A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations or jurisdictions. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities.
HISTORY OF BRAIN DRAIN :
Historically, the greatest brain drains have been from rural to urban areas. In the 19th century and 20th century there were notable emigrations to North America from Europe, and in modern times, from developing nations to developed nations, especially after colonialism. Sometimes such drains have occurred between developed countries.
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN DRAIN :
There are numerous flows of skilled and trained persons from developing to developed countries. In these flows engineers, medical personnel and scientists usually tend to predominate. They are characterized by large flows from a comparatively small number of developed countries and by small flows from a larger number of developing countries.
The migratory trends are stimulated both by the character of national educational systems by lack and inadequate planning for the training of students from developing countries, in developed states as well as the proper utilization of their-skills in their home country etc.
CONCEPT & MAGNITUDE OF BRAIN DRAIN :
Migration of people as a phenomenon differs from country to country and from time to time. Migration of HQM from LDCs may be due to several different sets of underlying social, political and economic forces. The phenomenon of migration of high quality manpower can justify the use of the expression on the term “brain drain”. Brain drain represents the defacto transfer of resources spent on imparting education and nurturing technical skills of the drained brain in question by the parent country (DCs) to the country of the transfer. The main crux of the matter is that emigrants as they enter developed countries are often in the most productive phase of his professional life and by the time they returns back .
MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED BY INDIA DUE TO BRAIN DRAIN :
A shortage of skilled and competent people in India. A tremendous increase in wages of high-skill labors in India. Problems for the public sector : With the exception of ICICI, none
of the public sector finance companies have done a serious job of revamping their pay scales. They face two alternatives: a sharp increase in wages of high-skill labors, or bankruptcy.
Problems of governance : In government itself, low wages at senior
levels are a serious problem. An economic advisor at the Finance Ministry earns less than Rs.20,000 a month. It is possible to have individuals take up these roles if they are independently wealthy; altruistic; power-hungry; corrupt or incompetent. This is not a happy state of affairs etc.
WHAT WE CAN DO ???
We need to take higher education more seriously. The conventional wisdom states that India has an excellent system of higher education, and needs to do more on elementary education. We are used to feeling proud about five good IITs. But five good IITs do not add up to a system of higher education. The drop-off in quality in even the next ten universities is simply frightening. Ironically, one of the biggest hurdles in obtaining a sensible system of higher education is low wages in academics.
India’s millionstrong brain drain represents just 4.3% of its vast graduate population.
PUSH FACTORS OF BRAIN DRAIN :
Under employment. Economic under development. Low wage/salary. political instability. Over production and under utilization or HQM. Lack of research and other facilities. Lack of freedom. Discrimination in appointment and promotion. Poor working facilities. Lack of scientific tradition and culture. Unsuitable institution. Desire for a better urban life. Desire for higher qualification and recognition. Better career expectation. Lack of satisfactory working conditions.
PULL FACTORS OF BRAIN DRAIN :
Better economic prospects. Higher salary and income. Better level of living and way of life. Better research facilities. Modern educational system and better opportunity for higher qualifications. Prestige of foreign training. Intellectual freedom. Better working condition and better employment opportunities. Relative political stability. Presence of a rich, scientific and cultural tradition. Attraction of urban centre. Availability of experience/supporting staff. Frequent chances of a lucky break in life. Technological gap. Allocation of substantial funds for research.
Individual's motives and experiences
Economic and professional
a) suitable job b) income and living standard c) working conditions: facilities, autonomy, career prospects, relations with superiors and with co-workers.
a) Spouse b) Feelings and interests of the children c) Family d) Friends e) Colleagues at work
Living conditions in society
a) where life is more interesting and more pleasant b) Discrimination by the public
a) Government controls b) Nationalist feelings of respondent
Brain drain vs brain gain
Brain drain : A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations is called brain drain. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities. This phenomenon is perhaps most problematic for developing nations, where it is widespread. In these countries, higher education and professional certification are often viewed as the surest path to escape from a troubled economy or difficult political situation.
Brain gain : An opposite situation, in which many trained and talented individuals seek entrance into a country, is called a brain gain. While simultaneously many qualified immigrants were coming to home country from a number of different nations. This phenomenon is common in developed countries where people come from many nations for higher studies & didn't return back.
Globalisation and the brain drain :The ``brain drain'' has been on our consciousness for over 30 years. India has steadily exported some of its brightest youngsters. From the early 1960s onwards, a large fraction of the graduating class at the IITs has left India. In earlier decades, the big decisions that individuals made were at age 20 and at age 25. At age 20, a young person decided whether he wanted to study abroad. At age 25, he decided whether he wanted to return to India. Once a person spent a few years in the Indian labour market, with or without a foreign education, it was highly likely that he would stay in it for life. “Globalisation “has reduced the differences between countries, so that the skills of a good doctor or a good futures trader or a good economist are highly portable across the globe.
Beginning of end of brain drain :For
fifteen young innovators of Indian origin who were honoured with the MIT Global Indus Technovators awards, the question of 'brain drain' has always been a seminal one.
‘brain drain’ trend is reversing. Many colleagues have decided to stay in India and many of my students from India are planning to return.
was the 'brain-drain' a bad thing in itself? Perhaps, researchers and entrepreneurs in India found it difficult to escape from the shackles of poverty and anonymity, and wanted greener pastures to feed their passion for creativity.
a solution to India's brain drain, the government needs to demonstrate to researchers a sincere commitment to supporting research while allowing scientists to remain as independent as possible.
is such a wealth of talent in India that it would take long for even a small number of successful researchers based there to attract others and make India one of the world's leading nations for technical innovation.
Current brain drain issues :
The former Soviet Union countries and today's Russia continue to experience a brain drain in science, business, and culture, as many of their citizens leave for the United States, Israel, Europe, Japan, China and Latin America because of dramatic political and economic changes. In particular, Eastern European countries have expressed concerns about brain drain to Ireland and the United Kingdom. Lithuania. In Western Europe France is currently experiencing a brain drain, with young graduates moving to Britain, USA, and Canada because of economic and labor regulations making it extensively difficult to find white-collar private jobs. Certainly there is a brain drain occurring in the last 5 years in Germany, with 144 814 people leaving their country in 2005 due to economic problems, the highest rate of emigration from Germany since the end of World War II.
Larger countries have less brain drain :
Report shows the extent of the drain brain problem in larger countries is much less. On average for countries with more than 30 million people, the brain drain is less than five percent of all college educated people. The reason is that they have a large population of skilled people, so that even with a large share of skilled people in the migrant population, their share in the skilled population is nevertheless small, Countries such as China and India only have about three to five percent of their graduates living abroad. And it's a similar situation in Brazil, Indonesia and the former Soviet Union.
Our views on brain drain :India can become superpower but it depends on peoples attitudes. if this brain drain is in the form of cycle i think there would not be any problem if they assure to come back to their own how country. may be the talents , work they used in other country may saturate but the resources he has is always remains .if he could apply the work in India there will be a good future in India. so i request as per human rights and liberty everyone has to move as they wish but they should be think about their home country. so attitudes are more important rather than the money, pride,etc.instead of enjoying the fruits in other country why don't he enjoy in his own land.