc kho v s an ton ca cc sn phm di cc iu kin s dng. Cc o lut c th c cc quc hi thng qua cch xa hng nghn kilmt m khng c hiu lc trc tip ti cc doanh nghip, nhng, bng vic cm mt sn phm hoc mt thnh phn c trong sn phm, chng c th y mt doanh nghip vo tnh trng ph sn. V l do rt nhiu nhng thnh phn c th c chp nhn trc y ang b quy nh khng c c trong cc sn phm bi v nhng lin quan ti mi trng v sc kho ca chng, nhng nh cung cp cc sn phm c cha cc thnh phn nh vy buc phi tm cch thay th hoc i mt vi vic mt th trng. Cc i th cnh tranh trong nc hoc nc ngoi c th ang ginh c mt li th cnh tranh vi cc khch hng bng vic bn cc sn phm hoc cc quy trnh sn xut "thn thin" vi mi trng ca h. Trong nhng trng hp ny, mt doanh nghip c th buc phi chng t s tun th mi trng mt mc no i vi x hi nu nh doanh nghip mun duy tr kh nng cnh tranh. Ch s hu hoc nh qun l ca mt doanh nghip c th phi quan tm ti qun l mi trng v mt l do ht sc cn bn: Nhng kt qu mi trng ti s lm gim gi tr lao ng v lm suy yu li th cnh tranh ca h. Thot nhn, cc khi nim mi trng dng nh l khng dnh dng g ti cc cng ty ang hot ng trong cc nn kinh t th trng mi ni, nhng s u tin ch yu ca h l s tn ti v kh nng thanh ton nhanh. iu ny thm ch cn ng hn i vi cc doanh nghip va v nh. Cc doanh nghip ny ch yu bn sn phm v dch v cho th trng trong nc. C mt lot cc tiu chun v cc quy nh quc gia v quc t ang mc ln m cc B mn qun l mi trng 25

Bi ging sn xut sch hn doanh nghip s phi ph hp vi nu h mun tip cn c cc th trng quc t mi, hoc cho d l h mun duy tr cc mi quan h vi cc doanh nghip v cc nc m h ang xut khu sn phm n. Trong mt tng lai rt gn, cc doanh nghip c th khng c php xut khu cc sn phm m c nguy hi ti mi trng (kh nng phn hu sinh hc thp, c cha cc thnh phn nguy hi, v.v...) hoc c sn xut di cc iu kin mi trng "Khng th chp nhn c". V d, rt nhiu n lc c thc hin gim tng lng pht thi ca rt nhiu ngnh cng nghip, v danh mc ca cc sn phm v cc cht thi c quy nh th ang u n tng ln. Cc doanh nghip nm trong nn kinh t mi ni s sm b p dng cng mt lut chi nh cc doanh nghip c ngnh ngh tng t M v cc nc Lin minh chu u (EU). c th bn cc sn phm ca h vo th trng M v cc nc Lin minh chu u (EU), h s phi chng minh rng h tun theo cc thng l mi trng quc t c chp nhn. Nhiu chnh ph ca cc nc ang thng qua lut khuyn khch (ch khng phi yu cu) cc doanh nghip nh gi cc tc ng mi trng ca cc hot ng ca h v gim cc cht thi hoc ci thin cc cng ngh ca h. Ngoi ra, cng nh cc nc thuc lin minh chu u EU, thng qua cc quy nh rng ln v qun l mi trng v bn k hoch nh gi. T chc Quc t v cc tiu chun (ISO) ang xy dng mt tiu chun (trong s nhng tiu chn khc) v h thng qun l mi trng. T chc thng mi quc t WTO s tng cng s ch n cc kha cnh mi trng ca thng mi trong nhng nm ti, v cc tiu chun mi trng v cc thng l kinh doanh ngy cng mang tnh quc t hn. Lut mi trng ang tr nn ho hp hn trn ton th gii. Trong tng lai gn, nhng lut v "High-tolerance areas" s c nang ln thnh tiu chun th gii. Nhng khu vc thng mi t do nh l EU, khu vc kinh t chu u EEA, v NAFTA chu M, c cc c ch chung i vi cc quy tc, s ph hp v chnh sch mi trng. Cc nn kinh t mi ni Nam M, chu Phi, chu , ng u v cc Bang mi c lp s b yu cu p ng cc tiu chun nh nhau nu nh h mong mun xut khu ti nhng vng thng mi t do ni trn. Cc doanh nghip trn ton th gii cng s l mc tiu cho mt s lng gia tng cc cng c mi trng quc t trong tng lai rt gn. V d: Nhng ngi bun bn cht thi bt buc phi tun theo cng c Basel v kim sot vn chuyn cht thi nguy hi qua bin gii v s chn lp cht thi nguy hi. Cc doanh nghip sn xut nng lng chu u s phi tun theo s hn ch pht thi sulphur, xt ni t, cc hp cht hu c bay hi quy nh trong cng c ECE v nhim khng kh qua bin gii gii rng. Cc doanh nghip bn ho cht vo EU s phi tun th cc quy nh v nhp khu, bao b v nhn mc ca cc ho cht nguy hi. Ti cng mt giai on sn xut, cc ci tin k thut v hin trng mi trng c th c pht hin nh cc sn phm mi i vi nhng th trng mi. Cc sn phm hin c c th c t nhng nhy cm mi trng cc nc khc v tm ra cc th trng mi. Cc sn phm m c phn ng nhanh hn vi cc nhy cm mi trng ca khch hng c th c mt li th cnh tranh quan trng vt qua cc i th ca n, nhng ngi khng xem nhng cn nhc ny l quan trng, t bit khi m s khc nhau v gi l c th chp nhn. B mn qun l mi trng 26

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Lut php v s tun th Chnh ph ca cc nc, t trung ng n a phng ang tng cng s kim sot i vi cc hot ng cng nghip v gia tng cc hnh thc pht i vi cc vi phm v quy nh v lut php mi trng. Nhn chung, trong my nm gn y, b my t php ca cc nc ang pht trin thc s v ang tr nn rt "Xanh". Ngy cng c cc hnh pht mi v nghim trng hn i vi cc li dn s v hnh s c lin quan n vi phm lut php v quy nh mi trng, c bit l i vi nhng vi phm dn n s ri ro cho sc kho hoc lm tn hi lu di cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin nh l nc ngm hoc cht lng t. Cc doanh nghip b buc phi thc hin gim st cn thit chng thc rng h tun th cc giy php ca mnh v tun th lut php hin hnh. Cnh st khu vc ang c o to xc nh cc vi phm v lut mi trng. Trch nhim php l ca cng dn hoc ti phm i vi lut php v cc quy nh hnh chnh tr nn gay gt hn, v cn c ca hnh pht tr nn rng hn rt nhiu nc p dng cho bt c c s thit hi mi trng m khng c s minh chng ca khuyt im (trch nhim php l "nghim khc"). Nhng ri ro trong kinh doanh c lin quan bao gm mt quyn t do hnh ngh hoc t do sn xut Cc c quan chnh quyn c th tng cp kim sot v gim kh nng ng i vi cc tho thun v hip thng vi cc doanh nghip c cc vn v s tun th lut mi trng v cc giy php v u tin cc doanh nghip tun th tt lut mi trng. Ngoi trch nhim php l v trch nhim dn s i vi cc cc thit hi ngu nhin hoc do nhim khc, cc doanh nghip cc nc ang pht trin cng ang i mt vi cc thng bo hu b trong tnh trng khn cp, ni v cc c quan chnh quyn yu cu h dng sn xut cho n khi tnh trng khn cp vt qua. Trong mt vi trng hp, cc ngnh cng nghip b p buc phi di di huc u t khon tin vn rt ln vo cc thit b kim sot nhim mi. Trong nhng trng hp khc, cc doanh nghip b p buc phi tr tin lm sch nhng g do h gy ra. Nh vy, cc ng lc i vi sn xut sch hn c th xut pht t chnh trong ni b ca nh my (internal motivations), hoc cng c th l cc ng lc n t cc yu t bn ngoi (external motivations) v c th c m t nh hnh sau:

Hnh 21. Cc yu t ng lc bn trong ca SXSH

Nh vy nhng ng lc bn trong ca sn xut sch hn i vi cc doanh nghip chnh l nhng s ci thin v nng sut do tit kim c cc nguyn nhin liu u vo, gim tht thot trong qu trnh sn xut do hiu qu ca qu trnh sn xut c nng cao mang li cho cng ty nhng li ch v kinh t. ng thi vic nhn thc c nhng li th B mn qun l mi trng 27

Bi ging sn xut sch hn cnh tranh khi thc hin sn xut sch hn trong vic kinh doanh cng l mt ng lc thc y cc doanh nghip. Hin nay, cc bo co mi trng thng nin cng nh cc hot ng kim ton mi trng l vic lm thng xuyn ca cc cng ty. Khi p dng sn xut sch hn vo trong sn xut th nhng ni dung ca cc hot ng trn cng c gim bt, do qu trnh sn xut c ci thin, nhng s r r, tht thot c loi tr, lng rc thi sinh ra c gim bt. Mt yu t khc ng mt vai tr rt quan trng i vi vic xy dng mt h thng qun l mi trng mt cng ty ni chung cng nh i vi vic p dng sn xut sch hn ni ring chnh l nhn thc, l cam kt ca cc cp lnh o trong cng ty. Bt k hot ng no lin quan n mi trng m khng nhn c s ng h, cam kt ca cc cp lnh o th u rt kh thnh cng.

Hnh 22. Cc yu t ng lc bn ngoi ca SXSH

Nh cp trn, hot ng sn xut ca cc doanh nghip hin nay chu tc ng ca rt nhiu yu t: s cnh tranh, yu t ti chnh, cc quy nh ca lut php, nhng p lc v nhn thc, hnh nh v danh tingV trong s chng nhiu yu t ng vai tr nh ng lc bn ngoi thc y vic p dng sn xut sch hn vo trong hot ng ca cc cng ty. Cc ng lc c th l s thay i ca cc lut l, cc khuyn khch v kinh t (bao gm cc khuyn khch v kinh t ca cc chnh ph, s d dng khi tip cn vn vay ca cc t chc ti chnh), sc p n t khch hng mun s dng nhng sn phm thn thin hn i vi mi trng trong thi k m cc vn mi trng ngy cng tr nn nng bng, hay chnh cc sc p n t cng ng dn c ni t nh my i hi cng ty phi m bo cc yu cu v mi trng. b. Cc ro cn i vi sn xut sch hn Trong khong 10 nm tr li y, sn xut sch hn dn n s thay i trong qun l mi trng mi cp t cc ngnh cng nghip, kinh doanh, cc t chc ti chnh cng nh l i vi chnh quyn v cc cng ng a phng. Tuy nhin, hin nay vn cn tn ti nhiu ro cn i vi s chp nhn v y mnh sn xut sch hn. l: Tnh i vi s thay i: Nhiu ngi lnh o cc cng ty c mt thi bo th khng chp nhn/thch nghi vi s thay i. H xem rng bt k s thay i no u l ri ro, khng xc ng v khng mang li li ch. Thiu thng tin, i ng cc chuyn gia, v s tp hun y v SXSH: Nhiu khi nhng ngi tham gia quan tm n vn sn xut sch hn nhng h khng p dng c vo thc t sn xut ti cc cng ty v thiu thng tin, thiu cc s h tr v k thut (thiu chuyn gia t vn). Thiu s truyn t thng tin trong cc cng ty: Ti nhng thi im khc nhau, mt bn tham gia/ngi lin quan c s quan tm n sn xut sch hn v nhng k nng cn B mn qun l mi trng 28

Bi ging sn xut sch hn thit hay i ng chuyn gia t vn. Tuy nhin, h li khng th truyn t tng v nhng li ch ca sn xut sch hn n nhng ngi qun l cp cao. Chnh iu ny to ra ro cn cho vic thc hin sn xut sch hn. Nhng u tin v cnh tranh trong kinh doanh, c th l p lc cho nhng li ch ngng hn trc mt: mt tr ngi ng k i vi vic thc hin sn xut sch hn chnh l vic cc cng ty thng nhn mnh/tp trung vo cc li ch ngn hn trc mt. Khi cc li ch ngn hn ca doanh nghip c quyt nh bi th trng v cc nh u t th h gp rt nhiu kh khn trong vic nh gi nhng khon u t cho cc qu trnh hay cng ngh sn xut sch hn ngay c khi c nhng li nhun hp dn lu di v mt ti chnh. Nhn thc v cc ri ro (perception of risk): sn xut sch hn lin quan n cc kh nng thay i qu trnh sn xut, thay th cc trang thit b, thit k li cc sn phm hay qu trnh ng gi. Mt s ngi lin quan xem y nh nhng ri ro, c bit khi cc cng ngh cha c chng minh, hay sn phm cha c th trng kim chng. Nhng kh khn trong vic tip cn cc cng ngh sn xut sch hn: u t cho cng ngh mi, cng ngh sn xut sch hn l mt quyt nh kh khn cho cc cng ty. Bn cnh cc chi ph ng k ca cc cng ngh mi th cn nhiu cn tr ngn cn cc cng ty u t i mi cc trang thit b my mc hin c ca h. Nhng cn tr ny c th l s phc tp ca cng ngh mi, tnh c trng cao v cng ngh (cc cng ngh sn xut sch hn thng kh c chuyn i gia cc cng ty) Cc h thng kim ton khng tnh ton c ht nhng chi ph, li ch v mi trng: cc h thng kim ton v cc th tc nh gi cc d n thng khng thu thp cc thng tin v cc tc ng mi trng, cc ri ro, trch nhim php l v cc hi ph lin quan khc (nhng ci m khng d c tnh khi d n cha din ra). Chnh v nhng s hn ch ny m nhng bn lin quan (stakeholder) thng khng th lng ghp cc hot ng mi trng vo trong chin lc kinh doanh v v vy trng khng nh gi c ht nhng li ch kinh t ca vic p dng sn xut sch hn. S kh khn trong vic tip cn cc ngun ti chnh bn ngoi: vic p dng cc cng ngh sn xut sch hn b cn tr bi vic hn ch trong kh nng tip cn cc ngun ti chnh. Cc ngn hng, c quan u t ca chnh ph, cc tp on ti chnh, cc nh u t mo himhoc khng ng h (discriminate against) hoc khng kh nng nh gi cc ngh vay vn lin quan n SXSH v vy thng gy ra kh khn cho cc cng ty trong vic vay vn. S tht bi ca cc bin php lut php (regulatory approaches) hin hnh: vic thiu nh hng trong cc chnh sch quc gia hin nay v khung iu chnh i vi sn xut sch hn l mt trong nhng cn tr chnh cho vic thc hin chin lc ny. Cc bin php iu chnh truyn thng trong nhiu trng hp c chng minh l phn tc dng trong vic thu ht cc doanh nghip tin hnh sn xut sch hn. Bng vic tha nhn rng cc nh qun l v tr tt nht quyt nh cc hnh ng hp l, cc quy nh thng gy ra thi t mn trong cng vic qun l. Nhng khuyn khch kinh t khng hp l (preserve economic incentives): tr cp kinh t cho cc u vo ca qu trnh kinh doanh c th l nguyn nhn lm cho cc doanh nghip khng tip cn vi sn xut sch hn. V d, khi chnh ph tr gi cho nng lng, nc hay gi ca cc nhin liu gy nhim ng k thng qua cc khon tr cp, th h lm gim bt nhng li ch v kinh t ca sn xut sch hn. Rt nhiu trong cc ro cn ny c th c gii quyt thng qua cc chin lc nh nng cao nhn thc, o to, y mnh h tr v cng ngh, thc hin cc d n trnh din, a ra cc chng trnh h tr ti chnh cho sn xut sch hn v bng vic a ra cc chnh sch v quy nh nhm y mnh sn xut sch hn. h tr cho nhng chin lc ny th vic xy dng nhng trung tm sn xut sch hn l rt rt cn thit. Nhng n lc ny s B mn qun l mi trng 29

Bi ging sn xut sch hn m bo cho sn xut sch hn tr thnh mt xu th ch o trong tng lai.

Hnh 23. Cc ro cn i vi SXSH

1.3. HIN TRNG V TIM NNG SN XUT SCH HN 1.3.1. Sn xut sch hn v pht trin bn vng Trong qu kh cc cng ty thng a ra cc qu trnh sn xut m khng n cc tc ng mi trng. Ngi ta thng tranh lun rng khng th t c ng thi hai mc tiu tng trng kinh t v bo v mi trng, v rng chng ta phi chp nhn mt mc nhim no nu mun t c mt s tng trng kinh t no . S tranh lun ny khng cn ph hp, v hi ngh thng nh lin hp quc v mi trng v pht trin c t chc ti Rio de Janeiro (1992) thit lp nhng mc tiu mi cho cng ng ch trng mt s pht trin bn vng.

Hnh 24. M hnh pht trin bn vng

Thut ng pht trin bn vng ln u tin c a ra trong bo co Brudland (1987), v ngy nay n tr thnh mt khi nim rt ph bin, l ch phn u ca ton th gii. Hin nay, khi nhc n s pht trin kinh t hay x hi, pht trin quc gia hay a phng, pht trin ton cu hay khu vctt c s pht trin u c hiu v hng theo s B mn qun l mi trng 30

Bi ging sn xut sch hn pht trin bn vng. Pht trin bn vng l s pht trin m cc th h hin ti tha mn nhu cu ca mnh nhng khng lm tn hi n kh nng tha mn nhu cu ca cc th h tng lai (Bo co Brudland, 1987). Bo co nhn mnh rng 3 thnh phn c bn ca pht trin bn vng l: bo v mi trng, pht trin kinh t v cng bng x hi. Ni mt cch n gin hn pht trin bn vng nhm mc tiu gi c s hi ha gia pht trin v mi trng, m bo cng bng gia cc th h hin ti, gia cc th h hin ti v cc th h tng lai trong vic tip cn vi cc ngun lc nhm tha mn nhu cu ca mnh. -V mt kinh t: cn phi phn bit gia pht trin v tng trng. Tng trng ch ch trng ti vt cht v s lng, tch ly v bnh trng trong khi pht trin quan tm ti tim nng, cht lng, s phc v con ngi mt cch ton din c v vt cht ln tinh thn. PTBV v mt kinh t i nghch vi gia tng sn xut khng gii hn, chinh phc th trng bng mi cch, thng mi ha v tm li nhun ti a. PTBV kinh t i hi phi cn nhc nh hng by gi hay sau ny ca hot ng sn xut v tng trng kinh t ln cht lng cuc sng, xem xt xem ci g s b ph phm, nh hng. -V mt x hi: bn vng c ngha l m bo x hi cng bng, cuc sng bnh an. S PTBV i hi phi phng tai bin, khng c ngi sng ngoi l x hi hoc b x hi rung b. X hi ca mt nc khng th PTBV nu c mt tng lp x hi b gt ra ngoi tin trnh pht trin quc gia. Th gii s khng c PTBV v mt x hi nu tnh mng ca mt phn nhn loi b e da v bnh tt, i ngho, thin tai, ... PTBV v mt x hi c ngha con ngi c mi trng sng hi ha, cng bng v c an sinh. -PTBV v phng din mi trng: c ngha l phi bo m kh nng hi phc ca h sinh thi, mc s dng ti nguyn ti to phi thp hn tc ti sinh, vic s dng ti nguyn khng ti to phi ty thuc vo kh nng tm ra c cc nguyn liu thay th. Sau cng, mc nhim phi thp hn kh nng phc hi v ti to ca mi trng, mi sinh. Kinh t ch l mt b phn ca h sinh thi v pht trin kinh t phi bo ton s cn bng sinh thi. Sn xut sch hn c th gim thiu cc tc ng mi trng ca qu trnh sn xut, mang li s cn bng gia mi trng v pht trin, n c bit quan trng i vi cc nc ang trn con ng chuyn dch c cu kinh t. Sn xut sch hn to ra c hi bc nhy vt vt qua cc cng ngh, cch thc sn xut c vn s dng lu nay m tiu tn nhiu chi ph cho vic kim sot nhim. Nh vy c th ni rng sn xut sch hn l mt cng c h tr c lc nht cho s pht trin bn vng. Sn xut sch hn l mt chin lc pht trin hiu qu va bo v mi trng, ngi tiu dng v cng nhn lao ng, trong khi vn ci thin c hiu qu sn xut, li nhun v kh nng cnh tranh.
Bng 5. Mt s v d sn xut sch hn gii quyt cc vn mi trng Vn mi trng Suy gim tng ozon Nng ln ton cu Gii php phng nga nhim trong SXSH Thay th tt c cc cht lm suy gim tng ozon bng cc cht an ton Thay th nhin liu ha thch bng nng lng mt tri. Bo tn nng lng

Pht sinh cc cht Thay i cc dy chuyn sn xut v nguyn liu Mua cc sn phm m cng thi rn v cht thi ngh sn xut ra chng to ra t cht thi nguy hi hn v khng cha cc nguy hi. cht c. Mua cc sn phm bn Mua cc sn phm t c Ti s dng cc sn phm Yu cu dng t bao gi cho sn phm Ma acid S dng than sch (c hm lng lu hunh thp) cho cc nh my in. S dng cc ngun nng lng ti to c

1.3.2. Trin vng pht trin SXSH trn th gii Sn xut sch hn a ra nhng li ch r rng v c th nh lng c i vi vic kinh doanh c v mt mi trng ln kinh t, n vn l mt khi nim mi i vi nhiu cng ty va v nh. Sn xut sch hn chng minh rng pht trin cng nghip, tng trng v s B mn qun l mi trng 31

Bi ging sn xut sch hn thnh vng c th c m bo lu di cng vi vic bo v cht lng cuc sng v mi trng. nhiu quc gia, cc cng ty va v nh l ng lc ca tng trng kinh t, gii quyt cng n vic lm, v d nh ti bang New South Wales (c), cc cng ty loi ny chim ti 60% s lng vic lm mi c to ra, ng hng u trong vic c tin pht trin cc sn phm. Ngi tiu dng, nh cung cp, cc c quan chnh ph v th trng ang ngy cng quan tm n kha cnh mi trng ca qu trnh sn xut v trch nhim ca cc doanh nghip v vn ny. Nu cc doanh nghip b qua xu th ny, t chi cc c hi ci thin hot ng mi trng ca h th c th nhn thy rng h ang b b li pha sau trong th trng cnh tranh ton cu ang ngy cng gay gt. V vy, sn xut sch hn tr thnh mt phn khng th tch ri trong chin lc kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip. Vic ph bin t tng v sn xut sch hn c thc hin thng qua hng lot cc v d l mt trong nhng chin lc quan trng i vi vic nng cao nhn thc v s chp nhn ca mt b phn/phm vi rng ri cc bn lin quan. Rt nhiu cc hi tho c t chc v hng lot hot ng xut bn, phn phi cc sch hng dn, t ri, cc video c tin hnh. Trong nhiu trng hp, sn xut sch hn c tuyn truyn thng qua nhng chng trnh, chin lc khc nh: hiu sut sinh thi, nng sut xanh t c s cam kt tham gia sn xut sch hn l mt bc cn thit m bo chuyn t nhn thc thnh hnh ng. Tuyn ngn quc t v sn xut sch hn (The International Declaration on Cleaner Production IDCP) l mt bc i quan trng trong tin trnh t c s cam kt ca ng o cc bn lin quan nhiu cp khc nhau bao gm c cc chnh ph cc nc. Vic thng qua tuyn ngn quc t v sn xut sch hn l t nguyn nhng th hin s cam kt ca cng ng vi chin lc thc hin sn xut sch hn. Tuyn ngn ny c a ra ti hi ngh quc t cp cao v sn xut sch hn t chc ti Phoenix Park (Hn Quc) vo nm 1998. n thng 9 nm 2002 c 350 t chc, quc gia ph chun, v tuyn ngn ny c dch sang 15 th ting. Chng ti nhn thc c rng t c s pht trin bn vng l trch nhim chung ca cng ng. Hnh ng bo v mi trng ton cu phi bao gm vic p dng hot ng sn xut v tiu dng bn vng c ci thin. Chng ti tin tng rng sn xut sch hn v cc chin lc phng nga khc nh hiu sut sinh thi, nng sut xanh, phng nga nhim l nhng la chn c u tin. Cc chin lc ny i hi s pht trin, h tr v thc hin cc bin php ph hp. Chng ti hiu rng sn xut sch hn l s p dng lin tc mt chin lc phng nga tng hp i vi cc qu trnh sn xut, cc sn phm v dch v v li ch kinh t, x hi, sc khe, an ton v mi trng. t c cc mc tiu ny chng ti cam kt: Cp lnh o Da vo nh hng ca mnh : Khuyn khch p dng cc hot ng sn xut v tiu dng bn vng thng qua mi quan h vi cc bn tham gia Nng cao nhn thc, gio dc v o to Xy dng nng lc thng qua - Pht triern v thc hin chng trnh nng cao nhn thc, gio dc v o to trong cc t chc ca mnh; - Khuyn khch a cc khi nim v nguyn tc ca sn xut sch hn vo gio trnh ging dy tt c cc cp. Chng trnh lng ghp Khuyn khch lng ghp cc chin lc phng B mn qun l mi trng 32

Bi ging sn xut sch hn nga - tt c cc cp trong t chc ca mnh - Trong cc h thng qun l mi trng - Thng qua vic s dng cc cng c nh nh gi hot ng mi trng, hch ton mi trng v cc nh gi tc ng mi trng, vng i sn phm v sn xut sch hn Nghin cu v pht trin Xy dng cc gii php i mi thng qua - Thc y chuyn i t cc u tin dng phng thc x l cui ng ng sang chin lc phng nga trong chnh sch hot ng nghin cu v pht trin ca mnh - H tr pht trin cc sn phm v dch v t hiu qu mi trng v p ng nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng. Truyn thng Chia s kinh nghim thng qua - Tng cng i thoi v thc hin cc chin lc phng nga v cung cp thng tin cho cc bn tham gia v nhng li ch ca n. Thc hin Thc thi p dng chng trnh sn xut sch hn thng qua: - t ra cc mc tiu c tnh thch thc v bo co nh k cc tin b t c t cc h thng qun l thit lp; - Khuyn khch h tr ti chnh, u t mi v b sung cho cc la chn cng ngh c tnh phng nga, thc y hp tc v chuyn giao cng ngh c hiu qu v mt mi trng gia cc quc gia; - Hp tc vi UNEP cng cc i tc v cc bn tham gia khc trong vic h tr tuyn ngn ny v nh gi cc thnh cng ca vic thc hin tuyn ngn T khi c thnh lp nm 1989, chng trnh sn xut sch hn ca UNEP ng mt vai tr xc tc cho vic y mnh ph bin tng v su xut sch hn. Nm 1994, UNEP phi hp cng UNIDO tin hnh chng trnh xy dng cc trung tm sn xut sch hn quc gia nhm mc tiu tng cng kh nng cnh tranh, nng cao nng sut c bit l ca cc cng ty va v nh thng qua sn xut sch hn v p dng, thch ng v truyn b cc cng ngh thn mi trng. Vo nm 2007, chng trnh ny tin hnh hot ng 37 quc gia. UNEP v UNIDO xem chng trnh ny nh nn tng cho cc hot ng ca h nhm thc y s pht trin cng nghip bn vng (UNIDO) cng nh s sn xut v tiu thu bn vng (UNEP). Mng li cc trung tm sn xut sch hn c thnh vin l cc i din n t cc c quan chnh ph, cc t chc a phng, cc nh cng nghip, cc ngn hng pht trin, cc t chc phi chnh ph, cc chuyn giaCc thnh vin trong mng li s khi xng cc tng ca h v c c hi c tham gia vo cc hi tho c t chc 2 nm mt ln ca B mn qun l mi trng 33

