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A Practical Report OF Training taken at

INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR LIMITED Chak-Gujran (Hoshiarpur)

PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY In partial fulfillment of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY ( SESSION 2009-10 )

Submitted to: MR. V P SINGH GM (TRAINING CENTRE)

Submitted by: NAVEEN SHARMA 80403114027 DUSHYANT KUMAR 80403114012 ISHAN ANAND 80403114015

BABA ISHER SINGH COLLEGE OF ENGG. & TECH. GAGRA (MOGA)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I felt short of words to pen down anything for those who kept the ship float for the past month with their guidance, co-operation and expert advices. The successful completion of any training depends upon the cooperation, co-ordination and combined efforts of several resources of knowledge, inspiration and energy. I am very grateful to MR. V.P. SINGH, G.M. of training department, for allowing me to be a part of such an esteem organization of him. I am grateful for patience and interest everybody in the organization has shown completion of any training depends upon the co-operation, co-ordination and combined efforts of for me. With this I convey my sincere thanks to Prof. R.P. Sharma, the Director and faculty of Automobile Department for sharing his valuable knowledge with us. And last but not the least I take this opportunity to thank Mr. Arun Arya, the Head of Department of Automobile Engineering Department at Arya College of Engineering & I.T., Jaipur for providing me the opportunity to do my four week industrial training at such an esteemed organization. Also the whole faculty at the department has been resourceful for the industrial training for which I appreciate their efforts.

PREFACE
Before joining my training, I had no idea what it is going to be and what exactly is its need in the academic curriculum. By the time I finished my training I understood how important it was for me to be a complete engineer. A fresh graduate would have absolutely no idea of the functioning of an industry. He would probably be unaware about the various departments and their functioning. He would be completely ignorant of the working and environment. He generally would not know about the department in an enterprise. Thus industrial training prepares you to walk out of your college and join the industry. You need to have basic professional knowledge along with the theoretical background and spending a month among hardcore professional can teach you a lot. The following report does not discuss the details of these experiences and discuss mostly about the training and how it was completed. It is much more fulfilling experience than any report will be able to express. I feel pride to get an opportunity to have my practical training at INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LIMITED HOSHIARPUR. I thank everyone who has contributed to make this experience truly complete and stimulating.

CONTeNTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

COMPANY PROFILE INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR LIMITED QUALITY ASSURANCE ASSEMBLY SHOP (TRACTOR) ENGINE ASSEMBLY UNIT DEMO PRE DELIVERY INSPECTION SONALIKA IMPORTANT DATA SURVEY REPORT CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY

COMPANY PROFILE
Sonalika Group is contributing to Green Revolution in initially it India since 1969. Start with Farm Equipments and machinery .Brand name of the Group products is "SONALIKA Sonalika is having a market share of 80% in Farm Equipments in India. Total group turnover is 220 Million USD(IRD 1000Crores).An average growth rate of 30% makes it one of the fastest growing corporate in India .I also happens to be one of the very few debt free companies in the world. Sonalika group under the stewardship to Shri L.D.Mittal, (Chairman) has made stride within a short span of 14 year from the formation of ITL. It has not only made its presence felt in tractor Industry but has made inroads into the market share of popular brands. Its valued and satisfied customers are multiplying and have crossed 100,000 mark in yare 2004.The Sega started forty-one years ago when Sonalika began manufacturing threshers to help Indian farmers ensure greater productivity through qualitatively superior technology .With the passage of time this initiative taken by Mittals turned into a great success due to the undulated efforts of its promoters and employees who worked impervious throughout. Sonalika Group is one of the top five tractor manufacturers in India. Apart from various farm equipments and implements, its product line includes Tractors, Multi utility Vehicles(MUV),Three Wheelers ,Engine, Hydraulic System, casting ,Forging ,Brake System ,Automotive components manufacturing .Sonalika group since the inception has tried to understand customers need to be able to facilitate them with its value for money products. The company has a state of art manufacturing facilities, spread in

