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**Connecting Rod Optimization for Weight and Cost Reduction
**

Pravardhan S. Shenoy and Ali Fatemi

The University of Toledo

Copyright © 2005 SAE International

ABSTRACT

An optimization study was performed on a steel forged connecting rod with a consideration for improvement in weight and production cost. Since the weight of the connecting rod has little influence on its total production cost, the cost and the weight were dealt with separately. Reduction in machining operations, achieved by change in material, was a significant factor in manufacturing cost reduction. Weight reduction was achieved by using an iterative procedure. Literature survey suggests cyclic loads comprised of static tensile and compressive loads are often used for design and optimization of connecting rods. However, in this study weight optimization is performed under a cyclic load comprising dynamic tensile load and static compressive load as the two extreme loads. Constraints of fatigue strength, static strength, buckling resistance and manufacturability were also imposed. The fatigue strength was the most significant factor in the optimization of the connecting rod. An estimate of the cost savings is also made. The study results in an optimized connecting rod that is 10% lighter and 25% less expensive, as compared to the existing connecting rod.

INTRODUCTION

The objective of this study was to optimize a forged steel connecting rod for its weight and manufacturing cost, taking into account recent developments. Typically, an optimum solution is the minimum or maximum possible value the objective function could achieve under a defined set of constraints. The optimization carried out here, however, is not in the true mathematical sense, since while reducing mass, manufacturing feasibility and cost reduction are integral parts of the optimization. In addition, software used in this work imposed restrictions in performing optimization under fatigue life constraint. Therefore, rather than using numerical optimization techniques for weight reduction, quantitative results were examined qualitatively, and the structure modified. Yoo et al. [1] performed shape optimization of an engine connecting rod using variational equations of elasticity, material derivative idea of continuum mechanics, and an

adjoint variable technique to calculate shape design sensitivities of stress. The results were then used in an iterative optimization algorithm to numerically solve for an optimal design solution. Serag et al. [2] developed approximate mathematical formulae to define connecting rod weight and cost as objective functions as well as constraints. The optimization was achieved using a geometric programming technique. Sarihan and Song [3] optimized the wrist pin end of an engine connecting rod with an interference fit. They generated an approximate design surface and performed optimization of this design surface. The objective and constraint functions were updated in an iterative process until convergence was achieved. The load cycle that was used consisted of compressive gas load corresponding to a maximum torque and a tensile load corresponding to maximum inertia load. The modified Goodman equation with alternating and mean octahedral shear stress was used for fatigue analysis. Pai [4] presented an approach to optimize the shape of a connecting rod subjected to a load cycle which consisted of the inertia load deducted from gas load as one extreme and peak inertia load exerted by the piston assembly mass as the other extreme. A finite element routine was first used to calculate the displacements and stresses in the rod, which were then used in another routine to calculate the total life. Fatigue life was defined as the sum of crack initiation and crack growth lives, with crack growth life obtained using fracture mechanics. For this optimization problem, the weight of the connecting rod has little influence on the cost of the final component. Change in the material, resulting in a significant reduction in machining cost, was the key factor in cost reduction. As a result, in this optimization problem the cost and the weight were dealt with separately. The structural factors considered for weight reduction during the optimization include the buckling load factor, stresses under the loads, bending stiffness, and axial stiffness. Cost reduction is achieved by using C-70 steel, which is fracture crackable. It eliminates sawing and machining of the rod and cap mating faces and is believed to reduce the production cost by 25% [5].