Bi ging sn xut sch hn UNEP v sn xut sch hn trao i nhng kinh nghim v kt qu t c. Cc trung tm sn xut sch hn c thit k nhm y mnh v thc hin nhng gii php mi trng c tnh cht phng nga, c th chnh l sn xut sch hn. Cc trung tm ny s y mnh, iu phi, thc y cc hot ng sn xut sch hn trong mi quc gia thng qua vic xy dng nng lc a phng. Cc khch hng tm n y c c nhng gii php cho nhng vn c th hn l vic tip nhn nhng gii php c dng sn. Dch v ca cc trung tm sn xut sch hn bao gm: - Nng cao nhn thc v li ch v nhng li th ca sn xut sch hn: cc quc gia m sn xut sch hn cha phi l ph bin, nhn thc v n cn yu km th vic nng cao nhn thc l mt hot ng u tin cho cc trung tm, c th l trong nhng nm u hot ng ca n. - Tin hnh cc nh gi sn xut sch hn v xy dng cc d n tnh din: thng qua cc d n trnh din, cc trung tm sn xut sch hn c th ch ra tnh kh thi ca sn xut sch hn cho cc ngnh kinh t khc nhau, v vic gim thiu cht thi s mang li li ch thit thc cho cc cng ty. Hn 1000 cc d n trnh din c tin hnh thuyt phc cc nh lnh o v li ch kinh t v mi trng ca sn xut sch hn. Cc d n tp trung vo cc ngnh dt may, sn xut giy v bt giy - o to, bi dng, nng cao nng lc cho i ng chuyn gia v sn xut sch hn: o to v phng php lun l mt hot ng cn thit ca cc trung tm quc gia v sn xut sch hn to ra ni lc cho hot ng ny. Vic o to c th thc hin trong cc nh my nh mt phn ca d n tnh din, hoc thng qua cc hi tho, cc bui seminar cho nhng nhm i tng c th. - H tr cho cc cng ty tip cn c vi nhng ngun u t ti chnh cho sn xut sch hn: mt s trung tm tp trung vo vic pht trin mt nng lc trng tm trong vic y mnh cc d n u t sn xut sch hn ph bin cc cng ngh sn xut sch hn ti c nc ang pht trin. hot ng ny c mi lin h gn gi vi nhng nh gi trong nh my. nhng quc gia ny i ng chuyn gia c ang c o to xc nh v xy dng nhng d n u t c th. - Ph bin thng tin k thut: mt trong nhng li th quan trng ca vic thnh lp mng li quc t trong sn xut sch hn chnh l kh nng tip cn vi nhng thng tin cp nht nht. V vy, cc trung tm quc gia c kh nng nhn c v chia s cc thng tin v sn xut quc gi mnh cng nh cc quc gia khc. Nhn thc c tm quan trng ca vic chia s kinh nghip ti cp khu vc, UNEP v UNIDO n lc h tr cho c ch mng li khu vc. + khu vc chu M La Tinh, UNIDO pht trin thnh cng mt chng trnh sn xut sch hn cho vng M La tinh v Caribe. Chng trnh c bt u vo nm 2005 12 quc gia vi s tham gia ca Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuado, El Salvado, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, v Peru. Chng trnh nhm mc tiu to ra mt c ch hiu qu lm thun li hn cho cc hot ng hp tc gia cc trung tm sn xut sch hn, m bo s trao i cc kinh nghim v b quyt sn xut trong sn xut sch hn cng nh cc cng ngh thn thin vi mi trng. iu ny t c thng qua mt cng thng tin trc tuyn (an internet based platform). + khu vc chu Phi, vi s gip ca cc chng trnh ca UNEP, 4 lnh vc tiu th v sn xut bn vng cho khu vc c xc nh, v cc hnh ng c th c bt u. Cc lnh vc u tin chnh l nng lng; nc v v sinh; s pht trin th v ni c tr; v cng nghip da vo nng lng ti to. Cc bin php sn xut sch hn v cc trung tm sn xut sch hn l nhn t ch cht trong vic thc thi k thut ti cc khu vc. Mt kha cnh quan trng khc i vi khu vc ny l s hp tc cht ch vi 2 i tc quan trng l African Roundtable on SCP v Marrakech Task Force on Cooperation B mn qun l mi trng 34

Bi ging sn xut sch hn for Africa, nhng t chc h tr cho vic thc hin chng trnh khung 10 nm ca chu Phi (African 10YFP). - Cung cp cc t vn v chnh sch cho chnh quyn a phng v trung ng: cc chnh ph, ch th l cc nc ang pht trin v cc nc c nn kinh t ang chuyn i, ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic a ra cc chnh sch chung v khung pht trin kinh t cho mt quc gia. V vy, cc trung tm sn xut sch hn c mt vai tr quyt nh trong vic h tr cho cc chnh ph xc nh v pht trin cc cng c chnh sch v kinh t ph hp vi hon cnh ca cc quc gia, khuyn khch cc gii php sn xut sch hn hn l cc gim php x l cui ng ng.
Bng 6. Thi gian hon vn trong thc hin SXSH ti mt s doanh nghip M

Cng nghip SX dc phm

Phng php Gim cht thi Thi gian hon vn Thay dung mi hu c bng 100% <1 nm dung mi nc Ch to thit b Siu lc 100% dung mi 2 nm Ch to t Thay qu trnh lm sch ha hc 100% bn 2 nm bng kh Vi in t Thay lm sch ha hc bng 100% bn 3 nm rung 1.3.3. Sn xut sch hn Vit Nam a. Hin trng T gia nhng nm 80, Chnh ph Vit Nam bt u y mnh cng cuc "cng nghip ha v hin i ha", em li nhng chuyn bin quan trng cho nn kinh t v h thng x hi ca t nc. S pht trin nhanh chng ca cng nghip v th ha ang c khuynh hng tc ng xu n mi trng. Nc thi, kh thi v cht thi rn ang lm nhim thnh ph v cc khu vc tp trung cng nghip. Cuc khng hong kinh t trong khu vc va qua gip chng ta rt ra c nhng bi hc b ch, l cc hot ng bo v mi trng cn c xem xt ngay giai on u tin ca s hoch nh k hoch pht trin kinh t -x hi cp Trung ng. V vy cn sm c cc gii php nghim tc bo v mi trng, trong bao gm c vic ban hnh cc chnh sch v thu, tn dng v c bit l s tng cng v khuyn khch p dng SXSH. Ngy 25 thng 6 nm 1998, B Chnh tr ra Ch th 36-CT/TW v tng cng cng tc bo v mi trng trong thi k cng nghip ha v hin i ha t nc. Ch th c xy dng trn cc nguyn tc ca Chng trnh ngh s 21 p dng vo iu kin c th ca Vit Nam, trong phng nga v ngn chn nhim l nguyn tc ch o trong qun l mi trng cng nghip. Khi nim SXSH c gii thiu v th nghim p dng trong cng nghip u tin nc ta t nm 1995 qua hai d n do quc t ti tr l "SXSH trong cng nghip giy" (1995 -1997) v Gim thiu cht thi trong cng nghip dt H Ni (1995 -1996) do UNEP/NIEM ti Bangkok (Thi Lan) v CIDA-IDRC (Canada) ti tr. Hai d n ny mi dng mc gii thiu khi nim v xc nh tim nng gim thiu cht thi. Tip , cc khi nim "Phng nga nhim", "Hiu sut sinh thi", "Sn xut khng ph thi" v "Nng sut xanh" cng c gii thiu vo nc ta. Mc d di cc tn gi khc nhau, song bn cht ca cc khi nim trn hon ton tng t nhau vi mc ch: "Nng cao hiu qu s dng nguyn liu, nng lng v ch ng ngn chn s to thnh cht thi ngay ti ngun pht sinh ra chng, gim thiu cht nhim i vo mi trng". Vo ngy 22 thng 9 nm 1999, B trng B KHCN&MT (trc y) Chu Tun Nh k Tuyn ngn Quc t v SXSH, khng nh cam kt ca Chnh ph Vit Nam vi chin lc pht trin bn vng. Trong nhng nm va qua, cc hot ng v SXSH nc ta ch yu tp trung vo: B mn qun l mi trng 35

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Ph bin thng tin v nng cao nhn thc; Trnh din k thut nh gi SXSH ti doanh nghip nhm thuyt phc gii cng nghip tip nhn tip cn SXSH vo hot ng sn xut kinh doanh; o to ngun nhn lc v xy dng nng lc quc gia v SXSH; v Xy dng c s php l cho vic xc tin SXSH. Tnh n nm 2005, c gn 200 doanh nghip tham gia cc d n trnh din cc mc khc nhau trong khun kh cc d n quc gia do quc t ti tr hoc cc ti xy dng m hnh SXSH mt s a phng, trong c 47 doanh nghip ch bin thy sn, thc phm v 34 doanh nghip dt nhum. Con s ny cn qu nh so vi s doanh nghip sn xut cng nghip hin c c nc. Tuy nhin nc ta hin v ang hnh thnh xu th ngy cng c thm cc doanh nghip tham gia cc d n v SXSH (hnh 20).

Hnh 25. S cc doanh nghip tham gia vo SXSH Vit Nam trong giai on 1999-2005

Theo bo co ca Trung tm Sn xut sch Vit Nam, tnh hnh thc hin cc d n trnh din hoc nghin cu v SXSH cc a phng cng rt khc nhau (37 tnh/thnh ph). Tnh Nam nh v thnh ph H Ch Minh l 2 a phng c s doanh nghip thc hin thnh cng SXSH nhiu nht. Theo bo co ca 60 doanh nghip thc hin nh gi SXSH di s hng dn ca Trung tm Sn xut sch Vit Nam, cc doanh nghip ny tit kim trn 6 triu USD trong nm trnh din, trong khi tng vn u t thc hin cc gii php SXSH l 1,15 triu USD. Thc t cho thy hu ht cc doanh nghip rt hn ch v vn, nht l cc doanh nghip va v nh. Mt kt qu khc rt l th l nh gi SXSH cng l mt cng c hiu qu trong gii quyt cc vn v an ton v sc kho ngh nghip trong sn xut cng nghip. iu ng ch l ring B Cng nghip trong giai on 2000 -2004 m 20 lp tp hun v SXSH cho 800 lt cn b k thut ca cc doanh nghip v h tr ti chnh cho 78 doanh nghip p dng SXSH. Trong 5 nm qua, hot ng o to ngun nhn lc trong nc c ch ng mc, m in hnh l hot ng ca d n "Trung tm Sn xut sch Vit Nam" (VIE/96/063) o to c trn 100 cn b chuyn su v SXSH cho cc ngnh cng nghip v c quan nghin cu, t vn, trong c khong 30% s cn b ny cung cp t vn v lnh vc SXSH. SXSH/Phng nga nhim trong cng nghip ngy nay tr thnh 1 trong 36 chng trnh u tin ca chin lc quc gia v Bo v mi trng n nm 2010 v nh hng n 2020. Tuy nhin, cng vn cn tn ti nhiu yu km trong cc trnh din k thut v ti nghin cu v SXSH. V d nh s gii php v cng ngh ch chim 5% trong tng s cc gii php c xut v hu nh rt t gii php trong s cc gii php loi ny c thc hin. Thm vo , nhiu bo co nh gi SXSH do cc chuyn gia Vit Nam thc hin cn mang m tnh gio khoa. Nhng tn ti ny cho thy s cn thit phi khn trng xy dng i ng chuyn gia trong nc gii v kin thc v k nng thc hin phng php lun cng vi s

B mn qun l mi trng

36

Bi ging sn xut sch hn


phong ph v kinh nghim thc hin mi c th m bo cht lng dch v v SXSH. y l yu t quan trng trong pht trin th trng dch v v lnh vc SXSH v m bo tnh bn vng ca SXSH. Trn c s phn tch s liu kim ton SXSH ti 60 doanh nghip thuc cc ngnh Giy, Dt, sn xut bia v sn phm kim kh do Trung tm SXSVN thc hin t 1999 -2004, cc chuyn gia quc t v Vit Nam so snh vi cc cng ngh tt nht hin c (BAT =Best Available Technology) chu u c tnh v nhn xt: tim nng SXSH (tc l tim nng gim tiu th nguyn liu, ha cht, nng lng v nc) trong cc doanh nghip Vit Nam l rt ln. Nh vy, SXSH nc ta c th t kt qu cao hn na v c li ch mi trng v li ch kinh t khi cc gii php SXSH c p dng. Song vi thc tin v trnh pht trin v tim lc ti chnh hin nay, thch hp hn c i vi cc doanh nghip nc ta l tm kim cc cng ngh tt nht v hp dn v mt kinh t (BEAT = Best Economically Attractive Technology) trong qu trnh i mi cng ngh (Ng Th Nga, 2005). duy tr v nhn rng cc kt qu t c, d n VIE/04/064 "y mnh cc dch v mi v SXSH thng qua Trung tm Sn xut sch Vit Nam" c SECO (Thu S) ti tr qua UNIDO (2005 - 2007). D n ny m rng phm vi ng dng ca SXSH sang cc vn bc xc khc nh: S dng nng lng hiu qu v c ch pht trin sch (CDM), An ton v sc khe ngh nghip (OHS), Gii trnh trch nhim x hi, Thc hin cc cng c a phng v mi trng. Tuy vy, u tin ln nht ca d n y mnh thc hin SXSH l: nh gi mc lc hu cng ngh v chuyn giao cng ngh sch hn, M rng mng li SXSH Vit Nam, v Xy dng mu hnh sn xut bn vng trong cng nghip. b. Cc thch thc trong vic p dng sn xut sch hn Vit Nam Mc d SXSH c nhiu u vit, song cho n nay SXSH vn cha c p dng mt cch trit trong cc hot ng cng nhip cng nh dch v. Nguyn do c th l: Thi quen ng x trong gii cng nghip c hnh thnh hng trm nm nay, Nng lc thc hin SXSH trong cc doanh nghip cn nhiu hn ch, Cc ro cn v ti chnh, Thiu chnh sch v cc cam kt, h tr ca chnh ph. Vit Nam, mc d xy dng c mt ngun lc nh gi v thc hin SXSH cho cc doanh nghip, tuy nhin do c th ca mt tip cn mang tnh cht t nguyn, SXSH vn cha ph bin rng ri vi cc doanh nghip. Bi hc rt ra t cc doanh nghip tham gia thc hin SXSH trong thi gian va qua cho thy: Cha c s quan tm ng mc v SXSH trong chin lc v chnh sch pht trin cng nghip, thng mi v cng ngh mi trng, Cc cp lnh o cc nh my cha c nhn thc y v SXSH v ngi thay i, Thiu cc chuyn gia v SXSH cc ngnh cng nh cc thng tin k thut. ng thi cng thiu c cc phng tin k thut nh gi hiu qu ca SXSH, Thiu cc ngun ti chnh v c ch ti tr thch hp cho u t theo hng SXSH, Cha c ng lc ca th trng trong nc thc y cc nh cng nghip do vy nh gi SXSH cha thnh nhu cu thc s, Cha c th ch v t chc thc y SXSH i vo thc tin hot ng cng nghip, Bn cnh , kho st ca Trung tm Sn xut sch Vit Nam v thc t u t trin khai cho cc gii php SXSH nm 2003 rt ra c mt s bi hc i vi vic duy tr SXSH ti

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn


cc doanh nghip thc hin tip cn ny, l: Phn ln cc gii php SXSH c thc hin (thng l gii php c chi ph thp) dng tin ni b, khng mun vay ca ngn hng u t cho gii php c chi ph ln v li sut cao, thi hn cho vay ngn v th tc cho vay cn rm r, phc tp, Hu ht cc n v trnh din SXSH trong cc d n khc nhau u ch phn tch li ch kinh t mt ln m khng tnh ton lin tc theo di li ch ca cc nm tip theo, Phn tch li ch y mi ch v mt ti chnh thun ty ca cng ty m cha tnh n li ch kinh t m rng thng qua gim chi ph x hi, tng phc li x hi nh ci thin mi trng lm vic v cht lng mi trng ni chung, Li ch v mt kinh t ca cc gii php cha tnh n li ch do gim chi ph x l cht thi v chi ph x l cht thi cha c tnh vo gi thnh sn xut, C rt nhiu gii php SXSH lm gim nc tiu th nhng li ch kinh t ca cc gii php ny cha c xc nh r rng do hu ht cc doanh nghip t khai thc nc ngm v cha tnh gi cho loi nguyn liu c bit ny, Cc doanh nghip lun mun c s h tr ti chnh thc hin cc gii php SXSH, song h khng mun vay tin ca ngn hng, Mt s cc cng ty lin doanh hay cc cng ty qui m ln c th s dng vn t c u t cho cc gii php SXSH, thm ch c cc gii php c chi ph cao, Cc doanh nghip va v nh khng c kh nng u t cho cc gii php chi ph trung bnh v cao, phi vay ngn hng, Tim nng thc hin SXSH cc doanh nghip va v nh l rt ln do hu ht cc c s ny s dng thit b v cng ngh lc hu, m rng nhiu ln nn thit b khng ng b, chp v, b tr mt bng khng hp l v qun l lng lo, chng cho.

Chng 2. PHNG PHP LUN NH GI SN XUT SCH HN


2.1. TNG QUAN
p dng c SXSH cn phi c phn tch mt cch chi tit v trnh t vn hnh ca qu trnh sn xut cng nh thit b sn xut hay cn gi l nh gi v SXSH (Cleaner Production Assessment: CPA). nh gi SXSH l mt cng c h thng c th gip nhn ra vic s dng nguyn liu khng hiu qu, vic qun l cht thi km, v cc ri ro v bnh ngh

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38

Bi ging sn xut sch hn


nghip bng cch tp trung ch vo cc kha cnh mi trng v cc tc ng ca cc qu trnh sn xut cng nghip. Vic nh gi sn xut sch hn tp trung vo:

Cc cht thi v pht thi c pht sinh u; Cc tht thi v pht thi c pht sinh do nguyn nhn no; Gim thiu cc cht thi v pht thi nh no nh gi sn xut sch hn l mt tip cn c h thng kim tra qu trnh sn xut hin ti v xc nh cc c hi ci thin qu trnh hoc sn phm.
Hin nay, c mt s thut ng tng ng hin ang c s dng th hin phng php lun SXSH nh: Kim ton gim thiu cht thi (Waste Minimization Audit), nh gi gim thiu cht thi (Waste Minimization Assessment), Hng dn phng nga nhim (Pollution Prevention Guide),... c nhiu cm nang, hng dn nh gi SXSH vi cc mc chi tit khc nhau c xut v p dng bi cc t chc quc t, quc gia v c s nghin cu. Tuy nhin, tt c u c chung ngha: l "con ng" n SXSH; tng v khi nim c bn l hu nh ging nhau. Di y l mt s v d v cc cm nang, hng dn c s dng ph bin: (1). nh gi c hi gim thiu cht thi, US EPA 1988. (Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment, US EPA 1988) (2). Hng dn phng nga nhim, US. EPA 1992. (Facility Pollution Prevention Guide, US. EPA 1992) (3). Ti liu hng dn cho cc Trung tm Quc gia SXSH -Cm nang nh gi SXSH. (Bn tho) UNEP/UNIDO 1995. (Guidance Material for the UNEP/UNIDO National Cleaner Production Centres. Cleaner Production Assessment Manual. Draft 1995) (4). Cm nang PREPARE cho phng nga cht thi v pht thi. B Kinh t H Lan 1991. (PREPARE Manual for the Prevention of Waste and Emissions, Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs 1991) (5). Cm nang kim ton v gim thiu cc cht thi v pht thi cng nghip. Bo co k thut s 7, UNEP/UNIDO 1991. (Audit and Reduction Manual for Industrial Emissions and Waste, Technical Report Series No 7, UNEP/UNIDO 1991) (6). Quy trnh kim ton cht thi DESIRE. UB Nng sut Quc gia n , 1994. (DESIRE Procedure for waste audit. India NPC, 1994) Nhn chung, cc cm nang-hng dn tuy khc nhau v thut ng, di ngn, ni dung c th nhng c cng tng chnh: tng quan ton b quy trnh sn xut ca 1 nh my nhn ra nhng ch, nhng cng on c th lm gim c s tiu th ti nguyn, cc nguyn liu

Trong chng ny s gii thiu chi tit quy trnh DESIRE (s cho hnh 26).

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39

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 26. S cc bc kim ton gim thiu cht thi DESIRE

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 27. S kim ton cht thi ca UNEP/UNIDO (1991)

2.2. QUY TRNH DESIRE Nm 1993, y ban Nng sut quc gia n thc hin d n "Trnh din gim cht thi ti cc ngnh cng nghip nh" (DESIRE = Desmontration in Small Industries of Reducing Waste). Quy trnh kim ton cht thi c pht trin trong khun kh D n v c p dng rng ri. Phng php lun DESIRE gm 6 giai on -18 nhim v nh s B mn qun l mi trng 41

Bi ging sn xut sch hn hnh 26 Cc giai on ca nh gi SXSH theo DESIRE c trnh by chi tit nh di y. 2.2.1. Giai on 1 - Khi ng Mc ch ca giai on ny l lp k hoch v t chc kim ton SXSH v c th tm lc theo s sau:

Nhim v 1: Thnh lp nhm SXSH (hay nhm kim ton gim thiu cht thi) Thnh phn in hnh ca mt nhm cng tc SXSH nn bao gm i din ca: Cp lnh o doanh nghip (Ban Gim c cng ty, nh my), Cc b phn sn xut (x nghip, phn xng), B phn ti chnh, vt t, b phn k thut, Cc chuyn gia SXSH (ty yu cu, c th mi cc chuyn gia SXSH bn ngoi). Quy m v thnh phn ca nhm cng tc ph hp vi c cu t chc ca doanh nghip. Cn phi c mt nhm trng iu phi ton b chng trnh kim ton v cc hot ng cn thit khc. Mi thnh vin trong nhm cng tc s c ch nh mt nhim v c th, nhng t chc ca nhm cng linh hot cng tt vic trao i thng tin c d dng. Nhm cng tc phi ra c cc mc tiu nh hung lu di cho chng trnh SXSH. nh ra tt cc mc tiu s gip tp trung n lc v xy dng c s ng lng. Cc mc tiu phi ph hp vi chnh sch ca doanh nghip, c tnh hin thc. Nhim v 2: Lit k cc cng on ca qu trnh sn xut Cn tng quan tt c cc cng on bao gm sn xut, vn chuyn, bo qun,... Ch c bit n cc hot ng theo chu k, v d cc qu trnh lm sch,... Thu thp s liu xc nh nh mc (cng sut, tiu th nguyn liu, nc, NLng,...) Nhim v 3: Xc nh v chn ra cc cng on gy lng ph nhim v ny, nhm cng tc khng cn i vo chi tit m phi nh gi din rng tt c cc cng on ca qu trnh sn xut v lng cht thi, mc tc ng n mi trng, cc c hi SXSH d kin, cc li ch d on,... Nhng nh gi nh vy l hu ch B mn qun l mi trng 42

Bi ging sn xut sch hn t trng tm vo mt hay mt s cng on sn xut (trng tm kim ton) s phn tch chi tit hn. bc ny, vic tnh ton cc nh mc (benchmark) l rt cn thit nh: Tiu th nguyn liu: tn nguyn liu/tn sn phm Tiu th nng lng: kWh/tn sn phm Tiu th nc: m3 nc/tn sn phm Lng nc thi: m3 nc thi/tn sn phm Lng pht thi kh: kg/tn sn phm,... Cc nh mc thu c khi so snh s b vi cc cng ty khc v vi cng ngh tt nht hin c (BAT = Best Available Technology) s cho php c tnh tim nng SXSH ca n v kim ton. Cc tiu ch xc nh trng tm kim ton: Gy nhim nng (nh mc nc thi/pht thi cao), Tn tht nguyn liu cao, tn tht ha cht, nh mc tiu th nguyn liu/nng lng cao, C s dng cc ha cht c hi, c la chn bi a s cc thnh vin trong nhm SXSH. 2.2.2. Giai on 2 - Phn tch cc cng on Nhim v 4: Chun b s dng ca qu trnh sn xut Lp ra mt s dng gii thiu cc cng on ca qu trnh la chn (trng tm kim ton) nhm xc nh tt c cc cng on v ngun gy ra cht thi. S ny cn lit k v m t dng vo - dng ra i vi tng cng on. Vic thit lp s chnh xc thng khng d, nhng li l nhim v rt quan trng quyt nh n s thng sut ca qu trnh. Trong hnh 2.3 m t mt khun mu in hnh cho s dng ca qu trnh sn xut.

Hnh 28. Mu in hnh mt s dng qu trnh sn xut

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 29. S dng qu trnh thuc da

Nhim v 5: Lp cn bng vt cht v nng lng Cn bng vt cht v nng lng l cn thit nh lng s dng v nhn ra cc tn tht cng nh cht thi trong qu trnh sn xut. Ngoi ra, cn bng vt cht cn s dng gim st vic thc hin cc gii php SXSH sau ny. Cn bng vt cht (CBVC) c th l: cn bng cho ton b h thng hay cn bng cho tng cng on thm ch tng thit b; cn bng cho tt c vt cht hay cn bng cho tng thnh phn nguyn liu (v d nh cn bng nc trong cng nghip giy, cn bng du trong cng nghip du c, cn bng crom trong cng nghip thuc da). Tuy nhin, CBVC s d dng hn, c ngha hn v chnh xc hn khi n c thc hin cho tng khu vc, cc hot ng hay cc qu trnh sn xut ring bit. Da trn nhng c s ny, CBVC ca ton b nh my s c xy dng nn. B mn qun l mi trng 44

Bi ging sn xut sch hn thit lp cn bng vt cht v nng lng, cc ngun s liu sau l cn thit: Bo co sn xut Bo co tc ng mi trng Cc bo co mua vo v bn ra Cc o c trc tip ti ch. Nhng iu cn lu khi lp cn bng vt cht v nng lng: Cc s liu i hi phi c tin cy, chnh xc v tnh i din. Khng c b st bt k dng thi quan trng no nh pht thi kh, sn phm ph,... Phi kim tra tnh thng nht ca cc n v o s dng Nguyn liu cng t v c hi, cn bng cng phi chnh xc Kim tra cho c th gip tm ra nhng im mu thun. Trong trng hp khng th o dc, hy c tnh mt cch chnh xc nht. Di y l cc v d n gin v cn bng vt cht cho ton b qu trnh sn xut v cho mt thit b. Cc v d tng t v chi tit s c cp trong chng 3 v bi tp. V d 1: Cn bng vt cht cho mt cn xi mng

V d 2: Cn bng vt cht ca 1hl bia mt nh my tiu th t in v nc

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn V d 3. Cn bng nng lng ca ni hi

Nhim v 6: Xc nh chi ph cho cc dng thi Mt c tnh s b c th tin hnh bng cch tnh ton chi ph nguyn liu v cc sn phm trung gian mt theo dng thi (v d mt mt si trong sn xut giy v bt giy). Phn tch chi tit hn c th tm ra chi ph b sung ca nguyn liu to ra cht thi, chi ph ca sn phm nm trong cht thi, chi ph thi b cht thi, thu cht thi,... V d: cc mc chi ph cho nc thi trong sn xut giy: Thnh phn C s tnh ton Ha cht nu bt cn d Gi mua ha cht Mt mt si Gi si trung gian Mt mt nhit Gi nng lng (tnh t gi tr calo) Lng nc Gi nc Lng COD Chi ph x l v thi b (nu c) Vic xc nh chi ph cho dng thi hay tn tht gip to ra kh nng xp hng cc vn theo tm mc kinh t v ch ra cn u t bao nhiu gii quyt hay gim nh vn . Nhim v 7: Thm nh qu trnh xc nh nguyn nhn sinh ra cht thi Mc ch ca nhim v ny l qua phn tch tm ra cc nguyn nhn thc t hay n gy ra cc tn tht v t c th xut cc c hi tt nht cho cc vn thc t. Khng cn phn tch nguyn nhn i vi cc vn c gii php ngay v hiu qu. tm ra nguyn nhn, cn t ra cc cu hi Ti sao...?, v d: Ti sao tn ti dng cht thi ny? Ti sao tiu th nguyn liu, ha cht v nng lng cao nh vy? Ti sao cht thi c to ra nhiu ? ....