acres, located in the pollution free suburbs of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh .It employs about 3600 people including some of the renowned name in the industry. The company works on the maxims of low production cost and clean and safe environment .Such efforts have fetched the company the accreditation like ISO:9001:2000 and ISO 14001.Due to this high quality, a great bound of trust has grown between the company and farmers. Over the years, this grew to such extent that the farmers soon put forth demand that Sonalika should also manufacture a high -technology tractor. The actuality is that Sonalika has so much time on Indian farms that it understands the need and aspirations of the Indian farmer in there sense. This great success provided further motivation ultimately resulting in setting up a new plant in the name of International Tractor Limited on October 17,1995 for the production of tractors ,the demand and requirement of which was steadily growing at that time .The plant was set up at village Chak-Gujran (Hoshiarpur)is spread over an area of approximately 65 acres and obtain certificate of incorporation on February 26,1996..ITL is manufacturing various tractor of Sonalika Brand between 30H.P.to 90 H.P. ITL is the 5TH largest tractor selling company in India and the number one company in Nepal. These tractors are also export to various other counties also including France, South Africa, Australia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, Canada, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc. Another feather was added to the crown of Sonalika when company's Chairman, Vice Chairman and managing Director were honored in hotel Taj Man Singh because of their rich contribution to the tractor industry. Sh .L. D. Mittal chairman was awarded with the Pride of Country award by Chaudhary Prem Singh Speaker Delhi Vidhan Sabha. 'Udyog Bhushan' was given to Sh.Deepak Mittal , Managing Director, and Gold medal for good production of tractors was given to Sh .A.S. Mittal , Vice Chairman. These awards have been instituted by "Society of Industry and Business Achievements" and were awarded in the presence of large group comprising of Business and industry magnates of the country.

Sonalika Agro, another member of Sonalika group was established in 1971 to support the Indian farmers with mechanization technology to facilitate persistence of green revolution. Today, the company is supporting the farmers with world class farming equipment to ease the process of making the Green Revolution lll. This plant is equipped with advance technology to develop, manufacture and test the modern product for the modern farmers. The company has a wide range of farm equipment and implement to facilitate the farmers in all kind of farming activities. It has a large dealer networks spread all over country and have approximately 80% share in Indian market of farm machinery. Its products are also exported to Asian & African counties through various export promotion counsels. Sonalika Agriculture Corporation manufactures the following implements. 1. Multi Crop Threshers. 2. Automatic Cutters (HARAMBA). 3. Paddy Thresher. 4. Seed cum Fertilizer Drill. 5. Maize Sheller. 6. Potato planer. 7. Reaper. 8. Combine Harvester. Sonalika Three wheeler, another flagship of Sonalika Group, is in marking of three wheelers under the brand name of Sonalika. Sonalika Three Wheeler is engaged in designing, developing and manufacturing three wheeler for rural & urbanities of India. Three Wheeler are on the way to develop the CNG/LPG as well fuel cell three wheelers Sonalika Three Wheelers are mainly of two types with different variants, which are:

1. Sonalika D450 Three Wheelers. 2. Sonalika D750 Three Wheelers. Different variants available in these are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Drive Away Chassis Delivery Van Pick up Van Passenger deluxe Pickup Standard

Now Sonalika Group consists of 4 Companies: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sonalika Agriculture Corporation. International Tractors Limited. International Cars & Motors Limited. Sonalika Three Wheelers.

INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LIMITED


International Tractor Limited, the second flagship of Sonalika Group was Incorporated on October 17, 1995 for the manufacture of Tractor and has Since then built a distinct position for itself in the Tractor industry.ITL is Manufacturing various Tractor of Sonalika brand between 30 H.P. to 75H.P. and CEREs brand between 60 H.P.to 90 H.P. for export. ITL is also the first Tractor manufacturers in the country to produce 50 H.P. and 60 H.P. Tractor fitted with diesel engines. Sonalika group under the stewardship to Shri L.D.Mittal has made rapid strides within a short span of 14 years. It has not only made its presence felt in the tractor industry but has made in-roads into the market share of popular brands. ITL's market share increased to11% (Approx) as on 31.03.2006.The company maintained position in top five in tractor industry in terms of volume and market share. It surpassed Eicher, H.M.T, John Deere, New Holland and Escorts (Multinationals having long International standing).Today Sonalika group's international Tractor Limited has become the fastest growing tractor company in the world. Because of their maximum pulling power, minimum fuel consumption and Emission, the Tractors manufactured by ITL have secured a reputation of performance, quality and reliability in the market. All this makes International Tractor Limited (ITL), the fifth largest tractor selling company in India and the Number one Company in Nepal. These tractors are also export to various others Counties like France, South Africa, Australia, Zimbabwe, Shri Lanka, Canada, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc. The Manufacturing process, Quality Control System and Research & Development facilities at ITL are certified with ISO: 9001:2000 by the joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand. It is also the first Tractor manufacturing and second such Company in the Country to be

accredited with ISO 14001. ITL is one of the first few companies to have Implemented modern and sophisticated Production Data Management system-SAP way back in 2001.All this comes because of the fact that company is having world-class R&D Facilities, maintaining controls and system of International Standards and Enviormental norms. All the models of tractor manufactured by ITL are tested & approved by Central Farm Machinery and Tractor Training & testing Institute, Bundi (MP) India, which is authorized for issuing test report by Government of India. ITL also manufactured In-House Diesel Engine meeting Bharat III norms for Smoke and Mass Emission. These Engine have been approved by U.S. Environment Protection Agency, Washington D.C. Company has also increased its production of Diesel Engine up to 100 Engines a day. In July 2000, ITL went into collaboration with Renault Agriculture of France, the largest tractor manufacturing Company in Europe and is one of the 30 largest Companies of the World, for the production of Ceres & Solis tractors under the brand name 'Sonalika'. Renault Agriculture is the largest tractor manufacturing Company in Europe. It produces tractors in the range of 50 H.P. to 250 H.P. having worldwide distribution and sales network. International Tractors Limited also has collaborated with US$ 2 billion Yanmar Group, Japans leading tractor manufacturer, with a 12% stake hold by it. Yanmar is a diversified group with interests in tractors, agricultural equipment, industrial engine, industrial equipment and marine engines. International Tractor Limited got I.T.I.D. (Institute of trade & industrial Development) Quality Excellence Award in 2002. The Government of India had also awarded .The Best Quality Award to Sonalika Tractors. Every tractor, manufactured at Sonalikas ultra modern Plant at Hoshiarpur, is an example of unmatched workmanship. At every stage of production, expert keep a constant eye on every small manufacturing details to ensure faultless quality control, by applying the most stringent international quality -check standard to produced tractors that are most unbeatable in their category even in World Market. Each part of every tractor is tested for the operational excellence at the Hoshiarpur plant.

At present International Tractors Limited is manufacturing mainly 3 category SONALIKA , SONALIKA RX , SONALIKA WORLD TRACK and these 3 categories of tractors are divided into sub models 4 stroke ,2 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 30 H.P. 4 stroke ,2 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 32 H.P. 4 stroke ,2 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 32 H.P. 4 stroke 3 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 34 H.P. 4 stroke ,3 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, Side gear, OHV Diesel engine , 42H.P. 4 stroke ,3 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, Side gear OHV Diesel engine , 47H.P. 4 stroke ,3 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 47 H.P. 4 stroke ,3 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 60H.P. 4 stroke ,3 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 60 H.P. 4 stroke ,4 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 55H.P. 4 stroke ,4 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch,

Baagban DI 30 DI 730 II

DI 35 II

DI 734

DI 740 Simpson

DI 745 III POWER +

DI-60 Mileage Master (Potato Special) DI -60 Rx (Agriculture special) TURBO DI-60 (Commercial Special )

DI -750 III

DI-75

DI -90 4X4

OHV Diesel engine , 75 H.P. 4 stroke ,4 Cylinder ,Direct Injection ,Forced Water Cooled, Single Clutch, OHV Diesel engine , 90 H.P. ,Turbo Charger

QUALITY ASSURANCE
Quality Assurance activity in ITL is a MIS function to audit and report the quality status of both, product as well as quality assurance within the plant. ITL considers vendors as an extension of its own manufacturing operations. Hence, the quality assurance audits are not limited to just received components quality at ITL receipt inspection stage but extends to audit of conformance to prescribed quality assurance systems at vendor end also.