1

linear acceleration of the connecting rod crank end center and of the center of gravity.degree Figure 1: The actual and the digitized connecting rods.deg 200 400 600 X Force . Y Z 2. respectively.Figure 1 shows the actual and the digitized connecting rods. the maximum dynamic tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle.N LOAD ANALYSIS The pressure crank angle diagram used is shown in Figure 2. Crank end and piston end forces as a function of crank angle for this connecting rod at the maximum engine speed of 5700 rev/min are shown in Figures 3(a) and 3(b). The optimization was performed under a cyclic load comprising dynamic tensile load and static compressive load as the two extreme loads. This is an indication of the accuracy of the solid model.00144 kg m2 36. the maximum tensile load increases whereas (a) 2.0E+04 1.439 kg 0.0E+04 Force . 2 .G. The weight difference between the two when corrected for bolt head weight was less than 1%.0E+04 Crank Angle . while the inertia load forms the internal load acting on the connecting rod. The engine configuration considered is tabulated in Table 1.0E+03 0.434 kg 141 mm 0. Table 1: Configuration of the engine to which the connecting rod belongs.0E+03 0 -1.0E+00 0 -1. Crankshaft radius Piston diameter Mass of the connecting rod Mass of the piston assembly Connecting rod length Izz about the center of gravity Distance of C. Cylinder Pressure . from crank end center Maximum gas pressure 48. At any point in time the forces calculated at the ends form the external loads.4 mm 37. and the resultant force at the crank end (a) and at the piston pin end (b) at crank speed of 5700 rev/min.0E+04 1. forces at the two ends are different at a given instant of time.0E+04 0. These result in a set of completely equilibrated external and internal loads. As the speed increases. one along the length of the connecting rod and the other normal to it. The resultant force is also shown.N 5.0E+04 -1. and forces at the ends were generated for a few engine speeds.bar 40 30 20 10 0 0 200 400 600 Crank Angle . Results consisting of the angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod.deg Axial (X) Normal (Y) Resultant 200 400 600 (b) Figure 3: Axial.3 Bar Figure 2: Pressure crank angle diagram used to calculate forces at the connecting rod ends.5 mm 86 mm 0. As can be seen. normal. the maximum compressive load at the crank end decreases.0E+04 Crank Angle .5E+04 -2.0E+00 -5. Two components of the force are plotted.0E+04 -2.5E+04 1. Note that under the effect of dynamic load.

The 7 5 9 14 12 1 3 10 8 6 15 2 13 4 11 Figure 4: Locations on the connecting rod where stress variation was traced over one complete engine cycle. and location of C.0 0. the external loads consisting of reactions or the loads computed at the connecting rod ends at the crank angle of interest. ALLOWABLE STRESS . This is because the maximum tensile stress at all locations in the connecting rod occurs at or near 360o crank angle at 5700 rev/min engine speed.0 -200. The applied load distributions were based on research by Webster et al. minimum. The compressive load of 21.8 at 2000 rev/min to – 0. This ensures that the applied loads form a set of completely equilibrated internal and external loads. the factor of safety for static loading was defined with respect to the yield strength.Allowable stress is the ratio of material strength to the factor of safety.STRESS-TIME HISTORY 300. the maximum stress occurs at 348o crank angle. The inertia and dynamic loads were calculated and applied internally based on these inputs.MPa 200. and linear acceleration at the same crank angle were specified in both magnitude and direction for the connecting rod.e. OPTIMIZATION STATEMENT AND CONSTRAINTS The objective of the optimization was to minimize the mass of the connecting rod under the effect of a load range comprising the peak compressive gas load and the peak dynamic tensile load at 5700 rev/min (at 360o crank angle). dependent upon the specific geometry.0 100.deg 0 200 400 9 12 600 13 Figure 5: Stress (von Mises) variation over the engine cycle at 5700 rev/min at locations 9. were applied to the crank and the piston pin ends of the connecting rod. Furthermore. moment of inertia. From this figure it is clear that the maximum stress at location 9 occurs at 360o crank angle. As a result. While performing quasi-dynamic FEA of the connecting rod. however. Quasi-dynamic FEA rather than static FEA can capture the actual conrod structural behavior. which will not be considered if designing/optimizing connecting rod based on axial loads alone.0 Quasi-dynamic FEA was performed to obtain the stresstime history.8 kN is independent of the geometry of the connecting rod. 12 and 13 are shown in Figure 5. The details have been discussed in [6]. whereas compressive load was applied as a uniformly distributed load over 120o of crank contact surface. The bending stresses were found to be about 20% of the overall stress amplitude at the shank center [7].e. C-70 steel has a percent elongation of 27%. rather than the ultimate tensile strength. Of the fifteen locations shown in Figure 4.G. corresponding to peak cylinder pressure in the pressure crank angle diagram (see Figure 2). These are discussed in [7]. This highlights the significance of the bending stresses. as it is a function of the mass. APPLIED LOADS . At location 13.8 kN. the R ratio varies from – 18.0 -100. Other important observations from stress-time histories of the locations in Figure 4 were that locations near the oil hole and at the crank end transition have significant multiaxiality requiring use of equivalent stress (i. 3 . the connecting rod has to be interchangeable with the existing one in the current engine. The tensile load is. As far as the optimized geometry. The compressive gas load used was 21.e. and the equivalent stress amplitude are within the limits of the allowable stresses.86 at 5700 rev/min. minimum to maximum stress ratio) varied with location and engine speed. the stress-time history for locations 9. The tensile load was applied over 180o of crank contact surface with cosine distribution. such that the maximum. [6]. XX is the σxx component of stress. are now briefly discussed. at the middle of the shank (i. von Mises). just as it does for the maximum load. Stress .0 Crank Angle . Each of these requirements or constraints. due to the influence of bending stresses. the connecting rod is expected to survive between 108 to 109 cycles. Also. For example. The production cost of the connecting rod was also to be minimized. The angular velocity. and the monotonic stress-strain curve [8] shows the behavior of a relatively ductile material. the R ratio (i. point 12 in Figure 4). however. angular acceleration. With regards to cyclic loading. 12 and 13. the buckling load factor under the peak gas load has to be permissible.The tensile load used was the dynamic tensile load at 360o crank angle at 5700 rev/min. The material chosen for the optimized connecting rod is C-70 steel due to its fracture crackability.

