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MKT2005 Marketing Communications Assignment Ms Deborah Forbes

Student Name: ATIQAH ISMAIL BSc Marketing (N500)

Word count: 1,982 words Word count with tables and figures: 4,174 words

This report will be based on Fill‟s (2005) integrative marketing communications planning framework.

CONTEXT ANALYSIS Context analysis helps to understand the key market drivers that are currently or will potentially influence the company (Fill, 2005). It is the first vital stage in the development of a strategic marketing communications plan. Customer Context Consumers have positive consumption motivation involving hedonistic, sensory gratification (De Pelsmacker, 2004) products such as chocolates. GuyLian’s market purchase occasions: 1. Boxed chocolate as gifting: 2. Boxed chocolate as a personal treat: Attracted segment: Men, 25-34 years old Women, 25-44 years old Source: Mintel (2011)

During festive seasons GuyLian products are high-involvement products as consumers are actively seeking and evaluating between different gifting products. Conversely, in „personaltreat‟ situations, it would be regarded as low-involvement, as it is considered as affordable luxury treats (Mintel, 2010). Business Context GuyLian is globally famous for its production of high quality gourmet, artisanal Belgian chocolates. In the United Kingdom (UK), it competes within the seasonal and boxed chocolate market, alongside brands such as Lindt and Thorntons. This market is in its mature stage, with high level of dynamic competition. Competition is intensified by competition from outside of this market, such as non-premium chocolate confectioneries. During festive seasons it also competes with non-food gifting items like flowers, fragrances and wine (Mintel, 2010). High-concentration of substitutes due to little differences in functional characteristics from other competing chocolate brands from within and outside its market may limit top-of-mind awareness and scope of unaided brand-recall. Internal Context GuyLian has been inconsistent and dormant with its promotional campaigns in the UK market, with its last television commercial in 2007 and 1994, and transit advertising on black cabs in 2004. Nevertheless, it still remains known due to its strong brand image. However, higher and consistent promotional activities by direct and indirect competitors, such as Thorntons and Cadbury, could threaten and overshadow GuyLian‟s brand-recall amongst consumers. GuyLian chocolates in the UK are sold in supermarkets such as Tesco and Waitrose.

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GuyLian‟s chocolates are subject to seasonal demands, where sales normally peak during festive times such as Christmas, Valentine‟s Day, Easter and Mother‟s Day. It is globally renowned for its Original Chocolate Sea Shells amongst its other product range, Opus, La Trufflina and Solitaire. GuyLian made a turnover of £11,780, 941 in 2010 which is a 17% increase from 2009 in the UK market (GuyLian Ltd, 2011). External Context External Influences on GuyLian and its Market Sector
Economic & Social

The 2009 recession had promoted a trend in staying-in (Mintel, 2010) whilst inhome entertainment technology has successfully established a trend towards nightins (Mintel, 2010). Euromonitor (2010) reported that this emerging trend towards staying-in has raised demand for goods like premium and artisanal packaged food and indulgent desserts. The recession has left many women employed in jobs that are expected to prosper in the next decade (Mintel, 2010). Moreover, the trend in women delaying motherhood in preference to profession adds to Mintel‟s forecast that women are predicted to take more control of their own finances (Mintel, 2010).   The 2.5% increase in UK value added tax to 20% in January 2011 (BBC, 2011) could cause boxed chocolate consumers to shift to cheaper treats. Foods Standards Agency pressures on reduction of packaging and bite-sized treats for chocolate confectionary to help reduce the consumption of less healthy foods (Mintel, 2010). Chocolate companies are increasingly supporting fair trade as mark of corporate social responsibility. Though, not all of GuyLian products are fair trade-sourced. Consumers remain impartial on the issue of excessive packaging in boxed chocolate, whilst fair trade is important only to one-fifth of the consumers (Mintel, 2010). However, GuyLian should not ignore this as consumers are increasingly aware on the impact of their lives on the environment.

