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Turkmenistan is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. . Until 1991. the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR). it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union.

.Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states.

most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert.It possesses the world's fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. . Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas.

0 °C . The highest temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.47 in). some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.It is one of the driest deserts in the world.

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Religion • Muslims: 89% of the population • Followers of the Eastern Orthodox Church: 9% of the population • Non-religious: 2% of the population Ärtogrul Gazy Mosque in Ashgabat .

. Berdimuhamedow was elected president with 89% of the vote and 95% turnout.In an election on 11 February 2007. He was sworn in on 14 February 2007.

President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow. repealed some of his processor's most idiosyncratic policies • banning opera and the circus • increased basic education to ten years from nine years • higher education had been extended from four years to five • increased contacts with the West .

head of state President head of government New Constitution •abolition of the Council •increase in the size of Parliament • formation of multiple political parties .

.Only one effectively permitted to operate Political gatherings are illegal unless government sanctioned.

Turkmenistan had the 3rd worst press freedom conditions in the world. . behind North Korea and Burma.Human rights Turkmenistan has been widely criticised for human rights abuses and has imposed severe restrictions on foreign travel for its citizens.

an ethnic minority. . • Discrimination against the country's ethnic minorities remain in practice. especially ethnic Russians • It is forbidden to teach the customs and language of the Baloch.One of the "10 Most Censored Countries". • Universities have been encouraged to reject applicants with non-Turkmen surnames.

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