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CONTENTS
SI. No. Page No.
1. Syllabus
2. Unit  1
Uniform Flow In Open Channel 1
3. Unit  2
Varied Flow In Open Channel 24
4. Unit 3
Boundary Layer 48
5. . Unit  4
,.
Momentum Principle 0 68
6. Unit  5
Turbines 96
7. Unit 6
Pumps 117
6°( If
   .     ~ ~   ~  ~              ~ 
SYLLABUS
APPLIED HYDRAlILlCSAND FLUID MACHINES (BC 2.1)
Uniform flow in open channels: Types of flow  Uniform flow  Chezy's and Manning's
Equations  Hydraulically best sectionsuniform flow computations.
Varied flow in open channels: Specjfic energy ,Critical flow  mild and steep slopes
Critical depth  Hydraulic jumpgradually varied flow  Energy equations and solutions
Backwater and draw down curves study offlow profiles
Boundary Layer and Flow Around Submerged Bodies: Definition  Displacement,
momentum, Energy thickness  Boundary layer equationsboundary layer separations
Laminar and Turbulent boundary layers  forces on submerged bodies  Expression for drag
and lift pressure drag  friction drag  stream lined and bluff bodies.
Momentum Principle: Impulse Momentum Equation Application of linear momentum
principle  impact of jetforce exerted by a jet on normal, inclined and curved surfaces for
stationary and moving cases only.
Water Turbines: Classification  working principles and design of pelton wheel, Francis
and Kaplan Turbine  Velocity Triangles  Head and Efficiency ; draft tube  theory and types
similarity laws  specific speed  operating characteristics  Governing of turbines
Selection of turbines  model studies.
Pumps: Classification  centrifugal pump  components and working  Velocity triangles
priming  Head losses and efficiencies  Minimum starting speed  performance curves
specific speedcavitations  selection of pumps
Positive Displacement pump
Reciprocating Pump types  components and workingslipindicator diagramair vessel
Miscellaneous Pumps (operating Principles only)
Multistage Pumps  submersible pumps  jet pumps  airlift pumpsgear oil pump hydraulic
ram.
..
UNIT  1 : FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. In open channel water flows under
(a) force of gravity
(b) atmospheric pressure
(c) hydrostatic pressure
(d) mechanical pressure
2. For a flow to be turbulent In an open channel, Reynolds's number should not be
less than
(a) 500
(b) 1000
(c) 1500
(d) 2000
3. If area of cross section of an open channel remains constant then the discharge will
be maximum only when
(a) Pressure head will be maximum
(b) Velocity of flow will be maximum
(c) Frictional loss will be maximum
(d) Bed slope will be maximum
/*. A rectangular channel section will be the most economical when the depth of flow &
bottom width are in the ratio
(a) 1:4
(b) 1:1
(c) 1:2
(d) 2:1
5. For maximum mean velocity of flow in a circular channel, depth of the flow should be
equal to
(a) diameter ofthe channel
(b) 1.5 times the diameter of channel
(c) 0.81 times the diameter of channel
(d) 2 times the diameter of channel
BC2.1
6. The discharge through a channel of trapezoidal section is maximum when
(a) width of channel at the top is equal to twice the width at the bottom
(b) depth of channel is equal to width at top
(c) the sloping side is equal to width at top
(d) the sloping side is equal to width at bottom
Answer key
1. a 2.d
3.b 4.c
S.b 6.c
I
SECTION B
. TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. The longitudinal slope of free water surface is hydraulic gradient of open channels.
2. When the free water surface of open channel is not parallel to bed of channel the flow
is said to be uniform.
3. For most economical rectangular section, hydraulic mean depth is halfthedepth.
4. For most economical trapezoidal section, halftop width is equal to sloping side.
Answer key
I 1. T
2.F I 3.T
4. T
3 BC2.1,
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
Ans:
What do you mean by Flow in Open Channel?
Flow in open channel is defined as the flow of a liquid with a free surface. A free
surface is a surface having atmospheric pressure. Thus a liquid flowing at
atmospheric pressu re through a passage is known as flow in open channel.
2.
Ans:
What type offlowtakes place in case of Open Channel?
In case of Open Channel flow, as the pressure is atmospheric, the flow takes place
under the force of gravity which means the flow takes place due to the slope ofthe
bed ofthe channel only. The hydraulic gradient line coincides with the free surface
of the water.
3.
Ans:
HowtheHow is classified in case of Open Channels?
The flow in open channel is classified into the following types:
a) Steady Flow and Unsteady Flow
b) Uniform Flow and Flow
c) Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
d) SubCritical, Critical and Super Critical Flow
4.
Ans:
What do you mean by Steady and Unsteady Flow?
a) Steady Flow: If the flow characteristics such as depth of flow, velocity of
flow, rate of tlow at any point in open channel flow do not change with
respect to time, the flow is said to be steady flow.
b) Unsteady Flow: If at any point in open channel flow,the velocity of flow,
depth of flow rate of flow changes with respect to time, the flow is said to be
unsteady.
5.
Ans:
What do you mean by Uniform and Nonuniform Flow?
If for a given length of the channel, the velocity of flow, depth of flow, slope of the
channel and crosssection remains constant, the flow is said to be uniform. On the
other hand, if for a given length of the channel, the velocity of flow, depth of flow
etc. do not remain constant, the flow is said to be nonuniform.
6.
Ans:
What do you mean by Rapidly Varied Flow?
Rapidly varied flow is defined as that flow in which depth of flow changes abruptly
over a small length of the channel. When there is any obstruction in the path of
·flow of water, the level of water rises above the obstruction and then falls and again
4 BC2.1
rises over a small length of channel. Thus the depth of the flow changes rapidly
over a short length of the channel. For this short length of channel the flow is called
rapidly varied flow.
/. . What doyou mean by Most Economical Section of Channel?
Ans: A section of a channel is said to be most economical when the cost of construction
of the channel is minimum, but the cost of construction of a channel depends
upon the excavation and the lining. To keep the cost down or minimum, the wetted
perimeter, for a given discharge, should be minimum;
8. What is Hydraulic Gradient Line and Total Energy Line?
Ans: Using centre of a pipe as base if we mark ordinates representing pressure energy
at various sections of the pipe and join the tops of these ordinates, we will get a
line as pressure head line or hydraulic gradient line.
The total energy line lies above the hydraulic gradient line by an amount equal to
the velocity head. So if we add velocity head. So if we add velocity head to the
pressure head on the ordinates and join the points thus obtained, we will get the
total energy line.
9. What doyou mean by Reynold's Number?
Ans: The Reynolds Number (R) is used to determine whether the flow of the fluid is
laminar orturbulent. Flow is turbulent at larger Reynolds numbers and laminar at
VD DV
Smaller ReynoldS numbers. R = P =
f! v
D=diameter of the pipe, V=velocity,
v= Kinematic viscosity offluid
p=fluid density, f.1=fluid viscosity,
10. What is Hydraulic Jump?
Ans: A hydraulic jump is a sudden rise in water level due to decreasing velocity. In
flowing water, the water before the jump is moving much faster than the water after
the jump. When the velocity of the water decreases to critical flow speed a jump
occurs. Above this velocity, the water is moving too quickly to allow gravity waves
to move upstream. At the point where the water reaches critical flow speed, the
gravity waves become unable to move upstream, and build up at the jump,
forming the sudden increase in water level, called a hydraulic jump.
5 BC2.1
SECTION D
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Write the Chezy's and Manning Equations to determine the flow rate in open
channel
Ans: The fundamental relations used to determine the uniform flow rate in open
channel are semiempirical and are governed by Chezy's and Manning
equations. Consider a control volume flow with volume flow rate of Q and weight
W in an open channel as shown in Fig. Since it is uniform depth flow, so it can be
shown from = V
2
• Then,Xmomentum equation for the
control vol ume can be written as,
LFr =pQ(V; Vi) =0
or, 1)  F,.7:
w
Pl +W sin e=0
(1)
Fig. Control volume flow in an open channel.
As the flow is at uniform depth, so the hydrostatic pressure forces across either
end ofthe control volume balance each other i.e. F 1 = F2 .Thus, Eq. (1) becomes,
't = W sin (1 = (yAl)So = yRkS
o
(2)
W PI PI
Where yis the specific weight ofthe fluid and sin e::;:;tan e= So (since So« 1) More
often the open channel flows are turbulent rather then . laminar. So, Reynolds
number is quite large and for such flows the wall shear stress ('tw) is proportional to
dynamic pressure and may be written as
't = K p'l
(3)
W 2
where K is a constant that depends on the roughness of the pipe. Now, equating
Eqs. (2) and (3), we get,
V =C.JRkS
O
(4)
This equation is known as "Chezy equation" in which C is called Chezy coefficient.
Itsvalue
Is determined from experiment and also, it has the unit of.
. s
This equation is modified by Manning by incorporating dependence of hydraulic
radius and The bottom slope and is given by
R l S
k 0 ,
V
= (m)3 (5)
In this equation, the parameter n is the Manning resistance coefficient. Its value
depends on the surface material of the channel's wetted perimeter and is obtained
from experiment. It is also not dimensionless
And has the unit of The typical values of n are given in Table 1.
(m)' .
Table 1 : values for Manning coefficient (n)
Natural channels 0.030.45
Flood plain 0.0350.15
Excavated earth channel 0.0220.035
Artificial lined channel 0.010.025
In open channel flows, sometimes it is necessary to determine the best possible
hydraulic crosssection (Le. minimum area) for a given flow rate (0), slope (So) and
roughness coefficient (n). The flow rate can be written as,
!
Q= p) 0
(6)
n
Which can be rearranged as,
7 8C2.1
(7)
For a channel with given flow rate the quantity in the parentheses is constant
which means the channel with minimum A is also with minimum P.
2. What are the General characteristics of open channel flow?
Ans: The presence of free surface of open channel flow sometimes makes the analysis
simple where the pressure on the surface is equivalent to the "hydraulic grade line"
of the flow. It also complicates the issue because the shape/geometry of the
surface is unknown. Moreover, the flow is generally turbulent, sometimes
unsteady and threedimensional.
The manner in which the fluid depth (y) varies with time (t) and distance along the
channel (x) is used to partially classify a flow. An open channel flow is classified as:
• uniform flow (UF) ifthe depth offlow does not vary along the channel ( : 0)
• nonuniform/varied flow ifthe depth offlow varies with distance (: *0 )
The nonuniform flow may be "rapidly varying flow (RVF)" if the How depth
changes considerably in a relatively small distance (: ~ 1) or "gradually varying
flow (GVF) II in which the flow depth changes slowly along the channel (: <: 1)
The open channel flow may be "laminar, transitional or turbulent" depending on
the Reynolds number of the flow. As a general rule, if Re <500, the flow is laminar
and the flow goes to turbulent if Re > 12,500 .
Open channel flows also involve free surface that can deform to form waves and
move across the surface. The speed of such waves depends on the size (length
and height) and properties (depth, fluid velocity) of the channel. A dimensionless
parameter (Froude number, F, ) decides the characteristics of the flow in the
channel. For F r < ], the flow is sub critical (or tranquil); F r 1, the flow is critical and
Fr> 1, the flow becomes supercritical (or rapid).
I
3. Write a note on Gradually Varied and Rapidly Varied Flow.
Ans: The depth of the open channel flow varies (either increases or decreases) in the
flow direction depending upon the bottom slope and energy Une slope. Physically,
the difference between component of weight and shear forces in the direction of
flow produces a change in fluid momentum. Thus, there is a change in velocity
/
and consequently a change in depth. The shape of the surface y = y (x) can be
calculated .by solving the governing equation obtained form combination of
Manning equation and energy equation. The result will be a nonlinear differential
equation, which is quite difficultto solve. However, some physical interpretation of
gradually varied flows can be made from the following equation;
dy Sf  So
(8)
dx 1 Fr2
For dy *0 , the factor (Sf  So ) becomes a nonzero quantity, which is essentially
dx IF/ '.
the gradually or rapidly varying flow. Now, the sign of dy Le. whether the f l O ~
dx .
depth increases or decreases with distance along the cnannel depends on both
numerator and denominator of Eq. (8). The sign of denominator depends on
whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical. In fact, for a given channel, there
exists a "critical slope" (So = Sac) and a corresponding critical depth (Y=Yc) that
leadsto Fr = 1 under conditions of uniform flow.
The character of a gradually varied flow is classified in terms of actual channel
slope (So) compared to that of slope required for producing uniform flow (Sac).
They maybe,
• Mild slope with So < SOc (Le. the flow would be subcritical F, < 1, if it were of
uniform depth)
• Steep slope So > SOc with (the flow would be supercritical Fr>1, if itwere of
uniform depth)
• Horizontal slope with So = 0
• Adverse slope, So < 0 (i.e. flow uphill)
Thus, it may be inferred from the above that the determination of whether the flow
is subcritical or supercritical depends solely on whether So < SOc or So > SOc
respectively. For gradually varying flows, the conditions for subcritical and super
critical flows are met by So and depth of flow. For example, with So < SOc , it is
possible to have either Fr< 1 or Fr> 1 depending upon the depth of flow i.e. y < y,
ory> Yc' respectively.
9 BC2.1
A "rapidly varied flow" in an open channel is characterized by 1 Le. the flow
dx
depth changes occur over a relatively short distance. One such example of a
rapidly varied flow is "hydraulic jump" in which flow changes from a relatively
shallow, highspeed condition into a relatively deep, lowspeed condition within a
horizontal distance of just a few channel depths. Many open channel flow
measuring devices are based on the principle associated with rapidly varied
flows. These devices inClude broadcrested weirs, sharpcrested weirs and sluice
gate.
4. Derive an equation for Most Economical Rectangular Section.
Ans: Figure shows a rectangular section of Depth, d and Width, b
il.. [ .J. '
lL
r& .\
The maximum discharge (or maximum velocity) for a given area will occur when
the wetted area, P, is aminimum.
For a unit length:
AreaA= bxd
. .
p= bx2d
A
:. p= +2d
d
Differentiating and equating to zero for the minimum wetted area.
dp .. A
=+2=0
dd d
2
.
Thus for a maximum velocity of f1ow,v or a maximum rate of flow,a
b=2d
10 B C ~ 2 . 1
5. Derive an equation for Most Economical Trapezoidal Section.
Ans: Figure shows a Trapezoidal channel of most economical section.
y
F : 1
1
1
1 .
J
E
B
,... b .1.. nY+1
Fig. Most economical section of a trapezoidal channel.
Let, a= Angle made by the sloping side with the horizontal,
o =Centre of the top width DC, and
OF =A perpendicular to the sloping side BC.
The OCF is then a right angled triangle with LOCF =a
sin a= OF or OF = OC sin a
OC
Also, from BCE,
\
Substituting the value of sin ein eqn. (iv), we have
1 1
OF =OC x .[n2:1 =Yv
n2
+ 1 x J,;2.;i ::: y, depth of flow
. n
2
+ 1 n
2
+ 1
[:, OC::: Half of top width ::: b \2n
y
= +1 ]
Thus a circle with centre 0 and radius equal to the depth of flow will be tangentialto
the three sides of a most economical trapezoidal section; this condition stipulates
that the most economical section of a trapezoidal channel will bea
Hence conditions for most economical trapezoidal section are.,
1. b + 2ny = + 1 (Le. Half of top width = One of the sloping sides)
2
2. Hydraulic radius, R =
11 BC2.1
3. A semicircle drawn from 0 with radius equal to depth, of flow will touch
the three sides of the trapezoidal channel.
Best side slope for most economical trapezoidal section:
Side slope will be the best when the section is mosteconomical or when the
wetted perimeter is minimum. For that ~ ~ =0
!!... [ ~  ny + 2 y ~ n 2 + 1] = o·
dn y
[.: P = ~  ny + 2 y ~ n 2 + 1 ]
1 ':'1
or,  Y + 2y x  (n
2
+ 1)2 x 2n = 0
2
Cancelling y and rearranging, we have
2n =~ n 2 + 1
Squaring both sides, we have
4n
2
=n
2
+ 1 or 3n
2
= 1
Of,
If the sloping side makes an angle ewith the horizontal, then
tan 9 = .!. =J3 =tan 60°
n
'. 9=60°
Hence best side slope is at 60
0
to the horizontal.
Far the most economical section,
Half of top width = Length of the sloping side
b + 2ny rz:
 = yvn +
1
1
2
Substituting the value of side slope n =~ in the above eqn. we get
1
b+2x;;:y
__...;:"Ii:.::;..J3_ =Y .'0/43)2 + 1 =2 ~
. 2 'V ",3
or,
.J3b + 2y 2y
1: x.J3 ::::.J3
2y
or,
.J3b + 2y =4y or b
../3
Now, wetted perimeter, P =b + 2)' Jn
2
+ 1
+1
(. b = and n = )
2)' 2 6)' 2)'
=.fj + 2)' x .fj =.fj =3 x 13 =3b
P=3b
('b=
Thus for a side slope of 60°, the length of sloping side is equal to the base width
of the trapezoidal section.
!.
Water flows in an open channel of trapezoidal cross section with a velocity of
'.:./
0.9m/s at a rate 14m
3
/s. The bed slope and side slopes are 1 :2500 and 1:1
respectively. Find the depth and bottom width of' the channel. Take Chezy's
constant as 40.4.
Solution:
Given that,
Discharge, Q=14m
3
/s ; Velocity, V=0.9m/s; Bed slope, So =_1_; Side slope,
N=1 '. 2500
Area ofthe flow, A= Q =15.57m
l
V
. (V)2 (1) (O.9)l
V =C.JRaS
o
=> Ra =   =  (2500) =124m
C So 40.4
By Chezy's formula,
The area of the flow and wetted perimeter for a trapezoidal section is given by,
A ={b+ .l\5I)y =15.57m
2
;1
P=b+2NN'+1 =b+2.83y
By definition of hydraulic radius, Ra = A = 15.57 =1.24 =>h+2.83y = 12.55
P h+2.83y
Thus,
A= (h+.].Q1)y= (h+y)y= 15.57 =>(12.55 2.83y+ y)y= 15.57
=> 12.55y1.83y2 =15.57
0
13 BC2.1
.,'
,
Solving the above quadratic equation, we get, y=1.63m; Thus, b = 7.92m.
Hence, the required depth and bottom width of the channel are 1.63m and 7.92m
respectively.
7. A trapezoidal chahnel with base width 2m and side slope of 1 :2 carries water with a
/
depth of 1 m. The bed slope is 1 in 625. Calculate the discharge and average shear
stress atthe channel boundary. Take Manning coefficient as n=O.03.
Solution
Given that,
b = 2m', y =lm', N (112).(! 1 S
 "'0 = 625 ide slope, N =1
1
d=lm
1..... Ef b=2m . I
The area of the flow and wetted perimeter for a trapezoidal section is given by,
I;
+1 =4.24m
By definition of hydraulic radius,
( 1
Ra = A = 2.