OBJECTIVES:1. 2. To reduce rejection and achieve better quality standards. To achieve consistency in quality.

Quality, which has no compromise, is essential for every industry to stay affirm in todays competitive world. My project is a long term planning of every industry. Each industry feels to upgrade its position and vendors are integrated part of it. Quality improvement at Vendors end means overall improvement in companys gradation. With high quality of components from vendors, major goal of improvement can be achieved.

ASSEMBLY SHOP (TRACTOR)


The Assembly at SONALIKA DIVISION deals with the assembly of tractors model DI 730 II, DI 35 II, DI 730 II, DI 745 III, DI 60 (Mileage Master), DI 60 RX, DI 750 etc. Assembly is the joining of various constituents to form a final product. The assembly process is carried out on the main line, which has various sub assemblies along its length. Assembly shop can be divided into two main areas:1. 2. Before paint area After paint area

BEFORE PAINT AREA:The areas before painting can further be divided into sub assemblies/loops namely: 1. 2. 3. 1) 1. 2. Differential loop Gearbox loop Rear cover loop DIFFERENTIAL LOOP:Differential casting mounting on trolley after washing. Bull pinion shaft left and right fitted.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Cage assembly fitted. It consists of: Crown wheel Tail pinion assembly Roller bearing Bevel wheels. PTO shaft fitted. Rear axle trumpet is fitted. PTO shifter assembly fitted. Gearbox assembly is fitted. Rear cover assembly fitted. Brakes are fitted. Parking brake. Suction pipe. PTO covers. Trailer hook is fitted. Angle bracket is fitted. Rocket link is fitted. Footboard is fitted. Clutch pedal is fitted.

DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM:FUNCTION:-

If the axle is a single unit and the wheels are free on the axle that is just moving on the bearings, as is the case of tractor front axle, the wheels will turn at different speeds to compensate for the difference in travel. However when the wheel are driven positively by engine, a device is necessary which can make the wheels moves at different speeds on turns, whereas the speed of both the wheels should remain equal when the tractor is following a straight path. To accomplish this purpose a system of gears called differential system is provided. Thus the differential has two functions: 1. On a straight travel it allows both the rear wheels of tractor to get equal power. 2. On turns, it allows the inner wheel to move slower than the outer wheels. As far as transmitting of power at right angle to propeller shaft is concerned drive pinion is coupled to transmission shaft with the help of flange. This pinion drives the crown wheel as such the power is now available at right angle to drive shaft and tractor can move forward and back ward as per requirement. WORKING:The engine drives the crown wheel mounted on the cage assembly through tail pinion. Four bevel pinions are mounted on the splined bull pinion shafts lt. and rt. which are supported on the taper roller bearings in the differential housing. These taper roller bearings give rigid support to cage assembly. The differential system is very useful in the automobiles. This help in turning the vehicle. As already discussed the above cases that how the vehicle differential works while the vehicle is taking turn. During the turning the inner speed of the wheel reduces and the outer wheel moves faster than the inner wheels. The differential on the vehicle distributes the power between the two wheels by giving the less power to the inner wheel than the outer one & the vehicle moves easily. Steering

system is used for the turning of the vehicle on the cross, which is fitted in the cage assembly. 2) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. GEARBOX LOOPS:Gearbox housing mounted on trolley. Drive shaft & input shaft assembly. Output shaft assembly. Lay shaft and connecting shaft assembly. Shifter rod assembly. Steering assembly