Political & Legal Environmental

 

SWOT Analysis Internal Origin STRENGTHS  Strong and established brand name.  Renown for high quality Belgian chocolates. WEAKNESSES  Inconsistent and dormant promotional activities in the UK market.  Demand is seasonal.  Relatively low awareness of its other boxed chocolate ranges. THREATS  Direct competitors penetrating the UK market with more strategic advertising in correspondence to the increasingly sophisticated consumer market.  Intense competition from outside the seasonal and boxed chocolate market. 2

OPPORTUNITIES  Increasing demand for packaged snack foods and indulgent, artisanal treats due to consumers‟ lifestyle moving towards staying-in.  Socio-economic shift towards women with more financial control.

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External Origin

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS OBJECTIVES Marketing Objective: To increase sales of GuyLian‟s boxed chocolate ranges by 50, 000 boxes in the UK consumer market in 24 months.

It has been unsuccessful in obtaining GuyLian‟s actual marketing objective, however to aid the development of this report, the marketing objective is assumed as such.

Based on both the marketing objective and the SWOT analysis, the main marketing communication objective is: To stimulate personal consumption of Opus by women aged 35 to 45-years-old, during nonfestive seasons, by increasing sales by 25,000 boxes in 12 months, in the UK market.

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY The target audience is a consumer segment. The marketing strategy will be a pull-dominated strategy. With regards to the DRIP roles of marketing communications, the strategy will focus on reinforcement and persuasion as its prime role. Based on the quote “A great chocolate is going to engage all of your senses” by Clay Gordon, author of Discover Chocolate, the promotional campaign will attempt to engage all five senses of the audience.

COMMUNICATION MIX GuyLian‟s communication mix will entail three main activities: television advertising, guerrilla marketing and event marketing. The marketing communications mix can be illustrated by Strong (1925) AIDA model on how it is intended to impact its audience.





Guerrilla Marketing Intended outcome: Attention & Interest Television Advertising Intended outcome: Interest & Desire Event Marketing Intended outcome: Desire & Action

Adapted from: John Egan (2007) GUERRILLA MARKETING Guerrilla marketing is an unconventional way of pursuing conventional goals (Levinson, 2010). This campaign aims to attract the attention and interest of the target market towards Opus GuyLian brand. It attempts to gain short-term visibility and impact in the cluttered advertising environment (Fill, 2005). The unique and creative nature of guerrilla marketing Atiqah Ismail (2011) 3

has the ability to generate word-of-mouth communications (Schofield, 2010) amongst customers. Campaigns: 1. Autumn Tree 2. Three-Dimensional (3D) Street Art

GUERRILLA MARKETING Advantages  Low cost - Costs will only cover setting-up costs. It mainly uses brainpower, time, energy and imagination (Levinson, 2010).  Attractiveness will inevitably raise exposure of Opus chocolates and GuyLian brand in the cluttered outdoor advertising environments. Disadvantages  Difficult to measure actual effectiveness of the campaign – measuring true interest. 1. Autumn Tree This campaign is a form of ambient media, which requires putting-up a large life-sized tree on a busy UK commercial area in the autumn. The tree will be lush, green- and fully-leaved. This campaign has two elements: Samples and 3D light projections. It will be timed in midautumn where a lush tree is expected to be an unusual sight, which will effectively attract attention and raise awareness of Opus chocolates. Opus chocolate samples will be hung from the tree branches. Each unit will be hung in a small cube box at a reachable height for an average adult. Sampling is used to further communicate products‟ superior benefits to customers (Fill, 2005) allowing consumers to experience the product directly and gain greater appreciation of its offer (Belch and Belch, 2004). SAMPLING Advantages Sampling allows free opportunity for consumers to test and taste the product and can aid purchase decisions. Sampling generates higher trial rates than advertising or other promotional tools (Belch and Belch, 2004). Disadvantages Sampling is expensive. It may attract untargeted people, such as children (with no spending power) to the chocolates (Fill, 2005).