the higher the possibility of failure. since the shot peening process negates the negative impact that the forged surface finish has on the fatigue life. corresponding to a FI of 0. The factor of safety applied to the yield strength in this work was 2. 10. 4. dimensions of chamfers in the web and the cap of the connecting rod were also varied during the optimization process. the diameters of the crank pin and the piston pin holes. defined as the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude at R = -1 to the endurance limit of 423 MPa. the failure index (FI). which involved determining the loads and performing FEA for the resulting geometry of each iteration step. The surface finish factor has not been taken into account. the overall thickness of the connecting rod. this region was not the focus in the study. the overall width. 7. by inducing compressive residual stress on the surface. 6. The radii at the transitions to the crank end and the pin end were increased. whereas for the existing forged steel material it is 423 MPa. the width of the rib was increased. and 11 (Figure 4) are already highly stressed. to maintain interchangeability with the existing connecting rod. 9. and 8 may offer potential for weight reduction. Similar to the case for axial loading. Figure 7 shows the FI distribution for the existing geometry with respect to the endurance limit of the existing material under cyclic load.48 or the FI in the existing component. and the crank pin center to piston pin center distance could not be changed. this assumed FI of 0. The piston pin end fits under the piston and is supposed to clear off the piston skirt and the piston bottom. Therefore. This is because modeling the bolt-connecting rod interface is a complex problem and beyond the scope of this work. was used for obtaining the allowable stress at a given location or region of the connecting rod. depending on the static or cyclic nature of the stress.A concept similar to factor of safety. For cyclic loading. After several iterations. The section modulus of the optimized connecting rod should be high enough to prevent high bending stresses.1. which is lower than the mass of the original connecting rod by 10%. and can also occur due to eccentricities as well as crankshaft and case wall deformations. [10]. for the existing connecting rod and material. It must be mentioned that in addition to the dimensions just discussed. and the pin end center-to-crank end center length of the connecting rod were not changed. diameters of the pin end and crank end bores. whichever was higher. The volume of the pin end region was increased to increase the strength in this region due to the lower yield strength and endurance limit of C-70 steel.60 or the FI in the existing component. Bending stresses exist due to inertia forces. respectively) of the material. since relaxing the radii has the effect of reducing the stress concentration effect.endurance limit for the C-70 steel is 339 MPa. the jig spot was relocated from the existing location to be entirely on the cap. as compared to the existing forged steel. was used in this work to quantify severity of the applied stresses with respect to the available strength. shown in Figure 8. when in operation. Mass of the optimized connecting rod is 396 grams. In the shank region.66 on the endurable load amplitude for a PM connecting rod. The closer the FI to one. However. and can be defined as the ratio of the von Mises stress to the strength (either yield strength or fatigue strength. and corresponds to a FI of 0. Either this assumed FI of 0. within practical limits. Regions near locations 3. these regions involve complex interface between the bolt and the connecting rod. All other dimensions of the connecting rod could be varied. Sonsino and Esper [11] used a safety factor of 1. such as that by Folgar et al. The dimensions of the bolts and their holes were also retained. the rib and the web thicknesses were reduced. In order for the section modulus to be as high as possible.60. Based on the guideline outlined by Repgen [5]. an optimized geometry was obtained. based on guidelines recommended by Norton [9]. was used for obtaining the allowable stress amplitude at a given location or region of the connecting rod. only to a certain limit to maintain forgeability. Even though regions near locations 5. The same factor was used for the allowable stress amplitude here. This is confirmed by subsurface failures during axial fatigue tests of the connecting rods [8]. As a result. GEOMETRY CONSTRAINTS . as well as other studies on design of connecting rods.The optimized connecting rod was assumed to be interchangeable with 4 .48. however. whichever was higher. Failure index (FI) is the inverse of the safety factor. the existing one. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE AND RESULTS Comparison of FEA results for the existing connecting rod against the allowable stresses indicate that the shank region of the connecting rod offers the greatest potential for weight reduction. FAILURE INDEX . This Figure 7: Failure Index (FI).