GEAR BOX
The gearbox used in the tractors being manufactured by ITL is of the CONSTANT MESH TYPE. This is the simplest type of gearbox. The power comes from the engine to the clutch shaft and hence to the clutch gear which is always in mesh with a gear on the lay shaft. All the gears on the lay shaft are fixed to it and as such they are all the time rotating when the engine is running. The clutch is engaged three and one reverse speed are attained on suitable moving the gear on the main shaft by means of selector mechanism. The power, which the engine develops, is transmitted to the wheels of the tractor by certain essential parts. The application of engine power to the driving wheels through these parts is called POWER TRANSMISSION. These parts are clutching, gearbox, differential and rear axles. To start a tractor from rest, the inertia of its whole weight must be overcome. Diesel engine does not develop its full power at low speed. It has to run at fairly high speed before it develops max power and torque. Since much power is needed in starting, climbing uneven land and pulling loads, a provision must be made to permit the engine to run at high speed

while the wheels run at low speed. This is achieved by a system called Gearbox. With the help of gearbox, we can achieve this and pulling power of the tractor can be increased or decreased by varying the speed of tractor. For this we use Constant Mesh Gear type. PRINCIPLE:As we know that the horsepower developed is directly proportional to the product or torque and rotational speed, i.e. H.P= k.N.T

FUNCTION:1. To convert the power of the engine running at high speed into low speed at high torque 2. To exchange the forward motion into the reverse motion of the vehicle. 3. To disconnect the engine from the rear wheels by putting the gear box into neutral position.

TYPES OF GEARBOX:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Selective gearbox Sliding mesh type Constant mesh type Synchronous type Planetary gearbox

6.

Automatic gearbox

3) 1. 2. 3. 4.

REAR COVER LOOPS:Rear cover mounted on trolley. Control valve and response valve assembly. Ram assembly (This consists of cylinder, piston and piston rods). Testing of hydraulic lift.

REAR COVER ASSEMBLY:Rear cover is mounted on the differential assembly. It is used to cover the differential assembly. It performs various other operations also.

HYDROULIC CONTROL SYSTEM


Hydraulic control system is mechanism in a tractor to rise, hold or lower the mounted or semi-mounted equipments by hydraulic means. All tractors are equipped with hydraulic control system for operating three hitch of the tractor. HYDRAULIC FLUID PROPERTIES:-

1. It has no shape but definite volume. 2. It is uncompressible and if force is applied then it exerts the same pressure in all directions. 3. It always flows from high pressure gradient to low pressure gradient. i.e. through the less resistance path. BASIC COMPONENTS OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM:1. Hydraulic pump :There are several types of hydraulic pump, such as gear screw pump. Gear pump is widely used in tractors. Gear pump can be flow a bigger amount of air, compared to plunger pump. The air pressure in the pump varies from 150 to 200 kg/cm2. 2. Hydraulic cylinder:It is a bigger size cylinder, fitted with a piston and a connecting rod. It is also called ram cylinder. The connecting rod transmits power from the piston to hydraulic cylinder and causes reciprocating motion in the cylinder. The lifting arms are raised by the hydraulic pressure while raising the implement but it is lowered but it is lowered by its own weight. 3. Hydraulic tank :Hydraulic tank is used for storing hydraulic oil for the system. In some tractors , transmission chamber itself works as a hydraulic tank and same oil is used as used as hydraulic system. In some tractors separate tank is there for hydraulic oil. 4. Control Valve:Control valve is a type of valve, which controls the movement of hydraulic air to have desired direction. Magnitude and speed lifting. Thus the control valve is to perform three functions:1. To change the direction of lifting. 2. To change the power of lifting. 3. To change the speed of lifting. The control valve is operated by hand lower and it is of two types

A) Manual Type

B) Automatic Type

Manual type value is mostly for small tractors. There are only three positions in this case: (i) Up (ii) Down (iii) Neutral In automatic type, there are more than three positions. Any of the positions inside a quadrant can be chosen for operations. 5. Oil filter:It is a small filter located at a convenient position in the oil. Lower sector Assembly:1. Draft control lower (red Colour) 2. Position control lower (Black Colour) 3. [Draft Crank rod solid in shape. 4. Position crank rod hollow in shape. Setting of oil hydraulic:A. Position lower setting 1. Both lower down (i.e. DC and PC) 2. Both arms down. 3. Now spool valve spring gap showed low 54.5 mm. B. Draft lower setting:1. Position lower down. 2. Draft lower up. 3. Both arms up. 4. Now spool valve spring gap should be 54.5 mm.