The 3D light projections intend to create brand experience through the creative 3D light animation on the tree depicting a soothing magical presence surrounding it, with a subtle illusion of the tree coming to life. The 3D light projection surrounding the tree will only start in the early autumn evenings, strategically-timed after working hours, when majority of the UK population are leaving their workplaces to retire at home. This will utilise a cutting edge technology to digitally map the tree and project any digital effect. Atiqah Ismail (2011) 4

2. Three-Dimensional (3D) Street Art The creation of creative 3D arts on the busiest industrial streets in the UK will attract the attention and increase exposure of both Opus and GuyLian brand. This will involve creating a real-size 3D optical-illusion art on the streets of a busy UK commercial area.

Proposed Campaign Detail: Street Art The art will visualize a stereoscopic image of an orchestra fantasy-world that exists below the surface of the streets. A mock-up photo will be used to aid explanation. The GuyLian brand will be incorporated at six different sides of the painting: 1 2 Three of the six brands will visualize a stream of liquid chocolate oozing out from the bottom of each brand that flows down the stalactites into the fantasy-world. Whilst the other three of the incorporated GuyLian brands will have this line at the bottom of each brand: “You can hear symphony in your ears. You can taste it in your mouth. You can live in this fantasy. You can have it all. Only with GuyLian. Opus.” 1 Art piece can withstand heavy rain and heavy footfall, and can last up to 3 months.

An orchestra will be drawn to appear surrounding the pool of water. The orchestra symbolizes Opus chocolates.

Source: 2

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BROADCAST: TELEVISION ADVERTISING GuyLian‟s television advertisement will only consist of visual and aural elements, with the goal of „informing‟ and „reinforcing‟ to stimulate interest and desire for Opus, by engaging audience with sensory arousal:    Sensual feeling of warmth and comfort, Emotional feeling of lust, passion, calmness and desire Psychological experience of luxury and quality

The advertisement will use an emotional approach with an involvement-based framework, which emphasizes on drawing members of the target audience into the advertisement, and eliciting a largely emotional response (Fill, 2005). This will be achieved by immersing the target audience with careful incorporation of visual and aural elements into the advertisement. The message appeal would be a combination of emotional appeal and sex appeal, as consumers‟ affective arousal has the ability to influence their attention process (Peter and Olson, 2008) towards and throughout the advertisement whilst establishing a deep, long-held emotional brand associations (, 2011). TELEVISION ADVERTISING  Advantages      Television stimulates emotions and long-term memory that other media cannot reach as effectively (, 2011). It can convey a mood and develop emotional or entertaining appeals, which helps transform a dull product appear interesting (Belch and Belch, 2004). Captivity and attention. Television is effectively intrusive that advertisements impose themselves on viewers as they watch their favourite programs (Belch and Belch, 2004). Selectivity. Television has the ability to target and deliver to small, niche, highly targeting audience (, 2011). Clutter. The advertisement is only one of the many spots and other nonprogramming material during a commercial break – it may have trouble being noticed (Belch and Belch, 2004). Unguaranteed exposure. The shrinking viewing audience during a commercial break due to customers fast-forwarding through commercials as they replay a previously recorded program (zipping) and, when customers change channels to avoid commercials (zapping) (Belch and Belch, 2004).


It is crucial to divert and draw audience‟s attention towards the advertisement at the beginning of the advertisement due to the potential problem of clutter and zapping. Once their attention has been achieved, the importance is then at captivating the audience throughout the advertisement. The creative use of seasonal themes can indirectly deseasonalise demand by creating a need. The following proposed advertisement brief shows the impact of themes, through the idea of Atiqah Ismail (2011) 6