5
=0.59
P 4.24
Using Manning's formula,
2
V =R.,'JIlSf =(0,59)3 {1/625)05 =O.95m1s
It 0.03
Discharge, Q= AxV= 2.TI5m
3
/s
Average shear stress at the channel boundary,
,
,
,
14
BC2.1
r
1:=pgR.So = lOOOx9.81xO.59x(tl625) =9.26N/m
2
.
8. Water flows in channel (crosssection of the shape of isosceles triangle) of bed
width (J. and sides making an angle 45° with the bed. Determine the relation
between' depth of flow d and the bed width for the condition of: (i) maximum
'velocity; (ii) maximum discharge. Use Manning's formula.
Solution:
Water flow in a channel of isosceles triangular crosssection is shown in the
I. following figure for which depth of flow and bed width are d and a , respectively
____________
(i) By Manning equation,
v=
n
The area of the flow and wetted perimeter for the above crosssection is given by,
EP+JR) ((a2d)+a] d (..4)
..4=
(
2 d= 2' d =a2d
';"
P=EP+PJ +ER =a+2.,J2d; =2.J2
For a given bed slope, the velocity will be maximum when,
d(!i) =0' => d (AlP) _ 0: =>pd {A}_Ad {P}= 0
dd' tid • dd dd
Thus by substitution, 2.83:i
l
+ 2ad =0
Solving the above quadratic equation, d = O.34a
(Ii) Discharge,
AR
2
/l Sill 1(AS)f
1
i
Q=A.V = i 0 =  2 So
n n P
For a given bed slope, the discharge will be maximum when, .
1'" BC2.1
d(K/P) =0' => 5pd
dd • dd dd
Substituting and (:)
we get, 22.63d
2
+1. Sad Sa
2
=0
.y
Solving the above quadratic equation, d = O.44a
Y A rectangular channel of 5m width and 1.2m deep has a slope of 1 in 1000 and is
lined with rubber for which the Manning's coefficient is 0.017. It is desired to
increase the discharge to a maximum by changing the section so thatthe channel
has same amount of lining. Find the new dimensions and probable increase in
discharge.
Solution:
Using Manning's formula, the discharge through the channel is given by,
Q= A.V =_.:..AI
1
n
1 A
Here, s;,=; A=5x1.2=6m
2
; P=5+(2x1.2)=7.4m; =>R
A
==O.81
1000 P
Substituting the values, Q
1
= 9.7m
3
Js
Let bandy be the width and depth of the flow for the new section of the channel. In
order to have the same amount of lining, P=b+2y=7.4
For the discharge to be maximum in a rectangular channel, it can be proved that "
b=2ySolving above two equation,y=1.85m, b=3.7m So, the area of crosssection
and hydraulic radius for, new channel crosssection becomes,
A
A = 6.845m
2
; Rk =  = 0.925m
p
By Manning's formula, new discharge, Ql = A.V = AR';/3sf = 12.1 m
3
/s
n
Q2 = [6.845xO.9252/3x(1/1000)%]/0.017 = 12.1 m3
Percentage increase in discharge = 'Qz QJ x 100=24.45%
QJ
= (12.19.7)/9.7 = 24.45%
16 BC2.1
, 10. A Special sewer consists of a semicircular top and bottom of radius R joined by
parallel sides of length Rso that the overall height is 3R.
a) Show that for maximum flow for a given cross sectional area the angle
subtended by the water surface at the centre of curvature of the upper semi
circle is approximately 64°
b) If the water surface now rises until it reaches the top of the sewer, find the
percentage decrease in flow.
Km
1/6
The Chezy's coefficient =
Sc:>lutlon:
From the above diagram and from the Chezy's equation it can be seen that
A
"",.1.·.1..1.
Q
 = A'v = .1\ 'm·
6
z
2
·m·2
r.", . .1. a.
=
A
.n·z 2·m.:S
(1 ) K it t
.t'
R
... _+
l
Now
"':
A = lI"R2 + 2R2  R
2
8 + 28
. 2
= !.R2(211" + 4 28 + Sill 28)
2 .
S = 211" R + 2R 2R8 = 2R(11" + 1  8)
It can be seen from equation (1) that Q will be a maximum when
17
A
5
2
S
(2)
(3)
(4)
is a maximum
BC2.1
.' 5dA dS
(5)
I.e. \Vhen2'S dIJ = A dIJ
From equation (3)
(6)
dA
 = R2(cos20 1)
dO .
And from equation (4)
dS
dO = 2R
/.
Substituting in equation (5) I'
,
(7)
5 . ~
'2 X 2R(1r + 1  0) X R2 x (<:0820  1) = 2 (21r+20 +sin 20)(2R)
r
.1
5(1 _ cos 20) = 2 + 2 +sin 20
1l'+10
The value of q which satisfies the above equation is 32°and this will give Qmaz
substituting e= 32°into equations (3) and (4)
A =5.03R2 And S =7.168R
5 03Ji2)5) t L
From equation (1) q = K..{i x
(
(7:168R)2 = 3.98K..Ji xK
When the sewer is full e=0 and from equations (3) and (4)
A = 5 . 1 4 ~ And S = 8.28R
Substituting these values in equation (1)
9
Q =3.74K..JixR3
Thus the percentage reduction in flow is given by:
3.98  3.74 100 = 6 0 3 ~
3.98 x . 10
18 8C2.1
11. Waterflowsdownauniformchannelwlthaslopeof 1s1o .The section
shown in the diagram.
',>mn,\  .. .     _.
B ., ttl
Il./ • R
1
Ifthe channel is to convey 600 Cusec under the condition of maximum discharge
for a given area fi nd the values of Rand B. C the Chezy constant is 120.
Ans:
Using the Chezy's Equation
(
3
)i
Q = A x 120.jM xi = 120 P
A
x.fi
From the above equation it can be seen that for a given cross sectional area the
flow will be maximum when the wetted area, P is a minimum.
7rR2
A=2+2RB+2R2 (1)
(2)
P=B+1rR+2R
From Equation (1)
B= +1)
2R 4
Substituting in equation(2)
p= +R(: +1) +R(1I'+2)
A (31[' )
Thus P=.+R +1
2R 4
Differentiating and equating to zero for minimum value of P
dR 2R2 4
19 BC2.1
Substitute for A
;ftl +2ftl +2RB 311'
2R2 ='4+
1
1r ) B 31r
(
+1 +=+1
4 R 4
B 1r
Thus
=
R 2
..1: M 0 h . A (f +2) +2R + If:
The
Hydr
au.uc ean ept, m =  = ==R":=
, P 1f2 + Reir +2)
l xR=R
+2
2
But Q = A .x 120v'm x i
(
311') 1 2 1
600 = "2 R x 120 X 8
2
x yT600
From Which:
R = 3.89ft. And B = 6.llft.
12. A 3 ft. diameter conduit 12,000 ft. long is at a uniform slope of 1 in 1,500 and
connects two reservoirs. When the levels in the reservoirs are low the conduit runs
partly full and it is found that the normal depth of 2 ft. gives a rate of flow of.
11.5ft.
3
/ sec. The Chezy coefficient C is given by Kmn where K is a constant, m is the
hydraulic mean depth and n=.1 /6. Neglecting the losses of head at entry and exit,
obtain:
• The value of K.
• The discharge when the conduit isflQwing full and the difference in levels
between the two reservoirs is 15 ft.
I.
20 BC2.1
2.'
Ans:
Let A be the cross sectional area of the water in the conduit and S the length of the
wetted area.
From the diagram it can be seen that:
sin (J = 0.5 .. And Thus (J = 19.5° And 2(J = 39.0°
1.5
FG = 1.5 X cos (J = 1.414
. 180 + 39 2 2
A = X 1C' X 1.5 +5 X 1.414 = 5.027 ft. .
. 360
219
S, =  X 1C' X 3 = 5.77 ft.
360
Using the Chezy's Equation
v = cv;;;i = ..;;:;;,
Q = Av = AKmtit
Substituting values into the above equation
11.5 = 5.027 X K
1S00t
K = 97.05
21 BC2.1
When the conduit is flowing full
1rXcfl 1 d
m now equals x=
4 . 1rd 4
3
Substituting in the value for d m=
4
C = 97.05 X ( ~ ) /; = 92.55
From Equation
Jlv
2
\Vhere h,= And
2gm
re arranging and substituting in values
29 29
f = C2 = 92.55
2
= 0.0076
Using Bernoulli's Equation and neglecting exit losses
v
2
15 =h, +
29
i.e.
15 = 4 x 0.0076 x 12,000 x v
2
3 29
Thus v = 2.82 It./sec.
1 3
And therefore
Q= Av = '4'1r X 9 x 2:82 = 19.9./1./ sec
SECTION E
OVERVIEW QUESTIONS
1. When is the flow termed as shooting flow?
2. When is the discharge through a trapezoidal channel maximum?
3. Write the expression for Chezy's Equation.
4. Which type of flow is generally observed in an open channel flow?
5. When an open channel flow is classified as uniform flow?
6. What i ~ the purpose of Reynold's number in uniform flow?
7. Which factor produces change in fluid momentum of a flow?
8. Give an example of rapidly varied flow.
9. What defines the flow to be subcritical or supercritical?
10. When is the flow considered as laminar?
23 BC2.1
UNIT 2 : VARIED FLOW IN OPEN CHANNEL
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
/1 .. When the depth of flow changes abruptly over a short distance, then the flow will
be termed as
(a) Rapidly varied flow
(b) Unsteady flow
(c) Gradually varied flow
(d) Turbulentflow
When Froude's number is more than 1 , then the 'flow is termed as
(a) Critical flow
(b)· Sub critical flow
(c) Streaming flow
(d) Shooting flow
J'
I n an open channel flow the discharge corresponding to critical depth is
(a) Minimum
(b) Maximum
(c) Zero
(d) Average
~ 4. The separation of boundary layer takes place when pressure gradient is
(a) Negative
(b) Positive
(c) Zero
(d) Constant
Answer Key:
1. a 2. d 3. b 4. a
24 BC2.1
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
r 1. The Io.ngitudinal slo.pe o.f free
channels.
water surface is hydraulic gradient o.f o.pen
vi
(
/
2.
3.
4.
For most eco.no.mical rectangular sectio.n, hydraulic mean depth is half the deptn.
Fo.r mo.st eco.no.mical trapezo.idal sectio.n, halfto.p width is equal to. slo.ping side.
The amo.unt by which depth o.f water in channel is increased o.r water level is
headed up, is called afflux.
1. T
Answer Key:
2. T I 3. T
4. F 1
25 BC2.1
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
What is Hydraulic Jump?
A hydraulic jump is a sudden rise in water level due to decreasing velocity. In
flowing water, the water before the jump is moving much faster than the water after
the jump. When the velocity of the water decreases.to critical flow speed a jump
occurs. Above this velocity, the water is moving too quickly to allow gravity waves
to move upstream. At the point where the water reaches critical flow speed, the
gravity waves become unable to move upstream, and build up at the jump, forming
the sudden increase in water level, called a hydraulic jump.
,2. What are the different types of Hydraulic Jumps?
Ans:
Namc Froude's
;'\llimber
Encrgy dissipation Characterist ics
Undular Jump 1.01.7 <5% Standing waves
Weak Jump 1.72.5 515% Smooth rise
Oscillating Jump 2.54.5 1545% Unstable; avoid
Steady Jump 4.59.0 4570% Best design range
Strong Jump >9.0 7085% Choppy, intennittent
c3. When do you mean by Rapidly Varied Flow?
Ans: Rapidly varied flow is defined as that flow in which depth of flow changes abruptly
over a small length of the channel. When there is any obstruction in the path of flow
of water, the level of water rises above the obstruction and then falls and again
rises over a small length of channel. Thus the depth of the flow changes rapidly
over a short length of the channel. For this short lengttfof channel the flow is called
rapidly varied flow ..
,4. What do you mean by Froude Number?
Ans: Froude's number (Fr) is a ratio relating inertia and gravity forces.
26 BC2.1
V
Fr[= rz;;
\I gy
. V=velocity
. g=gravitational constant
Y=depth of flow in open channel
..
5 . What is Critical Depth?
Ans: Critical depth is defined as that depth of flow of water at which the specific energy is
minimum. This isdenoted by hc. The mathematical expression for critical depth is
obtained by differentiating the specific energy equation with respect to depth of
flow and equating them to zero.
~ 6. What do you mean by Critical Flow?
Ans: It is defined as that flow at which the specific energy is minimum or the flow
corresponding to critical depth is defined as critical flow. The value of Froude
Number in case of critical flow is 1.0 .
7. What do you mean by Critical Velocity?
~ Ans: The velocity offlow at the critical depth is knowri as critical velocity. It is denoted by
Vc and calculated using the following relation:
Vc= Jg x he
Where, g is the acceleration due to gravity
hc is the Critical depth.
~ e . What is Hydraulic Gradient Line and Total Energy Line?
Ans: Using centre of a pipe as base if we mark ordinates representiQg pressure energy
at various sections of the pipe and join the tops of these ordinates, we will get a line
as pressure head line or hydraulic gradient line.
The total energy line lies above the hydraulic gradient line by an amount equal to
the velocity head. So if we add velocity head. So if we add velocity head to the
pressure head on the ordinates and join the points thus obtained, we will get the
total energy line.
/9. What do you mean by Reynold's Number?
Ans: The Reynolds Number (R) is used to determine whether the flow of the fluid is
laminar or turbulent. Flow is turbulent at larger Reynolds numbers and laminar at
VD DV
smaller Reynolds numbers. R p  =
Il v
27 BC2.1
D=diameterofthe pipe, V=velocity, p=f1uid density, J.1=f1uid viscosity, v=Kinematic
viscosity offluid .
/.0.
Ans:
What type of flow takes place in case of Open Channel?
In case of Open Channel flow, as the pressure is atmospheric, the flow takes place
under the force of gravity which means the flow takes place due to the slope of the
bed of the channel only. The hydraulic gradient line coincides with the free surface
of the water.
( 11
Ans:
How the flow is classified in case of Open Channels?
The flow in open channel is classified into the following types:
a) Steady Flow and Unsteady Flow
b) Uniform Flow and NonUniform Flow
c) Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
d) SubCritical, Critical and Super Critical Flow
<,12.
AnsJ
What doyou mean by Steady and Unsteady Flow?
a) Steady Flow: Ifthe flow characteristics such as depth offlow, velocitY of flow,
rate of flow at any point in open channel flow do not change with respect to
time, the flow is said to be steady flow.
b) Unsteady Flow: If at any point in open channel flow, the velocity of flow,
depth of flow rate of flow changes with respect to time, the flow is said to be
unsteady.
28 BC2.1
SECTION 0
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
V1. What are the various characteristics of Open Channel Flow?
Ans: The presence of free surface of open channel flow sometimes makes the analysis
simple where the pressure on the surface is equivalent to the "hydraulic grade
line" of the flow. It also complicates the issue because the shape/geometry of the
surface is unknown. Moreover, the flow is generally turbulent, sometimes
unsteady and threedimensional.
The manner in which the fluid depth (y) varies with time (ljand distance along the
channel (x) is used to partially classify a flow. An open channel flow is classified as:
• . uniform flow (UF) if the depth offlow does not vary along the channel( : 0)
• nonuniform/Varied flow ifthe depth offlowvaries with distance (: * 0 )
The nonuniform flow may be "rapidly varying flow (RVF)" iftheflow depth changes
considerably in a relatively small distance (:~  1) or "gradually varying flow
(GVF)" in which theflow depth changes slowly along the channel (: <: 1)
The open channel flow may be "laminar, transitional or turbulent" depending on
the Reynolds number of the flow. As a general rule, if R. <500, the flow is laminar
and the flow goes to turbulent if Re> 12,500.
Open channel flows also involve free surface that can deform to form waves and
move across the surface. The speed of such waves depends on the size (length
and height) and properties (depth and fluid velocity) of the channel. A
dimensionless parameter (Froude number, F,) decides the characteristics of the
flow in the channel. For F,< 1 the flow is subcritical (or tranquil); F,= 1 , the flow is
critical andF,> 1 the flow becomes supercritical (or rapid).
2. Write a note on Surface wave.
Ans: The most important feature of the openchannel flow is that the free surface can
distort into various shapes as in the case of sea/oceans. These distortions are
associated with surface wave. Consider an open channel in which water is
29 B C ~ 2 . 1
stationary at initial time. Now, a single elementary wave of small height '0V'
produced on the surface of the channel by suddenly moving the initial stationary
end wall with a speed '0V' as shown in Fig. 1 (a).
x
(a)
Fig. 1: Surface wave in a channel: (a) single elementary wave moving with speed; (b) stationary wave.
Let this wave travels with a speed 'e'. Hence, for a stationary observer, it will be
seen as a single wave moving down the channel with a wave speed 'e'. with no fluid
motion ahead of the wave and a fluid velocity 'oV', behind the wave. For another
observer moving along the channel with a velocity 'e', the same phenomena will
be observed as if the fluid velocity of 'e' moving right and 'co V' moving left of the
observer as shown in Fig. 1 (b).
Now, for uniform one dimensional flow, the continuity equation becomes,
cyb =
(1 )
Where b is the width of the channel. This equation is simplified further with
assumption.ofsrriall amplitude waves with oy < y as,
O'V
(2)
c=y
O'y
By momentum equation, we can write
.!.yylb .!. y(y'+ O'y)l b= pbcy{(c  O'V) c}
(3)
2 2
Where Mass flow rate,
Pressure forces on the channel crosssection (1) and (2) are,
b 2
b l
1\ =  y(y+ O'y) F2 =yy
2 2
Simplifying Eq. (3) with assumption (oy/ < yoy, we get
O'V g (4)
=
O'y c
I
Combination of Eqs. (2) and (4) results,
(5)
Thus, it is seen that the speed of the small amplitude wave is proportional to the
square root of fluid depth and independent ofthe wave amplitude. Hence, such a
J
wave motion is a balance between inertial effects and hydrostatic pressure
"!
effects.
v2.
Derive an equation for Energy of the flow in an open channel
Ans: Consider a typical segment of an open channel flow as shown in Fig. 2. The fluid
depth and velocities at two different locations (1) and (2) and Yl,y2' V
1
and V
2
respecti vely.
I
: (Slope=.!¥') "
yl"
12
I
II Channel bottom
ZI "
"
V2
Horizontal datum
Fig. 2: Schematic section of a open channel.
(ZI zJ]
The slope ofthe channel bottom So =" I is assumed constallt over the
[
. seg ment. More
Often, So is very small and hence the bottom of the channel is nearly treated as
horizontal. If there is uniform velocity profile across any section of the channel, the
one dimensional energy equation for the flow can be written as,
V;2 v.;l
Pl+_l +Zl = Pl +_l+Z:I+hL (6)
r 2g r 2g
V?" v.;:l
2
or. Yl+
1
+SJ=Y:l++s; (7)
2g 2g
Where hydrostatic pressures at sections (1) and (2) are Yl PI and Yl = P2 .