5. In this condition sensor should be out from ram cover 16 to 17


mm.

ENGINE ASSEMBLY
This section deals with the assembly of different components that lead to complete engine assembly. The assembly area is kept clean all the time so that no dust and dirt enter the engine while being assembled. Following are the steps in which the engines are assembled:-

First of all Main Oil Galleries are plugged. Complete assembly of Crankshaft along with timing gear and the balance weight arrive from their vendor. This complete assembly is put into the block once the main journal bearings are placed in it.

Rear end plate is bolted and oil seal is pressed onto it. Oil pump is fitted. Cam hole far end is plugged with a circular plate. Camshaft gear is inserted into the shaft after heating and this complete assembly is inserted in its place. Idle gear in timing gear is fitted. Tappets are inserted. Rubber seals for push rod enclosing tubes are inserted then. Studs for holding the head are tightened. Filter body is then bolted to the engine block. A marking plate is bolted which helps to locate the TDC of the 1st cylinder with the help of the crank pulley. The crank pulley is the fixed with the help of a woodruff key onto the crankshaft. Piston Rings and Connecting rod assemblies are readied on to the assembly line separately.

Now the above whole assembly is put into onto the block and the connecting rod big end caps are bolted and tightened with proper torque. Oil sump is then bolted.

Cylinder head with push rod tubes, studs for rocker and bumping shims are placed and is tightened with proper torque. Oil supply pipe is fixed with a banjo bolt. Inlet and exhaust manifold and the water supply pipes are fitted. Push rods are inserted. Rockers are then fitted. Fuel filter body is then attached. A unique number is engraved onto the block. Water pump is fitted and a thermostat valve is inserted.

Fuel Injection Pump is then fitted to the engine as per the specific model. The Valve-Tappet clearance is then set using the feeler gauge. TDC marking is done onto the pulley by putting a depth gauge through the injector hole. B-TDC marking is then done using a special purpose tool. Fuel injection timing is then set by putting on the fuel supply. Alternator mounting clamps are fixed. Injector nozzles and the High pressure fuel lines are then fitted to the F.I. Pump. Bell housing is then bolted. Ring gear is fitted to Flywheel at 350 deg. C. and the assembly is then bolted to the crankshaft rear end.

SONALIKA ENGINE PARTS (4 CYLINDER)

SR.NO. PARTS 1 Engine block or crank case 2 Timing cover 3 Rear seal plate or main seal plate 4 Fly wheel 5 Side plate (2) 6 Oil filter plate with oil filter 7 Diesel filter body with filter set 8 Diesel pipes 9 High pressure pipe 10 Fuel injection pump 11 Injector with washers 12 Return pipe 13 Diesel pump coupling 14 Crank pulley 15 Water pump with fan 16 House pipe 17 18 Thermostat valve and body Water manifold

SR.NO. PARTS Connecting Rod Parts 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Big end Rod Small end Crank shaft-main parts Crank-journals Crank pin Arm Crank weight Oil hole Oil passage Dog nut Timing gear Thrust collar Flange Parts of valve Mechanism Timing gear Cam shaft

1 2

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Inlet manifold Exhaust manifold Tappet cover Fan belt Oil pump Oil pump pipes Release valve Strainer Head gasket Cylinder head Cylinder liner or cylinder sleeve with rubber ring Pistons with pin lock Connecting rod Crank shaft with balancing weight Pilot bearing Main bearing Big end bearing Thrust bearing Main cap with stud and nut Piston rings set Crank gear Idler gear Diesel pump driven gear Cam gear Lubrication pipe F.I.P. driven shaft with bearing Cam shaft

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Tappets Tappets guide Push rod Rockers Rocker pillars Rocker shaft Rocker shaft spring Ports Valve guide Valve Valve return spring

