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Revision Notes for Social Studies Mid

Revision Notes for Social Studies Mid

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Revision Notes for Social Studies Mid-Year Exam 2009

Causes of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Focus for Mid-Year 2009:

Question (a): I) Explaining the THREE Causes of Conflict:
Education (Lack of Social Interaction – Education System) In Northern Ireland, the education system is divided into 3 types of schools. Protestant children attend fully-funded public schools and are taught British history. They also play British sports and are taught to be loyal to Britain. On the other hand, Catholic children attend partially-funded private schools and are taught Irish history. They also play Irish sports and are taught to view Britain as a foreign country. The third form of school, the integrated schools, where Protestant and Catholic children can mix together, are not popular and cater to only a very small portion of Northern Irish children. As a result of this education system, children of both communities do not have the opportunity to interact with each other to get to understand and appreciate each other’s beliefs and values. Generations of Protestant and Catholic children will grow up to become suspicious and intolerant of each other, even in adulthood, leading to conflict between the two communities. Housing (Unfair Allocation of Housing) In Northern Ireland, public housing is provided by the city councils which are mainly made up of Protestants. As a result, more Protestants were given houses than Catholics even though the Catholics had large families and were in more urgent need for housing. As a result of the unfair allocation of housing, the Catholics became very frustrated at being discriminated against. They were also angry and being made to suffer by having to look for more expensive housing as public housing is usually cheaper. Furthermore, as they have large families, they would need bigger houses and this will increase their cost of living and economic suffering. This resentment would later lead to conflict between the two communities.

Employment (Unfair Employment Opportunities)

Their social and economic position in Northern Ireland and their standard of living would be affected if they are jobless or lowly paid. . This is because the divided education system causes the Protestants and Catholics to distrust and be hostile to each other from a young age. There were also very few Catholics in senior positions n the public sectors and the number of Catholic civil servants were not proportionate to their numbers in the country. it is more difficult for Catholics to get jobs. The Catholics were thus very unhappy that they were discriminated and suffering from economic hardship. This makes it the underlying cause of tension between the two groups. Question (b): II) Which is more important than the others in causing the conflict? The most important cause of the conflict is the DIVIDED EDUCATION SYSTEM. Unfair employment opportunities and unequal housing allocation only serve to make the situation worse and ignite the hatred that is already there between the two groups. As a result.In Northern Ireland. especially in the civil / government service although they were just as / more qualified than the Protestants. This resentment would later lead to conflict between the two communities. this affected the Catholics as they were likely to be jobless or unable to get the jobs they wanted.

• In addition to the lives lost. hatred and hostility between the two groups. Deep anger. development and progress in the country will be slow. • The divided education system and the fact that the Protestants and the Catholics live in separate residential areas has resulted in them being suspicious of each other with no chance of interaction to clear the problems between them. . With no money to rebuild these properties and repair the economic damage to the country. the hatred from the ill-treatment of Catholics in the past. Economic Decline: • Due to the outbreak of conflict in Northern Ireland. many Protestants and Catholics are suffering from lower standards of living as they have lost their homes and jobs due to the destruction of private and public property. Loss of Lives and Damage to Property: • In order to retaliate against the British Army. unfair policies against the Catholics. there has been a lot of instability in the country. the IRA (Irish Republican Army). many lives were lost and the IRA soon became more aggressive and violent than the British and the Protestants. joined in the fight after being approached by some Catholics. • Due to the IRA’s entry into the conflict. • The IRA worsened the violence by providing the Catholics with a means to retaliate through armed conflict. the divided education system. hatred and suspicion leading to social tension between the Protestants and the Catholics: • Divided loyalties. the actions of the British Army during Bloody Sunday and the terrorist acts of the IRA have resulted in a lot of suspicion. security forces and the Protestant mobs that treated the Catholics badly.Question (b): I) Explaining SOCIAL and ECONOMIC Impact Social Impact: Armed Conflict.

Britain is doing better economically and is seeing economic growth. Catholics and Protestants will blame each other for the violence and this would worsen the relationship between the two communities. Furthermore. The less of foreign investment. Decide which is the most serious consequence and explain why your choice is more serious than the other consequence]. Foreign investors have lost confidence in investing in Northern Ireland because they are afraid that the violence would affect their business.• • • • • • Fighting between the IRA and the government has resulted in human casualties as well as a destruction of factories / infrastructure due to IRA bombings. There was also a decline in tourism which affected many tourismrelated businesses like hotels. destruction of factories and the decline in tourism has led to a decline in the economy and a loss of jobs. When economic decline and a loss of jobs happens in the country. when compared to Britain. Question (b): II) Which is more serious than the other as a consequence of the conflict? [Examine the above notes. . shops and restaurants.

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