IZZ. Table 2: Comparison of the optimized and original connecting rods. a more detailed FEA was performed for the crank end.geometry was found to satisfy the aforementioned design constraints. It should be noted that by using other facture crackable materials such as microalloyed steels having higher yield strength and endurance limit. For cyclic loading. In order to validate the adequacy of the design.. The buckling load factor for the original connecting rod is 7. For this FE analysis the 5 . the equivalent stress amplitude at R = -1 (corresponds to SNf) was obtained by using the commonly used modified Goodman equation: Sqa SNf + Sqm Su =1 (2) Figure 9 shows the FI distribution for the optimized connecting rod. The weight does not include the weight of the bolt heads and is the weight of the geometry generated for FEA. the axial stiffness has slightly increased. The stresses at this location are sensitive to the boundary conditions. Note that in spite of weight reduction. and the weight are also listed for the two connecting rods. however. Similar boundary conditions were used for both the existing and the optimized connecting rods. VALIDATION OF THE CRANK END DESIGN As mentioned earlier. Table 2 lists various material and geometric properties for the two connecting rods. Linear buckling analysis was also performed on the connecting rod with the compressive load of 21.204 0. This figure indicates that the maximum FI is at the oil hole. for cyclic loading. However. Figure 8: The geometry of the optimized connecting rod. Material Properties E (GPa) Yield Strength (MPa) Percent Elongation Percent Reduction in Area Tensile Strength (MPa) Endurance Limit (MPa) Other Factors Axial Displacement1 (mm) 0. The mass moment of inertia of the connecting rod about the axis normal to its plane of motion (z axis) and passing through its C. Weight reduction in the shank region is.8.8 23 1 Overall displacement along connecting rod length in tension. limited by manufacturing constraints.6. failure index (FI) was obtained with respect to the endurance limit of the C-70 steel. it was observed that the stresses in this region (bore of the pin end) were significantly lower than the stresses predicted with cosine loading. Failure indexes (FI) with respect to the yield strength of C-70 steel under the action of tensile and compressive loads were obtained. while for the optimized connecting rod the buckling load factor is 9. which is the maximum compressive load in the loading cycle. The value of FI for the optimized connecting rod at the oil hole was found to be less than that for the original connecting rod. the weight at the piston pin end and the crank end can be further reduced. The equivalent stress amplitude Sqa was calculated based on von Mises criterion. and the equivalent mean stress Sqm was calculated as: Sqm = Smx + Smy + Smz (1) Figure 9: Failure Index (FI) distribution for the optimized connecting rod.00144 -4 Izz (kg m ) Buckling Load Factor 9. The highest FI under tensile load was found to be on the surface of the pin end bore. % Optimized Original Change C-70 FS 212 207 2 574 700 -18 27 24 13 25 966 339 42 938 423 -41 3 -20 After obtaining the equivalent mean stress and stress amplitude. the jig spot was relocated so that it would not be in the path of the fracture crack during the fracture cracking of the cap and rod. in an analysis which involved FEA of the connecting rod with the piston pin and the bushing.206 -1 Weight (gms) 396 440 -10 2 0.8 kN.G.6 7.00139 0. which is more than adequate.