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 30. S thm nh qu trnh xc nh nguyn nhn sinh ra cht thi

2.2.3. Giai on 3 - xut cc c hi (gii php) gim thiu cht thi

Nhim v 8: Xy dng cc c hi gim thiu cht thi (GTCT) Cc c hi GTCT c a ra trn c s: S ng no, kin thc v tnh sng to ca cc thnh vin trong nhm, Tranh th kin t cc c nhn bn ngoi nhm (ngi lm vic cc dy chuyn tng t, cc nh cung cp thit b, cc k s t vn,...), Kho st cng ngh v thu thp thng tin v cc nh mc t cc c s nc ngoi. Phn loi cc c hi GTCT cho mi qu trnh/dng thi vo cc nhm: (1). Thay th nguyn liu (5). Thay i cng ngh (2). Qun l ni vi tt hn (6). Thu hi v tun hon ti ch (3). Kim sot qu trnh tt hn (7). Sn xut sn phm ph hu ch (4). Ci tin thit b (8). Ci tin sn phm B mn qun l mi trng 47

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Nhim v 9: La chn cc c hi c th thc hin c Cc c hi SXSH ra trn c sng lc loi i cc trng hp khng thc t. Qu trnh loi b phi n gin, nhanh v d hiu, thng ch cn nh tnh. Cc c hi s c phn chia thnh: C hi kh thi thy r, c th thc hin ngay, C hi khng kh thi thy r, loi b ngay, Cc c hi cn li - s c nghin cu tnh kh thi chi tit hn. 2.2.4. Giai on 4 - La chn gii php gim thiu cht thi

Nhim v 10: nh gi tnh kh thi v k thut thc hin nhim v ny, cn phi nh gi tc ng ca c hi SXSH d kin n qu trnh sn xut, sn phm, tc sn xut, an ton,... Ngoi ra, cng cn phi lit k ra nhng thay i k thut thc hin c hi SXSH ny. Danh mc cc yu t k thut nh gi: Cht lng sn phm Cng sut Yu cu v din tch Thi gian ngng sn xut lp t Tnh tng thch vi cc thit b ang dng Cc yu cu v vn hnh v bo dng Nhu cu hun luyn k thut Kha cnh an ton v sc khe ngh nghip - Cc li ch sau cng c a vo nh mt phn ca nghin cu kh thi k thut: Gim lng nc v nng lng tiu th; Gim nguyn liu tiu th; Gim cht thi. Nhim v 11: nh gi tnh kh thi v kinh t i vi cc doanh nghip va v nh, tnh kh thi v kinh t l thng s quan trng nht nh gi cc c hi SXSH. Cn u tin trc ht cc c hi c chi ph thp. B mn qun l mi trng 48

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Cc cng vic cn lm: Thu thp s liu v: Cc chi ph u t (thit b, xy dng/ lp t, hun luyn/o to, khi ng, ngng sn xut,...) Chi ph vn hnh Cc khon tit kim/thu li (v tiu th nguyn liu, cng lao ng, tiu th nng lng/nc, bn cc sn phm,...) La chn cc tiu ch nh gi v kinh t: c cp n sau. Tnh ton kinh t. V tiu ch nh gi: Trc ht cn lm quen vi khi nim dng tin v thi gian ca dng tin qua cc v d sau: V d 1 v dng tin Dng ra (Tin tiu i) Dng vo (Tin thu v) Mt ln Chi ph u t ban u Gi tr cn li ca thit b Hng nm Chi ph vn hnh v thu Doanh thu v tit kim khi vn hnh
Khc Vn lu ng V d 2 v thi gian ca cc dng tin Vn lu ng

V d 3 v dng tin bng bng

Lu : Khi chng ta u t cho mt gii php SXSH hay mt d n, chng ta c: Mt khon u t ban u HM NAY Mt lot dng tin (vo ra) trong TNG LAI, d tnh s b li khon u t hin ti

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn -Trc khi c th so snh cc dng tin cc nm khc nhau, chng ta cn quy i chng v cng mt mt bng gi tr ti mt nm duy nht. -Cch n gin nht l quy i cc dng tin ca d n v thi im hin ti khi bt u thc hin d n thng qua phng php chit khu.

PV (Present Value): Gi tr dng tin thi im gc, tc l lc bt u d n FVt (Future Value): Gi tr dng tin trong nm t r: T l chit khu (thng tnh theo li sut ngn hng) t: S nm t khi bt u d n 1) Vi cc gii php c chi ph thp hay trung bnh Thi gian hon vn (payback period) C th s dng tiu ch n gin l thi gian hon vn nh gi. Thi gian hon vn l thi gian cn thit cc dng tin tng lai d tnh c th hon li c dng tin u t ban u. Thi gian hon vn c s dng ch yu nh gi cc u t v thit b khi thi gian hon vn ngn (1-3 nm) v khng cn thit phi dng n cc phng php nh gi chi tit hn. Thi gian hon vn gin n Nu dng tin tng lai c tnh c nh bng nhau, th thi gian hon vn gin n s l:

Trong : Vn u t bao gm: Thit b, lp t, hun luyn, o to, khi ng, v.v. . . Tit kim chi ph thc hng nm: bn sn phm, nhn cng, vt liu th, nc, nng lng, v.v... Nu cc dng tin tng lai ca cc nm c tnh khng bng nhau th s dng phng php cng dn. Gi l thi gian hon vn n gin v khng tnh n chit khu ca cc dng tin tng lai. Thi gian hon vn cng ngn th c hi SXSH xem xt cng kh thi. Thi gian hon vn chit khu: Thi gian hon vn c th c tnh bng cch da trn nhng dng tin tng lai c chit khu. Cch tnh ny chnh xc hn bi v n nhn nhn gi tr thi gian ca ng tin. C th s dng phng php cng dn tnh Thi gian hon vn chit khu.

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn Thi gian hon vn chit khu c chit khu ca mt d n s di hn Thi gian hon vn gin n ca n. 2) Vi cc gii php c chi ph cao Vi cc gii php c chi ph cao, cn phi chi tit hn - tc l phi tnh n li sut/ chit khu. Khi ngi ta thng dng 3 tiu ch sau: a. Gi tr hin ti rng ca u t cho SXSH (NPV = Net Present Value). -Khi tin hnh so snh gia li ch v chi ph u t SXSH, phn nh ng bn cht ca n ngi ta a tt c cc gi tr li ch cng nh chi ph v mt thi im so snh. Thi im so snh thng tnh l nm d n bt u hot ng. Cc gi tr v li ch v chi ph khi a v thi im so snh phi c chit khu thng qua li sut chit khu (r) thng bng vi li sut ngn hng. -Hiu s ca hin gi li ch v chi ph c gi l gi tr hin ti rng ca d n (NPV). Gi tr hin ti rng NPV cho chng ta bit quy m ca khon thu nhp rng m u t cho SXSH c th mang li sau khi hon vn u t ban u tnh theo thi gi hin ti. Do vy NPV = hin gi li ch - hin gi chi ph phi ln hn 0 th gii php u t SXSH xem xt mi l kh thi v kinh t. -Khi c s la chn gia cc gii php SXSH khc nhau, gii php no c NPV cao nht s c chn thc hin.

Trong : Bt: Li ch nm th t Ct: Chi ph nm th t Co : Chi ph u t ban u t: thi gian tnh t nm gc n: Vng i d n r: t sut chit khu (hay li sut ngn hng r)
Bng 7.Thm nh ti chnh d n u t sn xut sch hn: tnh gi tr hin ti rng

Nm 0 1 2 3 4 5 u t ban u -1700$ Chi ph vn hnh -100$ -100$ -100$ -100$ -100$ Chi ph khc 600 $ 600 $ 600 $ 600 $ 600 $ Tit kim chi ph rng 500 $ 500 $ 500 $ 500 $ 500 $ Tit kim chi ph rng 463 $ 429 $ 379 $ 368 $ 340 $ chit khu (r=8%) Tng chi ph rng 1.996 $ chit khu Gi tr hin ti rng 296 $ NPV Ch s sinh li (NPV/ 17,41% I) b. T s thu hi vn ni ti hay h s hon vn ni ti (IRR = Internal Rate of Return)

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn IRR chnh l li sut chit khu (r) m ng vi n tng gi tr hin ti ca cc khon thu li bng tng hin gi vn u t hay:

IRR phi ln hn li sut ngn hng r th gii php SXSH mi c thc hin v IRR cng cao th gii php SXSH cng d chp nhn. c. T s li ch-chi ph (BCR = Benefits Cost Ratio) T s ny cho bit mi tng quan gia gi tr hin ti ca thu nhp (doanh thu) v gi tr hin ti ca chi ph (gi thnh).

Nu BCR>1 th gim php xem xt l kh thi v kinh t Nhim v 12: nh gi kha cnh mi trng Trong a s trng hp, nht l vi cc c hi SXSH lin quan n qun l ni vi v ci tin hiu qu, cc li ch v mi trng l kh r (gim cht thi). Tuy nhin, vi nhng trng hp phc tp nh thay i nguyn liu, sn phm hay qu trnh th vic nh gi cc kha cnh mi trng cn c quan tm. Cn ch cc kha cnh mi trng: nh hng ln s lng v c tnh ca cc dng thi Nguy c chuyn sang mi trng khc Tc ng mi trng ca cc nguyn liu thay th Tiu th nng lng. Nhng tiu ch ci thin mi trng thc s l: Gim tng lng cht nhim Gim c tnh ca dng thi hay pht thi cn li Gim s dng nguyn liu khng ti to hay c hi Gim tiu th nng lng. Nhim v 13: La chn gii php s thc hin Kt hp cc kt qu nh gi kh thi v k thut, kinh t, mi trng la chn gii php SXSH cho vic thc hin tip sau. Mt trong cc phng php la chn s b cc c hi GTCT l phng php Ly tng c trng s . 2.2.5. Giai on 5 - thc thi gii php gim thiu cht thi Mt s cc gii php c th thc hin ngay sau khi c xc lp (v d sa cha cc ch r r v buc tun th cc quy trnh cng tc), trong khi mt s khc i hi phi c mt k hoch h thng thc hin. Nhim v 14: Chun b thc hin bo m thc hin tt cc c hi SXSH, mt k hoch hnh ng (action plan) phi c xy dng. Mt k hoch hnh ng phi gm: Cc hot ng g s c tin hnh? Cc hot ng phi tin hnh nh th no? Cc ngun ti chnh v cc nhu cu v nhn lc tin hnh cc hot ng? B mn qun l mi trng 52

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Ai s chu trch nhim qun l cc hot ng? Gim st cc ci tin bng cch no? Thi gian biu? V d vi gii php thay i thit b, cc ni dung chun b c th gm : Ghi ra cc tnh nng k thut chi tit ca thit b Chun b mt k hoch xy dng chi tit So snh v la chn thit b t cc nh cung cp khc nhau Lp k hoch thch hp gim thiu thi gian lp t D nhin k hoch hnh ng phi c cp qun l thng qua trc khi thc hin. Nhim v 15: Thc hin gii php gim thiu cht thi Cn ch rng t c kt qu ti u th vic o to ngun nhn lc ni b (cn b, cng nhn) khng c php b qua m phi xem l mt cng tc quan trng. Nhu cu o to phi c xc nh trong khi nh gi jh thi v mt k thut. c th p dng SXSH mt cch hiu qu v t duy tr c th cn phi thc hin phng php c thit k ph hp vi c s, ngnh . Thc hin trn c s tng phn mt c th t c ngay cc kt qu ngn hn nhng s khng duy tr c lu. Nhim v 16: Gim st v nh gi kt qu Vic gim st v nh gi nhm tm ra cc nguyn nhn lm sai lch (nu c) ca kt qu t c so vi kt qu d kin v thng tin n cp qun l duy tr s cam kt ca h vi SXSH. Vic gim st v nh gi t c bng cch so snh kt qu trc v sau khi thc hin gii php SXSH v tiu th nguyn liu, nng lng, s pht sinh cht thi,...

2.2.6. Giai on 6 - Duy tr gii php gim thiu cht thi Nhm cng tc SXSH vn cn trch nhim sau khi thc hin cc gii php SXSH nhm duy tr gii php v tip tc lm gim cht thi, tng li nhun trong tng lai. Nhim v 17: Duy tr cc gii php gim thiu cht thi B mn qun l mi trng 53

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Thng thng trong cc lnh vc nh qun l ni vi hay ti u ha qu trnh, ngi lao ng thng hay c xu hng quay tr li vi cc hot ng v gy lng ph nu khng thng xuyn to ra ng c duy tr cc hot ng ci tin. Mt s bin php c th bo m cho ngi lao ng tip tc tham gia v cc thnh tu t c nh tin thng, bng khen, ... Nhim v 18: Tip tc xc nh v chn ra cc cng on gy lng ph Trong khi ang ci thin hot ng mi trung ca qu trnh lng ph la chn, phi la chn qu trnh mi lm trng tm cho qu trnh kim tan SXSH tip theo. Trng tm kim ton mi la chn s li l i tng ca cc nhim v bt u t giai on 2.

Chng 3. H THNG QUN L MI TRNG THEO ISO 14001


B mn qun l mi trng 54

Bi ging sn xut sch hn 3.1. GII THIU CHUNG V B TIU CHUN ISO 14000 3.1.1. Ngun gc ca tiu chun ISO14000 Mt trong nhng nh hot ng x hi cp n vic bo v mi trng l Rachel Carson, mt nh sinh vt bin. Cun sch "Ma xun yn tnh" nm 1962 ca b rt ni ting trong vic khuyn khch mi ngi trn ton th gii quan tm n sinh thi. Trong nhng nm 60 v u nhng nm 70, ngi ta nhn thy rng th gii s gp phi cc vn nghim trng nu h sinh thi ca hnh tinh khng c quan tm ng mc. Cht lng khng kh nhng khu vc ng dn trn ton cu b ph hu n mc bo ng. Rt nhiu dng sng trn th gii b nhim gy nh hng n i sng bin. Do ngun nc tr nn khng an ton con ngi c th s dng vi cc mc ch khc nhau na. Thm ch nc ma, ngun nc thng c coi l trong sch nht tr thnh ngun gy c cho cc loi thc vt, nhim cc dng sng v ph hu cc thit b t do nc ma c tnh a xt. Mt bc tranh ton cnh truyn t v tinh cho thy rng nhim mi trng ang din ra khp mi ni trn tri t. S nhim hnh tinh do hot ng ca con ngi tr thnh mt vn nghim trng i vi mi ngi. nhim mi trng khng phi l mt vn mi. nhim mi trng do hot ng ca con ngi tn ti t khi con ngi mi xut hin trn tri t. Tuy nhin, c th thy s lin h gia vic nhim rng ri trn ton th gii v cuc cch mng v cng nghip. Trong th k 19 v hn na u ca th k 20, cc nh my mc ln trn khp cc thnh ph. Vic tiu dng ca cc khu dch v, cc ca hng v cc cn h hng ngy thi ra hng lot cc cht thi vo khng kh, vo cc dng sng, dng sui v t. Khi dn s khng nhiu, th vn tc ng ca dn s i vi mi trng ch l vn nh, khng cn quan tm ti. Tuy nhin, trong nhng nm gn y, cng vi vic nhn ln ca cc nh my ti cc thnh ph, vic tng s lng ca vic s dng cc cht c hi nh thuc tr cn trng, thuc tr c v phn bn ho hc, vi nh hng ca mi c nhn trong vic to ra nhim mi trng t vic mu sinh ca mnh (ch yu thng qua vic s dng cc nguyn liu ho thch v vi vic cc ngun gy nguy hi cho h sinh thi ngy cng nhiu, s l i cc vn tn ti khng phi l mt gii php na. Dn s th gii tng t 2.5 t nm 1950 ln gn 6 t vo nhng nm cui ca th k XX. Vic tng dn s to ra hu qu ko theo n l nhu cu khai thc v s dng ngy cng nhiu cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin cng nn nhim mi trng ngy cng nghim trng. V vy, chng ta cn kim sot s gia tng dn s trong gii hn chu ti ca mi trng, cng nh y mnh vic ng dng cc thnh tu ca khoa hc cng ngh vo i sng v sn xut mt mt nhm gim lng ti nguyn thin nhin b khai thc, mt khc gp phn vo vic ngn nga hn ch cng nh x l nhim mi trng khi chng xy ra. Vo gia nhng nm 80, vic quan tm n mi trng tr ln quan trng. Tng zn bo v mi trng ang b suy thoi, v ng thi tng kh quyn cng b nh hng bi s gia tng hiu ng nh knh t dn n hin tng nng ln ton cu. Quan im ca cc nh khoa hc khc nhau v vic suy gim tng ozon. Mt s nh khoa hc nhn mnh rng vic tip tc s dng chlorofluorocarbons s ph hu tng ozon. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) c thy ph bin trong ngnh cng nghip dung mi, h thng iu ho v gn y thy trong cc thng cha sn, thuc xt tc v cc sn phm khc. Vic suy gim tng ozon c th gy ung th da. Tng t nh vy, nu chng ta tip tc t cc sn phm t cc nguyn liu ho thch (than, cc sn phm du m) vi mc nh hin nay hoc cao hn, mm cc bng c th tan chy v dn n ngp lt trn ton th gii. Cc nh khoa hc khng th nht tr vi quan im vic nng ln ton cu do con ngi gy ra. Trong khi mt nhm cho rng nhit tri t l tun hon theo cc chu k ngn v di v chu k ny rt r rt. Mt nhm khc, khi thu thp kin t cc phng tin thng tin i chng v cc chnh ph khc nhau cho rng s thay i kh hu rt r rt B mn qun l mi trng 55

Bi ging sn xut sch hn v iu do con ngi gy nn. C th thy rt r rng rng mi trng v ang b con ngi ph hu v cc h thng sinh thi ca tri t cn c quan tm hn. Vn mi trng ang ngy cng c cc quc gia quan tm. Lut bo v mi trng ca M c Quc hi thng qua vo nm 1969, c quan bo v mi trng Hoa k c thit lp. M triu tp hi ngh v mi trng ti Stockhom nm 1971. Hai kt qu quan trng c c t hi ngh ny: Th nht, chng trnh mi trng (UNEP) ca M c thit lp. UNEP s ph trch vn thc y trch nhim v nhn thc mi trng trn ton th gii. Nhim v ca UNEP l thng tin n ton th gii v vn mi trng. Th hai, hi ng th gii v mi trng v pht trin (WCED) c thit lp. Nm 1987, WCED xut bn mt bo co ku gi cc ngnh cng nghip xy dng h thng qun l mi trng hiu qu. Cng vo nm 1987, mt cuc hp ton th gii c t chc ti Montreal xy dng tho thun cn thit cho vic cm sn xut cc ho cht ph hu tng ozn. Kt qu ca bo co ca WCED l hi ngh v mi trng v pht trin ca M nm 1992 (cn gi l Hi ngh thng nh v tri t) Rio de Janeiro. chun b cho hi ngh ny v ghi nhn s thnh cng ca vic pht trin tiu chun ISO 9000 - h thng qun l cht lng, T chc tiu chun ho quc t (ISO) c ngh tham d. Trong giai on chun b cho Cng c Lin hp quc v mi trng v pht trin ti Rio de Rianeiro, Braxin, u ban kinh t v pht trin bn vng i ti kt lun rng gii kinh doanh cn pht trin mi h thng tiu chun quc t v mc nh hng ln mi trng nhm m bo rng cc cng ty hot ng trn th gii s tun th theo nhng quy nh v mi trng, qua to nn mt sn chi bnh ng. Nhng pht hin mi ny lm thay i cch suy ngh lc by gi ca COPOLCO (mt u ban ca ISO v quyn li khch hng) cho rng bt buc phi kt hp trn phm vi ton Th gii cc sng kin trong lnh vc trao danh hiu sinh thi. Hai ngun ng lc ny cng vi nhng p lc khc khin ISO i n kt lun rng vic xy dng mt h thng tiu chun Quc t v qun l mi trng l rt cn thit nhm bo v mi trng v tng lai ca thng mi Quc t. V l do , nm 1991, ISO thnh lp nhm c vn chin lc v mi trng (SAGE) iu tra tt c cc lnh vc thuc qun l mi trng v nhng tc ng ln mi trng ti nhng ni m nhng tiu chun quc t c li cho hot ng kinh doanh. Mc d chc nng ca nhm c vn vhin lc v mi trng khng phi l pht trin nhng tiu chun nhng n c th ngh ISO thnh lp mt u ban k thut mi chuyn son tho nhng tiu chun quc t v qun l mi trng. SAGE cho rng vic nhm ISO xy dng tiu chun qun l mi trng quc t v cc cng c thc hin v nh gi l rt thch hp. ISO cam kt thit lp tiu chun qun l mi trng quc t ti hi ngh thng nh ti Rio de Janeiro nm 1992. 3.1.2. Qu trnh xy dng b tiu chun ISO 14000 Nh trnh by trn, ti hi ngh thng nh ti Rio de Janeiro nm 1992 t chc tiu chun quc t ISO cam kt tin hnh thit lp tiu chun quc t v qun l mi trng. Mt lot cc cng vic lin quan n cc tiu chun mi trng c bt u vo nm 1992 khi ISO thnh lp U ban k thut 207 (TC 207) l c quan s chu trch nhim xy dng cc tiu chun ISO 14000 v h thng qun l mi trng quc t v cc cng c cn thit thc hin h thng ny. Phm vi c th ca TC 207 l xy dng mt h thng qun l mi trng ng nht v a ra cc cng c thc hin h thng ny. Cng vic ca TC 207 c chia ra trong 6 tiu ban v 1 nhm lm vic c bit. Canada l ban th k ca U ban k thut TC 207 v 6 quc gia khc ng u 6 tiu ban. Nhng cng vic khng thuc phm vi ca TC 207 l cc cng vic lin quan n cc phung php kim tra nhim, a ra cc gii hn nhim v thit lp cc mc nh gi hiu qu hot ng. Vic ny trnh cho TC 207 lin quan n cc cng vic ch yu thuc thm quyn ca cc c quan lut php. B mn qun l mi trng 56

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

ISO/TC 207 Qun l mi trng Ban th k CANADA

SC1 H thng QLMT

SC2 Kim nh MT

SC NhnMT

SC4 nh gi cng tc MT

SC5 nh gi vng i sn phm

SC6 Thut ng,nh ngha

SC7 Cc kha cnh ca sp

Anh WG1 c tnh

H Lan
WG1 Cc nguyn tc

c
WG1 Nguyn tc chung

M
WG1 nh gi cng tc MT cho HTQL

Php
WG1 Nguyn tc chung, cc th thc cho LCA

Na Uy

WG2 Hng dn

WG2 Th thc kim nh

WG2 T khai bo, t cng b

WG1 nh gi cng tc MT cho HTH

WG2 Phn tch kim k chu trnh chuyn ha (phn chung)

WG3 Trnh ca kim nh vin

WG3 Hng dn cc nguyn tc

WG3 Phn tch kim k chu trnh chuyn ha (Phn ring)

WG1 nh gi ti ch MT

WG4 Phn tch nh hng ca chu trnh chuyn ha

WG5 nh gi, ci thin chu trnh chuyn ha

Hnh 31. S tiu ban TC 207

Ban K thut TC 207 c thnh lp t cc thnh vin ca ISO. Nh vy, v nguyn tc c th c cc on i din ca cc quc gia tham gia vo vic son tho cc tiu chun trong ISO 14000. S nc tham gia vo TC 207 ngy cng tng, c n 64 nc tham gia vo cuc hp ln u tin t chc vo thng 6 nm 1995 chim gn 60% tng s cc thnh vin ca ISO. Mi nc thnh vin c th tham gia tch cc vo tin trnh xy dng tiu chun hoc l nc quan st vin. Nc quan st vin khng c quyn biu quyt song c quyn B mn qun l mi trng 57

Bi ging sn xut sch hn tham d cc cuc hp v c thng bo bng th tn. Cc nc thnh vin tham gia c cc c quan thnh vin ISO, chu trch nhim xy dng tiu chun ca nc mnh. Nhng c quan ny phn ln l cc c quan nh nc. Cc t chc quc t lin lc vi ISO cng tham gia vo cng vic hoc quan st cng vic ca ISO. Tng t nh tiu chun cht lng ISO 9000, tiu chun v h thng qun l mi trng tp trung vo h thng qun l hn l cc hot ng k thut. Do , tiu chun ISO 14000 c th c cu trc tng t nh tiu chun ISO 9000. Ban K thut 207 v 176 (ban k thut xy dng tiu chun ISO 9000) cng lm vic v s dng cc bi hc t qu trnh xy dng v p dng tiu chun ISO 9000 v xy dng tiu chun ISO 14000 da trn nn tng tiu chun ny. ISO mun tm kim tiu chun mi tng t v c cu v trit l nhng ni p dng tiu chun ISO 9000 c th xy dng h thng qun l cht lng ca mnh song song vi tiu chun ISO 14000. y l tng rt ph hp trong tng lai, v c th s dng kt hp hai tiu chun ny vi tiu chun an ton v sc kho ngh nghip. 3.1.3. Mc ch ca ISO 14000 Mc ch tng th ca tiu chun quc t ny l h tr trong vic bo v mi trng v kim sot nhim p ng vi yu cu ca kinh t x hi. Mc ch c bn ca ISO 14000 l h tr cc t chc trong vic phng trnh cc nh hng mi trng pht sinh t hot ng, sn phm hoc dch v ca t chc. Hn na, t chc thc hin ISO 14000 c th m bo rng cc hot ng mi trng ca mnh p ng v s tip tc p ng vi cc yu cu lut php. ISO 14000 c gng t c mc ch ny bng cch cung cp cho t chc "cc yu t ca mt HTQLMT c hiu qu". ISO 14000 khng thit lp hay bt buc theo cc yu cu v hot ng mi trng mt cch c th. Cc chc nng ny thuc t chc v cc n v ph trch v php lut trong phm vi hot ng ca t chc. 3.1.4. Phm vi ca ISO 14000 Phm vi iu chnh ca b tiu chun ISO/TC207 v ISO 14000 l nhng tiu chun trong lnh vc thit b v h thng qun l mi trng phm vi ny khng bao gm: - Phng php thanh tra nhng yu t gy nhim; - Nhng hn ch i vi nhng yu t gy nhim v nhng nh hng; - Mc tc ng n mi trng; - Tiu chun ho sn phm. T phm vi trn, ta c th thy r rng b tiu chun ISO 14000 khng lin quan n nhng quy nh lut php quc gia v mi trng. Nhng hn ch i vi nhng yu t gy nhim v nhng nh hng v mc tc ng n mi trng vn l c quyn ca cc nh chc trch. B tiu chun ISO 14000 ch cung cp mt cng c qun l cho cc t chc mun kim sot lnh vc mi trng cng nh nhng tc ng n mi trng ca mnh. 3.1.5. Cu trc v thnh phn ca ISO 14000 B tiu chun ISO 14000 chia theo hai h thng l nh gi v t chc v nh gi v sn phm bao gm 6 lnh vc. H thng nh gi t chc gm 3 lnh vc: h thng qun l mi trng (EMS Environmental Management System); kim ton mi trng (EA Environmantal Auditing); v nh gi hot ng mi trng (EPE Environmental Performance Evaluation). H thng nh gi sn phm gm 3 lnh vc: nh gi vng i sn phm (LCA Life Cycle Assessment); ghi nhn mi trng (EL - Environmental Labeling); v cc kha cnh mi trng trong cc tiu chun v sn phm (EAPS Environmental Aspect Product Standard) Tiu chun ISO 14000 c th p dng cho cc cng ty, khu vc hnh chnh hay t nhn. B mn qun l mi trng 58

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Dng c thanh tra v nh gi Hng dn thanh tra ISO 14010 ISO 14011 ISO 14012

Tiu chun h thng qun l Thng s EMS ISO 14001

Dng c h tr sn phm
nh gi vng i ISO 14040 ISO 14041 ISO 14042 ISO 14043 Cp nhn MT ISO 14020 ISO 14021 ISO 14022 ISO 14023 ISO 14024 ISO 14025