The head loss r r
31 BC2.1
htis expressed in terms of stope of energy line (or friction slope) as, sf= Thus,
Eq. (7) reduces to, 1
(8)
In a special case, when the bottom of the channel is horizontal with no head
loss, Eq. (8) is simplified to,
V,,2 V.2)
YJ.  Y2 =
(
, J
Water enters to a rectangular channel of uniform cross section at a velocity of 8m/s.
The depth of water is 50cm. Check, if the nows is subcritical orsupercritical and
then calculate the critical depth and corresponding velocity. Also, calculate the
specific head at the inlet and at critical condition.
V.
Given that, Ans:
Vi lit =O.5m =>F;rl 3.6
Since, F" > 1 so the flow is supercritical.
Total head atthe inlet, HI ="" + v? = 0.5+ g2 = 3.76m
2g 2x9.S1
The channel is of uniform crosssection, so the continuity equation for inlet and
critical section can be Pi ht =V; h& = 0.5 x8 == 4m
3
/s per meter width
. V.
At critical depth, F, = J;" =1
So, v,2 = gh& => =g(V)I&) =4g =39.24 =>v, = 3.4m/s
h
,. 3.4
Consider a open channel flow of trapezoidal cross section. If b is the base width of
the channel, y is the depth of flow, eis the angle made by the sides with horizontal
and side slope is, 1 in N (1 vertical to N horizontal) then show that for most
economical section,
1. b+2].Q1 y.JNl+l
2
2. Hydraulic radius R
2
3. Best side slope is at 60°to the horizontal.
32 BC2.1
4. Length of the sloping side is equal to the base width of the channel
Solution
The following figure shows the crosssection of a trapezoidal section.
b+2Ny
b
Area of the flow
AB+CD) (b+[b+2AY]) ( )
A= xY= xy= b+1oOr y
(
22
. A
Y .
Wetted perimeter:
P =AD +..AJJ +AC =.AB +2BC
=b+2y.jN
2
+1
p= A Ny+2yJN
l
+1
y
For most economical section:
dP =0
dy
or,
or, 4+N= +1
Y
Substituting the value of in the above equation and then simplifying, we get
=y.JN
2
+1
2
i.e. Half ofthe top width = Length of the sloping side.
2. Hydraulic radius is defined as,:
. A (b+1vY)xy
R= P=
33 BC2.1
So, R=...L
. 2
I.e. hydraulic radius is equal to half of the flow depth.
3. Side slope will be the best when the section is most economical and wetted
perimeter is minimum i.e.
dP =0
fin
or, ~ [ ~ A5+2yJzr+l]=O
or. 2N= .IN'J +1
or. 4 ~ = ~ + 1
or. N=J3
1
So. tan 8 =.2. =.J3
N
Hence. 8 =6ff
Referring to the figure, it can be concluded that best side slope is at 60°to the
horizontal.
4. For most economical section, half of the top width =Length of sloping side.
1
N=
~
Substituting these values wetted perimeter becomes, P = b + 2y,JN" +1 =3b
Thus, for a Side slope of 60°• the length of the sloping side is equal to base width of
the trapezoidal section.
34 BC2.1

6. Water flows up a 0.15m tall ramp in a constant width rectangular channel at a rate
0.5 m
3
/s. If the upstream flow depth is 0.7m, determine the elevation of water
surface down stream of the ramp. Also predict the flow conditions at the upstream
and down stream.
Ans: Water flow over a ramp is shown in the following figure. For the given conditions,
Z1 = Z2 = )'1 =O.7m; V'i =!!.. =0.5 =O.72m1s
)'1 0.7
FreeNfececfwet«
.
.  
1".        ____           '" v,
:::::::::::::::::::i:
" :::=:.::::=::j ...... ... ...
A
%,
 l
.. _

t
. , .
v,l v.;l
1
Applying Bernoulli's equation' Yl +2+z. =)'2
'g 2g
0.722, V2
2
So; O 7 . +. +Q=)'2+ +0.15
2x9.81 2x9.81
V;2
=>y + 2 =0.576
2 2x9.81
By continuity equation, Ylv" =Y2V2
=>Y2V2=0.5
0.722 ° 1122. °15
°
.
7
+ + =Y2+ + .
2x9.81 2x9.81·
=> Y2 +(°.5
2
)( 1 .)= 0.576
Yf 2x9.81
=>Y:  +0.0127 =°
Thus,
Solving the at;>ove cubic equation by trial and error, the value of
Y2 = Y2 =0. 192m; Y2 = a. 14m
35 BC2.1
It should be noted that the negative solution is meaningless and the other two
solutions are realistic one. Hence. the elevation of water surface at the
downstream of the flow is,
Y2 +z2 =O.666m
Y2 +Z2 =O.342m
The flow velocity at the downstream may be,
For. Y2 =O.516m ~ V 2 =O.97m1s
Y2 = O.192m ~ V 2 =2.6mls
The flow condition at the upstream and downstream depends on Froude's number
Le.
Atthe upstream of the flow,
F,.1 = ~ = 0.72 =0.27 <1 =>Subcriticalflow
'l/IIYl ..J9.81xO.7
At the dIs of the flow;
When, .Y2 =O.S16m =>P; =O.97m1s=>F
r2
= J 0.97 =0.43 <1 :::>Subcritical flow
. 9.81xO.S16
When, .Y2 =0.192m =>P2:: 2.6mJs =>Fl"l 2.6 =1.9 >1 => Supercriti cal flow
,.J9.81xO.192
7. Give the Variation of channel depth in an open channel.
Ans: The depth ofthe flow in an open channel changes with distance along the channel.
By using the concept of energy line and Froude number, it is possible to control the
depth of the flow in open channel. Referring to Fig in Q. no.3, the total head at any
section is given by,
V2
H=+y+z
(10)
2g
Also between section (1 )and (2), the energy equation can be written as,
H2 = HI +hx (11 )
, .
Slope of the channel bottom and the energy line are, So =dx;
Now, differentiating Eq. (10) with respecttox,
dH VdV dy dz
(12)
=++
dx. g dx. dx. dt.
36 BC2.1
So,
V dV +dy = S,  So
(13)
g dx dx
For a given flow rate per unit width and flow rate (q) ina rectangular channel; V = j
dV =!Ldy = _ V dy (14)
dx y" dx y dx
Eqs. (13) and (14) leads to,
dy SfSo
= :I
dx Ip;,
It is seen that the change of depth in an open channel depends on the local slope of
the channel bottom, energy line and Froude number. It can be zero, positive or
negative depending upon the values ofSo, Sf and F,
:r
What is Froude Number? How Hydraulic Jump is characterized according to
Froude Number?
Ans: In order for a hydraulic jump to occur, the flow must be supercritical. The jump
becomes more turbulent and more energy is dissipated as Froude's number
increases. A jump can only occur when the Froude's number is greater than 1.0.
Froude's number (Fr) is a ratio relating inertia and gravity forces.
V
Fr=
W
V=velocity
g=gravitational constant
Y=depth of flow in open channel
Name Froude's Energy dlsslpallon Charactenstics
\iulllb.:r
,
Undular Jump 1.01.7 <5Vo Standmg waves
Weak Jump 1.72.5 515% Smooth rise
Oscillating Jump 2.54.5 1545% Unstable; avoid
Steady Jump 4.59.0 4570% Best design range
Strong Jump >9.0 7085% Choppy, intermittent
37 BC2.1
• In standing waves there is only a slight difference in depths y1 and y2. Near Fr1 =
1.7 a series of small rollers develops.
• When the Froude's number is between 1.7 and 2.5, the flow is in the prejump
condition. The water surface is quite smooth, the velocity is reasonably uniform,
and the energy loss is low.
• The transition region is when the Froude's number is between 2.5 and 4.5. An
oscillating action of the jump exists. Each oscillation of the jump produces a large
wave of irregular period that can travel downstream for miles and damage earth
banks. It is recommended to avoid this range of Froude numbers in the design of
stilling basins.
• The best range for dissipating energy effectively is with a Froude number from 4.5
9.0. The jump is well balanced and the action is at its best. Energy losses range
. from 45% to 70%.
• Effective, but rough jumps occur at dissipating energy when Froude's number is
greater than 9.0. Energy losses range from 70% to 85%. Other types of stilling
basins may be more economical.
9. Analyze the watersurface profile in a long rectangular channel lined with concrete
(n=0.013). The channel is 10ftwide, the flow rate is400 cfs, and the channel slope
changes abruptly from 0.0150 to 0.0016. Find also the horsepower loss in the
resulting jump.
Ans:
y01=2.17ft (normal depth on the upper slope)
Using a similar procedure, the normal depth y02 on the lower slope is 4.81 ft.
211/3
yc = critical flow = (q2 )113 = ( ~ ~ J = 3.68ft
g 32.2
[
The flow is supercritical (y01 <yc) before the break in slope and subcritical (y02>yc)
after the break, so a hydraulic jump must occur.
The depth conjugate to the2.17 ft normal depth on the upper slope is:
, =2.17 {"';1+[1+ 8(40i ]112}=S.77
ft
Y1 2 32.2(2.17)3
38 BC2.1
Therefore, ajump on the upper slope must rise to 5.77 ft. When the flow entets the
lower slope, the depth would be greater than y02=4.81 ft. A jump cannot occur
because the water surface cannot come down from 5.77 ft to 4.81 ft. The depth
conjugate to the 4.81ft normal depth onthe lower slope is:
y' =4.81 {l+[l+ 8(40i ]112}= 2.74ft
.2 2 32.2(4.81)3
This lower conjugate depth of 2.74 ftwill occur downstream of the break in slope.
The water surface on the lower slope can rise from 2.16 ft to 2.74 ft and therefore, a
jump will occur.
The location of thejump (its distance below the break in slope) is:
8x== E
1
E
2
SS
o
(40/2.17f == 7.45ft
E} = 2.17 + 2(32.2)
E2 = 2.74+ (40/2.74Y
2(32.2) . = 6.05ft

V=
1(
+
40 40)
=16.53fps
2 2.17 2.74
R =!( 21.7 + 27.4 )= 1.641 ft
h 2 14.34 15.47
s= ( nV )2 = [ (0.013X!6.53)]2 = 0.01081
1.486R
h
213 1.486(1.641Y'3
Ax = 7.452 6.054 = 151.8 ft
0.01081 0.00160
39 BC2.1
',:"

Thus, the depth on the upper slope is 2.17 ft; downstream of the break the depth
increases gradually to 2.74 ft over a distance of approximately 152 ft; then a
hydraulic jump occurs from a depth of2.74ftto 4.81 ft; downstream ofthe jump the
depth remains constant at 4.81 ft.
To find the horsepower loss in the jump:
h = (4.812.74Y = O.1695ft
L
j
4(4.81)2.74
P loss= ( ' Y ~ h L J = 62.4(400)U695 =7.69h
550 550 p
10. Explain Energy Loss in Open Channel in Detail.
Ans: The hydraulic jump is nature's energy dissipation device. A hydraulic jump occurs
whenever fluid transitions from supercritical to subcritical flow. This phenomena is
marked by a great deal of turbulence and consequently, highenergy losses. Since
energy losses are nontrivial, they must be included in the expression that also
relates water depths upstream and downstream of a hydrautic jump. Therefore,
the head losses are found by using the momentum bal.ance equation. Energy
losses across a jump can be computed once the depths are known.
2
Y"
 t; 
11 l'J.
The equation that can be used to find the drop in energy for any channel is:
or
ow \
r
.,r ..,o}
.p." E
\! "*'
&.
'"supercntit' Aotr )
(
l.D8er  • n:
o 0
RtctorgulOr ChanrtI:
*++
Jr,.+
E.....
The equation used for a flat channel bed is:
E
1
 E2 = H
1
H
2
where E is equal to energy 0
The equation used for a rectangular channel is:
 s.r2 =_Y1Y_Where hL is equal to the head loss
h
L
o 0 4 YIY2
, Subcrtlccl Row
' (Upper  ttc9t F,ow',
TrsnQUa,\ .
'l
Oil' 0
l)
Specific £nerg Htod, E • Y + • Y+ £ for 9· 0
What is Momentum Principle? Write down the Momentum Equation in case of
Rectangular Section.
Ans: The momentum principle is an important concept in flow problems where we
need to determine forces. Such forces occur whenever the velocity of a stream of
fluid changes in either direction or magnitude. The momentum principle from
Newton's second law states that the sum of the external forces F on a body offluid
or system S is equal to the rate of change of linear momentum mV of that body or
system. Since the symbols F and V represent vectors the change in momentum
must be in the same direction as the force.
In steady flow, conditions within the control volume do not change, so
d{mV)cv/dt=O Thus, for steady flow the vectorially summation of all forces acting
on the fluid mass in the control volume is equal to the net rate of outflow of
momentum across the control surface.
41 BC2.1
I
"F  d(mV) C·y d(mV) . Cy'
.t.... out  In
dtdt
When supercritical flow has its velocity reduced to subcritical in the hydraulic
jumpthe momentum principle may be applied. Consider the fixed control volume
shown in Fig. 2 the volume of fluid before and after the hydraulic jump with end
forces included can be written as:
2:F,,=P,A,PA=pO(V2V1)
P is equal to hc (hc is the depth tothe centroid)
Aisthearea
Pis the density ofthe fluid
ois flow rate or discharge
V is the velocity
So that,
Yi{t. 2. (·on ..... 1 for hydraulic jump.
For rectangular channels, the momentum equation is
2 2 2 2
.!L+.L= ll..+..L.
2 &'11 2 &'12
y, and Y2 are theflow depths before and after the hydraulic jump
q is the flowrate per unit width
The equation relating the depth ration yjy, and the upstream Froude number is
given by
Ji _  I
Yl ')
42 BC2.1
~ : "
0. Write a short note on the following:
a) Hydraulic Jump
b) Reynold's Number
Ans: a) Hydraulic Jump: A hydraulic jump is a sudden rise in water level due to
decreasing velocity. In flowing water, the water before the jump is moving much
faster than the water after the jump. When the velocity of the water decreases to
·1
!
critical flow speed a jump occurs. Above this velocity, the water is moving too
quickly to allow gravity waves to move upstream. At the point where the water
reaches critical flow speed, the gravity waves become unable to move upstream,
and build up at the jump, forming the sudden increase in water level, called a
hydraulic jump.
When a fluid jet falls vertically at high veloiety and strikes a horizontal plate, a
circular hydraulic jump may occur. The fluid is then expelled radially, and the fluid
generally thins until reaching a critical radius at which the depth increases
abruptly, causing a hydraulic jump (See Figure).
b) Reynold's Number: The Reynolds Number (R) is used to determine
whether the flow of the fluid is laminar or turbulent. Flow is turbulent at larger
Reynolds numbers and laminar
at smaller Reynolds numbers. R
VO
= P
OV
= 
~ l V
D=diameter of the pipe, V=velocity, p=fluid density, j..l=fluid viscosity,
v=Kinematic viscosity of fluid
43 BC2.1 ,
13.
Ans:
14.
Ans:
A rectangular channel 6m wide carries 168 liters/min at a depth of 0.9m. What is
the height of a rectangular weir which must be installed to double the depth?
Discharge coefficient of weir may be taken as 0.85.
The discharge for a broad crested weir is given by,
Q= 1.7C4L..(H +
Here, Q = 168m
3
/min = 2.8m
3
js L. = 6m c
4
= 0.85
Then,
2
17 ( Q )i ( 28
'
H+L= == ==OA7m
2g 1.7C
4
L. 1.7xO.85x6
The depth ofthe 1'Iow required = 2 x 0.9 = 1.8m
The velocity of approach is given by,
V
6x1.8 6x1.8
='L =O.0034m
2g
H =0.47  0.0034 =0.4666m
Height ofthe broad crested weir = 1.8  0.4666 = 1.3334m.
Water flow in a wide channel approaches a 10cm high bump at 1.!' ,n/s. and a
depth of 1 m. Estimate: (a) the water depth over the bump; (b) the bump height
that will cause the crest flow to be critical. Take the head loss as 0.1 m and the flow
is frictionless.
(a) First, the Froude number is calculated as,
1.5 =0.48
J2Wl "'/2x9,81xl
It means that the flow is subcritical. Take two sections '1' and '2' in the entire length
of the flow Specific energy of the flow is,
v;.2 (1.5)2 ,
EI +YI=+LO=1,115m
2g 2x9,81
E2 =Ei M=U150.1=LOl5m
Applying continuity and energy equations,
v,2 v.
2
V;:YI =V;Y2 and _I +YI =_2 +Y2+tJz
2g 2g
44 BC2.1
Eliminating ;V
1
_I v,ll v,l
• I JS  +...!..::?i = 0 where =_1_ +Yl  bh
2g 2g
or,
Three real roots of the above equation are, Y2 = +0.86m, +0.45m and 0.29. The
negative root is physically impossible. For subcritical conditions, Y2 = +0.86m and
for supercritical condition'Y2 = +0.45m
The surface level has dropped byy ly26h= 1.0860.1 =0.04m
The crest velocity, p; =ViYl = 15xl = 1.745m/s
Y:l 0.86
. F. 1.745 =0424
The Froude number atthe crest IS, Y.I ./2 x9,81 xO.86 .
i.e. the flow downstream ofthe bump is subcritical.
(b) For critical flow, Froude's number is unity at the crest and
1 1 1
3 3(1.5 3 (l')J 3 (v".yl)3
2
)1
E =Y, =  =  =  =0.918m
& 2 & 2 g . 2 g2 9.81
Maximum heightforthebump, 6h=E,Ec= 1.1150.918=O.l97m
The Cubic polynomial equation becomes,
TT:l l
:l 2g
or, +0.115= 0
. The solution is Y2 =Yo = 0.61m
The surface level has dropped bYY1Yc 6h = 10.610.l97=0.193m
45 BC2.1
15. Water flows under a sluice gate on a horizontal bed at the inlet to a flume. The
water depth is 50cm in the upstream ofthe gate and the speed is negligible. At the
venacontracta downstream of the gate, the flow streamlines are straight and the
depth is 6cm. Determine the flow speed downstream from the gate and discharge
per unit width.
Solution:
Bernoulli's equation can be applied upstream and at the venacontracta of the
flow field as,
SolvingforV
2
Thedischarge per unit width is given by,
q = ~ = J12.D
2
= 2.94 xO.06 = O.1764m
3
/s
46 BC2.1
I
SECTION E
OVER VIEW QUESTIONS
1. When will the rectangular section channels be economical?
2. When doesthe separation of boundary layer takes place?
.