Thus two FEA models were solved. Of the many nodes on the inner cap edge (at the rod-cap interface).8 kN per bolt. especially at the rod-cap interface indicates that FEM was modeled appropriately. The pin end was restrained. However. as can be seen from Figure 11. The connection region was not modeled with great details. and drilling for the sleeve. Contact elements were also defined between the bolt head and the bolt seat on the cap. the machining of the mating faces of the crank end. is not expected to affect the rigidity. the clearance between the crank end bearing and the crankshaft is of the order of 0. springs were added across the opposite inner edges of the rod and cap to model the above-mentioned stiffness. The oil film. and the cap was split from the rod and connected with two bolts. based on a specified bolt torque of 20 Nm for the connecting rod. the node with minimum radial displacement had a radial displacement value of 0.026 mm. The maximum von Mises stress is at the outer corners of rod-cap interface in Figure 10. Figure 10 shows the von Mises stress variation and the displacements of the model just discussed under the tensile load. 13].bolt holes were modeled. The FE model is shown on the right. the maximum stress at the outer edge of rod-cap interface drops significantly. is also known to increase stiffness due to a firm contact between the cap and rod [14].026 mm for connecting rods in this size range [12. This displacement is towards the center of the connecting rod bore. Comparison of these results indicated that the rigidity of the connecting rod crank end increased with the bearing assembled in the crank end bore. and a connecting rod with a pin (representing the crankshaft) having radial clearance of 0. The pretension was estimated to be 12. From these analyses it can be concluded that rigidity of the crank end is increased in the presence of the crankshaft and the bearing. As a result.077 mm. since the behavior at the bolt–rod interface was not of interest. MANUFACTURING AND ECONOMIC COST ASPECTS The following steps in the manufacturing of the existing forged steel connecting rod can be eliminated by introducing C-70 crackable steel: the heat treatment. The bolt pretension was also modeled. The only factor not accounted for in the analysis is the presence of the oil film. The behaviors at the cap-rod interface and of the rod and the cap under more realistic loading conditions were of primary interest. The fracture splitting process eliminates the need to separately forge the cap and the body of the connecting rod or the need to saw or 6 . The displacements at the region corresponding to the inner edge (at the rod-cap interface) reduced significantly to lower than the clearance value. indicating that presence of the pin increases the rigidity of the crank end of connecting rod assembly (when compared with its behavior under cosine loading used for the model in Figure 10). von Mises stress variation and displacements (magnified 20 times) of the connecting rod and cap under tensile load. The connecting rod used in these analysis cases had the cap integral to the rod. The FE model with springs added across the edges of the cap and rod is shown on the right. connecting rod with bearing in which the stiffness of the bearing was reduced to a very low value. Figure 11. Contact elements were defined between the rod and the cap at their mating surface. the stresses and displacements were significantly lower at the critical location in the presence of the pin. as the original design of the bolt was being retained.8 kN were applied to the connecting rod. The fracture surface at the cap-rod interface. A few additional cases were investigated to compare the rigidity of the connecting rod assembly (with the crank pin and bearing) with the rigidity of the connecting rod alone. Moreover. The displacement shape of the cap and the rod. and a tensile load corresponding to 360o crank angle at 5700 rev/min and a compressive load of 21. These cases included connecting rod with a bearing. The connection between the bolt and the connecting rod at the threads was modeled using spring elements with high stiffness. Figure 10: von Mises stress variation and displacements (magnified 20 times) of the connecting rod and cap under tensile load. one with a tensile load and the other with a compressive load. however. Following this addition.