14 15

Valve return spring retainer Valve return spring Valve Timing 6 before TDC intake valve open 38 After BDC intake valve closed 40 Before BDC exhaust valve open 10 After TDC exhaust valve closed

1 2 3 4

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

Tappet roller guide of push guide Push rod Tappet set with adjusting screw Self starter and alternator Oil pump gear and idler gear Nuts, bolts, washers Oil dips stick and mobile oil. Gasket

DEMO
SELECTION OF A TRACTOR FOR DEMO:1. Before giving a demo check the air pressure in both front and rear tyres. Pressure front tyre 22-24 PSI Pressure rear tyre 14-16 PSI 2. Water can be used in rear tyre at the time of Demo Water 75% Air 25% 3. Grease all the grease point of tractor. 4. Check the free play in clutch and brake pedal. 5. Check the oil in air cleaner as well as in the steering oil. 6. Check fan belt play.

DEMO:Before giving demo to the customer you must know all the information of tractor and the implement to be used.

USAGE OF IMPLEMENT:1. Turn the disc in harrow in right direction. 2. Rotavator should lift at proper height. 3. Cultivator should be adjusting by top link only. 4. You must know the proper way of hitch the cultivator. Before use of all implement we must know selection of gear in tractor Efficiency of fuel, Area of coverage, slippage of tractor. CONDITION OF LAND:Before giving demo we have to select that place with is near to village, due to which all the villager can come and see the demo. Demo should not give in dry or wet place because due to this there is chance of slippage of tyres.

PRE DELIVERY INSPECTION


Before the delivery of a tractor or sending a tractor to a dealer it is necessary to check all the parts of tractor. During this process all the assembly and important parts of tractor are checked, so that tractor is safe or ready to give customer. IMPORTANCE:Company gives 100% warranty for the entire drawback found in the tractor, regarding its parts, during pre delivery inspection. 1. P.D.I. report confirms that the tractor has the dealer in safe manner or not. 2. P.D.I. increases the faith of dealer and customer. 3. P.D.I. report should reach the company within one week of dispatch.

SONALIKA ENGINE IMPORTANT DATA

1. RING END GAP (MM) PISTON SIZE


92 95 97 100 102

TOP RING
0.2-0.4 0.3-0.45 0.25-0.45 0.35-0.55 0.25-0.45

SECOND RING OIL RING


0.35-0.55 0.6-0.8 0.6-0.8 0.35-.0.45 0.6-0.8 0.2-0.4 0.2-0.4 0.3-0.55 0.35-0.55 0.3-0.55

2. RING CLEARANCE IN PISTON GROOVE(MM) PISTON SIZE


92 95 97 100

TOP RING
0.8-0.105 0.95-0.115 0.062-0.117 0.075-0.095

SECOND RING OIL RING


0.03-0.07 0.04-0.08 0.05-0.09 0.07-0.11 0.03-0.07 0.03-0.07 0.03-0.07 0.03-0.07

3. Crank shaft end play

0.125-0.387

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Big end side play in crank shaft 0.18-0.54 Valve face height from cylinder head 0.1 Valve seat width 1.5-2.1 Clearance between crank and big bearing 0.04-0.098 Clearance between crank and main bearing 0.0460.104 9. Cam shaft end play 0.1-0.4 10. Over size thrust washer 0.25 11. Timing gear backlash 0.05-0.35 12. Clearance between impeller & pump housing 0.3-0.7

13.
A

Valve clearance(big size cam shaft )

0.3 (inlet

valve) CLUCH
Single clutch adjustment Double clutch adjustment P.T.O. adjustment

VALUE
40-44 mm 35-36 mm 27-28 mm

1 2 3
B
1 2 3 4 5

HYDRAULIC
Release valve pressure Relief bearing pressure Back pressure valve Check valve pressure Unloading valve