Hng dn nh gi biu hin mi trng ISO 14031 ISO 14032

Hng dn EMS ISO 14004 Khi nim v nh ngha ISO 14050

Cc nh lp tiu chun khc

Tch hp vn mi trng trong tiu chun sn phm


Hnh 32. Cu trc ca b tiu chun ISO 14000

Trit l ca ton b cu trc l: h thng qun l mi trng ng vai tr trung tm v nhng tiu chun khc s gp phn h tr cho cc nhn t nh trong chnh sch mi trng v h thng qun l ca t chc. D nhin, bn cnh nhng tiu chun trong ISO/TC207 cn c rt nhiu tiu chun k thut khc m cc cng ty c th s dng trong h thng qun l mi trng ca mnh: v d, nhng tiu chun cho vic thc hin o lng trong mi trng v cc tiu chun lin quan n nhng yu cu trong lp t... Ngoi ra, cn c rt nhiu u ban ISO khc cng nghin cu pht trin loi tiu chun ny. 3.2. TIU CHUN ISO 14001 V H THNG QUN L MI TRNG 3.2.1. Gii thiu chung a. Cu trc. ISO 14001: H thng qun l mi trng Cc c tnh cng vi s hng dn s dng, c thit lp vo thng 9/1996 sau mt qu trnh tho lun ht sc gay gt ca nhm cng tc thuc tiu ban 1 v ISO/TC207 (Ban k thut v qun l mi trng). ISO 14001 c bin son vi mc ch p dng cho hu ht cc loi hnh hoc t chc, bt k quy m v c tnh t nhin, v p dng i vi tt c cc iu kin x hi, vn ho, v a l. S thnh cng ca h thng ph thuc vo s cam kt trn mi cp ca t chc, c bit l cp qun l cao nht. Tiu chun ch bao gm cc yu cu m c th c kim sot mt cch khch quan. Tiu chun ny c th phc v cho mc ch chng nhn ph hp v cho s ng k i vi s t cng b ca t chc. Tiu chun khng bao gm cc quy nh v hin trng mi trng tuyt i, ngoi tr s bt buc phi tun th lut php v nhng cam kt v s ci tin lin tc v phng nga nhim. V th m rt c th c hai t chc ging nhau nhau v cc hot ng sn xut v khc nhau v hin trng mi trng, nhng c hai li cng tun th mt quy nh v ISO 14001. B mn qun l mi trng 59

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Tiu chun ny ang s dng cc nguyn l ca h thng qun l ni chung ging nh l cc phin bn ISO 9000. l cc phin bn ca cc h thng qun l cht lng. Cc t chc c th la chn s dng mt h thng qun l cht lng ph hp vi b tiu chun ISO 9000 ang c sn ca mnh lm c s b xung thm vo trong cc yu t ca h thng qun l mi trng. H thng qun l mi trng ISO 14001bao gm: Phn c t, gii thiu cc yu cu m cn phi c p ng nh l mt iu ti thiu. Thng tin ph lc, phc v cho vic nng cao s hiu bit v cc yu cu c thit k "Khng lm thay th v cng khng lm b xung thm bt k mt yu cu no ca tiu chun". Thng tin b xung ny l v cng quan trong, n gip cho vic hiu cn k hn phn c t. Cc bng tham chiu b i km l lm r mi lin quan gia cc yu cu ca ISO 9000 v ISO 14001 Bng bt u bi cc yu cu ca ISO 9000 th c dng bi cc t chc m mt h thng qun l cht lng c thit lp hon ton m h mun c mt ci nhn khi qut rt l nhanh v cch thc m trong cc yu cu ca h thng qun l mi trng c lin quan n cc yu cu ca ISO 9000. Cc t chc m dng ISO 14001 pht trin nn H thng qun l mi trng ca h, s c th dng bng m bt u bi cc yu cu ISO 14001 xem xt s lin quan vi ISO 9000 trong trng hp h mun xy dng mt ht thng qun l cht lng. Ngoi ISO 14001 ra cng cn c tiu chun ISO 14004: H thng qun l mi trng - Cc hng dn chung v nguyn tc, h thng v cc k thut b tr. ISO 14004 l mt ti liu hng dn. N bao gm s m t su v cc yu t ca ISO 14001. Bi th, ISO 14004 khng phi l ti liu c tnh bt buc i vi mt t chc khi t chc mun bin son v thc thi mt h thng qun l mi trng theo tiu chun ISO 14001. N khng bao gm cc yu cu ca ch s hu n. N khng b xem xt n ISO 14001 nh mt s gii thch bt buc. Tuy nhin, nu nh mt t chc mun dng tt c cc ngun thng tin v s pht trin ca h thng EMS m ang ph hp, khi , ISO 14004 l b cng c. Cc thng tin ph lc ca ISO 14001 l hu dng i vi s quan tm. b. Chu trnh Deming Tiu chun ISO14001 c xy dng da theo mt chui m ngi ta thung bit n vi cch goi l Chu trnh Deming. Sau chin tranh th gii, khi nim ca ng v cc tng khng nhn c my s ch M, mt trong nhng l do gii thch ti sao ng ta quyt nh i ti Nht Bn. , tng ca ng v cc khi nim qun l cht lng v kim sot thng k tr nn v cng hu dng. Mt trong nhng khi nim m c ng pht hin ra l s phi hp ca cc bc phi thng qua mt qu trnh kim tra thnh cng. ng ch trng c cc bc sau y: Lp k hoch: Giai on lp k hoch Mc tiu v mc ch khi qut ca cc doanh nghip c thit lp, v cc phng thc d thc hin chng c hnh thnh Thc hin: Giai on thc hin K hoch c thc hin v cc tiu chun thng nht phi c p dng nhm t c cc mc tiu m doanh nghip ra. Kim tra: Giai on nh gi Cc hot ng din ra theo k hoch phi c kim tra hiu qu v tnh hiu qu, v cc kt qu phi c so snh vi k hoch. Hiu chnh / Ci tin: giai on hnh ng khc phc Nhng thiu st hoc nhc im tm thy phi c sa cha, k hoch c th c nhn nhn li v c thch nghi vi nhng bi cnh thay i, v cc th tc c cng c hoc c thay i nu cn thit. Thm vo , Deming nhn mnh rng cc mc tiu khng bao gi c thc hin B mn qun l mi trng 60

Bi ging sn xut sch hn mt cch hon ton v s ci thin qu trnh l khng bao gi kt thc. Tnh trang bn trong v bn ngoi ca mt t chc c th thay i hoc s thay i trong mt tng lai gn. V th m cc hot ng hiu chnh c th cn phi tin hnh ng thi vi cc hot ng ci tin.

Hnh 33. Chu trnh DEMING

Trong Plan: lp k hoch; Do: thc hin; Check: kim tra; Act: hiu chnh, ci tin c. Cc ni dung ca ISO 14001 C s ca tiu chun l cc l do di y: (Tiu chun c ngun gc t nhng l l sau:) H thng qun l mi trng l nhm hnh thnh nn v thc hin mt chnh sch mi trng ph hp trong t chc. V th, cc kha cnh mi trng quan trng cn phi c xc nh. cng nh cc yu cu v s p dng v mt lut php mi trng. Da trn nhng kin thc ny, mt chnh sch mi trng cng c hnh thnh, cng vi cc mc tiu, ch tiu v mt chng trnh mi trng thc hin cc mc tiu v ch tiu c th a ra mt chng trnh mi trng v tin hnh kim tra cc hot ng m c ra i vi mi trng, t chc cn phi thit lp mt cch c t chc hng lot cc o lng. Khng ch v mt cp m cn v nhng nh hng ca kim tra cng cn phi c o lng, lp thnh h s, phn tch v nh gi. Ni m cc o lng khc phc cn thit phi c din ra. S vn hnh ph hp ca h thng qun l mi trng EMS c sot xt bi cc nh gi h thng. Vic xt qun l ng gi tnh ph hp lin tc ca h thng EMS v c th dn ti cc xm xt v chnh sch, cc mc tiu v cc ch tiu. Sau vic kim tra v ci thin ny, chu trnh s li bt u. Ni dung chnh ca ISO 14001 c th hin di y. Trong c 3 ph lc: Ph lc A Hng dn s dng bn quy nh, ph lc B mi lin quan gia ISO 14001 v ISO 9001, v Ph lc C tham kho.

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn Li ni u Gii thiu chung 1 Mc tiu 2 Tiu chun trch dn 3 Cc nh ngha 4 Cc yu cu ca h thng qun l mi trng. 4.1 Yu cu chung 4.2 Chnh sch mi trng 4.3 Lp k hoch 4.3.1 Cc kha cnh mi trng 4.3.2 Cc yu cu bt buc v cc quy nh khc 4.3.3 Cc mc tiu v cc ch tiu 4.3.4 Cc chng trnh qun l mi trng 4.4 S hot ng v iu hnh 4.4.1 C cu v trch nhim 4.4.2 o to, nhn thc v nng lc. 4.4.3 Thng tin lin lc 4.4.4 Ti liu ca f h thng qun l mi trng 4.4.5 Kim sot ti liu 4.4.6 Kim sot iu hnh 4.4.7 S chun b sn sng v p ng vi tnh trng khn cp 4.5 Kim tra v hnh ng khc phc 4.5.1 o lng v quan trc 4.5.2 Hnh ng phng nga v khc phc cc im khng ph hp 4.5.3 Cc h s 4.5.4 nh gi h thng qun l mi trng 4.6 Xem xt ca ban qun l Ph lc A Hng dn s dng .... Ph lc B Lin quan gia ISO 14001 v ISO 9001 Ph lc C Th mc

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Hnh 34. S cc yu t ca ISO 14001

d. Cc khi nim c bn ca ISO 14001

Hnh 35. Kha cnh mi trng v tc ng mi trng

*) Cc kha cnh mi trng v cc tc ng Mt trong nhng khi nm quan trng ca ISO 14001 l s phn bit gia u l cc kha cnh mi trng v u l cc tc ng mi trng. Cc tc ng mi trng c nh ngha l: Bt k mt thay i no n mi trng, d l c hi hay l c li, ca ton b hay mt phn ca cc hot ng, sn xut hay dch v ca mt t chc. B mn qun l mi trng 63

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Mt h thng EMS khng gy nh hng trc tip n cc tc ng mi trng. N c tp trung vo cc nguyn nhn ca cc tc ng mi trng. ISO 14001 s dng phm tr nhng kha cnh mi trng cho nhng l do ny. Mt kha cnh mi trng c xc nh nh: Yu t ca cc hot ng, sn phm v dch v ca mt t chc m c th tc ng qua li vi mi trng. S phn bit gia kha cnh mi trng v tc ng mi trng c th hin trong s sau: S cng cho thy rng mt vi kha cnh c th khng phi do t chc trc tip gy ra, nhng c th bi cc nh cung cp, cc ch hp ng, hoc l cc khc hng khi s dng cc sn phm. iu ny c ch ti trong ISO 14001 bng cc i hi rng EMS khng ch xem xt ti cc tc ng ca bn thn t chc m cn c nhng g m t chc c th nh hng. (Xem phn 4.3.1). *) Tp trung vo cc kha cnh mi trng quan trng T chc c th tm ra hng trm, thm ch hng ngn cc kha cnh mi tng. tu thuc vo mc chi tit trong cc phn tch hot ng ca chng. ISO 14001 khng yu cu t chc phi cp tt c cc kha cnh ca h, m ch nhng g c cho l quan trng nht. Mt kha cnh mi trng ng k c nhn nh l: Mt kha cnh mi trng m c hoc c th c mt tc ng ng k n mi trng. Mt cu hi quan trng c t ra l tc ng mi trng ng k l g? y, ISO 14001 khng a ra mt s hng dn c th. ISO 14004 c th c dng a ra s h tr. N ni rng s quan trng c th c lin tng vi cc s lo ngi mi trng nh l quy m, tnh nghim trng, khong thi gian v kh nng xy ra ca tc ng, cng nh cc nghi ngi kinh doanh. Cc nghi ngi kinh doanh c th bao gm s phi nhim php l, nghi ngi ca cc bn hu quan, nh hng ln hnh nh cng cng, tnh cht kh khn v chi ph ca s thay i tc ng, s nh hng ca thay i ln cc quy trnh v cc hot ng khc. S 2-4 minh ho quy trnh.

Hnh 36. Cc tiu chun ng k c p dng trong vic la chn cc kha cnh mi trng ng k

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn Mt trong cc h qu ca cc tiu ch ny l chng no m cc cc quy nh v lut php, s c php v cc quy nh tng t lin quan ti s tc ng mi trng ng k th cc kha cnh mi trng c lin quan s c cn nhc cn thn. S lit k ny khng mang tnh tng hp v s khng c coi nh l nguyn tc. *) Nhng cam kt theo tiu chun ISO 14001 Mt trong nhng quy nh u tin trong ISO 14001 l xy dng v thc hin mt chnh chnh sch mi trng. iu ny c thc hin bi cp qun l cao nht ca t chc, v chnh sch phi p ng tt c cc yu cu ti thiu. Mt trong nhng quy nh ny l nhng cam kt. Nhng cam kt ny c th c xem xt cc cp hin trng ti thiu mt t chc ng tun theo. Nhng cam kt ny l: Ph hp vi lut php v cc quy tc mi trng c lin quan. Ph hp vi cc quy nh khc m t chc ra. Cam kt v s ci tin lin tc, v Cam kt v ngn nga nhim. H qu ca bn cam kt ny l g? Nhiu t chc i khi c gng hiu xem cc h qu ca nhng cam kt m h chp nhn l g. Cc h qu c m t trong cc phn tip theo. *) Lut php v cc quy nh khc Vi s quan tm ti lut php v cc quy nh khc, t chc cn phi m bo rng: C hiu bit v cc quy nh lut php mi trng v s t chc, thit lp cc o lng v cc c ch cho php t chc tun theo, C cc c ch hin hnh o lng, kim sot bt c s trch hng khi s ph hp v cc c ch khc phc i vi cc s trch hng , v C cc c ch bo co ph hp hin hnh nu nh cc bo co c lm ra bo co cho cc c quan chnh quyn v cc kha cnh mi trng. iu ny c ngha rng s tun th lut php nn l im khi u ca t chc thay v coi n nh l mc tiu di hn. V th, s ph hp v mt lut php khng c xem nh l mt mc tiu m c th t c thng qua s ci tin lin tc. Ti thi im mt t chc mun ph hp vi chng nhn tiu chun ISO 14001, s ph hp v lut php c th l nhng iu . Mt vi iu kin c bit m s trch hng tun th l c th c chp nhn i vi vic chng nhn: S trch hng ca t chc m c nhn bit thng qua gim st v o lng, nhng c ch khc phc cn phi bt ngay sau khi khm ph ra Nhng trng hp m , t chc c th phi u t cng ngh t tin hoc cn phi tin hnh cc nghin cu su v cc c hi ci thin. Nu nh t chc c th tho thun vi cc c quan c thm quyn (hu trch) v mt k hoch hnh ng m lm hng ti s ph hp th n c chp nhn i vi s chng nhn. Nhng trng hp m t chc ng k i vi bn qun mi, v lm tt c nhng g nh mong mun cung cp cho cc c quan hu trch cng vi nhng thng tin cn thit, mc d vy, , bn quyn mi cn thit vn cha c ban hnh. Trong nhng trng hp ny, vic chng nhn l vn B mn qun l mi trng 65

Bi ging sn xut sch hn c th, nu nhng chng c thuyt phc c th minh chng rng rng tt c cc khu chu nh hng ca t chc c thc hin v ch cn li nhng khu nm ngoi phm vi nh hng ca t chc. Nhng v d v "cc quy nh khc" c trong Hin chng kinh doanh v pht trin bn vng ca U ban thng mi quc t ICC, chng trnh Chm sc trch nhim, v cng nh cc tho thun t nguyn vi cc t chc khu vc hoc vi cc c quan php lut. Nu t chc k cc m c bit, t chc phi c kh nng xc nh cc quy nh phi tun th v cch thc thc hin iu ny. nhng ni m t chc va mi k, t chc c th a trnh ra mt k hoch thc hin. *) Ci tin lin tc v phng nga nhim. Mt khi nim v cng quan trng trong ISO 14001 l s ci tin lin tc. ISO 14001 nh ngha s ci tin lin tc l: Qu trnh tng cng h thng Qun l mi trng - EMS t c cc ci thin v hin trng mi trng tng th tng xng vi chnh sch mi trng ca t chc. B cung cho nh ngha ny l mt lu ni rng s cn thit ca qu trnh khng nm trong tt c cc khu vc hot ng ng thi. Hnh 37 ch ra rng EMS c th c m phng nh l mt bnh xe m phi c ko hoc y v pha nhng cp hin trng cao hn. Bnh xe c chn t pha sau nh cc kim sot mi trng v cht lng.

Hnh 37. S c tin tin lc

*) Pht trin bn vng Trong qun l mi trng, mc tiu cui cng l t c cc nguyn tc pht trin bn vng. Pht trin bn vng l mt phm tr m c gii thiu vo nm 1987 bi U ban Th gii v mi trung v pht trin (cng c gi l u ban Brundland theo tn v ch tch ca n) trong bn bo co ca u ban v Tng lai chung ca chng ta. N c nh ngha l: S pht trin m p ng cc nhu cu hin ti m khng ln tn hi ti kh nng p ng nhu cu ca cc th h tng lai. B mn qun l mi trng 66

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Mt phin bn ph bin hn ca nh ngha l chng ta phi nhn thc r rng rng chng ta cha tha k mi trng t cha ng chng ta nhng chng ta vay mn mi trng ca con ci chng ta. Do chng ta phi cn thn khng cho cc xm hi nhng gii hn nhim v cc tc ng mi trng khc m tri t c th hp th. Mc ny l thp hn cc mc pht thi hin nay rt nhiu. l l do ti sao cc chnh sch mi trng quc gia ca nhiu nc nhm vo mt kch bn gim mc nhim trn nhiu lnh vc hot ng nh nng nghip, giao thng v cng nghip. H qu i vi cc t chc ang s dng ISO 14001 l ISO 14001 mong nhn s quan tm khng thay i i vi nhng kh nng ci thin ca h thng EMS v cc kt qu hot ng t c v mi trng. Mc d ISO 14001 cp n s cng c ca EMS, nhng ngi ta khng th c trong nh ngha rng ch c s ci tin ca EMS l ch ca s ci tin lin tc. Th nht, nh ngha pht biu rng mc ch cao hn l s ci thin cc thnh qu v mt mi trng tng th. Th hai, cc hnh ng lp k hoch nh l t ra cc mc ch v ch tiu c cp n mt cch r rng trong nh ngha EMS. V th, s ci tin lin tc c s ci tin ca cc kt qu hot ng v mt mi trng nh l mt mc ich cui cng. S khc nhau gia cc quy nh ca ISO 9000 v ISO 14001 c th c nhn ra rt r. ISO 9000, mc ich chnh ca s ci tin l s ph hp hn vi cc yu cu hoc nhng mong mun ca khch hng, nh c minh ho trong hnh 38, ISO 14001 c th c lu n lm cho n ph hp hn i vi cc quy nh t trong s xem xt k cng. Cng lc , n ch i mt t chc a ra cc yu cu v kt qu hot ng cao hn cho chnh bn thn n, ngoi cc quy nh v lut php v iu l. S hnh 38 gii thiu v nhng khi nim ny. V l m ni, nhng mong mun ca khch hng v s qun l cht lng l lun thay i, v v th, trong bi cnh hin ti, i vi qun l cht lng s ging nh bc tranh c v chung cho ISO 14001. Tuy nhin, cng v l m ni th, nu nh cc quy nh ca ISO 9000 v ISO 14001 c so snh ring tng ni dung mt, s 1-6 l ph hp nht vi cc quy nh hin thi v ISO 9000 v ISO 14001.

Hnh 38. Ci tin lin tc ISO 900o so snh vi ISO 14001

S phng nga nhim c nh ngha trong ISO 14001. N tp trung vo trnh, B mn qun l mi trng 67

Bi ging sn xut sch hn gim v kim sot nhim bng vic s dng mt lot cc o lng nh l s s dng hiu qu cc ngun lc, thay th nguyn liu, thay i qu trnh, c ch kim sot, tun hon v x l. Bi v y l nh ngha rng nn cc t chc thng thng phi c kh nng ch ra rng h c cc o lng ph hp vi nhng g c nh ngha cp n. *) Qun l v kim sot i vi s ci thin lin tc Mt h thng EMS theo tiu chun ISO 14001 tp trung vo cc kha cnh mi trng trng yu, nh c nh ngha trong cc phn trc. Nhng cam kt nu trong 2.4.4 phi c p dng cho cc kha cnh mi trng trng yu ny. ISO 14001 bao gm mt quy tc lp lun v cch thc gii quyt cc kha cnh mi trng trng yu kh hiu. Mt quy nh cn bn l tt c cc kha cnh mi trng trng yu cn kim sot v qun l. Hu ht cc yu t ca h thng c m t trong ISO 14001 c cn m bo rng s qun l v s kim sot c thc hin, c bit cc yu t lin quan ti s Hot ng v S thc hin (bc "Do") v hnh ng kim tra v khc phc (bc "Check"). Vic xc nh cc kha cnh ng k v vic xc nh cc quy nh lut php lin quan l mt u vo ch yu ca qun l v kim sot.

Hnh 39. Lin h vi cc kha cnh mi trng trong ISO 14001

Yu cu th hai l s cam kt v s ci tin lin tc v phng nga nhim. Quy nh cp ti cc kh nng nhn bit i vi s ci thin v m bo rng cc ci tin c lp k hoch th phi c thc hin. Cc yu t m c lin quan ti cc qu trnh ny l vic a ra cc mc tiu v cc ch tiu v chng trnh mi trng pht sinh trong khu lp k hoch, cng nh l s Sot xt ca ban lnh o. Trong cc kh nng nhn bit v s ci tin, mt yu t rt quan trng cho thy l ISO 14001 khng quy nh rng s ci tin p dng i vi tt c cc kha cnh mi trng ng k trong cng mt thi im. Trong lp cc mc tiu v ch tiu, t chc phi quan tm n tt c cc kha cnh mi trng ng k, nhng t chc B mn qun l mi trng 68

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ch cn la chn mt phn nh quan trng cacc kha cnh mi trng lp mc tiu cho chng. Cc kha cnh mi trng khc cn li t ng s phi c qun l l c kim sot thay v ci tin. Hai con ng ny trong ISO 14001 c m phng trc quan trong s *) Cc th tc c lp thnh vn bn ISO 14001 ch r vn bn ca cc th tc ch c trong hai mc: Theo mc 4.4.6, n quy nh cc th tc c lp thnh vn bn trong cc trng hp m ngi ta cn phng nga s lch khi cc mc ch, v Theo mc 4.5.1 cc th tc c lp thnh vn bn b quy nh i vi cc o lng v gim st cng nh i vi nh gi s ph hp. Trong mi trng hp khc m cc th tc c quy nh bi t chc th khng b quy nh cho cc th tc c lp thnh vn bn. Nu mt t chc quyt nh ch lp thnh vn bn cc th tc i vi ti liu c quy nh trong ISO 14001, t chc phi bo m rng i vi cc th tc m cc th tc c quy nh trong ISO 14001, nhng th tc khng bt buc phi c lp thnh vn bn, th: Cc th tc c th c thng tin, Chng c th c duy tr v C th c chng t rng cc th tc tn ti, cc th tc c thc hin, v l cho c hiu lc. Trong sut qu trnh nh gi ni b v cng nh trong qu trnh nh gi chng nhn, cc kim ton vin c th vn c kh nng kim tra cc th tc c bng cch phng vn hay bng cc h s nh gi. Tuy nhin, v nhng l do c cp n trn, nhiu t chc kt lun rng c rt nhiu lp lun ng h vic cc th tc c lp thnh vn bn nhiu hn. *) Tm lc cc th tc, vn bn v cc h s vin dn trong ISO 14001 mt vi im ISO 14001 quy nh cc th tc, cc vn bn v/hoc cc h s.
Bng 8. Cc th tc
Phn 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5 4.4.6 4.4.6 4.4.7 4.5.1 Ch S xc nh cc khia cnh mi trng, s xc nh ng k, cc kha cnh ng k. S xc nh cc yu v php lut v cc yu cu khc To ra nhn thc mi trng Thng tin ni b Nhn, lp thnh vn bn v tr li cc thng tin c lin quan t cc bn hu quan bn ngoi. Kim sot cc ti liu b bt buc bi tiu chun nhm cp n cc tnh trng m do thiu cc th tc ny th c th dn n s hot ng trch khi chnh sch, mc tiu v ch tiu mi trng lin quan ti kh nng xc nh cc kha cnh mi trng ng k ca cc hng ho v dch v c s dng bi t chc. S xc nh nguy c v i ph vi cc s c v tnh trng khn cp, ngn nga v gim nh cc tc ng mi trng c lin quan. Gim st v o lng cc c trng ch cht ca cc hnh ng v cc hot ng m c th cc tc ng ng k ln mi trng, bao gm cc d liu nh gi hin trng, nh gi s iu hnh v nh gi kt qu thc hin cc ch tiu v mc tiu.

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn


4.5.1 4.5.2 nh gi nh k s ph hp vi cc quy tc v lut php mi trng c lin quan. Xc nh quyn hn v trch nhim i vi vic vn dng v pht hin s khng ph hp. tin hnh cc hot ng gim nh cc tc ng, tin hnh cc hnh ng phng nga, khc phc hon ton v s b. Xc nh, duy tr v xp xp cc h s mi trng. Cc nh gi: phm vi, tn xut, phng php lun, cc trch nhim v cc yu cu i tin hnh nh gi v bo co cc kt qu.

4.5.3 4.5.4

Bng 9. Vn bn
Mc 4.2 4.3.1 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.4.1 4.4.1 4.4.4 4.4.6 4.4.7 4.5.1 Ch Chnh sch mi trng Phng php xc nh cc kha cnh mi trng ch yu. Cc ch tiu v mc tiu mi trng. Cc chng trnh mi trng hnh thc t chc v cc knh bo co Vai tr quyn hn v trch nhim (Bao gm c cc ngi i din qun l) i vi cc hnh ng mi trng v cc hnh ng ni chung. S tay Cc th tc kim sot iu hnh (Cc) phng n khn cp Cc th tc i vi gim st, o lng v i vi s nh gi ph hp lut php.