consuming Opus on how it transforms the dullness and iciness of winter into a warm sensation – may potentially create demand for Opus in the winter. Proposed Advertisement Detail: Winter Theme Starts with silence and a blank black screen, and followed by the sound of heartbeat. Scenery will then appear (still with heartbeat sound in the background, but now with motion picture or scenery, with use of dull colours). An attractive man walking down a road covered with snow at night. And an attractive woman appears, shared glance, the atmosphere changes (a soft music starts), colour changes to rich warm and romantic colours and lighting, the surroundings changes into indoor, black, heartbeat sound, “this is what GuyLian will make you feel” + Infamous strap line: “The world‟s favourite Belgian chocolates” Elements Beginning 1. Silence and blank screen 2. Combination of heartbeat and silence 3. Attractive man 4. Winter theme Content 5. Attractive woman (same age group with the target audience) 6. Teasing interaction between the man and woman Intended Impact on the Target Audience To re-capture attention from the clutter of other previous advertisements and non-programming material during a commercial break. Creates suspense and anticipation Holds attention Maintains attention Rises interest in the target audience Creates a sensual icy feeling and discomfort Creates a sense of lifelessness, loneliness and forlorn Creates self-association with the attractive woman in the advertisement Sees an ideal self Creates excitement and drama Stimulates sexually arousing sensation

Scenario in Brief

7. Change in atmosphere, colour Change in mood, from icy to warm and lighting Creates a tingling sensation of lightness and 8. Teasing, ambient jazz music comfort 9. Silence and heartbeat 10. Black blank screen 11. „this is what GuyLian will make you feel‟ 12. „Opus‟ Creates cliff-hanger Teases audience with suspense Maintains anticipation and attention Establishes an association between the sense of warmth, passion and desire produced by the advert, and the consumption experience of GuyLian Opus

The advertisement will not contain any verbal messages at all; any messages will be inscribed.

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SALES PROMOTION: EVENT MARKETING This campaign aims to stimulate desire and purchase in Opus chocolate by 35 to 45-year-old ABC1 women. Event marketing is normally used to build brand equity (Hoyle, 2002), however, the integration of sampling into this campaign will effectively allow consumers to experience the product and induce trial (Belch and Belch, 2004). This technique is used because advertising alone is inadequate to achieve the stated aim. This campaign is an independent public fair for GuyLian products, particularly Opus. It is an outdoor, 5-day campaign which incorporates sampling and environmental factors to encourage purchase and effective trial of Opus. (Sampling evaluation, see page 4). Main Target To sell 300 boxes of Opus boxed chocolates per day.

Sub-Objectives:  To expose other GuyLian boxed chocolate products.  To initiate sales of other GuyLian boxed chocolate ranges of 200 boxes per day, per range.  To provide information to the nearest store to get GuyLian products. Environments that elicit feelings of pleasure are likely to encourage people to spend their time and money (Rossiter, 1982; Mehrabian and Russell, 1974 cited in Bitner, 1992). This campaign will, therefore, focus on physical environmental factors to encourage purchase and effective trial. The campaign will be held in a 22m×20m closed marquee, with emotion-eliciting atmosphere and well-designed physical settings to stimulate serenity and to allow the circulation of the sensuous chocolate aroma to heighten the aura of pleasure and comfort of the overall GuyLian experience, allowing the ultimate sensory experience. Marquees will be well regulated with air-conditioners to ensure air is at the right temperature to ensure product quality and freshness of GuyLian chocolates is preserved throughout the fair. Each event will be orchestra-themed, which symbolises the Opus range. Entertainment element of the event will include graceful acrobatic performances and soothing music. EVENT MARKETING – “GUYLIAN FAIR” Advantages      Ability to interact directly with customers allows GuyLian the opportunity to build customer relations by offering them direct and first-hand excellent experience. Effectively prompted event may create personal influence among visitors and encourage word-of-mouth. Ability to demonstrate other GuyLian boxed chocolate ranges. This acquaints customers with other products which they were unaware of. Planning and implementation may take vast and disproportionate amount of management time (Fill, 2005). Openness to the general public invites unexpected volume of curious visitors with no intention of purchase may flood site. This may be costly, where it puts-off interested visitors and potential buyers, waste management time and samples. 8


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SCHEDULING AND RESOURCES Scheduling is important in the smooth running of the promotional campaigns in ensuring that it is strategically-timed and resources is well-allocated to achieve the maximum intended effect of each marketing communications activity. The activity will occur on the designated spot on the assigned day itself, in the open public. Each art piece will be removed after 3 months. Painting processes will be opened to the public. Period