as compared with the PM connecting rod. [16] introduced a powder metal connecting rod. Cost is often a proprietary issue and not easily available. Another aspect addressed to maintain the forgeability is the draft angle provided on the connecting rod surface. machining of the mating faces of the crank end. but the shape would not be forgeable without distortion. when compared to stresses obtained from unassembled connecting rod subjected to cosine loading. cost analysis. The web was retained in the shank for the same reason. results in 23% total cost savings for the FS connecting rod.5% on product cost in comparison with hot steel forged connecting rod which required machining at the rod–cap joint face. Paek et al. and drilling for the sleeve are also eliminated. buckling resistance. Similarly. a forged rough part can run on machining lines originally designed for powder metal connecting rods. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Optimization was performed to reduce weight and manufacturing cost of a forged steel connecting rod subjected to cyclic load comprising the peak compressive gas load and the peak dynamic tensile load 7 . Repgen [5] also makes a similar note: “In principle. based on the Clark et al. A study published by Clark et al. While reducing the dimensions of the shank. design driving factor) in the design and optimization of the connecting rod. and axial stiffness.machine a one-piece forged connecting rod into two. In addition. 3) The section modulus of the connecting rod should be high enough to prevent high bending stresses due to inertia forces. Additional constraints imposed during the optimization process included maintaining the forgeability as well as interchangeability of the optimized connecting rod with the existing one. They note that by adapting powder material for connecting rods. This increases the stiffness and reduces stress at critical locations in the crank end of the connecting rod. Cost was reduced by changing the material of the existing forged steel connecting rod to crackable forged steel (C-70). the two fracture split parts share a unique surface structure at the fractured surface that prevents the rod and the cap from relative movement [5]. while maintaining forgeability. the two fracture split parts share a unique surface structure at the fractured surface that prevents the rod and the cap from relative movement. the web and the rib dimensions were reduced to a certain limit. This indicates that the machining cost reduction from utilization of the fracture splitting process. in spite of lower yield strength and endurance limit of C-70 steel compared to the existing forged steel. at 5700 rev/min. crankshaft and piston pin and bushing). The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of this study: 1) Fatigue strength was the most significant factor (i. Engine. Elimination of this machining for the hot steel forged connecting rod through the fracture splitting process would result in a 13% cost savings. This provides a firm contact and increases the stiffness in this region [14]. the cost saving is estimated to be about 15%. static strength. bending stiffness. The fracture splitting process eliminates the need to separately forge the cap and the body of the connecting rod or the need to saw or machine a onepiece forged connecting rod into two. It was shown that machining cost comprises 62% of the total cost for the conventional forged steel (FS) connecting rod. 6) The optimized geometry is 10% lighter than the current connecting rod for the same fatigue strength. The total cost of the PM connecting rod was 6% lower than the conventional FS connecting rod. which is used for PM connecting rods. 5) With using fracture splitting process. Making a cut out in the shank would have resulted in more efficient utilization of the material. The rib and the web thicknesses were reduced. An automotive manufacturer analyzed the costs and proved a cost reduction of 15%”. 2) Stresses and displacements were observed to be significantly lower under conditions of assembly (with bearings. 4) The shank region of the connecting rod offered the greatest potential for weight reduction. he states that: “The development of fracture splitting the connecting rods achieves a total cost reduction up to 25% compared to conventionally designed connecting rods and is widely accepted in Europe”. eccentricities. The structural factors considered for weight reduction during the optimization process included fatigue strength. [15] in 1989 compared the manufacturing costs of powder forged and steel forged connecting rods. as well as crankshaft and case wall deformations. Heat treatment. without loss of stiffness. they saved 10. in a more recent study by Repgen in 1998 [5]. and 42% of the total cost for the powder metal (PM) connecting rod. As compared with a PM connecting rod. Maintaining the forgeability of the connecting rod was taken into account during the optimization process. with reference to forged steel connecting rods. resulting in a firm contact.e. corresponding to 360o crank angle. for their Hyundai Motor Co. 7) Reduction in machining operations achieved by using C-70 steel and utilization of the fracture splitting process reduces the production cost by about 25%.