Bng 10. Cc ti liu

Mc 4.2 4.3.1 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.2 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.2 4.4.2 4.4.3

Ch Minh chng v vic tham gia ca cp lnh o cao nht trong vic thit lp v ph duyt chnh sch mi trng Cc tc ng mi trng c xc nh (tu chn) Cc tc ng mi trng quan trng xc nh. Cc quy nh bt buc v cc quy nh khc c xc nh. Implementation plans for signed commitments that fall under the category other requirements Proof of appointment of a management representative S xc nh cc yu cu o to. Cc ti liu o to Cc ti liu o to nhn thc S minh chng ca c cu giao tip th tc ca c cu ny (Cc bin bn, cc bo co)

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn 4.4.3 4.4.3 4.4.3 4.4.3 4.4.7 4.4.7 4.4.7 4.4.7 4.5.1 4.5.1 4.5.1 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.2 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.4 4.6 4.6 Thng tin lin quan t cc thnh phn quan tm bn ngoi. Gii quyt cc thng tin bn ngoi v cc kha cnh mi trung. K hoch hoc th tc i vi thng tin bn ngoi Chng c v s la chn cch thc thng tin bn ngoi l c ngha. Chng c v s xc nh tnh trng khn cp v cc nguy c ri ro. Chng c xc nh x ngn nga cc tnh trng khn cp c th. Th nghim cc th tc chun b i ph tnh trng khn cp. nh gi cc th nghim ca cc th tc khn cp v cc chng c v nhng s thay i trong k hoch v cc th tc. Chng trnh o lng v gim st. Xc nh v hiu chnh cc thit b gim st Cc kt q nh gi ph hp Cc kt qu gim st v o lng. Cc chng c v s thu xp hnh ng khc phc v phng nga. S khng ph hp v cc hnh ng khc phc phng nga. Cc thay i trong h s h thng nh l cc kt qu ca hnh ng khc phc v phng nga. Thi gian lu tr cc h s (Cc) chng trnh nh gi, k hoch thi gian Cc bo co nh gi Ti liu chun b cho (cc) cuc hp sot xt ca ban lnh o Sot st ca ban lnh o: Kt qu, ni dung v tn xut,

Cc h s ny khng c xc nh nh l cc h s trong ISO 14001. Tuy nhin, trong tiu chun, nhiu cc quy nh c th c tm thy ti nhng ni xc inh hoc l nhng t tng ng. l khuyn ngh i vi vic xem xt cc h s nh l cch thc tt nht minh chng. 3.2.2. Kinh nghim quc t trong vic p dng h thng qun l mi trng Cho n nay, cha c kinh nghim v ISO 14001 v vic iu tra v vic thc hin n ca cc cng ty v pht trin th-ng mi trong n-c c th ch da trn nhng d tnh v kinh nghim ca cc tiu chun hin c. Nhng kt qu sau y l da vo kin ca cc chuyn gia thuc TC207, thu thp -c thng qua cc phiu iu tra v phng vn c nhn20. H thng qun l mi tr-ng v kim ton cc tiu chun c bit -c hy vng l s -c mt s ln cc n-c -a p dng vi tnh cch l cc tiu chun mi tr-ng t nguyn21. Tc ng chnh ca vic cp chng nhn h thng qun l mi tr-ng s xy ra trong giao dch th-ng mi gia cc cng ty. Hn na, cc chnh ph c th yu cu giy chng nhn nh- l mt iu kin i vi nhng cng ty xin u thu22. Cc cng ty bo him v cc ngn hng c th s dng giy chng nhn ca h thng qun l mi tr-ng B mn qun l mi trng 71

Bi ging sn xut sch hn nh- l mt ch tiu ca khon ng bo him v cc iu kin cp tn dng. Ni chung, vic cp chng nhn c th l quan trng trong cc ngnh cng nghip m ri ro mi trng cng nh- vic d vi phm lut php mi tr-ng l rt cao, th d nh- cc ngnh cng nghip ho cht v ho du, khai thc m, lm nghip, cng nghip thp v in t. Trong cc ngnh c tc ng mi tr-ng t-ng i thp, th cc tiu chun khng chc l s tr thnh thc t kinh doanh23. 3.2.2.1. Vic thc hin i vi cc cng ty ni chung Mt cng ty s thc hin cc tiu chun ISO 14001, cn phi kt hp cc yu t ch cht -c cp n trong tiu chun vo trong c cu t chc ca mnh. Cng ty cn phi lp nn cc h thng qun l, kim ton v nh gi hot ng mi tr-ng. Cng ty cn phi tp trung s dng vic phn tch chu trnh sng trong vic ra quyt nh v cc sn phm v cc quy trnh mi l nhng vn cn c s nghin cu. Hn na, cng ty s phi xy dng mt quy trnh truyn thng ra ngoi v cc chnh sch mi tr-ng ca mnh. Nhng h thng s i hi s kt hp thng nht p dng trong cc cp v cc quy trnh sn xut ca cng ty v s nh hng ti cc thng s c bn ca vic qun l v ra quyt nh. Chng yu cu c s cam kt ca tt c cc nhn vin tham gia vo nhng quy trnh sn xut ny, c bit l cam kt ca nhng lnh o cao nht. Cng nh i vi ISO 9000, cc cng ty p dng cc tiu chun s b kim ton bi mt bn th ba (ni ng k). Phn ln cc chuyn gia cho rng kin cho php cc cng ty t tuyn b p dng ISO 14001, trong thc t l s khng ph hp. Ni ng k s c kh nng kim tra li vic cam kt trn tng cp chc nng, bng cch iu tra cng ty v trao i chuyn tr vi cng nhn. Thm ch trong cc cng ty c ch-ng trnh mi tr-ng, mc v nhn thc cn thit ca cc cn b lm vic lin quan ti tiu chun cng c th l cn cha c. Do vic phn ln cc cng ty cha qun l i vi cc lnh vc mi tr-ng theo cch tip cn h thng, cc chuyn gia cho rng cc tiu chun s c tc ng ng k n vic l cc cng ty s qun l cc vn mi tr-ng nh- th no trong t-ng lai. a. Cc chi ph cho vic tun th theo cc tiu chun Cc chuyn gia u nht tr l vic tun th theo cc tiu chun ISO 14000 ni chung s l rt tn km cho tng cng ty. Cc chi ph lin quan gm c 3 loi nh- sau:

Chi ph cho vic xy dng v duy tr mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng: Cc chi ph t vn; v Chi ph cho vic ng k vi bn th ba

Nhng chi ph ny ph thuc vo chi ph thi gian thc hin v ng k h thng qun l mi tr-ng ca cng ty. Mt cng ty nh hn c th, do c cu t phc tp hn v cc sn phm t a dng hn, cn t thi gian hn so vi mt cng ty ln v do ch ph thp hn. Cc chuyn gia d tnh l mt cng ty no c ch-ng trnh v chnh sch mi tr-ng ri th c th gim -c thi gian cn cho vic thc hin mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng l khong 20% so vi mt cng ty cha c ch-ng trnh mi tr-ng. Cc chuyn gia nht tr rng s c mt ca h lhng qun l cht l-ng ISO 9000 s to iu kin cho tin trnh thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng ISO 14001 . Trong tr-ng hp ny th c sn mt s cc th tc v chuyn gia cn thit. Cc cng ty c th p ng -c cc yu cu ca ISO 14001 bng cch b sung thm vo h thng c hoc sa i li n. Cc cng ty c th cn khong 30% thi gian t hn thc hin mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng. Mt cng ty nh bt u t con s khng v d tnh cn thi gian l khong 15 thng, v c th gim -c thi gian ny xung cn l2 thng vi mt iu kin tin quyt l B mn qun l mi trng 72

Bi ging sn xut sch hn c mt chnh sch v mi tr-ng, v 8 thng nu c h thng cht l-ng ISO 9000. b. Cc chi ph cho vic xy dng v duy tr mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng Nhng chi ph cho vic xy dng mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng s cn n nng lc cu cc nhn vin trong cng ty. Nhng chi ph ny ch yu l nhng chi ph ni b ca cng ty, v nh- vi ISO 9000, n -c xc nh bng chi ph thi gian ca cng nhn. Tuy nhin cc cng ty khng c kinh nghim thc hin h thng mi tr-ng v cht l-ng cng nh- cc cng ty nh s cn n s tr gip t bn ngoi xy dng mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng v do cn chu cc chi ph t bn ngoi. Phn ln cc chuyn gia -c hi kin u cho rng vic thc hin ISO 14001 s khng cn n cc ngun nhn lc b sung. Cc cng ty ln hn c th l c cn b lm vic trong cc lnh vc v mi tr-ng v cc x nghip cng nghip quy m va v nh c l s sp xp cng vic cho nhng ngi c cc trch nhim cng vic khc. Trong mi cng ty, vic o to tip tc cn b s cn l mt yu t quan trng i vi mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng c hiu qu. Trong cc cng ty ln hn th c mt ch-ng trnh mi tr-ng no ri, v vic o to c th -c thc hin trn mt c s khng chnh quy. i vi cc cng ty nh hn vic o to s tn km hn nhiu v h phi s dng n cc kh nng o to t bn ngoi. Vic thc hin v duy tr mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng s ko theo mt qu trnh t liu ho rt phc tp v tn km thi gian. Kinh nghim vi ISO 9000 cho thy khi cc ti liu cm nang -c xy dng v cc nhn vin quen vi thut ng ca ISO, th vic t- liu ho c th mt t thi gian hn trong giai on u. C mt s ph phn l ISO 9000 ng ra l ci thin v cht l-ng th ISO 9000 li tp trung nhiu hn vo vic t- liu ho. Khi c cu v cc nguyn tc ca ISO 14001 t-ng t nh- ISO 9000 th vic cng c mi nguy c t-ng t. Theo kin chuyn gia, vic thc hin lSO 14001 nhn chung s khng i hi trang thit b cng ngh khc nhau, v tiu chun p dng cho h thng qun l ch khng phi l ch tiu cho hot ng. Tuy nhin yu cu v "ci thin lin tc", c th cn n sau . Nu mt cng ty chun b ci thin lin tc th cng ty s phi gim v thay th u vo v i theo cc thnh tu cng ngh mi. Chi ph t- vn Mt cng ty cn ng k tiu chun ISO cn phi thc hin nh gi nghim khc cc th tc v xc nh l n c p ng -c tiu chun ISO 14001 khng. trnh vic ni ng k tuyn b l khng tun th, cc cng ty c th thu cc c vn gip h thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng. i vi cc cng ty nh hn nu h thng -c xy dng nh s h tr ca mt cng ty lm t- vn c kinh nghim, ni ng k c th cho rng vic thc hin l hp l hn. Kinh nghim vi ISO 9000 cho thy cc chi ph t- vn l rt ln. Mt s hng t- vn ch ra rng cc chi ph cho ISO 14000 c th l cao hn so vi cho ISO 9000 v n cn dn cc c vn c trnh chuyn mn cao hn. Mt th d tnh ton -a ra trong ph lc 3 minh ha nhng chi tiu ca mt cng ty M c nh cha c ch-ng trnh v mi tr-ng v h thng qun l cht l-ng. cc nc ang pht trin, cc chi ph c th l khng cao nh- nhng chi ph -a ra trong th d trn v cc chi ph cho t- vn l thp hn. Cc chi ph ng k Kinh nghim vi ISO 9000 cho thy l gn 20% chi ph tun th theo tiu chun s l chi ph cho vic ng k vi bn th ba. Trong tr-ng hp vic ng k kt hp c ISO 9000 B mn qun l mi trng 73

Bi ging sn xut sch hn v ISO 14000 th l ph c th l cao hn so vi ng k ch mt mnh ISO 9000. L do l cc l ph m ni ng k phi chi cho cc kim ton vin c trnh chuyn mn cao. Cc cng ty thc hin ng thi c hai h thng tiu chun ISO c th trnh -c cc chi ph ng k nhiu ln. Mt th d v cc chi ph ng k ISO 9000 cho mt cng ty nh da trn cc l ph mi y ca NSF - mt c quan ng k ca M. Cc chi ph thc hin: Thi hn d kin 15 thng: chi ph ni b tnh cho chc ngi Cc chi ph t- vn (davo phng vn ng Ferrone, Excel Inc. 8/95) L ph t- vn Cc chi ph i li Khch sn, v.v... 79.200 $ 800 $ 12.000 $ 92.000 $ Cc chi ph ng k (da vo cc l ph hin ti cho ng k ISO 9000 do NSF, c quan ng k M. Xem: NSF International (1995) Cc dch v ch cht: L ph n t Xem xt cm nang cht l-ng Xem xt k hoch hnh ng sa i Cng tc ph nh gi s b Kim ton ng k 600 $ 1.200 $ 450 $ 1.800 $ 15.600 $ (3 gi) (k c 600 $ cho i li v chi tiu) (2 kim ton vin, 5 ngy, k c i li 1.600 $ v chi tiu 2.000 $) (2 thng 22 ngy, 1.800 $/ngy ) (c vn trong n-c) (200 $/ngy, 2 thng 30 @ ngy, k ngy cui tun)

Bo co kt thc

650 $ 20.300 $

Duy tr ng k: L ph duy tr Kim ton gim st 550 $ 7.200 $ (2 kim ton vin, 2 ngy, k c i li 1.600 $ v chi tiu 800 $) (1 kim ton vin, 2 ngy)

U nhim cng vic sa cha

2.400 $

10.150 $

. Theo th d ny, cng ty nh ny mi ni ng k -t hai kim ton vin lm vic trong 5 ngy v chi gn 20.000 la cho vic kim ton ng k. Khi cng ty -c ng B mn qun l mi trng 74

Bi ging sn xut sch hn k, cng ty phi tin hnh cc kim ton gim st nh k c th duy tr giy chng nhn. i vi ISO 9000 kim ton gim st c th -c tin hnh 6 thng mt ln. Trong tr-ng hp , cng ty phi chi gn 10.000 la cho 6 thng mt. Phn ln cc chuyn gia cho rng cc x nghip cng nghip quy m va v nh gp nhng kh khn v ngun ti chnh, nhn lc thc hin ISO 14001. Tuy nhin mt s ngi tham gia vo tin trnh xy dng tiu chun cho rng ISO 14001 v rt chung nn c th p dng linh hot cho mi cng ty thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng. c. Nhng li ch d kin Vic ng k c th c gi tr th-ng mi cho mt cng ty. Cc i tc th-ng mi c th nhn thy mt cch d dng ngha caa vic ph duyt bi mt bn th ba c lp. Ngay lc u, cc cng ty khi d-c ng k s ng vai tr i u v do s thu -c li th trong cnh tranh. Chng ch s l mt bin php tng c-ng v tr th-ng tr-ng ca h. Sau khi cc cng ty cnh tranh khc cng -c cp chng ch th th li ny s mt i. Vic s dng ISO 14001 s l mt chng ch cho cc cng ty v khng phi l cho cc sn phm. Tc ng n thi ca ngi tiu dng v cc c hi th-ng mi ca cc sn phm ca cng ty do l t hn so vi tr-ng hp cp nhn hiu sinh thi - l chng ch trc tip ca sn phm. Tuy nhin, c th c mt li ch trong quan h vi khch hng bng s truyn thng chnh sch mi tr-ng ca cng ty vi bn ngoi. Vic ng k s nhn mnh vic cam kt bo v mi tr-ng ca cng ty. Mt iu kin tin quyt cho li ch ny l th tr-ng tiu dng nhy cm v sinh thi. Phn ln cc chuyn gia cho rng vic thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng ISO 14001 s ci thin hiu qu ni b ca cng ty nh gim -c u vo v nng l-ng v nguyn liu. Tuy nhin, cc chuyn gia khng nht tr l liu vic tit kim v nng lng v nguyn liu c b -c vo cc chi ph hay khng, hay l ng-c li. Mt s chuyn gia cho rng cc chi ph v-t xa li ch em li. Doanh nghip ti cc n-c cng nghip ho ang chu sc p nng n t pha cc t chc khc nhau cc t chc chnh ph, qung i cng chng, cc t chc mi tr-ng v ngi tiu dng - l phi trnh cc tc ng mi tr-ng. Hy vng rng vic cp chng ch ISO 14001 s gim -c sc p ny. Mt s i din cng nghip tham gia vo tin trnh xy dng tiu chun, c bit l phi on M, thm ch hy vng rng tiu chun c th to ch ng cho vic qun l mi tr-ng khng ch theo nhng quy nh lut php. H cho rng vic ng k m bo s cam kt ca cng ty thc hin cc quy nh mi tr-ng. Trong khi CD 14001 i hi cc cng ty phi th hin l h c cc bin php tin hnh v duy tr s tun th thc hin ca mnh, h li khng b yu cu phi chng minh l thc t h ang tun th theo lut php. Khng chc l thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng l ci thin -c hot ng mi tr-ng ca cng ty. n khi vic t- liu ho -c hon thnh tt p th c l khng tc ng n vic cp chng ch. Tuy nhin, nhng ngi tham gia hi kin cho rng phn ln cc cng ty thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng v -c cp chng ch, ni chung cho thy hot ng mi tr-ng -c ci thin31. V vy mt li ch m tiu chun quc t mang li c th l s quan tm n mi tr-ng. i vi th-ng mi quc t, tiu chun m bo c s cho nhng trin vng mi trng chung gia cc cng ty. N c th dn n vic ho nhp cc nguyn tc quc gia v cho php ngnh cng nghip v cc c quan kim ton trn ton th gii c mt ngn ng B mn qun l mi trng 75

Bi ging sn xut sch hn v phm vi chung trong vic nh gi cc h thng qun l mi tr-ng. Ring tp hp cc tiu chun mi tr-ng c th gip trnh -c vic ng k, thanh tra, cp chng ch nhiu ln v nhng yu cu mu thun ca cc tiu chun quc gia khc nhau v do gim -c cc chi ph tun th theo cc tiu chun. Cc cng ty a quc gia cng s -c cung cp mt h thng tiu chun ring thc hin ni no h c mt. Tuy nhin, trong bt k tr-ng hp no phi -c chng t rng liu rng ch vi mt nh ngha mang tnh quc t ny, c xy dng nn bi cc nh lnh o cng nghip v tiu chun ho hin hnh, c th loi tr cc mi quan tm mi tr-ng chnh thng v/hoc to nn cc hng ro ngn cn ti cc hng ni bt, c bit l t cc n-c ang pht trin. 3.2.2.2. Tc ng n pht trin th-ng mi t n-c p lc ln hn i vi cc cng ty ti cc n-c ang pht trin l thc hin cc yu cu mi tr-ng ny sinh t khch hng n-c ngoi hoc cc t chc quc t ch khng phi l t cc t chc trong n-c. V vy chng ch ISO 14001 chc chn tr thnh bin php p ng nhu cu khch hng n-c ngoi v tham gia vo th-ng mi quc t ch khng phi ch l mt yu t ca li th cnh tranh trn th tr-ng trong n-c. i vi nhng nh xut khu, chng ch c th l mt cng c t -c th li cnh tranh so vi cc nh xut khu trong n-c khc. Mt iu khng chc chn l liu cc tiu chun ISO 14001 v cc tiu chun lin quan c to nn nhng hng ro th-ng mi hay khng. Mt s chuyn gia cho rng khi m cc tiu chun l t nguyn v khng lp ra cc tiu ch hot ng, cc tiu chun cho php mt s linh hot no v v vy n c th khng to ra cc hng ro th-ng mi. Ng-c li, c tranh lun rng khi chng ch -c ph bin rng ti cc cng ty ti cc n-c cng nghip ho, th n c th to ra nhng cn tr th-ng mi no cho cc cng ty ti cc nc ang pht trin l nhng n-c cn c thi gian hiu chnh cho ph hp. Mc d T chc Tiu chun Quc t tuyn b rng tiu chun khng -c s dng to ra cc hng ro th-ng mi, tim nng lm vic vn tn ti bn d tho cng nhtrong cc vn bn lin quan. C mt s vn c tim nng to ra cc hng ro th-ng mi, v cc vn s -c phn tch d-i y. a. Hot ng ca bn cung ng Cc iu khon trong cc vn bn ca h thng qun l mi tr-ng tc ng ti thng mi l nhng iu khon i hi phi xt n hot ng ca bn cung ng. L mt yu t ct li ca h thng qun l mi tr-ng. TC207 b qua yu cu nh gi s tham gia ca bn cung ng vo cc tiu chun qun l mi tr-ng. Tuy nhin cng c mt s cc iu khon no i hi vic xem xt hot ng ca bn cung ng ti mt mc no . Th d, ti liu h-ng dn h thng qun l mi tr-ng yu cu l "cc h s mi trng l chng c bng vn bn v cc hot ng ang -c tin hnh ca h thng qun l mi tr-ng cn phi gm nhng thng tin thch hp v bn cung ng v bn hp ng". Mt nguyn tc then cht cho nhng nh qun l thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng l phi "khuyn khch c quan cung ng v c quan hp ng xy dng -c mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng". Cc chuyn gia cng nht tr rng cc cng ty ln ti cc n-c cng nghip ho s gy sc p ti cc bn cung ng, k c cc bn cung ng ti cc n-c ang pht trin, c th l h phi -c bn th ba chng nhn, nh- mt ph-ng thc ci thin hot ng mi trng ring v th hin trch nhim mi tr-ng ca mnh. Sc p ny c th tip tc cho ti khi vic s dng chng ch nh- mt ch tiu to ra tnh trng th-ng mi -u i, quy nh gi c ca bn cung ng hoc thm ch bi b bn cung ng khng c chng ch, ng h cc cng ty cnh tranh -c cp chng ch. B mn qun l mi trng 76

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Cc nh xut khu ti cc n-c ang pht trin c th coi cc tiu chun nh- l hng ro th-ng mi nu h khng thc hin yu cu c chng ch. C mt s cc cn tr nh- th, v -c k ra d-i y. b. Thiu ngun lc Cc chuyn gia m t vic tip cn ti nhng thng tin v cc tiu chun i vi cc cng ty ti hu ht cc n-c ang pht trin l kh khn. Kt qu l thiu nhn thc v dn n vic thc hin chm tr cc h thng qun l mi tr-ng - hoc l hon ton khng c. Phn ln cc n-c ang pht trin khng ngun ti chnh thch hp c cc on i biu tham d cc cuc hp th-ng k ca TC207. V vy cng kh khn hn i vi h trong vic lin kt nhng quan tm ca mnh v tc ng ti tin trnh xy dng tiu chun. Ngay c khi c n-c c on i biu ca mnh tham d cc c-uc hp, song cng khng m bo -c l thng tin c th -c ph bin ti cc nh lnh o doanh nghip ti n-c h. L do v vic ny l c th thiu s hp tc v s trao i thng tin gia cc c quan tiu chun ca nh n-c v cc cng ty thuc khu vc t- nhn ti cc n-c ang pht trin. Cc cng ty thuc khu vc t- nhn c th khng quan tm ti vic thu nhn nhng thng tin v cc tiu chun mi tr-ng v c th h xem chng nh- mt bin php ca chnh ph nhm gy sc p i vi cc doanh nghip. So vi cc n-c cng nghip ho, nhiu chuyn gia cho rng cn phi c cc ngun nhn lc b sung hoc -c o to tt hn cho cc cng ty ti cc n-c ang pht trin thc hin cc yu cu ca tiu chun. Nhng thay i trong c cu v hot ng ca mt t chc theo yu cu ca cc iu khon ca CD 14001 lin quan n kinh nghim v trnh chuyn mn m cc n-c ang pht trin th c th l cha c -c. Cc chuyn gia cho rng mc d hon cnh l khc nhau cc n-c ang pht trin, mt iu chc chn l vic tun th theo cc tiu chun c th cn c s thay i v thit b cng ngh. Cc thit b nh- vy c th l cha c cc n-c ny. Thiu ngun lc nh- ngun lc thng tin, vn, cng ngh, ngun nhn lc c trnh , c s o to cc c vn c trnh v cc kim ton vin c th l hng ro cn tr vic thc hin h thng qun l mi tr-ng ISO 14001 i vi cc cng ty ti cc n-c ang pht trin. c. Thiu c s h tng Cc chuyn gia cho rng, ty thuc vo hon cnh hin c, cc n-c ang pht trin nhn chung l s tt hu so vi cc n-c cng nghip ho trong vic xy dng c s h tng cp chng ch ISO 14001. Kinh nghim vi ISO 9000 cho thy nhiu n-c ang pht trin khng c cc c quan u quyn quc gia hoc cc c quan cp chng ch nh gi vic tun th theo cc i hi ca cc tiu chun. L do ch yu l thiu kinh ph v thiu trnh chuyn mn38. Do vic nh gi s tun th hoc l do cc c quan cp chng ch t ti cc n-c cng nghip ho hoc do cc c quan quc t thc hin. Nh- i vi ISO 9000, ngay c khi c c s h tng cp chng ch ti cc n-c ang pht trin, cc chng ch -c cp bi mt c quan a ph-ng c th khng -c cc t chc hoc cc chnh ph chp nhn trong th tr-ng c mc tiu. Thiu tin cy v c s h tng cp chng ch l nhng hng ro cn tr tim tng i vi cc nh xut khu ti cc n-c ang pht trin c -c chng ch ISO 14001 tin cy, cn cho vic tham gia vo th-ng mi quc t. Mt kha cnh khc c th to ra nhng vn kh khn l thiu lut php mi trng quc gia mt s n-c ang pht trin. CD 14001 da vo quan im l vic qun l B mn qun l mi trng 77

Bi ging sn xut sch hn mt cng ty l t cam kt tun th thc hin lut php v cc quy ch mi tr-ng. Nu lut php mi tr-ng khng -c thc hin, th lm sao mt cng ty c th xy dng -c mt chnh sch v nh ra -c cc mc tiu v cc mc ch? d. Cc chi ph cho s tun th cc tiu chun S khng sn c cc ngun lc ti ch v c s h tng nh gi s tun th ti hu ht cc n-c ang pht trin lm tng cc chi ph cho vic tun th theo cc tiu chun i vi cc nh xut khu cc n-c ny. H c th b buc phi ng k bi nhng ni ng k n-c ngoi v thu cc nh t- vn n-c ngoi c trnh chuyn mn cn thit tin hnh o to, xy dng v kim ton h thng qun l mi tr-ng. Tt c nhng vic ny s lm tng cc chi ph. Cng ty c th phi chi tr bng ngoi t m c th l khng d c ti nc s ti. Do vy, cc nh xut khu i u vi s bt li trong cnh tranh so vi cc cng ty ti cc n-c cng nghip ho l ni c sn cc ngun lc cn thit. Nu mt cng ty cn phi mua thit b cng ngh mi, iu s lm tng chi ph thm ch l nhiu hn khi cc cng ngh l phi mua ca n-c ngoi. Chi ph cao lin quan ti vic thc hin ISO 14001 s l mt hng ro cn tr i vi cc cng ty ti cc n-c ang pht trin, c bit l i vi cc x nghip cng nghip quy m va v nh khi h thc hin mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng. e. Nhng li ch tim tng S ho hp mong mun ca cc tiu chun h thng qun l mi tr-ng quc gia lin kt vi vic thit lp cc tiu chun ISO 14001 v cc tiu chun lin quan s mang li nhng li ch nht nh cho cc nh xut khu ti cc n-c ang pht trin. Vic nhn c cc thng tin v cc lot tiu chun quc t l d dng hn so vi mt s cc tiu chun h thng qun l mi tr-ng n ph-ng c hiu lc ti cc n-c th-ng mi khc nhau. Vic chnh l cho thch hp vi mt h thng chu t chi ph hn l tun theo cc h thng khc nhau. Cc h thng khc nhau c th kt hp cc i hi mu thun nhau v v th c th l khng t-ng hp. iu nguy c ca vic khng ha hp cc tiu chun quc gia l ch cc cng ty ca cc n-c ang pht trin phi -c cc c quan cp chng ch tng n-c nhp khu nh gi v kh nng thc hin tiu chun. C th trnh -c iu ny nu xy dng -c mt tiu chun quc t thng nht. Ng-c li vi h thng tiu chun Chu u (ENAS) v ca Anh (BS 7750), CD 14001 t kht khe hn v khng -a ra ch tiu hot ng. Vic cp chng ch c th v vy m d dng hn cho cc cng ty ti cc n-c ang pht trin. Tuy nhin tc ng ti hot ng mi tr-ng vn phi -c xem xt. Cc cng ty ca cc n-c ang pht trin cng c li ch ngang nhau t vic gim chi ph nh kt hp vic ng k ISO 9000 v ISO 14000. Cc tiu chun cung cp ngun thng tin c ch v vic lm th no xy dng mt h thng qun l mi tr-ng. Cc tiu chun th-ng l khng thuc s hu ring v c c chng ch phi tr chi ph ti liu.