I
3. What does change in depth of an open channel depend upon?
4. What is the value of hydraulic mean depth for rectangular channel?
5. Write the expression of continuity equation for uniform one dimensional flow?
6. Howdo we control depth offlow in an open channel?
7. What change occurs in jump if Froude's number increases?
B. Ustthe different types of jump.
9. How do we find head losses in a flow?
10. When doforces occur in case of momentum principle?
47
BC2.1
UNIT  3: BOUNDARY LAYER
AND FLOW AROUND SUBMERGED BODIES
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. In a laminar flow through a circular pipe of diameter 20 cm; the maximum velocity
is found to be 1 m/s. the velocity at a radial distance of 5 cm from the axis of the
pipe will be
(a) 0.25 mls
(b) 0.50m/s
(c) 0.75 mls
(d) 1.0 m/s
2. An aero plane having a wing span of 1 m and chord of 2.5 m weighs 11 tonnes . if it
gets airborne at a velocity of 300 kmph then the coefficient of lift is nearly
(a) 0.0004
(b) 0.0006
(c) 0.4
(d) 0.6
3. If wejr is used as a spill way it will have a crest
(a)ogee shaped
(b) pressure
(c) discharge
(d) Cippolet
4. In a standing wave flume , the depth offlow in the throat region
(a) should always be greater than the critical depth
(b) can be less than the critical depth
(c) sho,uld be equal to the critical depth
(d) Is effected by the d/swhen ajump isformed
5. A 3,0 m wide rectangular channel flowing at its normal depth of 0.8 m carries a
discharge of 9.5 m/ sec. The bed slope ofthe channel is
(a) steep
(b) critical
(c) mild
(d) adverse
48
BC2.1
6. A surge tank is provided in the hydro power scheme to
(A) strengthen the penstocks
(B) reduce water hammer pressure
(c) reduce frictional losses in the system
(d) minimize cost of hydropower development
7. If the Froude no. characterizing flow in an open channel is less than unity an
increase in channel width causes water surface elevation to
(A) form ripples
(b) remains same
(c) decrease
(d) Increase
8. The horizontal to vertical side slope in case of Cippoletti weir
(A) 1:1
(b) 1:4
(c) 1:2
(d) 4:1
9: The concept of boundary layer was first introduced by
(a) Newton
(by Prandtl
(c) Reynold's
(d) Kutter
10. The thickness of boundary layer at the leading edge will be
(a) maximum
(b) minimum
(c) zero
(D) average
Answer Key:
\ 1 a I 2 b I3 a I4 c I 5 a I6 b I7 d I8 b\ 9 b 1 1 0 ~ c]
49 BC2.1
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Lower the Reynold's no., the greater will be relative contribution of inertia effects.
2. The quality of Froude's no. for two kinds of flow can ensure dynamical similarity
only if gravitational force are of prime importance.
S. The results of Nikurade's experiments are generally plotted showing 4 f Re on
logarithmic scale and are called Station curves.
4. A standing wave flume is a venturi lume which is designed for minimum discharge.
5. Specific energy of channel at any section is sum of elevation & kinetic energies.
Answer Key:
1 F 2 T 3 T 4 F 5 T
50 . BC2.1
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
1. What do you mean by Laminar flow?
Ans: When the water flows at low velocity and the fluid elements move in a well defined
paths and they retain the same relative position at successive cross sections of
the flow passage. The particles otwater moved in parallel lines and the particles of
fluid moves along smooth paths in layers. There is no exchange of momentum
from fluid particles of one layer to the fluid particles of another layer. This type of
flow mainly occurs in high viscous fluid flows at low velocity, for example, oil flows
at low velocity.
"cit t ii.
)
I U Il'l:Ir
'"
,.
Tl!' 1 ~ '
Fig. shows the steady velocity profile for a typical laminar flow
2. Define Turbulent Flow.
Ans: When the water flows at high velocity, it was found that the fluid particles move in a
erratic and unpredictable paths and that the particles of fluid moved in very
irregular paths, causing an exchange of momentum from one fluid particle to
another. The time variation of velocity at a pOint for the turbulent flow is shown in
Fig. below
Velocity
~
Time
51 BC2.1
3.
Ans:
Why does the boundary layer increase with distance from the upstream edge?
At the upstream edge, the free stream velocity is retarded by the solid surface
causing a steep velocity gradient form the boundary to the flow. The velocity
gradient sets up boundary shear forces that reduce the flow relative to the
boundary. As the layer moves along the body the continual action of shear stress
tends to slow down causing the thickness of boundary layer to increase.
4.
Ans:
Define boundary layer thickness.
The boundary layer thickness is defined as the distance from the boundary in
which the velocity reaches 99% of main stream velocity and usually denoted by d.
5.
Ans:
Define displacementthickness.
The distance perpendicular to the boundary , by which the stream velocity is
displaced due to the formation of boundary layer. It is denoted by d*.
6. Define momentum thickness.
Ans: Momentum thickness is defined as the distance, measured perpendicular to the
boundary of the solid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to
compensate for the reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account of
boundary layer formation. It is denoted by q.
7.
Ans:
Define energy thickness .
Energy thickness is defined as the distance, measured perpendicular to the
boundary of the solid body, by which the boundary should be displaced to
compensate for the reduction in kinetic energy of the fluiQ flowing on account of
boundary layerformation.
8.
Ans:
What is the purpose of moody diagram?
The Moody diagram shows the variation of friction factor with the governing
parameters namely Reynoldsnumber and relative roughness. This diagram is
employed for predicting the values of friction factor in turbulent flow.
9.
Ans:
Give application of Boundary Layer Theory.
The following are the applications of Boundary Layer Theory:
• The BoundaryLayer Theory is not valid beyond the point of separation.
• At the point of separation, boundary layerthickness becomes quite large for
the thin layer approximation to be valid.
• It is important to note that boundary layer theory can be used to locate the
point of separation itself.
52 BC2.1
10. What do you mean by Drag and Lift? .
Ans:
Lift: Force acting on the cylinder (per unit length) in the direction normal to
uniform flow.
Drag: Force acting on the cylinder (per unit length) in the direction parallel to
uniform flow.
53 BC2.1
SECTION 0
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What is Boundary Layer? Explain in detail.
Ans: When a fluid flows over a stationary surface, e.g. the bed of a river, or the wall of a
pipe, the fluid touching the surface is brought to rest by the shear stress 1:1) at the
wall. The velocity increases from the wall to a maximum in the main stream ofthe
flow.
m.IL•.
Looking at this twodimensionally we get the above velocity profile from the wall to
the centre of the flow. This profile doesn't just exit, it must build up gradually from
the point where the fluid starts to flow pastthe surface  e.g. when it enters a pipe.
If we consider a flat plate in the middle of a fluid, we will look at the build up of the
velocity profile as the fluid moves overthe plate.
Upstream the velocity profile is uniform, (free stream flow) a long way downstream
we have the velocity profile we have talked about above. This is the known as fully
developed flow. But how do we get to that state? .
This region, where there is a velocity profile in the flow due to the shear stress at the
wall, we call the boundary layer.
2. Explain the Formation ofthe boundary layer.
Ans: Boundary layer grows from zero when a fluid starts to flow over a solid surface. As
is passes .over a greater length more fluid is slowed by friction between the fluid
layers close to the boundary. Hence the thickness df the slower layer increases.
The fluid near the top of the boundary layer is dragging the fluid nearer to the solid
surface along. The mechanism forthis dragging may be one of two types:
The first type occurs when the normal viscous forces (the forces which hold the
fluid together) are large enough to exert drag effects on the slower moving fluid
54 B C ~ 2 . 1
close to the solid boundary. If the boundary layer is thin then the velocitygradient
normal to the surface, (du/dy), is large so by Newton's law of viscosity the shear
stress, 't :::: J..l (du/dy), is also large. The corresponding force may then be large
enough to exert drag on the fluid close to the surface.
As the boundary layer thickness becomes greater, so the velocity gradient
become smaller and the shear stress decreases until it is no longer enough to
drag the slow fluid near the surface along. If this viscous force was the only action
then the fluid would come to a rest.
It, of course, does not come to rest but the second mechanism comes into play.
Up to this point the flow has been laminar and Newton's law of viscosity has
applied. This partofthe boundary layer is known as the laminar boundary layer.
The viscous. shear stresses have held the fluid particles in a constant motion within
layers. They become small as the boundary layer increases in thickness and the
velocity gradient gets smaller. Eventually they are no longer able to hold the flow
in layers and the fluid starts to rotate.
Fast moving layer
..."
:J
r7) .
. v o ~ e x sheets rolling
SlowmoVing (' U up ,nto smatl vorlices
layer  .. "" '
77777777
This causes the fluid motion to rapidly becomes turbulent. Fluid from the fast
. moving region moves to the slower zone transferring momentum and thus
maintaining thefluid by the wall in motion. Conversely, slow moving fluid moves to
the faster moving region slowing it down. The net effect is an increase in
momentum in the boundary layer. We call the part of the boundary layer the
turbulent boundary layer.
At points very close to the boundary the velocity gradients become very large and
the velocity gradients become very large with the viscous shear forces again
. becoming large enough to maintain the fluid in laminar motion. This region is
known as the laminar sublayer. This layer occurs within the turbulent zone and is
next to the wall and very thin  a few hundredths of a mm.
55 BC2.1
3. Give Application of Boundary Layer Theory.
Ans: The following are the application of Boundary Layer Theory:
• The BoundaryLayer Theory is not valid beyond the point of separation.
• At the point of separation, boundary layer thickness becomes quite large for
the thin layer approximation to be valid.
•. It is important to note that boundary layer theory can be used to locate the
poi nt of separation itself.
• In applying the boundary layer theory although U is the freestream velocity at
the outer edge of the boundary layer, it is interpreted as the fluid velocity at the
wall calculated from inviscid flow considerations ( known as Potential Wall
VeloCity)
• Mathematically, application of the boundary  layer theory converts the
character of governing NavierStroke equations from elliptic to parabolic
• This allows the marching in flow direction, as the solution at any location is
independent of the conditions farther downstream.
4. Explain the different stages of formation of Boundary Layer on Flat Plate.
Ans: We define the thickness of this boundary layer as the distance from the wall to the
point where the velocity is 99% of the "free stream" velocity, the velocity in the
middle ofthe pipe or river.
Boundary layer thickness, d =distance from wall to point where u =0.99 of main
stream velocity
BOUNDARY LAYER ON FLAT PLATE
(y scale gr"atiy enlargedj
 , X
" Viscous [ \ t.
Leading Transition point sublayer } Graph of ve.oclty ''.
edge ... x .........>io{ agarns1 dIstance y :ror':')
surfOice at pOint X
The value of d will increase with distance from the point where the fluid first starts
to pass over the boundary  the flat plate in our example. It increases to a
maximum in fully developed flow.
56
the drag force D on the1fuid dueto shear stress 1:" at the wall
increases from zero at the start of the plate to a maximum in the fully developed
floW region where it remains constant.
5. . Explain the Phenomenon of Boundary layers in pipes
Ans: As flow enters a pipe the boundary layer will initially be ofthe laminar form. This will
change depending on the ration of inertial and viscous forces; i.e. whether we
have laminar (viscous forces high) or turbulentflow (inertial forces high).
From earlier we saw how we could calculate whether a particular flow in a pipe is
laminar orturbulent using the Reynolds number.
Re=pud
f..L
(p= density u = velocity J.! =viscosity d = pipe diameter)
Laminar flow: Re < 2000
Transitional flow: 2000 < Re < 4000
Turbulentflow: Re > 4000
llt>:JI)..::.:r;. L'r":;
./,..
IZil
.bJ _...
If we only have laminar flow the profile is parabolic  as only the first part of the
boundary layer growth diagram is used. So we get the top diagram in the above
figure.
Ifturbulent (or transitional), both the laminar and the turbulent (transitional) zones
of the boundary layer growth diagram are used. The growth of the velocity profile
is thus like the bottom diagram in the above figure.
57 BC2.1
Once the boundary layer has reached the centre of the pipe the flow is said to be
fully developed. (Note that atthis point the whole ofthe·fluid is now affected by the
boundary friction.)
The length of pipe before fully developed flow is achieved is different for the two
types of flow. The length is known as the entry length.
Laminar flow entry length is120 diameter. Turbulent flow entry length is 60
diameter
6. Explain Pattern of Flow around a Cylinder in detail with the help of a diagram.
Ans: The pattern of flow around a cylinder varies with the velocity of flow. If flow is very
slow with the Reynolds number (pv diameter/fl) less than 0.5, then there is no
separation of the boundary layers as the pressure differ.
,:
R ~ < O ~ .
If 2 < Re < 70 then the boundary layers separate symmetrically on either side of
the cylinder. The ends of these separated zones remain attached to the cylinder, .
. as shown below.
Above a Re of 70 the ends of the separated zones curl up into vortices and detach
alternately from each side forming a trail of vortices on the down stream side of the.
cylinder. This trail is known as a Karman vortex trail or street. This vortex trail can
easily be seen in a river by looking over a bridge where there is a pier to see the line
of vortices flowing away from the bridge. The phenomenon is responsible for the
58 BC2.1
A
>.. .... ..
/
/"
,/
higJ\ pn.'iSUIC
whistling of hanging telephone or power cables. A more significant event was me
famous failure of the Tacoma narrows bridge. Here the frequency of the alternate
i
I
. "e' fl;w,j
"
""
! 'r.eQ'!.l.\ \
\
\
\ .>. :==
rr+:'f7:::.___
// , Vl/...."k·. ,_
..... /./
>/1, '. __V
.. I "", 'wake
 ...
"'<_.J j
"", "'"',
'""
l()wp.l'C!$..c:u.rt
'"
vortex shedding matched the natural frequency ofthe bridge deck and resonance
amplified the vibrations until the bridge collapsed.
Looking at the figure above, the formation of the separation occurs as the fluid
accelerates from the centre to get round the cylinder (it must accelerate as it has
further to go than the surrounding fluid). It reaches a maximum at Y, where it also
has drop in pressure. The adverse pressure gradient between here and the
downstream side of the cylinder will cause the boundary layer separation if the
flow is fast enough, (Re > 2.)
6. Explain the Phenomenon of Flow around an Aerofoil in detail with the help of a
diagram.
Ans: Normal flow over an aerofoil (a wing crosssection) is shown in the figure below
with the boundary layers greatly exaggerated.
8!'"Jun.=o({
:X wr<
..
.. .... ,::; .....
' .... ..
=
The velocity increases as air flows over the wing. The pressure distribution is
similar to that shown below so transverse lift force occurs.
59 BC2.1
If the angle of the wing becomes too great and boundary layer separation occurs
on the top of the aerofoil the pressure pattern will change dramatically. This
phenomenon is known as stalling.
When stalling occurs, all, or most, of the 'suction' pressure is lost, and the plane
will suddenly drop from the sky! The only solution to this is to put the plane into a
diveto regain the boundary layer. A transverse liftforce is then exerted on the wing
which gives the pilot some control and allows the plane to be pulled out of the
dive.
Fortunately there are some mechanisms for preventing stalling. They all rely on
preventing the boundary layer from separating in the first place.
1. Arranging the engine intakes so that they draw slow air from the boundary
layer at the rear of the wing though small holes helps to keep the boundary layer
close to the wing. Greater pressure gradients can be maintained before
separation take place.
2. Slower moving air on .the upper surface can be increased in speed by
bringing air from the high pressure area on the bottom of the wing through slots.
Pressure will decrease on the top so the adverse pressure gradient which would
cause the boundary layer separation reduces.
SICI
3. Putting a flap on the end of the wing and tilting it before separation occurs
increases the velocity over the top of the wing, again reducing the pressure·
and chance of separation occurring.
E 
60 BC2.1
8. What is Displacement Thickness? Drive an expression for Displacement
Thickness.
Displacement Thickness (en: It is defined as the distance by which the external
potential flow is displaced outwards due to the decrease in velocity in the
boundary layer.
""
u)r= J(U", u)dy
o
_ .
Therefore,
00 '
lr=! (1 ~ J dy
(1 )
x ...
dy = 0 d1'\ = d1'\
~
u'"
• Substituting the values ofwV.. into Eq.(24) , we obtain
J[
"" ~ x .
0+ =  J(lfl)d1'\ = Inn [11  f (11)]
Uoo Uoo 0700 .
o
,rvx 1.7208 x
or
0+ = 1.7208 Uoo =.J&:
(2)
V
Following the analogy of the displacement thickness, a momentum thickness
may be defined. .
9. What do you mean by Lift and Drag? Derive an expression of Lift and Drag for Flow
Past a Cylinder without Circulation.
Solution:
Lift: Force acting on the cylinder (per unit length) in the direction normal to
uniform flow.
Drag:Force acting on the cylinder (per unit length) in the direction parallel to
uniform flow.
~
~
'""
UJ
Fig Calculation ofDrag in a Cylinder
/',
61 BC2.1
The drag is calculated by integrating the force components arising out of pressure,
in the x direction on the boundary. Referrin"g to Fig.2. the drag force can be written
as
J
2R"
D=  0 Pb cos8rd8
rde =ds ~ infinitesimal length on the circumference
Since,
D= tlAh COSs( ~ ) l / ) dO
2.11 Po " '1"''1 (Z)IIl[U8 (
2V
oSinS)2]
D::: pg  + COSVWC7
1
o 2g pg 2g U
o
Of.
(1 )
Similarly, the lift force may be calculated as
28 .
Pb
smS
(1)1./2
L=t Vo dS
(2)
The Eqs (1) and (2) produce D=O and L=O after the integration is carried out.
However, in reality, the cylinder will always experience some drag force. This
contradiction between the inviscid flow result and the experiment is usually
known as D 'Almbert paradox.
Bernoulli's equation can be used to calculate the pressure distribution on the
cylinder surface
Pb(8) +Ut(8) = Po + U ~
pg 2g pg 2g
l') (&3'.  P"" [" ]
Yo " " ' ~ "0 =;
U
2
1 4 sin
2
e
The pressure coefficient, cp is therefore
c =Pb(O) Po =[14sin
2
a]
(3)
p 1 2
"2pUo
BC2.1
The pressure distribution on a cylinder is shown in Figure below
,
./ ",.•Pb(9.
.0
. x
1 ....   .
<.> 1
t2 .
•30 00 . 180 270 ::sJ
Fig Variation of coefficient ofpressure with angle
10. Derive a Relationship between Average Velocity and Maximum Velocity in a
Channel?
Ans:
To establish the relationship between the maximum velocity and average velocity
in the channel, we analyze as follows
At Y=0, u = Umax ; this yields
b
2
dp
U :::::.
max 2J.1 dx (1 )
On the other hand, the average velocity,
b
U  . Q ::::: flow rate ::::: ..!:. JUdY
av  2b flow area 2b .b
b
2 J 1 dP( ) 2 or, U::::: _. b,,2dy
av 2b 2 dx y
. 0 J.1
d
P
,L{[b
2y
]b_(Y3)b.}
2J.1. dx b 0 3 0
1 b2
Finally,
av
(2)
U =  2J.1· dx 3
U
2
U

U So, av. =
2
or max

3 (3)
3
av
U
max
63 BC2.1
The shearing stress at the wall for the parallel flow in a channel can be determined
from the velocity gradient as
. ( au ) dp
't
I
b = II  = b  =211
U

max
yxrayb dx rb
Since the upper plate is a "minus y surface", a negative stress acts in the positive x
direction, i.e. to the right.