W. J. 1997.. P. 5. F. Y.. and Hunt. Paper No. 1989.. Vol. F. 8. S. 415-419. Lee.” Research Report BR 89-1. and Song. L. and Oh. P. D. T. 2003-01-1309.. K.. pp. 49-63. B. 11. and Lim. L. Ko. Ryou.. “Optimal design of the connecting-rod”. 13. of Materials and Product Technology. Paper No. J. 1994. and Fatemi.” SAE Technical Paper Series. V. Paper No. M. American Iron and Steel Institute. “A Comparative Study of Forged Steel and PM Connecting Rods. “The shape optimization of a connecting rod with fatigue life constraint. Repgen. Coffell R. J. 1983. 3.8) By using other facture crackable materials such as micro-alloyed steels having higher yield strength and endurance limit. Sonsino. 1996. Afzal. and Choo. “Crank Bearing Design Based on 3-D Elasto-hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory.. Haug. P. Transactions of ASME. S. M. S. Song. Sevien. Paek. Jung. B.. 4. L. 1998. D. Paper No.. Webster. G. REFERENCES 1. 106. Y. 1990.” Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. H. 14. 7.” European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA). B.. 3. 1.. Norton. E.. 2004.. Vol. and Koga. Transactions of ASME.. No. R. K. Simulation and Control. and Nallicheri. 2004-01-1529. 970427. 357-370. University of Toledo. 1989. K. Yoo. pp. 1984.. Technical Review.. “Dynamic Load Analysis and Optimization of Connecting Rod. 6.. C. Weight reduction in the shank region is.” SAE Technical Paper Series.” Int. Vol. V.. “Optimization of the Wrist Pin End of an Automobile Engine Connecting Rod with an Interference Fit. “Machine Design . Vol.. “Shape optimal design of an engine connecting rod. pp. Sheha. 8 . Jun. 10. W. 1987. “An Optimum Connecting Rod Design Study – A Lubrication Viewpoint. P. Clark... H. “Design. AMSE Press.” Journal of Tribology. 9.” Prentice-Hall. T.. 980882. 39. 870406. H. T.. Shenoy. Goenka. 2002. and Choi. Field III. No. 406-412. Vol.. Pai. 831322. “Application of high performance powder metal connecting rod in V6 engine. Wldrig. 2003. 24.. 108. “Optimized Connecting Rods to Enable Higher Engine Performance and Cost Reduction.“ Masters Thesis.. 5-6. however. Y. Fabrication and Performance of Fiber FP/Metal Matrix Composite Connecting Rods. A. A. “A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of a High Speed Diesel Engine Connecting Rod. Transactions of the ASME. it may be possible to further reduce the weight at the piston pin end and the crank end. J. and Automation in Design. N.” SAE Technical Paper Series 1987. J.. limited by manufacturing constraints. E. C.” SAE Technical Paper Series. 11.. and El-Beshtawi.” SAE Technical Paper Series. 15. B... C. “Development of Fracture Split Steel Connecting Rods. Paper No. M. Serag. J. F. J. pp. and Alfaro D.. J. K. Sarihan. K. 1986. “Engine state-of-the-art: A competitive assessment of steel. 2. S.An Integrated Approach. Oh. “Fatigue Design for PM Components.” SAE Technical Paper Series. S. Y. Transmissions. I. No. Folgar. cost estimates and performance analysis. J. 1996. C. R. S. Park. May 2004.. and Esper.” Journal of Mechanisms. Vol. 112. Modelling. 16. Makino.. Ltd. Automotive Applications Committee. S.” Journal of Mechanical Design. Paper No.... 12..

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