Promotional Mix Schedule Promotional Mix Description 3D Street Art London Birmingham Newcastle Autumn Tree Manchester Broadcast Television Event Marketing London Birmingham Manchester
Key Campaign On





Start date

End date

3 months 25/03/2012 25/08/2012 25/04/2012 25/09/2012 25/05/2012 25/10/2012 2 months 25/10/2012 25/12/2012 1 year 01/01/2012 31/12/2012 5 days 24/06/2012 28/06/2012 30/06/2012 04/07/2012 21/10/2012 25/10/2012

                                     The set-up will take place on the previous evening, the 24th of October.

The schedule for television advertising and event marketing will be detailed shortly. Guerrilla marketing campaigns‟ schedule will not be further detailed, as it has been adequately described above, and is less complex than the two other campaigns.

Scheduling: Television Advertising This campaign will be a relatively long-term objective. The advertisement will change its theme as the seasons change.     Target audience ABC1 women, aged 35 to 40-years old Broadcasting a 40-seconds spot advertisement on 3 channels favoured by the target audience: ITV3, UKTV Style and Channel 4 (, 2011) A network television advertising with “pulsing” approach Transmission time: Peak-viewing hours (1730 - 2300) 9

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Boxed chocolate sales are interrelated with the UK festive calendar (Mintel, 2008) where sales peak during festive times around December, February, April and May, annually. Hence this will be used as a basis for scheduling. Approach As the marketing communications objective is to stimulate desire and personal consumption of Opus during non-festive seasons, the „pulsing‟ approach will be implemented to schedule advertising in higher frequency during off-peak times. This approach maintains continuity, but at certain times advertising efforts are stepped up (Belch and Belch, 2004). Effective Reach and Frequency “An ad can be seen multiple times and can be ignored because it lacks the creative character to make a connection with the audience,” (, 2011). Moreover, the ad will use emotional appeal to stimulate desire, where emotional ads are more easily remembered and engage more with audience‟s emotions and implicit mind than informative ads (, 2011); hence, advertising frequency will be kept low with: Average frequency: 2 (during chocolate-gifting seasons) Average frequency: 3 (during off-peak times)

Television Advertisement Schedule “Pulsing Approach” : Irregular


FEB MAR Q1 – 2012


MAY JUN Q2 – 2012


AUG SEPT Q3 – 2012


NOV DEC Q4 – 2012

Advertising continues throughout the year

Higher advertising frequency

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Scheduling: Event Marketing Activities will be held outdoors, during the summer and in early autumn at three major cities in the UK. Campaign duration: 5 days each city Time: 1000hrs to 1800hrs each day Planning and Awareness Campaign Event Marketing: Fair Event planning Television Advert: Teaser Invitation distribution1 Clean Advertising2 London Birmingham Manchester A 2-month campaign: Each will begin 55 days before the fair begins, for each city.

Exclusive in London, during and at the locale of the 3D Street Art in London 2012




Key Planning Awareness Campaign

Creatively-designed invitation cards: Distributed to targeted women who fit into specified criteria – Each invitation contains fair information, with a casually-toned, personalised message to bring a female friend.

Clean advertising works by cleaning the ad into any high footfall urban location and creating clear messages about the fair by selectively removing dirt, to create a stark contrast between the dirty surface and original colour of the pavement (CURB, 2009).

RESOURCES AND BUDGETING It is important that objectives and budgeting go hand-in-hand rather than sequentially. Budgeting will follow a bottom-up approach using the objective and task method. This approach is driven by the communications objectives (Belch and Belch, 2004). Broadcast: Television Allocated budget for 1 channel: £200,000 Comment: Length of advertising will vary throughout the TVR: 200 tvrs year. Hence, calculations will be based on factor Universe: 21 million (ABC1s) 1.115 of buying 20”, 30” and 40” (, Cost per thousand: £4.76 cpt 2011) of 1 channel: Cost per channel: £199,920 £199,920 × 1.115 = £222, 910.80 Total Cost of Advertising on all 3 Channels: £670,000.00 £222, 910.80 × 3 = £668,732.40 Atiqah Ismail (2011) 11