• The local friction coefficient, Cfis defined by
I(cyx)b I
3J.lU av Ib
C
f
= =
_1 pU
2
~ p U 2
2 av 2 av
12 12
C
f
= =
pU aV(2b) Re
(4)
J.l
where. Re = U av (2b)/v isthe Reynolds number of flow based on average velocity
and the channel height (2b).
• Experiments show that Eq. (4) is valid in the laminar regime of the channel
flow.
• The maximum Reynolds number value corresponding to fully developed
laminar flow, for which a stable motion will persist. is 2300.
• In a reasonably careful experiment, laminar flow can be observed up to even
Re= 10,000.
• But the value below which the flow will allll(ays remain laminar, Le. the
critical value of Re is 2300.
11. What is an Aerofoil? Explain the Phenomenon of Flow arqund an Aerofoil.
Ans: Aerofoils are streamline shaped wings which are used in airplanes and turbo
machinery. These shapes are such that the drag force is a very small fraction ofthe
lift. The following nomenclatures are used for defining an aerofoil
• The chord (C) is the distance between the leading edge and trailing edge.
• The length of an aerofoil, normal to the crosssection (Le., normal to the plane
of a paper) is called the span of a aerofoil.
• The camber line represents the mean profile of the aerofoil. Some important
geometrical parameters for an aerofoil are the ratio of maximum thickness to
chord (tiC) and the ratio of maximum camber to chord (h/C). When these
ratios are small, an aerofoil can be considered to be thin. For the analysis of
flow, a thin aerofoil is represented by its camber.
64 BC2.1
Camber line y '" (yj +)1,)12
x
,..
..
Chord (C)
Aerofoil Section
The theory of thick cambered aerofoils uses a complexvariable mapping which
transforms the inviscid flow across a rotating cylinder into the flow about an aerofoil
shape with circulation.
Flow Around a Thin Aerofoil
• Thin aerofoil theory is based upon the superposition of uniform flow at infinity
and a continuous distribution of clockwise free vortex on the camber line
having circulation densityy(s)per unit length.
• The circulation density yes) should be such that the resultant flow is tangent to
the camber line at every point.
• Since the slope of the camber line is assumed to be small,y(s)ds =y(ll)dl1. The
total circulation around the profile is given by
c
r = I'Y (11) dll
(1 )
o
BC2.1
Flow Around Thin Aerofoil
65
A vortical motion of strength y dTJ at x= develops a velocity at the point pwhich may
be expressed as
dv ==  Y(11 )d11 acting upwards
. 21t(11x )
The total induced velocity in the upward direction at point p due to the entire vortex
distribution along the camber line is
(2)
For a small camber (having small .), this expression is identically valid for the
induced velocity at point pi due to the vortex sheet of variable strength y (s) on the
camber line. The resultant velocity due to U00 and v(x) must be tangential to the
camber line so that the slope of a camber line may be expressed as
dy
U", sin a + \)
\)
== == tan a + 
dx
U", cos a U <Xl cos a
dy == a + ~ [since ais verysmall]
dx ,U
oo
.
(3)
From Eqs (2) and (3) we can write
Consider an element ds on the camber line. Consider a small rectangle (drawn
with dotted line) around ds. The upper and lower sides of the rectangle are very
close to each other and these are parallel to the camber line. The other two sides'
are normal to the camber line. The circulation along the rectangle is measured in
clockwise direction as
V
1
ds  V
2
ds = yds [normal component of velocity at the camber line should be zero]
or V
1
 V
2
=Y
If the mean velocity in the tangential direction at the camber line is given by it can
be rewritten as
v :; V + .l and V = V _ .l
1 • 2 2. 2
if v is very small [v< <U
oo
], Vs becomes equal to U • The difference in velocity
oo
across the camber line broughtabout by the vortex sheet of variable strength y (s)
causes pressure difference and generates lift force.
66 BC2.1
i.
2.
3.
• I
4.
5.
6.
7.
'"
8.
9.
10.
SECTION E
OVER VIEW QUESTIONS
What will bethe depth offlow region for standing wave flume?
Why is surge tank provided in hydro power scheme?
Who gave the concept of bou ndary layer?
At any section what will be the specific energy of a channel?
What do you understand bythe term boundary layer?
What change occurs if boundary layer is thin?
Which forces hold the fluid particles in constant motion?
At which point doesthe velocity gradient become large?
Givetwo applications of the boundary layer theory.
If Reynold's number is less than 0.5 then what change occurs?
•
67 BC2.1
UNIT  4 : MOMENTUM PRINCIPLE
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIOt,lS
::
1. The friction drag is more than pressure drag for
(a) asphere
(b) a streamlined body
(c) a circular disc placed normal to the flow direction
(d) an aerofoil
2. With the same cross sectional area &placed in the same turbulent flow, the largest
drag will be experienced by
(a) a sphere
(b) a streamlined body
(c) a circular disc held normal to the flow direction
(d) a circulardischeld parallel to the flow direction
3. When an ideal fluid flows past a sphere
(a) total drag is zero
(b) minimum pressure occurs at rear stagnation point
(c) minimum pressure occurs atfrontstagnation point
(d) none of the above
4. In a stream lined body
(a) the friction drag is considerably decreased
(b) boundary layer separation is shifted to the rear most thereby reducing the
wake size
(c) the separation point is fixed as much ahead as possible
(d) none ofthe above
5. On stationary thin plate, having flow in the direction of length of plate, if discharge is
reduced then the thickness of boundary layer will
(a) Increase
(b) Decrease
( c) Remain coristant
(d) Be zero
68 BC2.1
6. Laminar sub layer is a thin boundary layer formed just adjacent to the boundary in
(a) turbulent flow
(b) laminar flow
(c) transition layer
(d) compressible
7. Across the boundary layer, pressure remains
(a) more
(b) less
(c) constant
(d) zero
8. As compared, to laminar flow, in turbulent flow, boundary layers will be
(a) thinner
(b) thicker
(c) same
(d) half
.9. The tangential force exerted by the shearing stresses onan object submerged in a
fluid is known as
(a) pressuredrag
(b) surface drag
(c) drag
(d) lift
I
10. Drag & lift forces acting on an object placed in a fluid stream are caused by
(a) pressure & viscosity
(b) pressure&gravity
(c) pressure & turbulence
(d) viscosity & turbulence
11. The component of resultant fluid dynamic force, in the flow direction is called
(a) drag force
(b) lift force
(c) viscous force
(d) none ofthe above
69 BC2.1
12. For a stream lined body, the predominant drag force is
(a) friction drag force
(b) pressure drag force
(c) total drag force
(d) none of the above
Answer key
1. a 2. b 3.d 4.c 5.a 6.a 7. c 8. b
9. b 10.a 11. c 12.b
70 BC2.1
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. If a thin film plate is held parallel to a fluid stream the total drag is entirely due to
shear stresses.
2. The drag coefficient depends on the Froude's number
3. If a cylindrical body is place in a fluid stream & is rotated, then a lift force is
produced on the body.
4. Drag & lift forces acting on an object placed is a fluid stream are caused by
pressure &viscosity
5. For a stream lined body, the predominant drag force is friction drag force
Answer key
1. T
2. F . I 3. T 4.T 5.F
71 BC2.1
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUES1"IONS
1.
Ans:
Determine the expression for the force exerted by a jet of water on stationary plate
towards its direction.
The force exerted by a jet of water on a stationary plate in the direction of the jet is
given by
Fx=paV2
= paV
2
sin2S
=pa V
2
(1 + cosS)
=2paV
2
cosS
where,
V = velocity ofthejet
...... .for a vertical plate
...... .for an inclined plate
........for a curved plate and jet strikes at centre
....... .for a curved plate and ket strikes at one 6fthe
tips ofthejet .
S = Angle between the jet and the plate for inclined plate
= Angle made by the jet with the direction of motion for curved plate.
2.
Ans:
How is the angle of swing determined when jet pf water strike a vertical hinged
plane? .
When a jet of water strikes a vertical hinged plate, the angle of swing about the
hinge is given by
. paV2
slnS= _.
W
where, V = velocity ofthejet of water, W = weight of the hinged plate.
3.
Ans:
What is the force exerted by a jet of water on moving plate in the direction of motion
of plate?
The force exerted by a jet of water on moving plate, in the direction of the motin of
. the plate is given by
Fx= pa (V  U)2 .•.•• .for a moving vertical plate,
= pa (V u)2sin
2
S .......foran inclined moving plate,
= pa (V  uy (1 + cosS) .... when the jet strikes the curved plate atthe centre
4. Give equation for work done per second and per second per kg of the fluid when a
jet of water strikes a curved moving plane.
Ans: When a jet of water strikes a curved moving plane at one of Its top and comes out at
72 BC2.1
 u,; tip, th;torce exerted and the lnevefoCitY
triangles at inlet and outlet. The expression for force and work done are
Fx =pa Vr
1
[VW1 ±Vw
2
]
Work done per second = pa Vr
1
[VW1 f Vw
2
] xu +ve sign is taken when 13 is an
acute angle. If 13 is an obtuse angle then ve sign is taken. If 13 is 90°,
Vw
2
=0
1
Work done per second per kg ofthe fluid = 9 [Vw1 ±Vw
2
] x u
5. Give the force and work done for a series of vanes.
Ans: For a series of vanes, the force and the work done are given as Fx = pa Vr
1
[VWl ±
Vw
2
]
Work done/sec =pa Vr
1
[Vw1 ±Vw
2
] x u
Workdonelsecperkg = 9
1
[VW
1
±VW
2
]xu
6. Write the equation for efficiency of a series of vanes.
. 2u (Vu)
Ans: Efficiency of a series of vanes is given as Tl = V2
and the conditions of max h is u = ;
max =50%
7. What is work done per second for a curved radial vane?
Ans: For a curved radial vane the work done per second::i pa Vr
1
[VW
1
U
1
± VW
2
U
2
]
Where, V
1
= absolute velocity ofjet at inlet
VW
1
= velocity of the whirl at inlet
U
1
=tangential velocity pf the vane at inlet
VW
2
= velocity of whirl at outlet
u
2
=tangential velocity of vane at o_utlet
8. What do you mean bythe term jet propulsion?
Ans: Jet propulsion means propulsion of a vessel with the help of a jet. The reaction of
the jet is used for propelling the vessel. The propelling force exerted on a tank with
an orifice is given by
Fx= pa (V + u)xV
Where, V = absolute velocity ofthe jet of water, u = velocity ofthe tank
73 BC2.1
9. How are ships propelled?
Ans. Ships are also propelled by jets. The intake water by the centrifugal pump is taken
by two Ways. In one case, the water is taken from the orifices which are at right
angles to the direction of motion of the ship and in other case the water is taken
through orifices which are facing the direction of motion of the ship.
10. What is Water Hammer?
Ans: Water hammer concerns the generation, propagation and reflection of pressure
waves in'liquidfilled pipe systems. These waves may have very steep fronts when
generated by, for example, the closure of lightly damped check valves or the
collapse of liquid column separations. Steepfronted waves are prone to excite the
structural system and as a result make individual pipes move. Pipe motion itself
generates water hammer, thus invoking fluidstructure interaction.
74 BC2,1
SECTION 0
LONG ANSW·ER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What is momentum equation? What are its application? Explain in detail.
Solution:
It is based on the law of conservation of momentum or on the momentum principle,
which states that the net force acting on a fluid mass is equal to the change in
momentum of flow per unit time in that direction. The force acting on a fluid mass
'm" is given by Newton's second law of motion,
F=mxa
Where a is the acceleration acting in the same direction as force F.
a =dv Idt
F=m.dv/dt
F = d (mv)/dt(This equation is known as the momentum principle)
We have all seen moving fluids exerting forces. The lift force on an aircraft is
exerted by the air moving over the wing. A jet of water from a hose exerts a force on
whatever it hits. In fluid mechanics the analysis of motion is performed in the same
way as in solid mechanics  by use of Newton's laws of motion. Account is also
taken for the special properties offluids when in motion.
The momentum equation is a statement of Newton's Second Law arid relates the
sum of the forces acting on an element of fluid to its acceleration or rate of change
of momentum. You will probably recognize the equation F = ma which is used in the
analysis of solid mechanics to relate applied force to acceleration. In fluid
mechanics it is not clear what mass of moving fluid we should use so we use a
different form of the equation.
Newton's 2nd Law can be written:
The Rateof change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on
the body, and takes place in the direction ofthe force.
To determine the rate of change of momentum for a fluid we will consider a stream
tube as we did for the Bernoulli equation,
We start by assuming that we have steady flow which is nonuniform flowing in a
stream tube.
~
cp
A,
75 BC2.1
A stream tube in three and twodimensions
In time 8t a volume of the fluid moves from the inlet a distance u8t , so the volume
entering the stream tube in the time 8t is
volume entering the stream tube =area x distance =A lUl 8t
this has mass,
mass entering stream tube =volume x density =PI Al u
1
8t
and momentum
momentum offluid entering stream tube =mass x velocity =PI Al u
1
8t u
l
Similarly, at the exit, we can obtain an expression for the momentum leaving the
steam tube:
Momentum offluid leaving stream tube =P2 u
2
We can now calculate the force exerted by the fluid using Newton's 2nd Law. The
force is equal to the rate of change of momentum. So
Force =rate of change of momentum
 PI Alulat u
l
)
F= at
We know from continuity that Q = A
l
u
1
= and if we have a fluid of constant
density. i.e .• then we can write
F=Qp(U
2
U
l
)
For an alternative derivation of the same expression, as we know from
conservation of mass in a stream tube that
mass in to face 1 =mass out of face 2
we can write
rateofchangeofmass = m = PIAIUI=P2A2U2
The rate at which momentum leaves face 1is
PzA2
U
2
U
2 = mU
2
The rate at which momentum enters face 2 is
= mU
I
Thus the rate at which momentum changes across the stream tube is
pzA2
U
2
U
2PI AlU
1
U
1
ritu
2
 mu1
i.e.
Force = rate of change of omentum
F = m(u
z
 u
1
)
F = Qp(u
2
 u
1
)
76 BC2.1
This force is acting in'the direction ofthe flow of the fluid.
This analysis assumed that the inlet and outlet velocities were in the same direction
 Le. a one dimensional system. What happens when this is not the case?
Consider the two dimensional system in the figure below:
"2
.
. ...
Two dimensional flow in a stream tube
At the inlet the velocity vector, u
1
• makes an angle, 8
1
, with the xaxis, while at the
outlet u
2
make an angle. 8
2
In this case we consider the forces by resolving in the
directions ofthe coordinate axes.
The force in the xdirection
FX =Rate of change of momentum in x  direction
= Rate of change of mass x change in velocity in x  direction
=m(u
2
cosB2  ~ cosB
l
)
= m(u
2r
 u
lr
)
= pQ{u
2
cosB2ul c o s ~ )
= pQ(u
211
 u
lr
)
And the force in the ydirection
F., = m(u
2
sin B2  u
l
sin ~ )
=m(u
2
), U
I
)')
= pQ(U
2
sin B2  u
l
sin ~ )
=pQ(U
2
)'  U
I
)')
77 BC2.1
F Res ullant
And the angle at which this force acts is given by
For a threedimensional (x, y, z) system we then have an extra force to calculate
and resolve in the zdirection. This is considered in exactly the same way.
In summary we can say:
The total force exerted on the fluid = rate of change of momentum through the
control volume
F ="",U
om
 Uin)
= A?(uom Uin)
Remember that we are working with vectors so F is in the direction of the velocity.
This force is made up of three components:
FR=Force exerted on the fluid by any solid body touching the control volume
FB=Force exerted on the fluid body (e.g. gravity)
Fp=Force exerted on the fluid by fluid pressure outside the control volume
So we say that the total force, F F' is given by the sum of these forces.
The force exerted by the fluid on the solid body touching the control volume is
opposite to. F R So the reaction force, R, is given by
78 SC2.1
2. Derive impulse momentum equation in case of impact of jet on a curved vane.
Ans: Force on a curved vane
This case is similar to that of a pipe, but the analysis is simpler because the
pressures are equalatmospheric, and both the crosssection and velocities (in the
direction of flow) remain constant. The jet, vane and coordinate direction are
arranged as in the figure below.
L
Jet deflected by a curved vane.
1& 2Control volume and Coordinate' axis are shown in the figure above.
3 Calculate the total force in the x direction
F
rx
=pO (U
2
 u
1
cos 9)
Q
but u
1
= u
l
= A ' so
Ql
F
rx
=PA(l cosO)
and in the ydirection
Fry = pQ(u
l
s1n 8 0)
Q ~
=p
A
4 Calculate the pressure force.
Again, the pressure force is zero as the pressure at both the inlet and the outlets to
the control volume are atmospheric.
5 Calculate the body force
No body forces in the xdirection, Fsx =O.
In the ydirection the body force acting is the weight of the fluid. If V is the volume of
the fluid on he vane then,
79 BC2.1
Fey = pgV
(This is often small as the jet volume is small and sometimes ignored in analysis.)
6 Calculate the resultant force
Frl! =FRl! + Fl''II +F}J'II
FR.'II =Frl!
Fr
,
=FRo
,
+ Fp
,
+F}J
,
FR., =Fry
And the resultant force on the fluid is given by
FR, =4
F
; 'II  F;y
And the direction of application is
l(FJ:)' 'I
(J =tan  FRJ Exerted on the fluid.
The force on the vane is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
R=F
R
3. Derive the momentum equation in case of Pelton wheel blade.
AilS: The above analysis of impact of jets on vanes can be extended and applied to
analysis of turbine blades. One particular clear demonstration of this is with the
blade of a turbine called the pelton wheel. The arrangement of a pelton wheel is
shown in the figure below. A narrow jet (usually of water) is fired at blades which
stick out around the periphery of a large metal disk. The shape of each of these
blade is such that as the jet hits the blade it splits in two (see figure below) with half
the water diverted to one side and the other to the other. This splitting of the jet is
beneficial to the turbine mounting  it causes equal and opposite forces (hence a
sum of zero) on the bearings.
~ Jet or water
Pelton wheel arrangement and jet hitting crosssection of blade.
80 BC2.1
A closer view of the blade and control volume used for analysis can be seen in the
figure below.
Analysis again takes the following steps:
1. Draw a control volume
2. Decide on coordinate axis system
3. Calculate the total force
4. Calculate the pressure force
5. Calculate the body force
6. Calculate the resultant force
1 & 2 Control volume and Coordinate axis are shown in the figure below.
y
< '. I >:'::':·:':':n:':':':::. + u 1
3 Calculate the total force in the x direction
FT/C = ~ ; U
2
/C +; U
2
/C  Qul/C)
U = U
1 lIC
U
2
/C = ~ COS(}
FT/C = pQ(U
2
COS(}+U
1
)
and in the ydirection it is symmetrical, so
Fr
)J
=0
4 Calculate the pressure force.
The pressure force is zero as the pressure at both the inlet and the outlets to the
control volume are atmospheric.