VALUE
175 180 bar 195-200 bar 3-6 kg/cm2 9-12 kg/cm2 6-9 kg/cm2

A B
3 4

COMPOSITE VALVE
Position & Draft coupler

VALUE
27 mm

CONTROL VALVE
Position & Draft coupler Dropping Hyd. Power stree. Stroke length

VALUE
55.5 mm 20 mm/30 mm 161-165 mm

5
(i)

DIFFRENTIOAL
Pre loading of crown

VALUE
9-12 kg/cm2

(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 6 7 8 9 10 11

Pre loading of Tail Pinion Back lash of Crown-Pinion Pre-loading of Bull gear and axle Crown and tail pinion patter Clutch pedal free play Brake pedal free play Toe in Radiator fan belt play Air pressure in front tyre Air pressure in rear tyre

5-7 kg/cm2 0.18-0.30 mm 3-7 kg 70% 25-35 mm 55-56 mm 2-6 mm 10 mm 26-28 psi 14-16 psi

UNIQUE SELECTION PROPOSITION OF SONALIKA TRACTORS COMPLEMENT AND BALANCE TRACTOR


Sonalika Tractor is complete and Balance tractor because:1. PROPORTIONATE WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION: The weight distribution of the tractor is uniform across the length due which it has excellent grip on the ground. This prevents slippage even on steep increasing the load. Has the capacity to pull heavy load even on steep slope while maintaining its balance. 2. LARGE WHEEL BASE: Front lifting is seldom witnessed due to maximum wheel base. It also helps in pulling heavy load even on steep slopes while maintaining its balance. 3. MAXIMUM GROUND CLEARANCE: Tractor cross-uneven ground surface without getting stuck because of high ground clearance.

The standing crops of the farmers are not damaged because of the high ground clearance. Also easily oversteps the bunds while moving from one from two another. 4. LOOKS: Sonalika tractors are aesthetically appealing. Variety is available in colour from which the farmers can choose. 5. ERGONOMICS: Road visibility better because of high attitude of drivers seat. Drivers seat is comfortable.

POWERFUL
We can Sonalika tractor is powerful because:1. HIGH BACK UP TORQUE:Back up torque is reserve power The backup torque is best among all the available tractors in the market. Work equipment to any tractor with higher HP range i.e. 35 HP range tractor of Sonalika works, equal to 50 HP range tractor of other companies. Helps in deep cultivation, which gives good yield, as well lesser weeds. Due to excellent pulling power; tractor are also able to turn at edges without lifting up the cultivator. 2. SMOKELESS ENGINE: Sonalika has used TREM III Engine which burn every single drop of Diesel and built up full power because of this they give negligible smoke.

Sudden increase in load it does not generate heavy smoke whereas other tractors stall in similar condition. Even on drop of 700-1000 rpm Sonalika works tractors work equally well.

SURVEY REPORT

Series 1
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 swaraj sonalika ford mahindra farmtrac escort others Series 1

1. Sonalika
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Swaraj Mahindra Ford Farmtrac Escort Others -------

--

9.25% 37.03% 14.81% 11.11% 9.25% 7.40% 11.11%

Above eqs. Only for ambala distt. Location [Naraingarh]

Series 1
30% 25% 20% 15% Series 1 10% 5% 0% sonalika new holland swaraj farmtrac powertrac mahindra others

TRACTOR SONALIKA NEW HOLLAND SWARAJ FARMTRAC POWERTRAC MAHINDRA OTHERS

% USED 26% 20% 16% 10% 9% 9% 10%

SR.NO. 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.) 7.)

ABOVE DATA IS COLLECTED FROM DISTT. MANDI (H.P.)

CONCLUSION

My training was the great experience. I had the pleasure to do the work with one of the most reputed manufacturer in their field INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR LIMITED. I received experience in private sector. It was a good learning time during my training, as I was fortunate to be placed in the department related to manufacturing. I feel training has given me exposure to undergo projects in manufacturing field as well as help me a lot to understand the company work culture, working with terms and much more. In the end I will like to thank all people who helped me throughout my training to enhance my experience. I also pay my regards to my lecturers for their guidance during my training.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. 2.

INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR LIMITED WEB SITE. Google search.