Description Guerrilla Marketing 3D Street Art Street Artist In 3 UK cities Autumn Tree Hire & Installation For 2 months tree hire 3D Projection set For 2 months hire and maintenance Samples: Opus Event Marketing Awareness campaign: Clean Advertising: London Birmingham Manchester Invitations: Cards Samples: Opus Sea Shells Original Sea Shells Extra Dark Sea Horses Strawberry La Trufflina Solitaire Items for sale: Opus Sea Shells Original Sea Shells Extra Dark Sea Horses Strawberry La Trufflina Solitaire Human Resource: Sales team volunteers Acrobatic performers and entertainers Miscellaneous: Inflatable marquee For 5-day hire Atiqah Ismail (2011)

In 1 UK city

Per Ad


Comments & Source




Estimated cost. Price is negotiable with street artist.

1 1


(in units) 8, 000


Tree hire cost is a mock cost of a similar type. Cost also £200.00 includes delivery. Source: £2,000.00 3D projection set cost, selfenquired. Samples: estimate cost only. Actual costs are very £300.00 difficult to obtain. Costs include stencil manufacture, all labour and photo documentation of the campaign. Source: Exclusive in London. Costs include cards and printing. Source: For 3 UK cities

100 200 100 5,000 (in units) 10, 000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 (in boxes) 5,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 20

£74.00 £7,430.00 £67.00 £13,500.00 £74.00 £7,430.00 £7,535.00


£8,000.00 Estimate cost only. Actual costs are very difficult to obtain.


Estimated costs are derived from deducting 30% off the £28,000.00 retail price of each variety. Price source are obtained from self research in stores.



The same sales teams and performers will be employed in all three campaigns. Performers will be hired on the 2nd and 4th day of the 5£1000.00 £3000.00 day campaign only. Source: In 3 UK cities. Free marquee £6,700.00 £20,100.00 installation. Source: Free Free 12

Marketing Communications Budget and Costs Marketing Communications Budget: Costs: Guerrilla Marketing Television Advertising Event Marketing Total Cost: £800,000 £2,800 £670,000 £94,995 £767,795

Communications budgets are influenced by many factors, such as contingencies, economic recession and other market factors (De Pelsmacker, 2004). Hence GuyLian should always be prepared and alert to adapt budgets to changing situations.

IMPLEMENTATION & CONTROL These campaigns will be implemented by GuyLian‟s marketing team. Evaluation will be conducted to measure the effectiveness of the communications mix and to ensure that the intended message is encoded correctly and are capable of being decoded accurately by the target audience (Fill, 2005). Tests will involve pre-testing the finished campaigns and posttesting. Pre-testing Television advertising – A focus group of 8-10 people from the target group will be used to evaluate the impact of the advertising on the customer. They will be invited to view the advertising prior to a depth-discussion concerning their perceptions. Guerilla marketing – A customer jury will be used for „direct opinion measurement‟ to test campaign elements, such as: evoked feelings, evoked attitude and the extent to which it induces them towards purchase (De Pelsmacker, 2004). The jury will be provided with clear explanation and a computerized version of the campaign on a screen to aid visualization. The GuyLian fairs will be pre-tested for the accessibility of locations, suitability of operating time to encourage the targeted ABC1 market to come, and the effectiveness of physical setting in evoking the intended impacts. Post-testing Recall tests can be used to measure the effects of the television advertisement and guerilla marketing on the impressions, recall, and perceptions of the target audience. Tests can take in the form of personal interviews and internet surveys. Attendance at each GuyLian fair can be used as a measure, visitors will also be given a short questionnaire acquiring their genuine experience of the fair and how were they aware of the event. This effectively gives insight on the effectiveness of the television advertising and guerilla marketing in raising awareness of the fairs. Sales during the event will also be measured to evaluate its success. To evaluate the overall effectiveness of the integrated marketing communication, the level of sales that occurs during and after the campaigns will be monitored.

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