81 BC2.1
5 Calculate the body force
We are only considering the horizontal plane in which there are no body forces.
6 Calculate the resultant force
FTI{ = FEr +Fl'r +FSK
FRx =FTx  0 0
= p Q ( ~ cos8+u
1
)
Exerted on the fluid.
The force on the blade is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
R=F
R , ,:l
So the blade moved in the x.,.direction.
In a real situation the blade is moving. The analysis can be extended to include this
by including the amount of momentum entering the control volume over the time
the blade remains there.
4. The figure below shows a smooth curved ~ a n e attached to a rigid foundation. The
jet of water, rectangular in section, 75mm wide and 25mm thick, strike the vane
with a velocity of 25m/s. Calculate the vertical and horizontal components of the
force exerted on the vane and indicate in which direction these components act.
From the question:
2
a
l
= 0.075x 0.025= 1.875 x 10
3
m
!.II =25m/ s
Q= 1875xl0
3
x25m
3
/ s
so
82 BC2.1
Calculate the total force using the momentum equation:
Fr'JI =..oQ(U
2
cos25u
1
cos 45)
= 1000 x 0.0469(25 cos 25 25cos45)
• I
= 233.44 N
F
r
, =lX?(u
2
sin 25u
1
sin 45)
=1000x 0.0469(25sin 25 25 sin 45)
=1324.6N
Body force and pressure force are O.
So force on vane:
R'JI = F,'JI = 233.44N
R, = F = 1324.6N
"
5. A 600mm diameter pipeline carries water under a head of 30m with a velocity of
3m/s. This water main is fitted with a horizontal bend which turns the axis of the
pipeline through. 75° (Le. the internal angle at the bend is 115°). Calculate the
resultant force on the bend and its angle to the horizontal.
L
..
,
,
/ \ ~ 
•
,
'U1
From the question:
06
1
2
2
a =1f(TJ =0.283m
d= 0.6m h=30m
U
1
= u
2
= 3mls Q=0.848m
3
Is
Calculate total force.
F1'x = pQ(U27i  U 171 ) = FRx +Fh +FBK
F; =1000 x 0.848(3 cos75 3) =1886kN
83 BC2.1
FI'! = 1000 x 0.848(3sln 75 0) = 2.457kN
Calculate the pressure force
P1 = P2 = P = hgg = 30 x 1000 x 9.81 = 294.3 kN/m2
Fn= Pla
l
cos t1 p',la',l cos 8',l
= 294300 x 0.283(1 cos 75)
= 61.73kN
Fr, = Pial sin t1 p',la',l sin ~
= 294300 x 0.283(0  sin 75)
=80.376kN
There is no body force in the x or y directions.
FRJ =Fn  Fh  FlJIr
=1.886  61.73 0 =63.616kN
Fp., =FI)  FP}I  FB)I
=2.457 +S0.376  0 =S2.833kN
These forces act on the fluid
The resultant force on the fluid is
FJI. =~ F RJ +FP\JI =104.44 kN
e= tan  { ~ :j = 52"29'
84 BC2.1
,6. A horizontal jet of water 21 03 mm
2
crosssection and flowing at a velocity of 15 mls
hits a flat plate at 60°to the axis (of the jet) and to the horizontal. The jet is such that
there is no side spread. If the plate is stationary, calculate a) the force exerted on
the plate in the direction of the jet and b) the ratio between the quantityoffluid that is
deflected upwards and that downwards. (Assume that there is no friction and
therefore no shear force.)
(x
"\
From the question a
2
=a
3
=2x1 0.
3
m
2
, u =15 mls
Apply Bemol,lIi
:J :.I :2
Pl ul Pl u
l
P3 u'3
++z =++z =++z
pg 2g 1 pg 2g :.I pg 2g '3
Change in height is negligible so Z1 =Z2 =Z3 and pressure is always atmospheric
P1= P2 =P3 =0. So
u
1
= U
2
= U
3
=15 mls
By continuity Q1= Q
2
+Q
3
u
1
a
1
= u
2
a
2
+ u
3
a
3
so a
1
= a
2
+ a
3
Put the axes normal to the plate, as we know that the resultant force is normal
to the plate.
0
1
= a
1
u = 2x 10.
3
x 15 =0.03
Q
1
= (a
2
+ a
3
) u
Q
2
=a
2
u
Q
3
= (a
1
 a
2
)u
85 BC2.1
Frx =1000xO:03(O15sin 60)= 390N
Component in di rection of jet = 390 sin 60 = 338 N
As there is no force parallel to the plate Fty = 0
.p 2 2 2
1)0 = PU2
a
2  PU3
a
3  PUt a
1
cosB= 0
a
1
cosB = 0 a
2
 a
3
a
1
=a
2
+a
3
a
3
+a
1
cosB= a
1
a
3
4
4a
3
=a
1
=?2
1
. a
3
= ~ 2
Thus 3/4 ofthe jet goes up, 1/4 down
7. A 75mm diameter jet of water having a velocity of 25m/s strikes a flat plate, the
normal of which is inclined at 30°to the jet. Find the force normal to the surface of
the plate.
From the question, djet = 0.075m, u
1
=25m/s Q= 25p(0.075/2)2 = 0.11 m
3
/s
F o r c ~ normal to plate is
Fp =gQ(0u
1
x)
Fp= 1000 xO.11 (0 25 cos 30°) =2.39 kN
86 BC2.1
8. The outlet pipe from apump is a bend of 45°rising in the vertical plane (Le. And
internal angle of 135°). The bend is 150mm diameter at its inlet and 300mm
diameter at its outlet. The pipe axis at the inlet is horizontal and at the outlet it is 1m
higher. By neglecting friction, calculate the force and Its direction if the inlet
pressure is 1 00kN/m2 and the flow of water through the pipe is 0.3m
3
/s. The volume
ofthe pipe is 0.075m
3
•
1>,
VI
A,
1 &2 Draw the control volume and the axis system
PI = 100kN/m2, Q = 0.3 m
3
/s 9=45°
. d
1
=0.15m,d
2
=0.3m
=0.177
3 Calculate the total force
in the x direction
Frr =f)Q(U
l1t
U
lK
)
=pQ(u
1
cos8u
1
)
By continuity, A
1
u
1
=A
2
u
2
=Q so
Frr = 1000xO.3(4.24cos4516.98)
=1493.68N
0.3
U1=r·
1((0.152 /4) = 16.98ml s
U _ 0.3
2    =4.24ml s
87 BC2.1
and in the ydirection
F
r
), =pQ(U
2
)'  U
I
),)
=pQ(U2 sin 8 0)
=1000x 0.3(4.24 sin 45)
=899.44N·
4 Calculate the pressure force.
FF =pressure force at 1  pressure force at 2
We know pressure at the inlet but not at the outlet.
we can use Bernoulli to calculate this unknown pressure.
2 2
PI U
I
P2 U'l
++z =++z +h
pg 2g I pg 2g '). f
where h
f
is the friction loss
In the question it says this can he ignored, hf=O
The height of the pipe at the outlet is 1 m above the inlet.
Taking the inlet level as the datum:
So the Bemoulli equation becomes:
2
100000 16.98 . P2 4242
1000 x 9.81 + 2 x 981 + 0 =1000 x 9 81 + 2 x 981 +1.0
P2 =225361.4 N I n1'
88
BC2.1
Fp1: = 100000 x 0.0177  225361.4 cos45x 0.0707
= 177011266.34 =9496.37 kN
Fp
}'
=225361.4 sin 45 x 0.0707
=11266.37
5 Calculate the body force
The only body force is the force due to gravity. That is the weight acting in the y
direction.
FlJ = {Y6 x volume
.,
=1000x9.81x 0.075
= 1290l56N
There are no body forces in the x direction,
6 Calculate the resultant force
FT1: =FRII + Fpp: + FBII
Fr
}'
=FR
.,
+Fp
.,
+FB
}'
FRp: =Fr1:  FplI  FBII
= 4193.6+ 9496.37
=5302.7 N
FR = Fr  Fp  FJj
}' ., }' }'
= 899.44 + 11266.37 + 735.75
=12901.56N
And the resultant force on the fluid is given by
89 BC2.1
FR =JFi" FiJI
=.J5302.7" +1290156"
=13.95kN
And the direction of application is
;= tan 1 (FR11=tan _1(12901.56) =67.66
FRr J 5302.7 ")
The force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
R=FR
9. The force exerted by a 25mm diameter jet against a flat plate normal to the axis of
the jet is 650N. What is the flow in m3/s?
L
From the question, d
JeI
=0.025m F
Tx
=650 N
Force normal to plate is
F
Tx
=PO( 0u
1X
)
650 =10000 ( 0  u )
650 = 1 000au
2
::; 1 00002/a
650 = _100002/(p x 0.025
2
/4)
0=0.018m
3
/s
90 BC2.1
10. A curved plate deflects a 75mm diameter jet through an angle of 45°. For a velocity
in the jet of 40m/s to the right, compute the components of the force developed
againstthe curved plate. (Assume no friction) ..
From the question:
a
l
= 7Z"0,075
l
14 = 4.42 x 10
3
wi
u
1
=40mls
Q =4.42 X 10
3
x 40= 0,1767m
3
1s
so
Calculate the total force using the momentum equation:
Fr1l =pQ(u
l
cos45u
1
)
=1000 x 0.1767(40cos4540)
:::: 2070.17 N
Fr>, = N(u
l
sin 45 0)
= 1000 x 0,1767(40 sin 45)
=4998N
Body force and pressure force are O.
So force on vane:
R
11
R
>'
=F.
t
= 2070N
11
=F.
t
=4998N
>'
'.
I
I ..
91
BC2,1
11. A 45°reducing bend, 0.6m diamet&r upstream, 0.3m diameter downstream, has
water flowing through it at the rate of 0.45m
3
/s under a pressure of 1.45 bar.
Neglecting any loss in head for friction; calculate the force exerted by the water on
the bend, and its direction of application.
L
i
I
•
. .'
•
/
l
/
,
t . # ~ ~   
p, "2
1 &2 Draw the control volume and the axis system .
P1 = 1.4510
5
N/m
2
, Q = 0.45 m
3
/s e=45
0
d
1
=0.6 m, d
2
=0.3m
A
1
=0.283m
2
, A
2
=0.0707m
2
3 Calculate the total force
In the x direction
Fr/f = .oQ(U:l
r
 u1J
= .oQ(u:l cos e u
I
)
by continuity,
0.45
U
l
= n{0.6:l/4) = 159m/ s
0.45
u:l = 0.0707 6.365m Is
FTII =1000 x 0.45(6.365cos45159)
= 1310N
And in the ydirection
92 BC2.1
F
r
) = .oQ(1.4
l
,  1.4
1
,)
= pQ(1.4
l
sin 0 0)
= 1000x O.45(6.365sln 45)
= 1800N
4 Calculate the pressure force.
Fp =pressure force at 1  pressure force at 2
We know pressure at the inlet but not at the outlet.
we can use Bernoulli equation to calculate this unknown pressure.
'2 2
. PI 1.41 P2 U
2
++z =++z +h
pg 2g 1 pg 2g 2 f
where hI is the friction loss
In the question it says this can be ignored. hi=O
/
Assume the pipe to be horizontal
So the Bernoulli equation becomes:
2 2
145000 159 P2 6.365
+ = +
1000 x 9.81 2 x 9.81 1000 x 9.81 2 x 9.81
Pl =126007 Nf m
l
F
plI
=145000 x 0.283126000cos45x 0.0701
= 41035 6300= 34735N
F
p
, =126000sin45xO.0707
=6300N
93
BC2.1
•
•
5 Calculate the body force
The only body force is the force due to gravity.
There are no body forces in the x or y directions.
PB'J( =P
By
=0
6 Calculate the resultant force .
PI''J(::: PR'J( +PP'J( +Ps.,
PI', =P
R
, + F
p
, +F.,
P
Rr
=FI''/(  FPr  FBr
=1310 34735
=33425N
P
R
, =FI',  Pp, F
B
,
=1800+6300
=8100N
And the resultant force on the fluid is given by
1= Ry .
________ FRaSulmnt
Fi = ~ p l 1 l  Ply
= 133425
2
+8100
2
=34392kN
And the direction of application is
¢= tan 1(FRJI J=tan 1( 8100 ') =13.62"
FRI()  33425)
The force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
R =FR
94 BC2.1
SECTION E
OVERVIEW QUESTIONS
1. How can we experience the largest drag?
2. How is pressure determined according to the boundary layer?
3. When is a lift force produced in the stream?
4. Write the expression for momentum equation.
5. Give Newton's second law.
6. What does the momentum equation relate?
7. How are the drag and lift forces caused?
8. What causes total drag in case when the film plate is held parallel to fluid stream?
9. What do you mean by a viscous force?
10. What type of boundary layers are obtained in turbulent flow?
95 BC2.1
UNIT· 5 : TURBINES
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Hydraulic turbines' are the machines which convert water energy into
(a) mechanical energy
(b) electrical energy
(c) solar energy
(d) automatic energy
2. In a water wheel, when water enters the buckets mounted on the periphery of a
wheel at its top, then it will be known as
(a) overshotwheel
(b) breast water wheel
(c) undershotwheel
(d) pelton wheel
3. . The pipes used to carry water under pressure from storage reservoir to the turbine
and generally made of steel or R.C.C. are called as
(a) penstocks
(b) forebay
(c) pitottube
(d) draft tube
4. The channel or pipe which carries away water from the power house after it has
been passed through the turbines is known as
(a) penstock
(b) head race
(C) forebay
(d) tail race
5. The ratio between power developed by the runner and the net power supplied by
the water at the entrance to a turbine is known as
(a) hydraulic efficiency
(b) volumetric efficiency
(c) overall efficiency
96
BC·2.1
(d) machine efficiency
6. When water enters at the outer circumference of the turbine and flows radially
inwards, towards the centre ofthe runner, then it will be called as
(a) axial flow turbine
(b) outward radial flow turbine
(c) Inward radial flow turbine
(d) none of the above
7. Pelton wheel is
( a ) Tangential flow turbine
(b) Radialflowturbine
(c) Mixed flow turbine
(d) Axial flow turbine
8. The specific speed of Pelton Wheels having single jet, varies between
(a) 10t035
(b) 35t050
(c) 60 to 400
(d) 300 to 1000
9. Specific speed of Francis turbine varies in between
(a) 10t035
(b) 35 to 50
(c) 60 to 400
(d) 300 to 1000
10. In a Pelton Wheel, hydraulic efficiency will be maximum when speed of the buckets
as compared to velocity of the jet will be
(a) equal
(b) double
(c) half
(d) one fourth
11. The device adopted to maintain constant speed of the runner, when load on the
generator changes, is known as
(a) surge tank
(b) governor
(c) survomotor
97 BC2.1
12. Unit speed of a turbine means speed of the turbine developed under a head of·
(a) 0.1 mofwater
(b) 1 cmofwater
(c) 1mm of water
(d) 1 mofwater
,.
,
13. If 'H' is the head of water under which a turbine works & 'N' is the actual speed in
r.p.m. then the unit speed can be calculated by
(a) NIH
(b) N / ~
(c)
N/H2
(d) N/H
3
14. The turbine suitable for low heads & high flow rates
(a) Pelton wheels
(b) Francis
(c) Kaplan
(d) All of the above
15. A Pelton Turbine, with six nozzles has specific speed of 8.1. The specific speed of
.one nozzle will be
(a) 2
(b) 3.3
(c) 8.1
.(d) 6.6
Answer key:
1.8 2.8 3.8 .4.d 5.8 6.c 7.8 B.8
9.c 10.c 1 1 ~ b 12.d 13.8 14.b 15.b
98 BC2.1
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Axial flow turbines are high specific speed turbines.
Specific speed for Francis turbines depends upon speed ratio, flow ratio & breadth
ratio. Keeping hydraulic losses & efficiency in mind, the specific speed of turbine
should not be increased to any value.
In impulse turbine the whole pressure energy of water is transformed into kinetic
energy.
In reaction turbine, the water before entering the turbine has pressure energy only.
Itis necessary to connect the turbine outlet by means of pipe up to tail race level.
This pip'e is known as draft tube.
A pelton turbine consists of number of double hemispherical type blades.
Propeller turbine is just a kaplan with adjustable blades.
Answer key:
1.T 1 2. T 1 3. T 1 4. F ·1 5. T I 6. T 1 7. F I
99 8C2.1
...~ :_'"
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
Ans:
What do you mean by Turbine?
A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into
useful work. The simplest turbines have one.moving part, a rotor assembly. which
is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades, or the
blades react to the flow, so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.
2.
Ans:
Define Pelton wheel.
The only hydraulic turbine of the impulse type in common use, is named after an
American engineer Laster A Pelton, who contributed much to its development
around the year 1880. Therefore this machine is known as Pelton turbine or Pelton
wheel. Itis an efficient machine particularly suited to high heads.·
3.
Ans:
What is Kaplan Turbine?
Higher specific speed corresponds to a lower head. This requires that the runner
should admit a comparatively large quantity of water. For a runner of given
diameter, the maximum flow rate is achieved when the flow is parallel to the axis.
Such a machine is known as axial flow reaction turbine. An Australian engineer,
Vikton Kaplan first designed such a machine. The machines in this family are
called Kaplan Turbines.
4.
Ans:
What do you mean by governing of turbines?
When a turbine drives an electrical generator or alternator, the primary
requirement is that the rotational speed of the shaft and hence that of the turbine
rotor has to be kept fixed. Otherwise the frequency of the electrical output will be
altered. But when the electrical load changes, depending upon the demand, the
speed ofthe turbine changes automatically. This is because the external resisting
torque on the shaft is altered while the driving torques due to change of momentum
in the flow of fluid through the turbine remains the same. For example, when the
load is increased, the speed ofthe turbine decreases and vice versa. A constancy
in speed is therefore maintained by adjusting the rate of energy input to the turbine
accordingly. This is usually accomplished by changing the rate offluid flow through
. the turbine the flow in increased when the load is increased and the flow is
decreased when the load is decreased. This adjustment of flow with the load is
known as the governing ofturbines.
100 BC2.1
5. What are the various limitations of a Pelton Turbine?
Ans: The following are the limitations of a Pelton Turbine:
• The Pelton wheelis efficient and reliable when operating under large heads
only.
• To generate a given output power under a smaller head, the rate of flow
through the turbine has to be higher which requires an increase in the jet
diameter. The number of jets are usually limited to 4 or 6 per wheel.
The increases in jet diameter in turn increases the wheel diameter. Therefore
the machine becomes unduly large, bulky and slowrunning. In practice,
turbines of the reaction type are more suitable for lower heads.