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn

Chng 4. NH GI VNG I SN PHM (LCA)


4.1. GII THIU CHUNG V LCA Cc sn phm, dch v hay qu trnh sn xut u c vng i (life cycle). Vng i ca mi sn phm bt u t khi khai thc nguyn liu, qua cc cng on ch bin thnh sn phm, phn phi n ngi s dng, sau sn phm c thi b hay ti s dng (cradle to grave). Vng i ca sn phm c minh ha nh sau:

Hnh 40. S tng qut vng i ca sn phm

V d vng i sn phm ca cotton

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn Vng i ca cotton bt u vi qu trnh sn xut ra cotton v kt thc bng vic thi b qun o lm bng cotton. Vng i ny khng phi l mt ng thng. Trong sut qu trnh sn xut ngi ta s dng nhiu loi vt liu v my mc. Bn thn nhng thit b ny cng cn phi c qu trnh sn xut v thi b khi khng s dng c na. Th l c nhiu vng i sn phm an xem vo nhau. V d trn, chng ta thy c s xut hin cc sn phm, v d nh ht bngV mt s n gin nh hnh v trn s gip ch rt nhiu cho vic tm hiu vng i ca mt sn phm cng nh vng i trong h thng. C nhiu cch nh ngha khc nhau v phn tch/nh gi vng i sn phm, tuy nhin c chp nhn rng ri l nh ngha sau y ca SETAC (Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry): nh gi vng i sn phm l mt qu trnh nh gi tc ng ln mi trng lin quan n mt sn phm, mt qu trnh hay mt hot ng bng cch xc nh v lng ha nng lng, nguyn liu s dng v cc cht thi ra mi trng; v nhn din, nh gi cc c hi ci thin mi trng. Cng vic nh gi bao gm ton b cc giai on trong vng i sn phm, qu trnh hay hot ng, xuyn sut t khi khai thc v x l nguyn liu; sn xut, vn chuyn v phn phi; s dng, ti s dng, bo hnh, ti ch v thi b cui cng. V d v s dng LAC trong cng nghip dt Mt cng ty dt ang xem xt vic b sung thm mt cng on vo qu trnh sn xut ca mnh. Cng ty ang la chn gia 2 chic my A v B. C 2 thit b ny u yu cu lin tc b sung mt s ho cht trong qu trnh vn hnh, mi thit b tiu th nng lng nh nhau trong mt n v thi gian chy my. Vy th chic my no l thch hp hn it nht l khi nhn t gc cc tc ng? Thit b A Tc ng gy ra trong qu trnh sn xut thit b Tc ng do s dng nng lng, ha cht bo dng (sinh thi/nm) Tc ng t vic thi b ng cch khi ht hn s dng (sinh thi) Thi gian s dng hu ch (nm) 210 20 6 15 b B 185 24 4 10 Thit

Thit b no A hay B s l s la chn tt nht cho cng ty v mt mi trng?? LCA l mt k thut tng i mi, m trong nhng nm u ca thp k 90 tr nn ph bin. Ban u nhiu ngi ngh rng LCA s l mt cng c tt nhn mnh cho cc thng ip v mi trng m thng c th s dng trong tip th. Trong nhng nm qua, mt thc t chng minh r rng l khng phi l ng dng tt nht ca LAC, mc d iu quan trng l phi thng tin cc kt qu ng dng LCA mt cch thn trng v ng mc. Mt cuc kho st v cch ng dng LAC (Rubik v Frankl, 2000) cho thy cc ng dng LCA ph bin nht l phc v cho cc mc ch ni ti ca cng ty: Ci thin sn phm. H tr cho cc la chn chin lc. Xy dng nh mc. Thng tin vi bn ngoi Mt nghin cu tng t cng ch ra rng c 2 loi ng dng LCA trong cc cng ty: T di ln trn: mt ngi no trong cng ty quyt nh iu tra tnh hu ch B mn qun l mi trng 80

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ca LCA i vi cng ty ca h. T trn xun: lnh o cao nht quyt nh p dng LCA mt cch h thng C 2 chin lc trn u t ra thnh cng, mc d trong vn c mt s ri ro kh lng c th dn ti tht bi trong qu trnh p dng. Mt trong nhng ri ro ng ch nht l thiu s xc nh r rng v mc ch ng dng LCA. nhiu cng ty, b phn tip th l nhng ngi khi xng, bi h mun qung co nhng li ch mi trng ca sn phm, nhng thng th b phn tip th s nhn ra rng rt kh c th trao i thng tin v cc kt qu thc hin LCA. cc cng ty khc, thng l phng Nghin cu& Pht trin, hoc phng mi trng ca cng ty s gi vai tr khi xng. Dng thng gp nht trong nhng giai on u thc hin LCA chnh l khi ng mt d n th im. Mc tiu quan trng nht l phi hiu th no l LCA, mt ngi c th hc c nhng g t thc hnh LCA v cc kt qu xc thc s nh th no. Thi hc hi cng rt quan trng. Vic hc cn quan trng hn kt qu LCA u tin. Theo nghin cu ca Frankl v Rubik (2000), c mt tnh hung th v xy ra nu LCA u tin cho cc kt qu l ngoi d kin. Ti mt s t chc, kt qu c xem nh mt l do bc b tnh hu ch ca LCA c th c s dng nh mt cng c. Mt s t chc khc li dng cc kt qu ngoi d kin nh mt kinh nghim hc hi tch cc. Sau nghin cu u tin, mt s cng ty quyt nh xem h c mun tip tc khng, v p dng mt tip cn c cu trc hn. Mt s yu t thc hin thnh cng LCA l: Mt m t r rng v l do ng dng LCA. Mt nh ngha r rng v cch thc thng tin lin lc ni vi, ngoi vi v LCA. Mt ngn sch thc hin tht hp l. Trong nhng giai on u pht trin LCA, cc nghin cu tn km, rt di v chi tit c ch trng nhiu hn. T nhng mi lin h ca mnh, chng ti thy c mt xu hng r rng v thc hin cc nghin cu s b v n gin. Nhng nghin cu nhanh ny c th tin hnh c sau khi thu thp s liu v cc nguyn liu v qu trnh c s dng ph bin nht c lin quan ti cng ty. Tuy nhin, nu sn phm ca cng ty yu cu cc vt liu rt c bit th c th bn s phi u t thu thp cc s liu cho cc vt liu . Mc d l mt cng c cn tng i mi nhng LCA chng minh c tnh hu ch ca mnh: Thc hin nghin cu LCA trong mt doanh nghip, khng ph thuc vo kt qu u ra c th ca nghin cu, s gip doanh nghip khi dy cc suy ngh v vng i sn phm. Cn b cng ty s nhn thc nhiu hn v cc tc ng mi trng ni chung v tm quan trong ca vic hch ton cc tc ng ny trong tt c cc giai on ca vng i sn phm. LCA cho php so snh hiu qu ca cc sn phm khc nhau c cng mt cng dng. iu ny s thc y ngi s dng thu thp v t chc mt cch c h thng s liu v cc kha cnh khc nhau ca tt c cc giai on trong vng i ca sn phm. Vi s gia tng thng mi ton cu v, v th, tng cng cnh tranh cng vi cc lut l mi trng ngy cng tr nn khc khe hn, th cc nh sn xut trn khp th gii s cng quan tm hn v buc phi thit lp cc s liu v tc ng t cc sn phm ca h. Mi quan tm ang tng ln v qun l chui cung ng - l vic qun l ton b cc hot ng ca chui cung ng lin quan ti 1 sn phm, t thu hoch/khai thc nguyn liu th qua cng on s dng ti vic qun l im kt thc ca vng B mn qun l mi trng 81

Bi ging sn xut sch hn i sn phm - khi mt s yu t nht nh ca chui c th n t cc nc (ang pht trin) khc nhau, lm tng tm quan trng ca vic s dng v tnh hu ch ca phng php lun LCA. Mt s lu v tiu chun ISO vi LCA C 4 tiu chun ISO c thit lp c bit phc v cho ng dng LCA1: ISO 14040: Nguyn tc v khun kh ISO 14041: Xc nh mc ch & phm vi v phn tch danh mc kim k ISO 14042: nh gi tc ng ca vng i sn phm ISO 14043: Din gii Vic bn mun tun th cc tiu chun trn hoc bn mun lm khc i c ch ch l hon ton ph thuc vo bn. D nhin, nu bn lm khc i th bn s khng th tuyn b rng LCA ca bn c thc hin theo tiu chun quc t, v s kh c th thuyt phc c quan khc v tnh xc thc trong nhng kt qu ca bn. Cc tiu chun ISO trn thc t c vit bng mt ngn ng khng r rng, lm ngi ta kh c th nh gi xem mt LCA c thc hin c ph hp vi tiu chun hay khng. Khng ging nh cc tiu chun ISO 14000 khc, vic c cng nhn chnh thc rng mt LCA, mt phng php lun LCA hoc phn mm LCA c thc hin theo ng tiu chun l khng th. H qu quan trng nht ca vic ng k theo tiu chun ISO l nhu cu v mt h thng ti liu y gm cc vn mc tiu, phm vi v din gii. Trn thc t, l mt ngi thc hin LCA, bn c th la chn v cch thc thc hin LCA ca ring bn trong mt phm vi tng i rng chng no m bn lp thnh vn bn tt c nhng g bn lm. 4.2. PHNG PHP LUN NH GI VNG I SN PHM Mt nghin cu LCA bao gm 4 bc: Xc nh mc tiu v phm vi ca nghin cu. Xy dng m hnh v vng i sn phm vi tt c cc dng vo v ra v mt mi trng. Bc ny thng c xem nh bc lp danh mc kim k vng i sn phm (LCI). Hiu c s lin quan v mt mi trng ca tt c cc dng vo v ra. Bc ny c xem l bc nh gi tc ng ca vng i sn phm. Din gii kt qu nghin cu. K thut chnh c s dng trong LCA l lp m hnh. Trong bc lp danh mc kim k, ngi ta cn phi lp mt m hnh t mt h thng k thut phc tp gm qu trnh sn xut, s dng, vn chuyn v thi b sn phm. Kt qu s thu c mt s dng hay cn gi l s qu trnh gm tt c cc qu trnh c lin quan. i vi mi qu trnh, tt c cc dng vo v ra tng ng u phi c lit k. Cui cng ta s thu c mt danh sch rt di cc dng vo v ra, m thng thng th rt kh din gii. Trong bc nh gi tc ng ca vng i, ngi ta s s dng mt m hnh hon ton khc m t s lin quan ca cc dng vo v ra. Do vy, mt m hnh v c ch mi trng s c ng dng. V d, pht thi SO2 s c lin quan ti axit tng ln v c th gy ra nhng thay i v t, dn n hin tng cy ci b cht, v.v... Thng qua mt s c ch mi trng nh vy, kt qu LCI c th
1 Mi

y ngi ta tin hnh mt qu trnh thm nh li. Tiu chun d tho gn y (u nm 2004) lc bt 4 tiu chun cn li thnh 2 tiu chun gm: 14040: Nguyn tc v khun kh hu nh c gi nguyn; 3 tiu chun kia c hp li thnh 1 tiu chun ISO 14044. S thay i ny s khng gy ra nhiu tc ng ti ngi thc hin bi v ni dung hu nh c gi nguyn.

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn c gii thch bng s lng cc loi tc ng nh tc ng axit ho, tc ng thay i kh hu, v.v... Mt vn thng hay gy tranh ci l vic cho trng s i vi cc loi tc ng, bi v y l mt vn mang tnh ch quan. Tm hiu bn cht a ngnh ca LCA: Mt trong nhng thuc tnh phc tp ca LCA nm c im rt a ngnh ca tip cn ny. Theo nghin cu Hofstetter 1998, chng ta c th phn bit ra 3 kha cnh u l yu cu ca LCA. Mi phm vi u c nhng c im rt khc nhau: Kha cnh k thut: l vic m hnh ho cc h thng k thut, v d nh cc qu trnh sn xut, vn chuyn, v.v... Thng thng, nhng im khng r rng trong kha cnh k thut khng ln hn h s 2, trong khi phn ln cc php o c u c th thm tra v lp li. Kha cnh sinh thi: l vic m hnh ho cc c ch mi trng ("Ci g xy ra km vi mt pht thi?"). Nhng im khng r rng thng c trng s t 1 n 3, v thng th vic xc minh li l kh hoc khng th thc hin c, v d mt ngi khng th tin hnh th nghim thay i kh hu v lp li iu ny mt vi ln c c kt qu o c ng tin cy. Kha cnh gi tr: l qu trnh x l cc la chn mang tnh ch quan. Cng vic ny bao gm nh ra trng s cho cc loi tc ng, nhng v ta s thy cc gi tr cng ng mt vai tr thit yu khi la chn mt th tc phn b hoc mt phm vi thi gian. V d, trong khi nh gi tc ng, iu quan trng l phi xc nh xem mt s tn hi tim tng gy ra bi kim loi nng s tn ti ch 100 nm hay s l vnh vin. Kha cnh gi tr l mt c th trong lnh vc khoa hc x hi. Trong kha cnh gi tr, ngi ta khng th thc s cp ti nhng im khng chc chn, L mt ngi thc hin LCA, bn s phi hiu cc cch suy ngh khc nhau ni trn c th trao i mt cch hiu qu vi cc chuyn gia ca mi kha cnh ny, v iu tit cc tranh lun v nhng im khng r rng v tnh xc thc. 4.2.1. Nhu cu xc nh mc tiu v phm vi i vi mi m hnh, mt ngi cn phi hiu rng mt m hnh l vic lm n gin ho hin thc, v i vi mi qu trnh n gin ho, iu ny c ngha l hin thc s b lm mo i mt vi im no . V th, thch thc i vi ngi thc hin LCA l phi xy dng m hnh theo cch m vic n gin ho, v do l nhng phn b lm mo i, khng nh hng n kt qu nhiu lm. Cch tt nht gii quyt vn ny l trc tin bn phi xc nh tht cn thn mc tiu v phm vi ca nghin cu LCA. Trong mc tiu v phm vi, nhng la chn quan trng nht (v thng mang tnh ch quan) s c m t, v d nh: L do thc hin LCA, v nhng cu hi cn c gii p. Mt nh ngha t m v sn phm, vng i ca sn phm v nhng chc nng m sn phm s thc hin trong vng i. C s ca php so snh (n v cng dng ca sn phm) khi cn phi so sanh cc sn phm vi nhau. Mt m t v nhng ranh gii ca h thng. Mt m t v cch thc gii quyt vn t ra. Cc yu cu v s liu v cht lng s liu. Cc iu kin gi thit v gii hn. B mn qun l mi trng 83

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Nhng yu cu lin quan ti th tc nh gi tc ng ca vng i (LCIA), v cc din gii tip theo. Cc i tng c ch ch v cch chia x cc kt qu. Nu c th, s p dng phng thc xem xt nh gi bi 1 c quan tng ng. Yu cu v hnh thc bo co ca nghin cu. Vic xc nh mc tiu v phm vi l mt hng dn gip bn bo m tnh chc chn ca LCA bn s thc hin. Mc tiu v phm vi khng th c s dng nh mt vn bn bt di bt dch. Trong qu trnh LCA, mt ngi c th c nhng iu chnh, nu nhng la chn ban u l khng ti u hoc khng kh thi. Tuy nhin, nhng iu chnh nh th cn phi c thc hin mt cch c thc v cn thn. a. Xc nh mc tiu R rng l mt LCA cn phi c tin hnh v mt mc ch no . Tuy nhin, trong ISO c mt vi yu cu c th xc nh mc tiu: Vic p dng v cc i tc c ch ch s c m t mt cch r rng. y l mt vn quan trng bi mt nghin cu nhm mc ch cung cp s liu s dng ni b c th s c cu trc hon ton khc so vi mt nghin cu nhm mc ch so snh cng khai 2 sn phm vi nhau. V d, trong trng hp th 2, ISO ni rng vic cho trng s c th khng c s dng khi nh gi tc ng v cn phi c mt th tc xem xt li ca 2 ch th tng ng. Thng tin lin lc vi cc bn lin quan trong qu trnh nghin cu cng l mt vn quan trng. Nhng nguyn nhn tin hnh nghin cu cng cn c m t r rng. Liu t chc chu trch nhim v LCA c ang c gng chng t iu g khng?, c phi ngi c trch nhim ch c nh cung cp thng tin m thi?, v.v... Mt vi nghin cu LCA nhm phc v nhiu mc ch. Cc kt qu c th c s dng c ni b ln bn ngoi cng ty. Trong trng hp ny, h qu ca vic s dng cc kt qu theo hai hng nh th cn phi c m t r rng. V d, phng php nh gi tc ng s dng ni b v vi bn ngoi s khc nhau. V d v thc hin mt nghin cu LCA phc v 2 mc ch: Mt cng ty dt ang chun b thc hin mt nghin cu LCA cho mt trong cc sn phm bng cotton ca mnh quyt nh kh nng xut khu ra th trng nc ngoi rt quan tm n mi trng, ng thi, h cng mun nng cao nhn thc v mi trng trong s ngi lao ng ca h. b. Xc nh phm vi Phm vi ca nghin cu s m t nhng la chn v phng php thc hin, nhng gi thit v gii hn nghin cu quan trng nht. Bi LCA l mt th tc lp, nn li vit tt ca thut ng ny c a vo trong hu ht cc phn hng dn sau. iu ny c ngha l mt ngi bt u vi nhng ranh gii u tin ca h thng v nhng yu cu ban u v cht lng, m sau ny c th c iu chnh nu c thm cc thng tin khc. Cng dng, n v cng dng v dng tham chiu Mt vn c bit quan trng khi so snh cc sn phm l n v cng dng hay c s so snh. Trong nhiu trng hp, ngi ta khng th ch n gian so snh sn phm A vi sn phm B v chng c th c cc c tnh khc nhau. V d, mt hp giy ng sa ch c th dng mt ln, trong khi chai ng sa c th c dng ti 10 ln hoc nhiu hn. Nu mc ch ca LCA l so snh h thng cha sa, th ngi ta khng th so snh 1 hp giy vi 1 ci chai. Phng php tt hn l so snh 2 cch cha v vn chuyn 1000 lt sa. Trong trng hp , ngi ta c th so snh 1000 hp sa giy vi khong 100 chai sa v 900 ln ra chai (gi s mi chai c th c gi tr li 9 ln). Xc nh n v cng dng c th l mt vic lm thc s kh khn, v hiu qu ca B mn qun l mi trng 84

Bi ging sn xut sch hn cc sn phm khng phi lc no cng d m t. V d, cng dng ca mt que kem, mt h thng x chia phng tin, hay mt k ngh l g? Ranh gii ca h thng Cc h thng sn phm thng c quan h tng h rt phc tp. V d, trong LCA v hp giy cha sa, xe ti cng c s dng. Tuy nhin, xe ti cng l mt sn phm vi vng i ring ca mnh. sn xut xe ti th cn phi c thp, sn xut thp th cn c than v vn chuyn bng xe ti, v.v... R rng l ngi ta khng th ln theo tt c cc dng vo v ra ca h thng sn phm, v cn phi xc nh rang gii ca h thng. Cng hin nhin l thng qua vic tch ra mt s phn nht nh bi chng nm ngoi ranh gii ca h thng th kt qu nghin cu cng c th b lch i. Vic v mt s h thng v xc nh cc ranh gii trn s ny s rt hu ch. Nhng la chn quan trng trong phn ny gm: C bao hm qu trnh sn xut v thi b cc sn phm thuc t liu sn xut (nh xe ti, thit b khun, v.v....) khng? Bi v trong khi phn tch nng lng, ngi ta c th phn bit 3 cp : o Cp th nht: ch bao gm qu trnh sn xut vt liu v vn chuyn (t khi c s dng trong LCA). o Cp th hai: bao hm tt c cc qu trnh theo sut vng i sn phm, tr t liu sn xut. oCp th 3: bao hm c t liu sn xut. Thng thng th t liu sn xut ch c m hnh ho nh trong dng cp th nht, v th ch c qu trnh sn xut vt liu cn thit sn xut ra t liu sn xut l cn quan tm. Th no l ranh gii vi t nhin? V d, trong mt LCA v giy, iu quan trng l phi xc nh xem c bao gm qu trnh trng bng hay khng. Nu c, ngi ta c th k n s hp th CO2 v tc ng s dng t. Thng th trong LCA, t nng nghip khng c k n bi l mt phn ca t nhin. V vy, chng ta khng gi thit rng tt c cc loi thuc tr su c s dng l pht thi vo mi trng. Ch c nhng thuc tr su thot khi vng t trng trt (do bay hi hay do nc ngm) c tnh l pht thi. Tuy nhin, khng phi tt c mi ngi u ng iu ny. Mt s ngi khng khng cho rng tt c cc loi thuc tr su c phun vo cnh ng u l pht thi. Khi bn c mt bo co LCA v cotton, th iu quan trong l phi phn tch xem vn thuc tr su c gii quyt nh th no. Tiu ch bao gm cc u vo v u ra Ngoi cc ch tiu cho ranh gii h thng, ngi ta cng c th s dng mt im ngng m di ngng ny th vic thu thp s liu cho dng vo v ra s khng c tc dng. ISO khuyn co vic s dng mt hoc mt vi cn c sau i vi mt ngng nh vy: Nu lng dng vo thp hn mt t l nht nh: vn ng nhin l ch iu ny ch c tc dng i vi dng nguyn liu, khng p dng c cho qung ng vn chuyn v nng lng. Nu gi tr kinh t ca dng vo thp hn mt t l nht nh ca tng gi tr h thng sn phm: vn t ra i vi tip cn ny v tip cn trc l cc dng c gi tr thp hoc lng t cng c th s c tc ng mi trng ng k. Nu phn ng gp ca dng vo vo ti lng mt trng thp hn mt t l nht nh: y dng nh l mt la chn hp l nht, nhng vn l ngi ta khng th thc s bit c phn ng gp v mi trng ca mt dng vo trc khi kho st dng . Mt khi nghin cu mt dng vo th ngi ta c th s t hi ti sao li khng nn s dng dng . B mn qun l mi trng 85

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Mi y, ngi ta khuyn ngh s dng bng u vo u ra nh mt phng thc kh thi c tnh ti lng mi trng cn thiu. Nguyn tc su xa ca cc bng d liu nh th c trnh by trong phn 2.5. Nhng bng ny cung cp ti lng mi trng cho mt n v chi ph, v th nu bit c chi ph km theo dng vt cht (la chn s 2) th ngi ta c th c tnh c ti lng mi trng cho dng , nh trong la chn s 3. Yu cu v cht lng s liu Vn quan trng l phi xc nh trc loi s liu cn tm kim. Trong mt vi nghin cu ny, bn c th mun ly gi tr trung bnh ca tt c cc nh sn xut thp trn ton th gii. Trong mt vi nghin cu khc, bn li ch mun ly s liu ca mt nh sn xut thp hoc ca mt nhm nh sn xut thp Electro ti CHLB c. Cng nh vy, bn cn phi xc nh xem liu bn cn s liu cho trng hp cng ngh trung bnh, hin i hay li thi. Mt s vn khc v cht lng lng s liu l tnh hon chnh, thng nht v lp li. Gi v cc thng s cht lng s liu: Cc thng s di y thng c s dng Thi gian thu thp s liu: cc s liu c b li thi khng? Khu vc: v d trng bng Th Nh K c th khc rt nhiu so vi M S phn b: liu cc nguyn tc phn b c nht qun vi cc nguyn tc c s dng trong cc phn khc ca LCA khng? Ranh gii ca h thng: liu cc ranh gii ca h thng c c p dng nht qun khng, v cc quy tc xc nh ranh gii c thng nht vi cc nguyn tc chung ca LCA khng? Tnh i din v loi cng ngh: liu loi cng ngh c s dng trong d liu c thc s i din cho qu trnh thc t ang hot ng khng, v th d liu ca mt thi b dt c khng thc s i din cho mt h thng rt hin i S phn b Rt nhiu qu trnh thng thc hin nhiu hn 1 chc nng hoc cho ra nhiu hn 1 u vo. Ti lng mi trng ca cc qu trnh nh th thng cn phi c phn b theo cc chc nng v u ra khc nhau. C nhiu cch khc nhau thc hin phn b nh th. ISO khuyn ngh th tc sau gii quyt vn phn b: Trnh phn b thng qua tch 1 qu trnh thnh 2 qu trnh ring bit m mi qu trnh nh cho mt u ra ring l. V d, vn g v mn ca u l sn phm kinh t ca mt xng ca, nhng ngi ta khng th tch qu trnh ca thnh 1 b phn chu trch nhim v mn ca v 1 b phn khc chu trch nhim v tm vn. Mt cch khc trnh phn b l m rng ranh gii h thng v thng qua bao gm cc qu trnh cn c to ra mt u ra tng t. V d, nu mt lng hu ch hi, c to ra nh mt sn phm ph, c s dng theo cch s trnh c vic sn xut hi bng cc bin php truyn thng, th ngi ta c th loi tr bt phn ti lng mi trng ca vic sn xut hi trnh c. C mt vn thc tin l khng phi lun lun d dng khng nh hi s c sn xut thay th bng cch no. Nu khng th trnh vic phi phn b bng mt cch no , tiu chun ISO khuyn ngh phn b ti lng mi trng da trn nguyn nhn vt l, v d nh theo thnh phn vt cht hoc nng lng ca u ra. V d, nu mn ca tng ng vi 40% lng vt cht th ngi ta s phn b 40% ti lng mi trng cho mn ca. Trong trng hp phn b hi, chng ta thy rng lng vt cht ca hi khng phi l mt B mn qun l mi trng 86

Bi ging sn xut sch hn c s ph hp. Phn b trong sn xut dt: Khi ch bin cotton, mt s sn phm ph c to ra nh x bng, ht (cha du), v.v... Tt c cc sn phm ny u c cng dng nht nh v v th c gi tr kinh t nht nh. Khi chng ta ch quan tm ti ti lng mi trng ca si cotton cho ngnh dt, chng ta cn phn b mt t l ti lng mi trng hp l trong ch bin cotton cho s cc u ra k trn. Thng thng ngi ta s dng gi tr kinh t trung bnh ca cc u ra ny. Tng t nh vy, khi sn xut len th cng s pht sinh tht v da. Nu len chim 20% thu nhp ca ngi nng dn, chng ta s phn b 20% ti lng mi trng ca cng vic ng ng v chn nui cu cho len, trong khi phn ti lng cn li s phn b cho tht v da. Cha kho ca vic phn b ny da trn gi thit rng gi tr th trng l nguyn nhn ca vic cu c nui v v th sinh ra nhim. Mt vn ca tip cn ny l gi c c th bin ng rt nhiu, nhng xt v lu di, s phn b gi c trung bnh s rt n nh trong phn ln cc trng hp. C mt tip cn thay th na l phn b theo khi lng, nhng iu c ngha l u vo c gi tr thp (nh x bng trong trng hp ch bin cotton) s c ti lng mi trng tng i cao. Nu th tc ny khng c ng dng, ISO khuyn ngh s dng 1 c s phn b mang tnh kinh t-x hi, v d nh gi tr kinh t. V d, nu mn ca tng ng vi 20% gi tr to ra ca ca xng ca, th ngi ta s phn b 20% ti lng mi trng cho u ra ny. Mc d ISO cp n c s mang tnh kinh t-x hi nh mt phng cch cui 1 cng, th c s ny li thng c p dng . u im ca gi tr kinh t l ch, n l mt phng thc tt phn bit cht thi (khng c hoc c gi tr m) vi mt u ra v c s ny th hin c tm quan trng tng xng ca mt u ra. 4.2.2. Danh mc kim k (thu thp s liu) a. Thc t thu thp s liu Nhim v quan trng nht trong thc hin LCA l thu thp s liu. Tuy c nhiu s liu trong c s d liu ca bn, nhng bn vn thng thy thiu t nht c mt vi qu trnh hoc mt vi vt liu, hoc cc s liu sn c khng mang tnh i din. Tu thuc vo thi gian v ngn sch bn c, y c mt lot cc chin lc thu thp cc s liu ny: Trc tin, c gng tm hiu xem liu s liu ang thiu c tc ng ng k n kt qu chung khng. V d, nu s liu ny s khng chim nhiu hn 0,1 - 1% trong bt k loi tc ng no, bn c th b qua ngun gc s liu v thay vo s lm php c tnh. Cc php c tnh c th c thc hin thng qua s dng s liu t cc qu trnh tng t, c tnh nng lng s dng trong qu trnh , hoc s dng cc s liu thng k t c s d liu u vo u ra s c m t phn sau. Tm kim s liu trong cc ti liu. C rt nhiu cun sch m t cc qu trnh cng nghip v thng th cc cun sch s cung cp cc m t r rng c tnh nng lng s dng, cht thi v trong mt vi trng hp, c mt s pht thi kh. iu ny s l mt khi u tt xy dng bn cu hi iu tra. Tm kim cc s liu c cung cp trong cc c s d liu LCA c bn trn th trng; thng th cc c s d liu ny cha ng s liu do cc ngnh cng nghip cung cp, v d: cc nh sn xut Plastic chu u, cc nh sn xut Thp v Nhm, cng nh cc trng i hc v c quan nghin cu khc, nh c s d liu Ecoinvent. Mt s cc website chuyn ngnh nh www.ecoinvent.ch, www.spold.org v www.globalspine.com l thng trng ca d liu LCA. Ngoi ra, mt trang web khc cng rt th v na l www.lca.org Tuy nhin, trong nhiu trng hp, bn s phi tm kim s liu c trng t cng ty B mn qun l mi trng 87