6. What are the Component parts of the Francis Turbine?
Ans: A Francis turbine comprises mainly the four components:
(i) Spiral casing,
(ii) Guide on stay vanes,
(iii) Runner blades,
(iv) Drafttube.
7. What is Draft Tube? What are the different types of draft tubes incorporated in
reaction turbines?
Ans: The draft tube is a pipe of gradually increasing area which connects the outlet of
the runner to the tailrace. It is used for discharging water from the exit of the turbine
to the tail race.
The draft tube is an integral part of a reaction turbine. The shape of draft tube plays
an important role especially for high specific speed turbines, since the efficient
recovery of kinetic energy at runner outlet d ~ p e n d s mainly on it. Different types of
draft tubes are: (a) Straight type (b) Simple elbow type (c) Elbow type with varying
crosssection.
8. Whatdoyou mean by High Head Turbine?
Ans: The turbines which are capable of working under very high heads varying from
several hundred metres to a few thousand metres are known as high head turbine.
Such type of turbines requires less quantity of water. Pelton wheel is an example of
such type of turbines. The highest head used for a Pelton wheel in the worldi$ at
Reisseck (Austria).
9. Whatdoyou mean by reaction turbines?
Ans: In reaction turbines, no separate noz;zle is provided to expand water before it
enters the turbine. Here the shape of the blades or vanes is such that as water
enters the wheel under pressure, it expands and thus pressure head is converted
into velocity head till the former is reduced to atmospheric value before leaving the
101 BC2.1
wheel.
10. Definelmpulse Turbine.
Ans: In an impulse turbine, all the available head of water is first converted into kinetic
energy or velocity head by passing it through a nozzle. The water leaves the nozzle
in the form of a jet having very high velocity. The jet strikes a series of bucket
..
mounted onthe periphery of a wheel and thus imparts energy to it which in turn will
102 BC2.1
SECTION 0
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What is Francis/Reaction Turbine? Also draw its diagram.
Ans: Higher specific speed corresponds to a lower head. This requires that the runner
should admit a comparatively large quantity of water. For a runner of given
diameter, the maximum flow rate is achieved when the flow is parallel to the axis.
Such a machine is known as axial flow reaction turbine. An Australian engineer,
Vikton KapLan first designed such a machine. The machines in this family are
Spiral casin
j'
Runner
Draft tube
Figure Francis Turbine
called Kaplan Turbines.
The principal feature of a reaction turbine that distinguishes it from an impulse
turbine is that only a part of the total head available at the inlet to the turbine is
converted to velocity head, before the runner is reached. Also in the reaction
turbines the working fluid, instead of engaging only one or two blades, completely
fills the passages in the runner. The pressure or static head of the fluid changes
gradually as it passes through the runner alQng with the change in its kinetic
energy based on absolute velocity due to the impulse action between the fluid and
the runner. A reaction turbine is usually well suited for low heads. A radial flow
hydraulic turbine of reaction type was first developed by an American Engineer,
James B. Francis (181592) and is named after him as the Francis turbine. The
103 BC2.1
schematic diagram of a Francis turbine is shown in Fig.
2. What are the Component parts of the Francis Turbine? Explain in brief with
diagram.
Ans: A Francis turbine comprises mainly the four components:
(i) Spiral casing,
(ii) Guide on stay vanes,
(iii) Runnerblades,
(iv) Drafttube,
I) Spiral Casing : Most of these machines have vertical shafts although some
smaller machines of this type have horizontal shaft. The fluid enters from the
Slay vane
~ _   " o . ( ~ ; ..LPlan view (b) Elevation
Figure Spiral Casing
penstock (pipeline leading to the turbine from the reservoir at high altitude) to a
spiral casing which completely surrounds the runner.
This casing is known as scroll casing or volute. The crosssectional area of this
casing decreases uniformly along the circumference to keep the fluid velocity
constant in magnitude along its path towards the guide vane. This is so because
the rate of flow along the fluid path in the volute decreases due to continuous entry
of the fluid to the runner through the openings of the guide vanes or stay vanes.
Ii) Guide or Stay vane: The basic purpose of the guide vanes or stay vanes is to
convert a part of pres'sure energy of the fluid at its entrance to the kinetic energy
and then to direct the fluid on to the runner blades at the angle appropriate to the
design. Moreover, the guide vanes are pivoted and can be turned by a suitable
governing mechanism to regurate the flow while the load changes. The guide
vanes are also known as wicket gates. The guide vanes impart a tangential
velocity and hence an angular momentum to the water before its enfry to the
runner. The flow in the runner of a Francis turbine is not purely radial but a
combination of radial and tangential. The flow is inward, i.e. from the periphery
towards the centre. The height of the runner depends upon the speCific speed. The
104 BC2.1
iii) Draft tube: The draft tube is a conduit which connects the runner exit to the tail race
where the water is being finally discharged from the turbine. The primary function
of the draft tube is to reduce the velocity of the discharged water to minimize the
loss of kinetic energy at the outlet. This permits the turbine to be set above the tail
water without arW appreciable drop of available head. A clear understanding of the
function of the draft tube in any reaction turbine, in fact, is very important for the
purpose of its design. The purpose of providill9 a draft tube will be better
understood if we carefully study the net available head across a reaction turbine.
For figure of component refer Q.No. 2.
3. What is Draft Tube? What are the different types of draft tubes incorporated in
reaction turbines?
Ans: The draft tube is a pipe of gradually increasing area which connects the outlet ofthe
runner to the tail race. It is used for discharging water from the exit of the turbine to
the tail race.
The draft tube is an integral part of a reaction turbine. Its principle has been
explained earlier. The shape of draft tube plays an important role especially for
high specific speed turbines, since the efficient recovery of kinetic energy at runner
outlet depends mainly on it.
Typical draft tubes, employed in practice, are discussed as follows:
a) Straight divergent tube [Fig.{a)]: The shape of this tube is that of frustum of a
cone. It is usually employed for low specific speed, vertical shaft Francis
turbine. The cone angle is restricted to 8 0 to avoid the losses due to
separation. The tube must discharge sufficiently low under tail water level.
The maximum efficiency of this type of draft tube is 90%. This type of draft
tube improves speed regulation offalling load.
b) Simple elbow type [Fig.{b)): The vertical length of the draft tube should be
made small in order to keep down the cost of excavation, particularly in rock.
The exit diameter of draft tube should be as large as possible to recover
kinetic energy at runner's outlet. The cone angle of the tube is again fixed
from the consideration of losses due to flow separation. Therefore, the draft
tube must be benttokeep its definite length. Simple elbow type draft tube will
serve such a purpose. Its efficiency is, however, low{about60%).
(b) Simplo eibow typo (Cj Elbow type wllh
(a) Straight type
Figure Different types of draft tubes
105 BC2.1
This type of draft tube turns the water from the vertical to the horizontal direction
. with a minimum depth of excavation. Sometimes, the transition from a circular
section in the vertical portion to a rectangular section in the horizontal part (Fig. C)
is incorporated in the design to have a higher efficiency of the draft tube. The\
horizontal portion of the draft tube is generally inclined upwards to lead the water
gradually to the level of the tail race and to prevent entry of air from the exit end.
4. How to develop a Kaplan Runner from the Change in the Shape of Francis Runner
with Specific Speed? .
Ans: Figure shows in stages the change in the shape of a Francis runner with the
variation of specific speed. Thefirstthree types [Fig. (a), (b) and (c)] have, in order.
The Francis runner (radial flow runner) at low, normal and high specific speeds. As
the specific speed increases, discharge becomes more and more axial. The fourth
type, as shown in Fig.(d), is a mixed flow runner (radial flow at inlet axial flow at
Qutlet) and is known as Dubs runner which is mainly suited for high specific
speeds. Figure (e) shows a propeller type runner with a less number of blades
where the flow is entirely axial (both at inlet and outlet). This type of runner is the
mostsuitable.pne for very high specific· speeds and is known as Kaplan runner or
axial flow runner.
.. From the inlet velocity triangle for each of the five runners, as shown in Figs (a to e),
it is found that an increase in specific speed (or .a decreased in head) is
accompanied by a reduction in inlet velocity V
1
• But the flow velocity V
f1
at inlet
increases allowing a large amount of fluid to enter the turbine. The most important
point to be noted in this context is that the flow at inlet to all the runners, except the
Kaplan one, is in radial and tangential directions. Therefore, the inlet velocity
triangles of those turbines (Figure a to d) are shown in a plane containing the radial
ant tangential and hence the flow velocity V
f1
represents the radial
component of velocity.
In case of a Kaplan runner, the flow at inlet is in axial and tangential directions.
Therefore, the inlet velocity triangle in this case (Figure 8.5 e) is shown in a place
containing the axial and tangential directions, and hence the flow velocity V
Y1
represents the axial component velocity Ve' The tangential component of velocity
is almost nil at outlet of all runners. Therefore, the outlet velocity triangle (Figure
8.5 f) is identical in shape of all runners. However, the exit velocity is axial in Kaplan
and Dubs runner. while it is the radial one in all other runners.
V..
1
l
If,
(a) Francis runner for low specific speeds
106 BC2.1
1
f4 toI
T
V
W1
VI
V
f
(b) Francis runner for normal specific speeds
V
w1
j4
tot
U
1
V,,,
(c) Francis runner for high specific speeds
(d) Dubs runner
V
wt
..
1 I ..
U
1
V
/f
(e) Kaplan runner
U
1
(I) For all reaction (Francjs
as weD as Kaplan) runners V
f
Outlet velocity triangle
~
Fig. Evolution of Kaplan runner form Francis one
107 BC2.1
5. What is Pelton Wheel? What are the different components of Pelton wheel?
Explain with diamam.
Ans: The Pelton wheel or Pelton turbine is a tangential flow impulse turbine. The water
strikes the bucket,along the tangent of the runner. The energy available at th.e inlet
ofthe turbine is only kinetic energy.
The only hydraulic turbine of the impulse type in common use, is named after an
American engineer Laster A Pelton, who contributed much to its development
around the year 1880. Therefore this machine is known as Pelton turbine or Pelton
wheel. It is an efficient machine particularly suited to high heads. The rotor consists .
of a large circular disc or wheel on which a number (seldom less than 15) of spoon
shaped buckets are spaced uniformly round is periphery. The wheel is driven by
jets of water being discharged at atmospheric pressure from pressure nozzles.
The nozzles are mounted so that each directs a jet along a tangent to the circle
through the centres of the buckets (Figure 1). Down the centre of each bucket,
there is a splitter ridge which divides the jet into two equal streams which flow round
the smooth inner surface of the bucket and leaves the bucket with a relative
velocity almost opposite in direction to the original jet.
For maximum change in momentum of the fluid and hence for the maximum driving
. force on the wheel, the deflection of the water jet should be 180°. In practice,
however, the deflection is limited to about 160°so that the water leaving a bucket
may not hit the back of the following bucket. Therefore, the camber angle of the
buckets is made as =165°(9 =165°).
The number of jets is not more than two for horizontal shaft turbines and is limited to
six for vertical shaft turbines. The flow partly fills the buckets and the fluid remains
({
SidQvIaw .,,1116
nozzle
Figure A Pelton wheel
in contact with the atmosphere. Therefore, once the jet is produced by the nozzle,
the static pressure of the fluid remains atmospheric throughout the machine.
Because of the 'symmetry of the buckets, the side thrusts produced by the fluid in
each half should balance each other.
6. How to calculate the net head across a reaction turbine?
Ans: The total head at the entrance to the turbine can be found out by applying the
108 BC2.1
Bernoulli's equation between the free surface of the reservoir and the inlet to the
turbine as
where hI is the head lost due to friction in the pipeline connecting the reservoir and
V
I
2
PI
~ =  +  + z+h
(1 )
2g pg f
PI VIZ
or H
~ H h   +  +z (2)
, I  0  f  pg 2g
the turbine. Since the draft tube is a part of the turbine, the net head across the
turbine, for the conversion of mechanical work, is the difference of total head at
inlet to the machine and the total head at discharge from the draft tube at tail race
and is shown as H in Figure.
. ..J.ai./lial ...
Figure Head across a reaction'turbine
Therefore, H =total head at inletto machine (1)  total head at discharge (3)
2
V3
2
V3
2
PI V I (3)
=+ +z  =H
I
.
pg 2g 2g 2g
V
2
(4)
= ( ~  hI)  2 ~
The pressures are defined in terms of their values above the atmospheric
pressure. Section 2 and 3 in Figure represent the exits from the runner and the
draft tube respectively. 11' the losses in the draft tube are neglected, then the total
head at 2 becomes equal to that at 3. Therefore, the net head across the machine
is either (H
1
 H') or (H
1
, H2). Applying the Bernoulli's equation between 2 and 3 in
consideration of flow. without losses, through the draft tube, we can write.
Since V 3 < V2' both the terms in the bracket are positive and hence p2i rg is always
negative. which implies that the statiC pressure at the outlet of the runner is always
(5)
!i = [z+ vi Vi]
pg 2g
109 BC2,1
(6)
!l = [z+ Vi
2
vl J
pg 2g
Since V
g
< V
2
, both the terms in the bracketare positive and hence p21 rg is always
negative, which implies that the static pressure at the outlet of the runner is always
below the atmospheric pressure. Equation (1) also shows that the value of the
suction pressure at runner outlet depends on z, the height ofthe runner above the
tail race and (V2
2
 V3
2
) 12g, the decrease in kinetic energy of the fluid in the draft
tube. The value of this minimum pressure P2 should never fall below the vapour
pressure of the liquid at its operating temperature to avoid the problem of
cavitation. Therefore, we fine that the incorporation of a draft tube allows the
turbine runner to be set above the tail race without any drop of available head by
maintaining a vacuum pressure at the outlet of the runner.
7_ What is governing in case of Pelton Turbine?
Ans: The governing of a turbine is defined as the operation by which the speed of the
turbine is kept constant under all of working. It is done automatically by
means of a governor, which regulates the rate of flow through the turbines
according to the changing load conditions on the turbine.
In case of a Pelton turbine, an additional requirement for its operation at the
. condition of maximum efficiency is that the ration of bucket to initial jet velocity has
to be kept at its optimum value of about 0.46. Hence, when U is fixed. has to be
fixed. Therefore the control must be. made by a variation of the crosssectional
area, A, of the jet so that the flow rate changes in proportion to the change in the
flow area keeping the jet velocity same. This is usually achieved by a spear valve in
the nozzle (Figure a). Movement of the spear and the axis of the nozzle changes .
the annular area between the spear and the housing. The shape of the spear is
such, that the fluid coalesces into a circular jet and then the effect of!the spear
movement is to vary the diameter of the jet. Deflectors are often used (Figure b)
along with the spear valve to prevent the serious water hammer problem due to a
sudden reduction in the rate of flow. These plates temporarily defect the jet so that
the entire flow does not reach the bucket; the spear valve may then be moved
slowly to its new positit>n to reduce the rate of flow in the pipeline gradlJally. Ifthe
bucket width is too small in relation to the jet diameter, the fluid is not smoothly
deflected by the buckets and, in consequence, much energy is dissipated in
turbulence and the efficiency drops considerably. On the other hand, ifthe buckets
are unduly large, the effect of friction on the surfaces is unnElcessarily high. The
optimum value of the ratio of bucket width to jet diameter has been found to vary
between 4 and 5.
110 BC2.1
Spear valve
I
.../
"""Gtt"""""""""""""""""""""""p=rrrrn
Low load
High load
(a)
Deflector
\\
'<l"
L.._+___
. ,
... 'circle described
'+<;: . .' , by the buckets
.....,"
(b)
(a) Spear valve to alter jet area in a Pelton wheel
Figure
(b) Jet deflected from bucket
8. Analyse the force on the bucket and power generation.
Solution:
 Figure (a) shows a section through a bucket which is being acted on by a jet. The
plane of section is parallel to the axis of the wheel ·and contains the axis of the jet.
The absolute velocity of the jet with which it strikes the bucket is given by
Vi = C
v
.j2gH
'> U
...... Wheel
')Jf::o
, // II
. ,/<,/ •
,,'
//
.'
.,'
ff>/
(a)
111 BC2.1
" ' ~ ~ ~ ~
t u +, v" '1
I
V, .,
(b)
(c)
(a)Flow along the bucket of a pelton wheel
Figure
(b) I nlet velocity triangle
(c)Outict velocity triangle
where, C
v
is the coefficient of velocity which takes care of the friction in the nozzle.
H is the head at the entrance to the nozzle which is equal to the total or gross head
of water stored at high altitudes minus the head lost due to friction in the long
pipeline leading to the nozzle. Let the velocity of the bucket (due to the rotation of
the wheel) at ils centre where the jet strikes be U . Since the jet velocity V
1
is
tangential, i.e. V, and U are collinear, the diagram of velocity vector at inlet (Fig b)
becomes simply a straight line and the relative velocity is given by
= Vi U V
Y1
It is assumed that the flow of fluid is uniform and it glides the blade all along .
including the entrance and exit sections to avoid the unnecessary losses due to
shock. Therefore t h ~ direction of relative velocity at entrance and exit should
match the inlet and outlet angles of the buckets respectively. The velocity triangle
at the outlet is shown in Figure c. The bucket velocity U remains the same both at
the inlet and outlet. With the direction of U being taken as positive, we can write.
V
W1
=Vi =V'l +U
The tangential component of inlet velocity (Figure b)
=CVy2 cos ~ 2  U) V
W2
and the tangential component of outlet velocity (Figure 2c)
where V
r1
and V
r2
are the velocities of the jet relative to the bucket at its inlet and
outlet and b
2
is the outlet angle of the bucket.
From (the Euler's equation for hydraulic machines), the energy delivered by the
fluid per unit mass to the rotor can'be written as
112 BC2,1
Elm =[V",\  VlfJ] U
= +V"2 cos P2] U
(1 )
(since, in the present situation, (U
1
=U
2
=U)
The relative velocity V'2 becomes slightly less than V'1 mainly because of the friction
in the bucket. Some additional loss is also inevitable as the flUid strikes the splitter
ridge, because the ridge cannot have zero thickness. These losses are however
keptto a minimum by making the inner surface ofthe bucket pOlished and reducing
. the thickness of the splitter ridge. The relative velocity at outlet V r2 is usually
expressed as Vr2 =KV'1 where, K is a factor with a value less than 1. However in an
ideal case ( in absence of friction between the fluid and blade surface) K=1.
Therefore, we can write Eq.(1)
(2)
Elm := VI!. [1 +K cos ft2] U
If Q is the volume flow rate of the jet, then the power transmitted by the fluid to the
wheel can be written as
p =p QV
Y1
[1 +K cos I'2]U
=p Q[l +K cos  U)U (3)
The power Input to the wheel is found from the kinetic energy of the jet arriving at
the wheel and is given by 1. • Therefore the wheel efficiency of a pelton turbine
2
can be written as
2pQ[1 +K cos ](Vl  U)U
pQPj?