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ca mnh hoc t mt s cng ty khc. Hu nh ngi ta s s dng mt vi bn cu hi iu tra thu thp cc thng tin nh th. C mt iu rt quan trng na l phi xy dng c mi quan h tt vi nhng ngi m bn d kin s in vo bn cu hi. Hiu c nhng vn h bit, thng tin t u m c v thut ng c s dng cng c tm quan trng khi thu thp s liu. Thu thp s liu qua internet: Mt phng tin chuyn tm kim v bo co LCA c th tm thy ti www.pre.nl/ lcasearch. Trang web ny tham chiu ti hng nghn bo co LCA v cc ti liu tng t. Vic thu thp s liu t cc ngun khc khng phi lc no cng d thc hin. Cn nhc cn thn cc im sau s hu ch cho thu thp s liu: Vic cc c quan khc sn sng cung cp s liu mc no tt nhin s ph thuc vo mi quan h gia bn vi cc c quan ny. Mt s c quan rt quan tm ti vn ny bi h c th c mc tiu chung; mt s khc s xem cc hot ng LCA ca bn nh mt vn khng ng quan tm. Trong mt vi trng hp hu ht cc n lc thu thp s liu da nhiu vo mi quan h tt, m trong , cc bn tin tng ln nhau. t nht th bn phi t ra ci m thng bo ti sao bn li cn cc thng tin , cc hot ng g s din ra khi bn c cc thng tin ny, v thng tin s c trnh by nh th no. Cc vn v bo mt cng rt quan trng. i khi, cc s liu v pht thi c th bc l nhng b mt nht nh v k thut hoc thng mi. C mt cch gii quyt vn ny l dng mt nh t vn trung lp tnh trung bnh cc s liu thu c t cc nh cung cp khc nhau. i khi mt chi nhnh hoc hip hi cng nghip cng c th gi vai tr ny khi h c th tnh trung bnh cc con s thu c t cc n v thnh vin. Cc vn v thut ng. i vi mi ngnh cng nghip, c nhiu cch o lng v m t cc vn . Nu bn xy dng mt bn cu hi iu tra cho mt ngnh no , bn phi s dng cc thut ng, cc n v v nhng th thuc thi quen c p dng trong ngnh . lm c iu ny, trc tin, bn phi tho lun cc vn bn quan tm v sau xy dng bn cu hi iu tra. Sau khi bn thu thp cc bn iu tra c in ni dung, bn s phi nh gi cn thn xem cc s liu c hp l, thng nht v y khng. Nhn chung, bn s cn thm ti chu trnh thc hin ln th hai hoc thm ch ln th ba mi c th c c s sng t. Tm quan trng ca cc s liu thu thp c trong sn xut dt: i vi bt k loi quan trc hot ng no trong ngnh dt cng u bt buc phi thu thp s liu mt cch c h thng. i vi mi qu trnh, sn phm hoc dch v, iu quan trng l phi thu thp s liu v dng nguyn liu v nng lng i vo v/hoc ra v to ra cc tc ng mi trng. Khi thu thp v x l s liu mt cch c h thng l mt hot ng thnh thi quen trong mt c s cng nghip, th vic thc hin nghin cu LCA s l bc tip theo c logic v c kh nng cho nh gi tc ng mi trng ca sn xut dt. Trong lch e-textile c mt cng c tr gip tt i vi vic thu thp s liu. y, c bit l vo cc thng 3, 4, 5 v 7, bn s c hng dn qua cc bi tp chuyn su v thu thp s liu cho cc thnh phn: nc, nng lng, nguyn liu v cht thi. b. S liu da trn bng u vo u ra C mt xu th tng i mi trong LCA l s dng c s d liu u vo-u ra. C s d liu ny khc vi c s d liu v qu trnh thng thng, bi chng cha ng cc s liu theo ngnh kinh t. V d, hin c cc s liu cho ngnh cng nghip, ngn hng, giao thng v t vn. Li ch ca tip cn ny l bn c th hon chnh b s liu cho c mt nn kinh t. Tuy nhin, tip cn ny cng c nhc im l cc thng tin s khng c trng. V d, gi s hot ng kinh t trong sn xut dt l mt phn trong bng s liu . iu ny c ngha l chng ta c th xc nh ti lng mi trng trung bnh cho u ra ca sn xut dt B mn qun l mi trng 88

Bi ging sn xut sch hn trung bnh trn 1$ gi tr th trng, nhng chng ta khng th thy c s khc nhau gia vi cotton v vi polyester. Khi nim v bng u vo-u ra Mi nn kinh t quc gia hoc khu vc c th c m t bi 1 bng, trong s cung ng gia cc ngnh, cng nh cung ng cho ngi tiu dng v cho xut khu c ng k v thut ng ti chnh. S di y trnh by mt bng s liu nh th i vi trng hp ch c 3 ngnh khc nhau l nng nghip, cng nghip v dch v. Vai tr ca chnh ph cng b b qua. Trn thc t, s lng cc ngnh vo khong 100 ti 500. S cung ng c ghi theo cc dng. Vic cung ng t mt ngnh ny sang cc ngnh khc ng nhin l tng t nh vic mua hng, nn nu bn c cc dng trong bng, bn s c c thng tin v vic mua hng ca ngnh . Tt nhin, cc ngnh cng nhp hng, v thng gi thit rng hng ho v dch v nhp v t cng mt b phn ca cc ngnh sn xut, do , y chng ta cng c th gi thit rng cc quc gia m chng ta mua hng ca h cng c cng 3 ngnh sn xut ny. Nu tnh tng tt c cc hot ng cung ng, chng ta s thu c tng gi tr to ra ca ngnh sn xut theo ct bn tay phi. Chng ta cng c th tnh tng chi ph ca ton b vic mua hng v ghi vo dng di cng. S chnh lch gia tng gi tr v tng chi ph s l gi tr gia tng ca ngnh sn xut . S chnh lch ny khng ging nh li nhun, bi v ngnh sn xut ny cng s phi chi tr tin lng, chi ph cho cc khon vay, v.v... Tuy vy, gi tr gia tng l mt phng tin quan trng i vi mc ch ca chng ta.

Hnh 41. Biu cc ni dung chnh ca bng u vo u ra cho 3 ngnh kinh t. 3 dng u tin m t s cung ng cho mi ngnh khc nhau, cho khch hng v xut khu, 3 dng tip theo ghi li vic nhp khu/mua hng.

Cng thm ti lng mi trng Ngi ta c th thu thp cc s liu mi trng cho tng ngnh kinh t t cc ngun thng k. Rt nhiu nh nghin cu lm nh vy i vi cc nc cng nghip quan trng nht mc d cc s liu ny khng phi lc no cng y . T l gii trn, mt iu c th tr nn sng t l c c cc s liu t mt ngnh sn xut n l th cha ; ngi ta cn phi truy ti lng mi trng i km vi cc dch v v sn phm c lu thng gia cc ngnh. lm c iu ny, tt c cc s liu mi trng c chia ra theo gi tr gia tng ca ngnh sn xut , v bng u vo-u ra c s dng tm cc hot ng cung ng. V nguyn tc, lm nh th cho php chng ta tm tt c cc ti lng mi trng cho c nn kinh t. y khng gp phi vn v ranh gii h thng, tt c u c v s phn b c thc hin da theo gi tr kinh t. S dng bng u vo-u ra (bng IO) trong LCA ca bn B mn qun l mi trng 89

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Mt trong nhng kt qu ca bng IO l bn khng cn phi s dng cc u vo l vt cht v nng lng m l gi tr. Bn s cn phi truy gi khng k thu i vi cc cu t, vt liu hoc dch v. Bng IO c bit ph hp vi nhng mc ch sau: Nh s liu c tnh ra quyt nh lc gim, Thc hin sng lc s liu ca LCA, Thu thp thm s liu, v d nh cho ngnh dch v. V d, c th bn mun cng thm nh hng trung bnh ca vic bn l qun o. Nu bit c khong bn trung bnh ca ca hng, bn c th xc nh vic bn l qun o s chim bao nhiu phn. Nu cc s liu u vo-u ra ghi r ti lng mi trng ca phn bn l th s d dng c th a c ti lng vo tnh ton. 4.2.3. nh gi tc ng a. Gii thiu Hu ht cc chuyn gia LCA u khng xy dng phng php lun nh gi tc ng, h u mun chn mt phng php no c xut bn. Trong phn ny, chng ti s khng gii thch cch thc xy dng phng php nh gi tc ng m ch l cch la chn phng php v nu c th th s ci tin phng php . Ging nh giai on lp danh mc kim k, trong nh gi tc ng, s xc nh mc ch v phm vi cng l ngun hng dn quan trng nht la chn phng php v cc loi tc ng. S la chn quan trng nht chng ta lm l mc tp hp cc kt qu. iu ny thng ph thuc vo cch bn din t cho i tng nghe ca chng ta v kh nng nhng i tng hiu c kt qu chi tit. Hnh . trnh by mt tng quan bng s v mt s kh nng c th c.

Hnh 42. Vic la chn phng php nh gi tc ng ph thuc nhiu vo i tng ngi nghe

b. Tiu chun ISO v phng php nh gi tc ng Tiu chun ISO 14040 xc nh LCA l mt s lit k v nh gi cc u vo v u ra cng cc tc ng mi trng tim n ca mt h thng sn phm trong sut vng i ca n. Trong nh ngha ny, r rng l nh gi tc ng l mt phn hp thnh ca LCA. nh gi tc ng ca vng i c xc nh l mt giai on ca LCA nhm hiu B mn qun l mi trng 90

Bi ging sn xut sch hn v nh gi c phm vi v mc ca cc tc ng mi trng ca mt h thng sn phm (ISO 14040). Cc phng php nh gi tc ng c m t trong ISO 14042. Trong tiu chun ny, ngi ta phn bit: Yu t bt buc, nh phn loi v m t c im Yu t tu chn, nh chun ho, xp nhm v phn hng, v nh gi tm quan trng iu ny c ngha l, theo ISO, mi LCA u t nht phi bao gm phn loi v m t c im. Nu khng p dng nhng quy trnh nh th, c th ngi ta ch quy nghin cu ny nh mt hot ng lp danh mc kim k tc ng ca vng i. Ngi ta cn c mt s phn bit quan trng gia ng dng ni b v ngoi vi. Nu cc kt qu nhm so snh (cnh tranh) gia cc sn phm v s c trnh by cho cng lun th c th khng thc hin phn nh gi tm quan trng. Trong ti liu ca ISO 14042 cp ti mt lot cc vn cn phi c la chn v m t. Nhng hnh v di y minh ho th tc c thit k trong tiu chun ny. Hnh minh ho ny c ly trong 1 ti liu ISO14047 d tho nhm gii thch cho ISO 14042.

Hnh 43. S minh ha cc bc quan trng nht trong tiu chun ISO 14042 v cc yu t bt buc: phn loi, v m t c im. Cc con s c ngha tham chiu n cc iu trong tiu chun.

c. La chn phng php v loi tc ng Mt bc quan trng l la chn cc tc ng thch hp. Vic la chn ny chu tc ng ca mc tiu nghin cu v c th c minh ha trong cc v d sau: V d v la chn loi tc ng

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn Trong mt nghin cu LCA so snh vic vn chuyn sn phm may bng xe ti v bng tu ho, cc vn mi trng sau y l ph hp: - S dng t cho ng b v ng st. - Cc ht l lng (di PM10) pht sinh t ng c diesel engines v lp xe. - Ting n. - Cc loi tc ng biu th tc ng do s dng nhin liu ho thch pht in v dng cho ng c diesel t nht phi c: Thay i kh hu. Axit ho, ph dng. Cc tc ng ng hi khc i vi con ngi v h sinh thi, bao gm to ozon, l cc tc ng thng c bao gm trong cc loi tc ng hin ti. S suy kit cc nhin liu ho thch v khong sn (v d: km, nhm, ng (power supply of trains)). Cng c th bao gm cc tc ng hoc loi tc ng khc, nhng thc t th khng quan trng bng nhng tc ng k trn. lp c mt danh mc tc ng nh th v hiu c cn phi xc nh loi tc ng no bao qut tt c cc vn trn th cn phi c mt s nh gi chuyn mn. i ph vi cc phng php nh gi tc ng cha hon chnh: ISO yu cu rt r rng rng khng c php b qua cc vn s c kh nng tr nn quan trng. V d, s dng t, cc ht mn, v ting n l nhng vn khng th b qua c. Yu cu quan trng ny c th s dng loi t bt mt lot cc phng php do chng khng tnh n cc vn nh th. Mc d cc phng php s khng c gii thiu vi c gi y, nhng chng ti vn a ra mt vi nhn xt di y. Nu bn quan tm th c th tham kho qua nhiu ngun trn internet v cc gii php : CML 92 khng bao gm ting n, s dng t v m hnh cho ht mn km Eco-indicator 95 khng bao gm s dng t, ting n v cn kit nhin liu ho thch Eco-indicator 99 khng bao gm ting n EPS 2000 C bao gm cc vn trn, nhng i khi theo mt phng thc bi ging/mang tnh l thuyt V d ny cho ta thy rng cho ti nay mi ch c EPS 2000 a ting n vo nh mt loi tc ng, mc d cch thc hin cn kh s lc. Mt n phm mi y ca MllerWenk (1999) lp mt xut v phng thc a tc ng ting n vo Eco-indicator 992. T v d ny (khng phi l t ISO), c mt iu r rng l cn phi c phn m t tnh lin quan v mt mi trng ca cc loi tc ng c la chn khi bn thc hin LCA. Ngi ta khng c ch n gin ly mt phng php c xut bn m khng c l gii cn thn cho s la chn . C mt s h tr quan trng trong qu trnh chn cc loi tc ng l nh ngha ci gi l im cui. im cui c hiu l cc vn mi trng ang c quan tm, nh sc kho con ngi, s tuyt chng ca cc loi, s sn c ca ti nguyn i vi cc th h tng lai, v.v... Nhn chung, im cui c th xem nh nhng vn m cc chnh tr gia cng c
2

Trong mt vi trng hp c th kt hp cc loi tc ng t cc ngun khc nhau. V d, phng php CML 1992 c th m rng bng cch thm vo mt phng php xut bn v ting n v s dng t. Tuy nhin, trong nhng trng hp nh th, cn phi ht sc cn thn trnh chng cho trong cc loi tc ng. Thng th cng rt kh thc hin chun ho v nh gi tm quan trng ca cc kt qu ny.

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn tri ca h quan tm. y c mt s l do ch ti cc vn mi trng. Cc im cui thng khng thc s c nh ngha trong khi nim khoa hc. ISO khng khuyn co s dng mt s im cui nht nh3, nhng yu cu trc tin phi c mt s la chn v nh ngha im cui tht cn thn. Sau , cc loi tc ng s c la chn chng no m m hnh v mi trng c s lin h vi im cui c m t r rng. y khng cn thit phi m t mi lin h ny mt cch nh lng.

Hnh 44. Tng quan chung v cu trc ca mt phng php nh gi tc ng. Kt qu LCI c c tnh l cung cp mt lot cc ch th v loi tc ng. Theo ISO, ngi ta phi ghi li s lin quan v mi trng ca tng ch th thng qua m t mi lin h vi cc im cui. Ngi thc hnh s la chn cc im cui chng no cc l do cho vic bao hm hay b qua cc im cui c ghi li r rng.

La chn cc loi tc ng trong phn mm LCA: Phn mm LCA tin tin bao gm mt s lng ln cc phng php tiu chun v nh gi tc ng. Mi phng php u c mt lot (thng khong 10 n 20) loi tc ng. Hu ht ngi s dng u s n gin l la chn mt phng php hon chnh thay v chn cc loi tc ng. Phn loi Kt qu ca danh mc kim k trong mt LCA thng ta cho hng trm pht thi v thng s s dng ti nguyn khc nhau. Nu xc nh c cc loi tc ng ph hp, th cc kt qu LCI ny s c nh ra cho cc loi tc ng . V d, CO2 v CH4 s c quy vo loi tc ng m ln ton cu, trong khi SO2 v NH3 li c xp vo nhm gy tc ng axit ho. C th xp mt loi pht thi vo nhiu loi tc ng cng mt lc; v d SO2 c th c coi l tc nhn gy tc ng ti Sc kho con ngi v cng c th xp vo loi tc ng gy bnh v ng h hp. M t c im Nu xc nh c cc loi tc ng v kt qu LCI c phn b cho cc loi tc ng ny, th by gi cn xc nh cc yu t h s m t c im. Cc h s ny cn phn nh c kh nng ng gp tng i ca mi pht thi trong LCI vo kt qu ca ch th loi tc ng.
Vic phn bit cc loi tc ng vi im cui khng phi l d. V d, mt s ngi c th ni hin tng tng mc nc bin l mt loi tc ng, trong khi nhng ngi khc s gi l im cui.
3

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn V d, trong quy m thi gian l 100 nm, ng gp ca 1 kg CH4 vo tc ng m ln ton cu gp 42 ln ca 1 kg CO2. iu ny c ngha l nu h s m t c im ca CO2 l 1, th ca CH4 l 42. V th, kt qu ca ch th loi tc ng m ln ton cu c th tnh c bng cch nhn kt qu LCI vi h s m t c im. Cc c ch mi trng: Nh mt v d, chng ta s tho lun mt c ch mi trng ca cc pht thi c tc ng ti sc kho con ngi theo phng php lun Eco-indicator 99. Phn tch s tn ti Khi c thi ra, mt cht ho hc s tm cch ca mnh i qua cc thnh phn mi trng: khng kh, nc v t. Cht ny s i u v n s tn ti bao lu ph thuc vo tnh cht ca cht v thnh phn mi trng. Mt cht ho tan tt s c tm thy trong nc, trong khi , mt cht d kt khi vi cc ht hu c c kh nng dng li trong cc loi t c trng. Cc kha cnh khc l kh nng phn hu - hu ht cc cht hu c u c thi gian tn ti c gii hn. Trong m hnh phn tch s tn ti, s vn chuyn gia cc thnh phn mi trng v s phn hu ca cc cht c m phng. Kt qu l, nng trong khng kh, nc, t v thc n c th tinh ton c.

Hnh: Din gii bng s v m hnh s tn ti i vi c. i vi cc loi cht khc ngi ta s s dng cc m hnh s tn ti khc. Phi nhim Da vo nng c tnh ton, chng ta c th xc nh lng ca mt cht thc s c con ngi hoc thc vt hoc mt dng sinh vt sng khc hp th. Phn tch nh hng Khi s xut hin mt cht c bit n th c th d on loi v tn sut ca bnh tt v cc tc ng khc ca cht . Phn tch tn hi (xem ni dung trong hp ni dung tip theo) Cc loi bnh c th d on c by gi c th c din gii theo n v tn hi damage unit. V d, nu chng ta bit mt mc tip xc nht nh c th gy ra thm 10 ca mc mt loi ung th no , th chng ta c th tm c cc thng tin v tui trung bnh m con ngi c th mc loi ung th v kh nng t vong thng thng. Da vo cc s liu ny, chng ta c th tnh xem ngi ta s mt bao nhiu cuc i, v bao nhiu nm phi sng tn tt v ngi ta m v phi iu tr ti bnh vin. i vi cc nh hng c hi ln h sinh thi, chng ta tnh ton bao nhiu phn trm thc vt v cc loi ng vt bc thp chu cc tc ng c hi, trong khi , i vi hin tng axit ho v ph dng, chng ta lp m phng bao nhiu phn trm thc vt s bin mt (t l bin mt tim tng). Cc tn hi i vi ng vt bc cao nh chim v ng vt c v c th khng tnh ton c, nhng c nhng l do thun li gi thit rng cc tn hi i vi thc vt v nhng c th sng B mn qun l mi trng 94

Bi ging sn xut sch hn bc thp cng c th i din cho cc tn hi i vi dn c ca ng vt bc cao. i vi hu ht cc cht, cc tn hi c tnh ton theo thang Chu u. i vi mt vi cht nh cc cht kh nh knh, cc cht kh lm suy gim tng ozon, cc cht phng x vi tui th di, tn hi s c tnh ton trn c s ton cu, v cc cht ny phn tn khp th gii. Cc bc tu chn Chun ho, xp nhm v phn hng c s dng n gin ho vic din gii kt qu. Cc bc ny c xem nh nhng bc tu chn trong ISO 14042. Chun ho Chun ho l mt th tc nhm ch ra rng mt loi tc ng c ng gp ng k n vn mi trng chung mc no. Bc ny c thc hin nh chia cc ch th tc ng cho gi tr thng thng. Th tc ph bin nht l xc nh ch th loi tc ng cho mt khu vcc, v d Chu u, trong mt nm, v nu cn th chia kt qu ny cho s dn c trong khu vc . Chun ho phc v 2 mc ch: Cc loi tc ng ch gp phn nh so vi cc loi tc ng khc th c th b qua, v th s gim s lng cc vn cn c nh gi. Kt qu chun ho ch ra th bc quan trng ca cc vn mi trng do vng i sn p phm gy nn, c so snh vi tng ti lng mi trng ti, v d, nh Chu u. Xp nhm v phn hng trnh phn nh gi tm quan trng, trong khi lm cho cc kt qu tr nn d din gii hn, th cc ch th tc ng c th c xp nhm v phn hng: Ch th loi tc ng c mt s tnh cht chung th c th xp vo mt nhm. V d, ngi ta c th nhm cc ch th loi tc ng theo quy m ton cu, khu vc hay a phng. Phn hng cp ti mt th tc trong loi tc ng c phn theo mt bng vi trnh t gim dn v tm quan trng. C hai loi th tc trn u c th s dng din t kt qu.

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Hnh 45. M t bc la chn xp nhm trong phng php Eco-indicator99. Th tc ny cho php gim bt s lng cc loi tc ng xung cn 3 thay v l 11 v khng c ch ch lm phn nh gi tm quan trng

d. nh gi tm quan trng nh gi tm quan trng l bc gy nhiu tranh ci v kh nht trong nh gi tc ng vng i, v cho trng s phn nh nghim trng ca mi loi tc ng l mt qu trnh mang tnh ch quan khng th da vo khoa hc t nhin. nh gi tm quan trng so snh vi cotton v polyester Gi s mt LCA c thc hin so snh vi cotton v polyester. Mt iu hon ton logic khi gi thit vi cotton, cc tc ng nh s dng t, c tnh i vi sinh thi (thuc tr su) l kh ln. i vi polyester, chng ta gi thit rng cc loi tc ng nh suy kit ti nguyn (du l mt nguyn liu th) v thay i kh hu cng mc cao. iu ny c th mang ngha l cu hi nu vi cotton c a chung hn polyester hay khng ph thuc vo vic chng ta xem xt mc nng nh th no gia c tnh vi sinh thi so vi suy kit ti nguyn hay thay i kh hu. Nu tc ng ca c tnh sinh thi c nh gi l ln hn th vi polyester s chim u th, nu thp hn th vi cotton s c u thch hn Vn ch khng c c s khoa hc xem liu tc ng c hi sinh thi c quan trng hn tc ng suy kit ti nguyn hay khng. C mt vi gii php c xut nhm gii quyt hoc n gin ha vn i vi nh gi tm quan trng: - S dng mt bng nh gi cc loi tc ng v xut trng s ngm nh. Trong tip cn ny cng c mt vi vn : B mn qun l mi trng 96

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Rt kh gii thch trong bng ny ngha ca cc ch th loi tc ng. Cc ch th ny qu vn tt (nh CO2 quy i hoc gii phng proton), v thm ch nu chng c c th hn i chng na, nh Sc kho con ngi, biu th bng DALY hay a dng sinh hc, th nhng ngi khc nhau cng s c cch suy din khc nhau. Trong tip cn im gia, s lng cc ch th cn c nh gi l kh ln (t 10 n 15 ch th). Nhng bng nh th nhm mc ch a ra mt khong gi tr rt nh i vi trng s (thng t 1 n 3). gi l Khung trong cc mn khoa hc x hi v cng l mt vn i vi c hai phng php im cui v im gia. Khong cch ti ch tiu. Nu c th t ra mt ch tiu cho mi loi tc ng, th ch tiu ny c th c s dng ra trng s. Nu s chnh lch gia ch tiu v mc hin ti cao th trng s s cao. Phng php Ecopoint s dng cc ch tiu do Chnh ph Thu S t ra. Phng php Eco-indicator 95 s dng cc ch tiu phn nh nhu cu gim nh cc tn hi v mi trng ti mt mc nht nh (cng cn c hiu l tip cn tn hi). Tip cn ny cng c mt vi tr ngi: Trong trng hp s dng ch tiu chnh sch th s c vn khng r rng nu tt c cc ch tiu u quan trng ngang nhau. Cc ch tiu chnh sch thng c lp nn nh mt s tho hip gia cc nhm hu quan v khng cn phn nh cc nhu cu thc s v gim tc ng mi trng. Trong trng hp s dng cc ch tiu khoa hc, cc dng tn hi khc nhau cn c cn nhc nng nh. - Quy thnh tin: Trong EPS2000, tt c cc tn hi c biu din bi cng mt n v tin t: n v ti lng mi trng so snh vi ng EUR. Trong phng php lun ny, ngi ta gi s rng c th s cng thm cc loi chi ph khc nhau ny (chi ph hin ti, s sn sng chi tr v chi ph khai thc tng lai). iu ny s c hiu l bc tnh tm quan trng trong trng s i vi nhng loi chi ph khc nhau bng 1. nh gi tn hi nh mt bc ph h tr cho vic nh gi tm quan trng: Trong phng php lun Eco-indicator 99, vn v nh gi tm quan trngl im xut pht ca s pht trin. Mt s vn i km vi nh gi tm quan trng c gim bt hoc gii quyt, nhng y vn lun l mt bc thc hin kh khn4. Cc phng php c trnh by y vn s cn kh khn din gii, bi v c mt lot cc ch th loi tc ng. tip tc n gin ho vic din gii, c th s dng th tc xp nhm trong phng php lun Eco-indicator 99 v EPS2000. Trong 2 phng php ny, cc ch th loi tc ng c nh ngha gn vi 1 trong 3 im cui t c mt s ph hp v mi trng ti u. Cc ch th loi tc ng tham chiu ti cng mt im cui u c nh ngha theo mt hnh thc m n v ca gi tr ch th l nh nhau. iu ny cho php cng cc gi tr ch th trong mt nhm v c ngha l gi tr ch th c th c biu din nh 3 ch th cp im cui m khng cn bt k s cn nhc tm quan trng mang tnh ch quan no. Vic din gii 3 thay v mt lot cc b ch th s d dng hn rt nhiu. Hnh v di y m t th thc ny.

C mt tip cn th v do [Hofstetter et all, 1999] pht trin s dng 1 tam gic nh gi tm quan trng. Tam gic ny c th c s dng trnh by cho cc bn hu quan vn v nh gi tm quan trng trn c s tng trng hp. Tam gic ny c th c s dng ra quyt nh m khng cn thc s phi bit cc trng s.

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Hnh 46. Cc ch th loi tc ng

4.2.4. Din gii a. S khng chc chn Tt c cc s liu trong m hnh vng i u c mt vi im khng chc chn. Ngi ta c th phn bit ra 3 loi ch yu: Khng chc chn v s liu Khng chc chn v tnh chnh xc (tnh i din) ca m hnh Khng chc chn do s khng hon chnh ca m hnh V l thuyt, s khng chc chn v s liu thng kh d dng gii quyt, bi c th l gii nh mt khong hay lch tiu chun. Cc phng php thng k, nh k thut 5 Monte Carlo , c th s dng gii quyt s khng chc chc loi ny. Tuy nhin, vn c mt vn thc tin l c rt t c s d liu LCA cung cp thng tin v khong hay lch tiu chun ca s khng chc chn. L do xc ng c th l s c mt ca 2 loi hin tng khng chc chn cn li m khng th c mt s gii thch thch ng vi khong thay i, tc l khng chc chn v tnh chnh xc ca m hnh, v khng chc chn do s liu khng hon chnh. Khng chc chn v tnh chnh xc ca m hnh m ch mt thc t l khng ch c mt cch duy nht xy dng m hnh t thc t. Trong mi LCA, ngi ta s phi la chn hu nh da vo ch quan xy dng mt m hnh. Nhng la chn ny c th lin quan Mt phng php c s dng tnh ton s khng chc chn tng th trong 1 h thng gm nhiu dng khng chc chn B mn qun l mi trng 98
5

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ti: Tnh i din - Rt thng thng, chng ta phi s dng s liu v cc qu trnh n t cc ngun khc. V d, chng ta tm thy s liu v trng bng Pakistan, nhng chng ta li cn s liu v trng bng n . V th, chng ta c th gy ra mt li, nhng rt kh c th nh gi li ln n mc no. C s phn b - Khng cch no chn mt c s phn b. Cc s kin trong tng lai - Nhiu LCA thc hin vi cc sn phm c tui th di. iu c ngha l nhng sn phm ny s b thi b sau mt vi thp k na. Khng ai thc s bit vic x l cht thi c thc hin nh th no vo thi gian . n v cng dng - c s chng ta so snh cc sn phm thng khng r rng. Tt c cc yu t trn c tc ng rt ng k ti kt qu. Cch duy nht gii quyt vn ny c trnh by trong phn tch nhy cm di y. Khng chc chn do s khng hon chnh ca s liu m ch bt cp v s liu khng th trnh khi. Mt s vn quan trng l: Ranh gii ca h thng - Nh chng ta tho lun phn trn, vic p dng cc ranh gii ph hp v loi tr mt s cc tiu ch l khng d dng. Cc bng s liu khng hon chnh v s liu cha r rng - Trong nhiu trng hp, s liu c thu thp qua cc cuc phng vn v bng cu hi iu tra, v thng cc s liu s ch c sn phn no. C mt vn ngoi l l thng th cc s liu c thu thp dng cc thng s tng qut. Trong giai on tip theo, giai on nh gi tc ng, s rt kh din gii cc thng s tng qut ny nu khng bit cht no c lin quan ti cc thng s . S khng tng xng gia danh mc kim k v nh gi tc ng - Trong nhiu trng hp, cc s liu trong danh mc kim k khng c h s m t c im, v v th, thng tin ny b b qua trong ton b phn cn li ca LCA. c bit do 2 dng khng chc chn sau, rt kh p dng mt h thng ng dng gii quyt nhng im khng chc chn trong LCA. Gii php tt nht l kt hp phn tch Monte Carlo i vi s khng chc chn v s liu vi phn tch nhy cm i vi s khng chc chn v m hnh. b. Phn tch nhy nhn ra tc ng ca cc gi thit quan trng nht, mt khuyn co mnh m l tin hnh mt phn tch nhy cm trong khi thc hin v ti khi kt thc LCA. Nguyn tc rt n gin: thay i gi thit v tnh li LCA. Vi cng c phn tch ny, bn s hiu r hn v tm c cc tc ng ca iu bn gi thit. Bn s tm ra rng kt qu ca LCA c th thc s ph thuc rt nhiu vo nhng gi thit nht nh. khng hn s gy nn mt vn chc no cc kt lun trong LCA ca bn l vng chc. Tuy nhin, nu bn thy rng theo mt gi thit ny th sn phm A s c ti lng cao hn sn phm B, v di mt gi thit khc s c iu ngc li, th bn s rt cn phi c s gii thch v vic vi gi thit no th kt lun ca bn c gi tr. Bn cng c th kt lun l vn ny khng c cu tr li, do mi th u ph thuc vo cc gi thit. c. Phn tch s ng gp C mt cng c quan trng hiu s khng chc chn trong kt qu ca bn l s dng phn tch s ng gp. Vi phn tch ny, bn s xc nh xem qu trnh no ng vai tr quan trong nht trong kt qu ca bn. Chng ta thng thy rng trong mi LCA u c hng trm cc qu trnh khc nhau, m trong 95% thm ch 99% kt qu li c quyt nh bi ch 10% trong s cc qu trnh ny. Hiu c iu ny, bn c th tp trung s ch B mn qun l mi trng 99

Bi ging sn xut sch hn ca mnh ti 10% s qu trnh ny v phn tch xem liu cc qu trnh tnh i din v hon chnh cha, liu gi thit quan trng no c t ra cho mi qu trnh . 4.2.5. Thit k sinh thi a. Thit k sinh thi cc sn phm v qu trnh Thut ng thit k sinh thi c s dng cho cc qu trnh thit k m trong vn mi trng c quan tm c bit bn cnh rt nhiu cc vn khc cn c gii quyt. y khng phi l mt phng php lun mi trong thit k, m ni v s chuyn hng trng tm6. Vic pht trin sn phm ng mt vai tr thit yu trong chin lc ca hu ht cc cng ty, sn phm l trng tm ca tt c cc hot ng ca mt cng ty. y cng c mt s kha cnh chin lc rt quan trng. Thiu i hot ng lin tc pht trin sn phm, thch nghi vi cc nhu cu ca mt th trng mi hoc cc cng ngh ang ni mi, mt cng ty s sm pht hin ra rng sn phm ca mnh li thi, gi c qu cao hoc khng c kh nng bn ra. Trn thc t, iu c ngha l hu ht cc b phn trong cng ty u c lin quan phn no ti qu trnh phi trin v b phn pht trin sn phm phi x l mt s lng rt ln cc s liu v cng ngh, tip th, gi c, s tiu chun ho, cc kha cnh php l v quan trng khng km l chin lc sn phm. B sung cc tc ng mi trng i vi qu trnh ny c ngha l nhm pht trin sn phm s li phi i mt vi mt s phc tp khc. Tt c cc phng php thit k u c mt im chung v l tnh sng to. Trc khi c th phn tch cc qu trnh, chng ta s phi hiu c bn cht lp cn bn ca tnh sng to. b. Tnh sng to Tnh sng to l mt hin tng c tnh chu k v rt khng c mu sc khoa hc. Trong qu trnh thit k, tnh sng to c th c m t nh sau: n biu l bn thn theo mt chu trnh di y:

Hnh 47. Qu tnh sng to

M t vn thit k C 1 tng (ch ring vic tng xut hin nh th no l mt iu g khng c hp l Suy xt cc kt qu ca tng (y l mt qu trnh ht sc logic)
C mt vi danh sch a ch th tn trn internet. Danh sch quan trng nht l ECDM (thit k v sn xut c thc mi trng), xem ti http://www.themesh.com/ecoml.html UNEP cng l mt t chc hot ng tch cc trong xc tin thit k sinh thi, xem ti http://www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/design/design.htm
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B mn qun l mi trng

100

Bi ging sn xut sch hn So snh cc kt qu vi m t ca vn v ... bc b tng... (thng s c rt nhiu tng b bc b trc khi tm c mt tng ph hp nht) Ny sinh mt tng mi. V tip tc cho ti khi tm thy gii php ng . Chng ta khng bao gi bit r ng khi no tm ra hoc liu c tm ra c mt tng tt nht hay khng. Chu trnh trn thng lp i lp li rt nhiu ln trc khi xut hiu mt tng ng . Trong qu trnh thit k, c 3 vn sau c th lm cho thit k i sai hng: Gii quyt sai vn . C qu t tng xem xt.. Chn sai tng. S kh khn l ch c rt nhiu cc vn nh hn cn c gii quyt trong qu trnh thit k v v th s c rt nhiu s la chn cn c nh gi. Mt s lng ln hot ng nh gi bt buc phi thc hin c ngha l s c t thi gian cho tng nh gi. V th ngi thit k thng b bt buc phi da vo trc gic khi ra quyt nh. iu ny c th dn ti vic cc tng tt b bc b trong khi cc tng ngho nn li c chp nhn. c. Cu trc qu trnh thit k Mt kha cnh c bn ca qu trnh thit k l tnh cht khng d on c ca n. Ngi thit k ang trong qu trnh tm kim v khng bit c s ny sinh tng g v khi no th tng s n. Cch duy nht cho php mt s kim sot no m khng cn tr tnh sng to nm trong s xc nh r rng v vn ngi ny ang tm kim. S xc nh r rng nh th s gip nh gi tnh ph hp ca tng. Xc nh mc ch ca qu trnh thit k c th thc hin theo 2 cch b sung ln nhau: M t vn thit k chnh yu. M t cc yu cu m sn phm cn phi t c. Phn u thng c xc nh theo hng rt tch cc. l mt thch thc. Phn th 2 ch yu m t nhng c tnh m sn phm phi c hoc khng c c, hay nhng c tnh k thut ti thiu. Nhng yu cu ny s nh hng cho qu trnh thit k. Bt k tng no xut hin th cng cn phi tho mn cc yu cu ny. Nu khng, th l mt tng khng hu ch hoc cc yu cu cha c xc nh r rng v y . Cc giai on khc nhau ca mt d n thit k c th c m t nh sau: Bng. Cc giai on ca mt d n thit skees Lp k hoch v sn phm Ban Lnh o cng ty c ra mc tiu cho qu trnh thit k. Thng th mc tiu ny c m t nh mt s kt hp Th trng v Cng ngh. V d thit k my pha c ph cho ngi c tui. Cc quyt nh trong giai on ny l da trn nghin cu th trng, k hoch chin lc, tnh hnh pht trin ca cc i th cnh tranh, v.v... Giai on phn tch Vn thit k c phn tch v cc yu cu v sn phm s c xc nh. Giai on xut tng Cc k thut sng to khc nhau c xc nh nhm a ra cc nhiu gii php mi cng tt. Giai on pht trin khi nim tng tt nht s c chi tit ho hn na thnh mt s cc khi nim.

B mn qun l mi trng

101

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Khi nim tt nht s c chuyn thnh cc bn v chi tit. Trong mi giai on trn, qu trnh lp m t trn s c thc hin nhiu ln. Trong sut qu trnh , vic thit k tin trin t lc ban u ch l mt vi t ( tng ct yu v sn phm) cho ti khi l mt b bn v chi tit, cc c tnh k thut ca vt liu, v.v... d. Qu trnh thit k sinh thi Qu trnh thit k c thc mi trng khng nht thit phi khc vi cc qu trnh thit k khc. Qu trnh ny vn lp li chu trnh c bn ni trn. im khc bit y l kha cnh mi trng cng s c cn nhc trong khi xc nh vn thit k v nh gi cc tng. iu c ngha l c thm mt yu t ngi thit k phi quan tm bn cnh tt c cc im cn cn nhc khc. Nhm pht trin sn phm s phi biu th c tm quan trng tng xng ca cc tc ng mi trng trong giai on lp k hoch sn phm, nu khng th h khng th cn bng kha cnh mi trng vi cc kha cnh khc. Mt iu rt quan trng l phi hiu c c ch sau trong 1 qu trnh thit k sinh thi: Khi bt u qu trnh, ngi ta s c nhng quyt nh quan trng nht; trong giai on ny ngi ta s xc nh phn quan trng ca ti lng mi trng. V d, mt nh sn xut quyt nh sn xut t in hoc t chy bng diesel. giai on u tin ny cha h c nh ngha v sn phm. V vy, cha th thc hin LCA. Ti cui qu trnh thit k, sn phm c xc nh trong mt phm vi rng. By gi ngi ta c th tin hnh LCA, nhng hu nh khng c kh nng tc ng ti qu trnh thit k. Lc ny n gin l qu mun. Giai on thit k chi tit

Hnh 48. Trong sut qu trnh thit k, nhiu iu v sn phm s dn c bit n v s c th tin hnh LCA tt hn. Tuy nhin, cng lc th kh nng to nh hng ti cc tc ng mi trng gim xung

vt qua tnh th kh x ny, ngi ta s phi cn nhc k lng phng php phn tch no c th s dng c. e. LCA trong thit k sinh thi T s m t v qu trnh pht trin sn phm, r rng l nhm pht trin s cn phi x l mt s lng ln cc s liu v h cng s phi tri qua nhiu ln nh gi tng v khi nim ny sinh trong qu trnh sng to. Trong sut qu trnh pht trin sn phm, khng B mn qun l mi trng 102

Bi ging sn xut sch hn c g l phi thc t nu cho rng c n vi trm tng v la chn c cn nhc v b loi b. iu ny c ngha l cng vic nh gi phi c thc hin rt nhanh. y c mt vi vn khi ng dng LCA trong qu trnh thit k: Khng c thi gian thc hin LCA cho mi mt quyt nh. Thm ch nu c thi gian th cng vn rt kh khn c th thc hin LCA. tng v sn phm lc ny cha phi l sn phm. Trong nhiu trng hp, cc tng ch lin quan ti mt nguyn tc thc hin. tng cha c c th ho: ngi ta khng bit c y v cu trc, khi lng v kch thc ca vt liu v tt nhin, nhng g bit c v thi ca khch hng s cn t hn na. V d trong trng hp ca ngnh dt, mt iu thc s cha r rng l khch hng s git qun o nh th no, nhit no v liu h c thc s lm theo ch dn v git gi c nh km sn phm hay khng. Nhng vn ny khng m ch rng chng ta khng th s dng LCA, m ngc li li rt c ch. iu ny c ngha l LCA s c s dng khc nhau trong mi giai on pht trin sn phm.
Bng 11. cc giai on pht trin sn phm

Hot ng Lp k hoch Phn tch chnh sch sn phm sn phm, nh gi s pht trin ca cng ngh v th trng

Cc thng in cn c

Cc thng tin chung: Chnh sch Thi ca khch hng Giai on LCA ca cc sn Cc s liu chung Cc nguyn tc tm phn tch phm tham chiu, thi theo kinh nghim Phn tch gi nh p dng cho sn phm ngn gn . Xc nh cc tnh cht Giai on ny Phn tch gi nh Cc ch th sinh thi Ch dn v loi sn sinh tng ngn gn phm mong i Giai on pht LCA ngn gn tm Cc ch th sinh thi Thng tin v nhng trin khi nim thi ng gp quan trng nht vo ti lng mi trng i vi khi nim c la chn Giai on thit Tr li cc cu hi rt Thng tin rt c th Xc minh li cc mc k chi tit c th v thnh phn tiu vt liu, v.v... Mt khi qu trnh lp k hoch sn phm lp ra c cc mc tiu cho qu trnh thit k, th ni chung, iu quan trng l cn phi hiu c cc tc ng ca loi sn phm ny. Trong giai on ny, LCA ca sn phm tham chiu l rt cn thit. y l cc sn phm hin hu thc hin cc chc nng tng t nh sn phm mong i. Do rt nhiu qu trnh pht trin sn phm c th c xem nh nhng qu trnh ti thit k, nn thng chnh l cc sn phm ny c th ng vai tr l cc sn phm tham chiu. Mt tip cn khc l phn tch sn phm l tng. V d, mt my pha c ph yu cu vic gia nhit cho mt lng nc nht nh. Cc nh lut vt l c th c s dng tnh ton nng lng cn thit gia nhit cho nc vi hiu sut 100%. Nng lng ny d sao cng l cn thit v c s dng lm mt mc tiu trong qu trnh thit k. B mn qun l mi trng 103

Cc thng tin pht sinh Cc mc tiu v nh hng chnh

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Kt qu th v nht ca giai on ny l vic xy dng c mt b cc nguyn tc p dng cho loi sn phm . Cc nguyn tc c th l: Trong thit k my pha c ph, vic s dng in s c nh hng ln hn tt c cc tc ng khc. t c nng thm 1 kg th s dn ti tiu tn thm 8 lt nhin liu trong c vng i. i vi h c PUR 2 b phn: C th s dng thm 1 kg vt liu bao trong thit k phn bao nu iu ny gip lm gim 1g pht thi phn cng. Cc nguyn tc c th i sn phm k trn t ra rt hiu qu trong cc qu trnh thit k. Cc nguyn tc ny d hiu v h tr cc nh thit k rt nhiu. Cc hng dn chung: Mt s ti liu v thit k sinh thi a ra cc nguyn tc da trn kinh nghim mt cch chung chung v khng c th cho tng loi sn phm. Nhn chung, vic s dng cc nguyn tc ny thng gp cc sai lm do chng thng mu thun nhau. V d, xem xt cc hng dn di y: 1. S dng lng vt liu ti thiu. 2. S dng n vt liu ( h tr cho vic tun hon). 3. Ti u ho thi gian hot ng. Nguyn tc 1 dn ti vic to ra sn phm nh v phn v mng. Nguyn tc 2 loi tr vic s dng vt liu composite, v nguyn tc 3 ng rng sn phm phi khng c qu nh. V th m cc nguyn tc ny xung t vi nhau. Do , cc nguyn tc da trn kinh nghim tuy c mt s li ch nht nh, nhng cng khng gip xy dng cc c tnh hp l. gip c c mt s la chn ng n, cc nh hng khc nhau phi c nh lng cho tng vn thit k c th. Trong giai on ny sinh tng v pht trin khi nim cng c cc nguyn tc chn cc tng. Trong cc trng hp khi khng s dng cc nguyn tc , ngi thit k s phi thc hin cc nh gi c th. C th ti u ho tin cc nh gi ny theo 2 cch: S dng phn mm LCA c c s d liu rng v c xc nh trc i vi cc vt liu v qu trnh. S dng danh mc cc ch th sinh thi. y l cc danh mc v nhng ch th c xc nh trc (im n) cho mt lng ln cc vt liu v qu trnh. Mt danh mc 7 nh th c th c tnh ton thng qua s dng phng php trng s v nh gi tc ng . Ti cui ca giai on thit k, ngi ta khng th thay i c g nhiu trong thit k sn phm. Trong giai on ny, s rt c li nu tin hnh mt LCA cho sn phm thy c t c mc tiu mc no v rt ra bi hc kinh nghim cho d n sau ny. 4.2.7. Cc kha cnh thc tin Cc phn ni dung trc m t phng php lun LCA t mt quan im mang tnh l thuyt v phng php nhiu hn. Trong phn ny, chng ta s tho lun mt s vn c tnh thc tin quan trng nh, lp k hoch, ln d ton ngn sch, thu thp s liu v trnh by. a. c tnh khi lng cng vic Mt iu hin nhin rt quan trng l phi tnh xem bn s dnh bao nhiu thi gian v kinh ph cho cc hot ng LCA ca bn. c tnh tng th i vi mt LCA in hnh cng l mt cng vic kh khn. Mt cch s b, khi lng cng vic c th thay i t 2 ngy
C th ti xung 1 ti liu hng dn cho cc nh thit k, cha ng hn 200 ch th sinh thi tiu chun, ti . y, bn c th tm thy ECO-it, mt cng c n gin gip bn m hnh ho vng i sn phm. Cng c ny c th dng min ph trong 3 thng u tin.
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B mn qun l mi trng

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Bi ging sn xut sch hn i vi sng lc nhanh cc thng tin sn c ti 200 ngy i vi mt LCA y . Mc d chgn ta khng th c mt ranh gii r rng, nhng cng vn c th phn bit ra 4 loi hnh nghin cu LCA sau: Sng lc Nghin cu ngn gn Nghin cu bao qut Thc hin LCA lin tc Cc c im, bao gm c lp ngn sch, c m t di y. b. sng lc Nu bn cn phi c mt cu tr li nhanh, v nu tin hoc ngn qu l nhng vn quan trng hn chnh xc, th bn c th tin hnh sng lc da trn cc thng tin sn c hoc c c tnh trong c s d liu ca bn. i vi cc thng tin cn thiu, bn s dng cc la chn thay th tm thi. V d, nu bn cn s liu v sn xut nicken, v bn ch c s liu v mt s kim loi ngoi st, th bn s s dng cc s liu thay th ny hnh dung v tm quan trng ca qu trnh sn xut nicken. cng vic c hiu qu, bn phi c gng gii hn mc tiu ca mnh vo vic thu c mt tp hp cc kt lun r rng, v d nh: C kh nng (nhng c th khng chn chn) rng sn phm s c ti lng mi trng thp hn nu ti dng vt liu thp thay v plastic hay khng? Liu qu trnh s dng sn phm c gy ra cc tc ng vt tri v liu dn tt c cc n lc cho vic ti u ho trong qu trnh s dng c phi l mt vic lm ng n khng? C phi vic tun hon dng nh c 1 tc ng quan trng ti tng ti lng mi trng hay khng hay l tc ng l khng ng k? Sau khi xc nh c LCA v a ra cc kt lun theo cch ny, bn phi lun lun a phn tch nhy cm vo trong lc thc hin xem liu cc c tnh v s liu t c tnh i din ca bn c th thc s chi phi cc kt lun ch yu ca bn khng. Phi ht sc cn thn khi thng tn vi cc c quan bn ngoi v kt qu sng lc nhanh trn. Khng bao gi c da vo cc kt qu a ra cc tuyn b trc cng lun v so snh gia sn phm ca bn vi cc sn phm cnh tranh. c. Cc vn thc tin trong LCA ni b ngn gn Nu bn cn phi ra mt quyt nh c tc ng quan trng ti qu trnh pht trin sn phm hoc chin lc truyn thng nhng li khng mun s dng bo co LCA ca cng ty mnh thng tin vi bn ngoi, bn s phi thc hin mt nghin cu LCA ngn gn. i vi mt nghin cu nh vy, mc tiu c th mang nhiu tham vng hn so vi sng lc, v d nh: u l nguyn nhn chnh to ra ti lng mi trng trong qu trnh sn xut, s dng v thi b sn phm? Mt h thng thu hi li sn phm sau s dng s mang li cho chng ta nhng li ch? Sn phm ca chng ta so vi sn phm cng loi ca cc i th cnh tranh khc nh th no? C kh nng cc i th cnh tranh s a xc nhn v mi trng chnh ng khng? Liu chng ta c th s dng cc xc nhn v mi trng ti mc no khi thng tin lin lc vi cc c quan ngoi? Liu chng ta c tiu chun xin cp nhn sinh thi khng? Cng vic kinh doanh no ca chng ta c xem l bn vng, ngha l chng ta thu c li nhun kh vi mt mc ti lng mi trng tng i thp? B mn qun l mi trng 105

Bi ging sn xut sch hn C mt tip cn mang tnh thc tin cao l bt u bng sng lc rt ngn gn xc nh tm quan trng tng i ca nhng bt cp v s liu trong c s d liu ca bn. T , bn c th xy dng mt chin lc thu thp s liu v xc nh s liu no c th ly c t ngun sch v ti liu v s liu no s c thu thp t cc nh cung ng bn ang tip xc ho t cc bn lin quan khc trong chui sn phm. Bi v y l mt nghin cu ngn gn - s liu ca bn s khng hon ho - nn iu quan trng l phi phn tch mt cch nghim tc xem bn c th bin h cc kt lun ca mnh n mc no. Bn cn phi thc hin phn tch nhy cm, trong bn s thay i mt s gi thit quan trng v th nghim cc phng php nh gi tc ng khc nhau. Nu bn mun tun th tiu chun ISO, bn s khng c trc tip xut bn bo co LCA ny nu cha c mt c quan tng ng xem xt li trc . d. Cc vn thc tin trong mt LCA bao qut cng b Nu bn mun c nhng xc nhn chi tit v mi trng v s dng bo co LCA trong nhng cuc tho lun vi cng chng, th bn phi thc hin mt LCA bao qut hn. Nhng yu t phn bit ca loi LCA ny l: Theo ISO 14040, bn s phi a phn xem xt nh gi bo co bi mt c quan tng ng c lp vo trong qu trnh thc hin LCA ca mnh. Kinh nghim ch ra rng tt nht l nn mi mt c quan nh vy tham gia ngay t giai on u khi xc nh mc tiu v phm vi. iu ny s cho php c quan ph bnh ny c th a ra cc gi ci thin ngay khi vn cn c kh nng ci thin. Pht biu nh gi ca c quan ny s c cng b trong bo co LCA. Cc yu cu i vi bo co s ngt ngho hn so vi cc loi hnh LCA trn. Bn s phi m t rt k cc th tc, la chn, bt cp v s liu, v.v... v bn s phi thc hin mt phn tch nhy cm bao qut. ISO 14043 cung cp cho bn cc hng dn thc hin. Nu bn c nh so snh cc sn phm, v nu bn mun tun th ISO14042, th bn s khng c cng b cc kt qu c cn nhc v tm quan trng. Thm ch sau tt c cc cnh bo trn, chng ti vn khuyn bn phi ht sc cn thn vi cc tuyn b da trc tip vo bo co LCA vi cng lun. Kinh nghim cho thy nhng cuc tranh lun v bo co LCA c th rt kh dn xp. e. Mt s hng dn v c tnh qu thi gian Mc d, c nhiu yu t c th nh hng ti thi gian cn thit thc hin 1 LCA, nhng bng di y cng c th gip cho bn mt vi hng dn. Cc c tnh ny da vo gi nh rng LCA c thc hin bi nhng ngi c kinh nghim. Nu bn bt u nh vy, bn s phi cng thm vi ngy hoc vi tun ph hp vi phng php lun v vi tt c cc vn thc tin hay xy ra.

Bng 12. Thi gian cn thc hin mt LCA

(Thi gian tnh Sng lc bng ngy lm vic)

LCA ni b

LCA bao qut ELMIS cng b

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106

Bi ging sn xut sch hn Nhng cuc 1 2-4 tho lun cn thit nh ra mc tiu v phm vi Thu thp s liu 2-5 5-15 a cc s liu 1 2-4 vo phn mm v thc hin tnh ton Din gii v 1 2-4 phn tch nhy cm Bo co 1-2 2-5 Xm xt nh khng c tu chn gi bi mt c quan tng ng Tng thi gian 5-10 15-40 c tnh 4.3. SN XUT SCH HN, LCA V ISO 14001 10 10 + cp nht

25-100 10

Lien tc Lien tc

10-20

Lien tc

10-30 10-30

Lien tc Tu chn

75-200 v hn th

- Gia sn xut sch hn, h thng qun l mi trng c chung nhng mc tiu v li ch chung: Gim nhim mi trng v ri ro. Ci thin qu trnh sn xut, gim thiu pht sinh cht thi v chi ph. p ng yu cu ca php lut Nng cao hnh nh ca doanh nghip t c li th cnh tranh - Vic p dng sn xut sch hn v ISO 14001 l hon ton t nguyn. - Cn phn bit gia p dng SXSH v ISO 14001: doanh nghip c th ang nh gi sn xut sch hn nhng cha ng k chng nhn ISO 14001. Nu ng k v thc hin ISO 14001 th x c cp chng nhn ca quc t. Cc c s thc hin sn xut sch hn rt c iu kin thun li ng k chng nhn ISO 14001, v ngc li mt doanh nghip thc hin ISO 14001 s rt d dng trin khai sn xut sch hn. - Gia LCA v nh gi sn xut sch hn c nhng im tng ng nn c th p dng phng php lun ca LCA c tiu chun ha cho nh gi sn xut sch hn. Ngoi ra, LCA c th l cng c c lc cho vic ra quyt nh v cc sn phm v cng ngh thay th c s dng cho sn xut sch hn. - Sn xut sch hn tp trung vo phng thc hot ng, vn hnh trong khi ISO 14001 hng n h thng qun l. ISO 14001 cung cp c ch, khun kh cho vic thc hin hiu qu nh gi sn xut sch hn, trong khi sn xut sch hn cung cp cho ISO 14001 mt cng c ci tin lin tc v hiu qu qun l mi trng trong cc cng ty. Vic xy dng h thng qun l mi trng c th c thc hin da trn nh gi v sn xut sch hn trc y cc cng ty.

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107

Bi ging sn xut sch hn

TI LIU THAM KHO

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108