. [ U]U
= 2 [1+K cos 1 Pi Pi
(4)
It is found that the efficiency on K, J32 and U I V
1
. For a given design of
the bucket, Le. for constant values of J32 and K, the efficiencYTJw becomes a function
of U I V
1
only, and we can .determine the condition given by U I V
1
at which
becomes maximum.
to be maximum,
113
BC2.1
. dllw
d (U I Vi) = 2[1 + K cos 132 ][1  2 U ] = 0
Vi
. or,
UIVj ;
(5)
2
d 2YJw I d(UIV
t
)2 is always negative.
Therefore, the maximum wheel efficiency can be written after substituting the
relation given by eqn.(5) in eqn.(4) as
i1
wmaX
=
(6)
The condition given by Eq. states that the efficiency of the wheel in converting the'
kinetic energy of the jet into mechanical energy of rotation becomes maximum
whenthe wheel speed at the centre of the bucket becomes one half of the incoming
velocity of the jet. The overall efficiency ho will be less than hw because of friction in
bearing and windage, i.e. friction between the wheel and the atmosphere in which
it rotates. Moreover, as the losses due to bearing friction and windage increase
rapidly with speed, the overall efficiency reaches it peak when the ratio U / V
1
is
slightly less than the theoretical value of 0.5. The value usually obtained in practice
is about 0.46. The Fig. shows the variation of wheel efficiency hw with blade to jet
. speed ratio for assumed values at k=1 and 0.8, b
2
= 165
0
and. An overall efficiency
of 8590 percenf may usually be obtained in large machines. To obtain high values
of wheel efficiency, the buckets should have smooth surface and be properly
designed. The length, width, and depth of the buckets are chosen about 2.5, 0.4
and 0.8 times the jetdiameter. The buckets are notched for smooth entry of the jet.
1.01 1__..
'1'A"
is
c:
UJ
1
Blade speedjet speed ratio. UNI
Figure Theoretical variation of wheel efficiency for a Pelton turbine with
blade speed to jet speed ratio for different values of k
Specific speed and wheel geometry . The specific speed of a pelton wheel
depends on the ratio of jet diameter d and the wheel pitch diameter. 0 (the
114 BC2.1
diameter at the centre ofthe bucket). If the hydraulic efficiency of a pelton wheel is
defined as the ratio of the power delivered P to the wheel to the head available H at
P _ .Q 1tr.A,2:
r
,,3
_p gHTlh= t>YV"l
t1
h
(7)
4
x
2C;
Since[ Q= rr,d2Vj and V} C
v
(2gH)tl2]
4
NP12
The specific speed N'S5r
H
5l4
The optimum value of the overall, efficiency of a turbine depends both on the
values of the specific speed and the speed ratio .. The Pelton wheels with a single Jet
operate in the specific speed range of 416, and therefore the ratio Old lies
between 6.16 26 . A large value of Old reduces the rpm as weH as the mechanical
efficiency of the wheel. It is possible to increase the specific,speed by choosing a
lower value of Old, but the effici,ency wiH decrease because of the dosespacing of
buckets. The value of Old IS normally kept between 14 and 1.6 to maintain high
efficiency. The number ot buckets required to maintain opti.mum efficiency is
usually fixed by the empirical
53
n(number of buckets} = 15+
(8)
NST
115 BC2.1
SECTION E
OVERVIEW QUESTIONS
1. What do hydraulic machines do?
2. What does a penstock do?
3. Who was the first to design a Francis turbine?
4. List the main components of a francis tubine.
5. What ;is the primary function of a draft tube?
6. List the different types of draft tubes.
7. What happel'lsto the flow jn case of a Kaplan runner?
8. Name the hydraulic turbine of impulse type.
9. How is the governing Jrncase of a turbine done?
10. On woich factor does optimum value of overall efficiency of pelton turbine
depend?·
116 BC2.1
UNIT 6 : PUMPS
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The component of a centrifugal pump, which converts the mechanical energy into
hydraulic energy is
(a) impeller
(b) casing
(c) runner
(d) none ofthe above
2. The outlet angle of the impeller blades, which governs the performance of a
centrifugal pump for fast runner is
(a) more than 90 degree
(b) . less than 90 degree
(c) equal to 90 degree
(d) none of the above
3. The ratio of the dynamic h.ead and the actual head developed in a pump, is known
as
(a) hydrauliGefficiency
(b) manometric efficiency
(c) overall efficiency
(d) none ofthe above
4. In centrifugal pump
(a) the suction pipe has a larger diameter as compared to the delivery pipe
(b) the suction pipe is provided with a foot valve & a strainer
(c) the discharge control valve is fitted in the delivery pipe
(d) all of the above
5. Viscosity of an oil changes with
(a) temperature
(b) speed
(c) weight
(d) type of bearing
117 BC2.1
6. A lubricant with high viscosity index is desirable, but it is used only In those places
which are:subjected to •
(a) high range of temperature
(b) low range of temperature
(c) below freezing point
(d) very high range of pressure
7. When the vanes of an impeUer have neither base plate, nor the crown plate, then it
is known as:
(a) shrouded impeller
(b) closed impeller
(c) semiopen impeller
(d) open impeller
8. A low head pump is that which is capable of working against a total head of
(a) 5m
(b) 15m
(c) 40m
(d) morethan40m
9. The valve provided in a suction pipe is. called as:
. (a) Float Valve
(b) Gate Valve
(c) Foot Valve
(d) TwoWay Valve
10. A highly viscous oil leads to a greater resistance, so in machines it will cause:
(a) Minimum power loss
(b) Maximum Power Loss
(c) Increase in Power
(d) None ofthe above
Answer Key:
1. c \2. a I 3. b I 4. d I 5. a \6. a 1 7<d 1
8
. b \9. c 1
10
. b I
118 BC·2.1
SECTIONB
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. A pump is called reciprocating because a piston or plunger moves to & fro in a
close fitted cylinder.
2. A very thin layer of lubricant just adjacent to the bearing will be at rest & very thin
layer of lubricant just adjacent to the shaft will be revolving at same speed as that
of shaft.
3. The valve provided in a suction pipe is called as Float Valve
4. A lubricant with high viscosity index is desirable, but it is used only In those places
which are subjected to high range oftemperature.
5. In centrifugal pump the suction pipe has a larger diameter as compared to the
delivery pipe
Answer Key:
1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T
119 BC2.1
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
1. What are Reciprocating Pumps?
Ans: Reciprocating pumps use a piston, plunger, or diaphragm to raise the pressure of a
liquid. The pumping chambers are surrounded by oneway valves so that liquid
can only move in from the lowpressure side and out from the high pressure side.
They are classed as "single acting" if fluid is moved only on the downstroke, or
"double acting" iffluid is moved by both sides of the piston.
Reciprocating pumps are no longer common in most industrial installations. They
are best for low volume, high head applications (up to 50000 psi). They cannot be
used when pulsating flow is a problem.
2. What isPumps? What are the different types of Pumps?
Ans: It is a mechanical device which when interposed in a pipe line, transfer energy from
some external source to the liquid flowing the rein.
There are two main categories of pumps  positive displacement and centrifugal.
The choice is based on the liquid to be pumped and the desired head and capacity.
3. What are Rotary Pumps?
Ans: Rotary pumps use a gear, lobe, screw, cam, or vane to compress liquid. Liquid
enters through a gap between the rotating element and pump wall at a low
pressure where it is trapped. Then, as the element rotates, it squeezes the liquid
out through a oneway valve on the opposite side of the casing.
4. What are the advantages of Centrifugal Pumps over Reciprocating Pump?
Ans: The advantages of centrifugal pumps over reci procating pumps are;
1. The simplest centrifugal pumps are cheaper than the simplest reci procating
pumps.
2. Centrifugal pumps deliver liquid at uniform pressure without shocks or
pulsations.
3. They. can be directly connected to motor derive without the use of gears or
belts.
4. Valves in the discharge line may be completely closed without injuring them.
5. They can handle liquids with large amounts of solids in suspension.
5. What is the of specific speed?
Ans: The specific speed inversely proportional to the head across themachine. So low
specific corresponds to high head across it and viceversa. The specific
speed is directly proportional to the discharge through the machine or power
120 BC·2.1
produced by the machine. So low specific speed therefore refers to low discharge
or low power machine and viceversa.
6. What are the different performance characteristic curves?
Ans: The different performance of characteriStics curves are:
i) Variable speed curves (or) main characteristics
ii) Constant speed curves (or) operating characteristics
iii) Constant efficiency curves (or) Muschel characteristics
7. Differentiate between single acting and double acting reciprocating pump.
Ans: In single acting pump, there is one suction valve and one delivery valve. On the
backward stroke of the piston, the suction valve opens and water enters into the
cylinder space. On the forward stroke, the suction valve closes and deliYery valve
opens, the water is forced through the deliverypipe.
In the double acting pump, there are two suction valves and two delivery vales one
in the front and one in the rear. When the piston moves backward, the suction valve
in the front opens and delivery valve in the rear opens and water is forced through
it. When the piston moves forward, the suction valve in the rear opens and delivery
valve in the front opens and water is forced throughit.
8. Name some rotary positive displacement pumps.
Ans: The various types of positive displacement pumps are:
a. Gear pumps.
b. Vane Pumps.
c. Piston pumps.
d. Screw pumps.
9. What are positive displacement machines?
Ans: The machine functioning depend essentially on the change of volume of a certain
amount of fluid within the machine. There is a physical displacement of the
boundary of certain fluid hence it is called positive displacement machine.
121 BC2.1
SECTION D
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What is Pump? What are the different types of Pumps?
Ans:
Pump: It is a mechanical device which when interposed in a pipe line, transfer
energy from some external source to the liquid flowing there in.
There are two main categories of pumps  positive displacement and centrifugal.
The choice is based on the liquid to be pumped and the desired head and capacity.
Types of Pump
Centrifugal pumps are probably most common in industrial applications. They may
be built in a very large number of materials. Capacity ranges up to 6000 gpm are
common, as are heads to 600 feet, all without special drivers. Performance drops
off significantly when handling viscous fluids or when air or vapor are present in the
liquid.
For a given head and capacity, centrifugal pumps tend to be smaller and lighter
than other types, hence costs are lower.
Positive Displacement Pumps
Positive displacement pumps operate by trapping a fixed volume of liquid then
releasing it to a higher pressure by means of a piston or rotary gear.
Reciprocating Pumps
Reciprocating pumps use a piston, plunger, or diaphragm to raise the pressure of a
liquid. The pumping chambers are surrounded by oneway valves so that liquid
can only move in from the low pressure side and out from the high pressure side.
They are classed as "single acting" if fluid is moved only on the downstroke, or
"double acting" iffluid is moved by both sides of the piston.
Because of the mechanism, these pumps produce a pulsating flow; but since flow
is independent of head, they can be used to produce large pressure changes.
Reciprocating pumps are no longer common in most industrial installations. They
are best for low volume, high head applications (up to 50000 psi). They cannot be
used when pulsating flow is a problem.
Diaphragm pumps are a subclass of reciprocating pump. The pumping chamber
is separated from the moving parts by a flexible diaphragm. Their chief advantage
is that the fluid being pumped never comes in contact with the mechanism and
eliminates leakage; thus they are good for toxic or very expensive liquids. They
cannot produce large head differences.
122 BC2.1
Rotary Pumps
Rotary pumps use a gear, lobe, screw, cam, or vane to compress liquid. Liquid
enters through a gap between the rotating element and pump wall at a "low
pressure where it is trapped. Then, as the element rotates, it squeezes the liquid
out through a oneway valve on the opposite side of the casing.
Typically, rotary pumps are used in high head, low flow applications. They are good
for high viscosity and low vapor pressure fluids. The fluid pumped must be
"lubricating": solids cannot be present. A key difference from centrifugal pumps is
that discharge pressure variation has little effect on capacity.
Rotary pumps are common in laboratory settings because they have constant
displacement at a set speed, and so can be used as metering pumps. Rotary
pumps are also extremely common in fluidpower applications.
2. Write a note on Powerofa Pump.
Ans: All pumps must have a driver to supply power. Typically, drivers are electric motors
or steam turbines; gas engines may be used in remote locations. As a general rule,
motors are single speed devices  variable speed motor drivers are expensive 
while turbines can be operated at variable speed by the addition of a governor.
The power requirement of a pump depends on the total head developed and the
mass to be pumped per unit time. It is calculated by multiplying the shaft work term,
Ws, by the mass 'flowrate.
P
f
=ml1H
P = Pf :::: ml1H
E
1'/ 1'/
P = PE =ml1H
D
1'/D 1'/1'/D
When considering power requirements, be sure you know what you are trying to
find. Do you want the power delivered to the fluid (Pf), sometimes called the "work",
"water", or "liquid" horsepower? If so, the pump efficiency isn't needed.
Do you want the power supplied to the pump (PB), usually called the "brake
horsepower" (bhp)? This will be a smaller number since it accounts for leakage and
friction losses. To get it, just include the efficiency (defined as LHP/BHP). If you
want the power supplied to the driver, you need to include the driver and coupling
efficiencies as well.
Pump efficiencies typically range between about 65 and 80%. Driver efficiencies
are higher, at 80 to 90%.
123 BC2.1
3. A centrifugal Pump impeller has an extemal diameter of 12 inches and a discharge
area of 1.2ft. The blades are bent backwards so that the direction of the relative
velocity at the discharge surface makes an angle of 145
0
degrees with the tangent
to this surface drawn in the direction of the impeller rotation. The diameters of the
suction and delivery pipes are 12in. and 9in. respectively.
Gauges at points on the suction and delivery pipes close to the pump ana each 5ft.
above the level of the supply sump show heads of 12 ft. below and 62ft. above
atmospheric pressure when the pump is delivering 7.2 cusec. of water at
1200r.p.m. It requires 96 h.p. to drive the pump.
'1,... J
I
Find
a. the overall efficiency.
b. The manometric or hydraulic efficiency assuming that the water enters
the impeller without shock or whirl.
c. The loss of head in the suction pipe.
Solution:
a) Overall Efficiency:
Suction Pipe Velocity VB = 7.2 + = 9.17ft/sec
Delivery Pipe Velocit Vd = 7.2 + = 16.3It/8cc.
124 BC2.1
2
anom.etric Head = Pd  Pll + vj  V
s
W 29
2
= 74 + 16.3  9.172 _
29  76.82 ft.
Pump out put = Hm = 62.4 x 7.2 x 76.82
050 29 = 62.8 h.p.
Thus the overall 1/ = =65.4%
b) The Manometric Efficiency Equals The Manometric Head Divided By The Euler
Head:
1rd
i
N 1r x 1 x l200
1.
1
1 = = . =: 62.84 ItI sec.
60 60 .
The velocity of flow = .sl.A = "1,22 = 6 It/sec.
rea 1.
From Velocity triangle VI  Vwl = = 8.57 It/sec.
V
W1
= 62.84  8.57 = 54.27 ItI sec.
Workdoneperlb.ofwater = = 105.9 It.
. 76.8 07
T heAl anom.etrl,cTJ = = 72.5/0
105.9
c) The Head Lost In The Suction Pipe:
Apply Bernoulli's equation to the supply sump and at the suction flange.
2 .
pa v: 2 + h
0=  +  + S /It
W 29
9.17
2
= 12+ +5+h/
IJ
64.4
h/a = 5.69 ft.
125 BC·2.1
4. A Centrifugal Pump has vanes curved backwards so that the tangent to the vanes
makes an angle of 30 degrees with the tangent to the periphery. The impeller
diameter is 10 in. and the width 3/4 in. Vane thickness takes up 15% of the
peripheral area.
Assuming that 50% of the kinetic energy at exit from the impeller is lost in eddies,
calculate, on the usual assumptions, what will be the lift and manometric efficiency
when discharging 400gallons/min. at a speed of 11 OOr.p.m.
Solution:
Given Data:
Discharge, Q = 400 galls/min.
Diameter of Impeller =10 in.
Width of Impeller =3/4 in.
Speed of Impeller =1100 r.p.m.
Q = 400 galls/min. = 4000 lb/min. = 6 4000 = 1.068 ttl/sec.
Ox 62.4
Thus
Vfl = J : ~ Q _ 1.068
X a:rea. 0.85 X 7r X 10 X .:L = 7.68 Itj sec.
12 4x 12
10 X 1100
;rd
1
N ;r X 12 = 48 Itjsec.
Vt = =
and (Vt  V,wt) = VII ; tan 30 = 13.3 Itj sec.
V ~ . i = 48.0  13.3 = 34.7 Itjsec.
126 BC2.1
Therefore work done per second is
(Assuming Vro = 0 )
34.7 x 48
= 32.2 = 51.7 ft.
The Casing losses =.!. V? _ 1· "J'1 + V;1
2 2g  '2 2g = 9.8 ft.
Therefore, neglecting the impeller loss
Hm . 51.7  9.8 = 41.9 ft.
and the manometric '1 = =81%
5. Write the various effect of blade outlet angle.
Ans: The headdischarge characteristic of a centrifugal pump depends (among other
things) on the outlet angle of the impeller blades which in turn depends on blade
settings. Threetypes of blade settings are possible (i) the forward facing for which
the blade. curvature is in the direction of rotation and, therefore, 90° (Fig. a), (ii)
radial, when 132 =90° (Fig. b), and (iii) backward facing for which the blade curvature
is in a direction opposite to that of the impeller rotation and therefore, < 90° (Fig.
c). The outlet velocity triangles for all the cases are also shown in Figs. a, b, c. From
the geometry of any triangle, the relationship between V wI U
2
and can be written
as.
Vw2 =U2 Vf2 cot P2
a) Forward..faclng vanes 'b) RadIal vanes
Figure Outlet velocity triangles for different blade settings ina centrifugal pump
127 BC2.1
In case of forward facing blade, P2> 90°and hence cot P2 is negative and therefore
V
w2
is morethanU
2
.In case of radial blade, pz=90oand V
w2
= Uzln case of backward
facing blade, pz < 90°and V w2 < U
z
Therefore the sign of K
z
, the constant in the.
theoretical headdischarge relationship depends accordingly on the type of blade
setting as follows:
For forward curved blades Kz < 0
For radial blades Kz = 0
For backward curved blades Kz > 0
With the incorporation of above conditions, the relationship of head and discharge
for three cases are shown in Figure. These curves ultimately revert to their more
recognized shapes as the actual headdischarge characteristics respectively after
consideration of all the losses Figure.
For both radial and forward facing blades, the power is rising monotonically as the
flow rate is increased. In the case of backward facing blades, the. maximum
efficiency occurs in the region of maximum power. If, for some reasons, a
increases beyond aD there occurs a decrease in power. Therefore the motor used
to drive the pump at part load, but rated at the design point, may be safely used at
the maximum power. This is known as selflimiting characteristic. In case of radial
and forwardfacing blades, if the pump motor is rated for maximum power, then it
will be under utilized most of the time, resulting in an increased cost for the extra
rating. Whereas, i'f a smaller motor is employed, rated at the design point, then if a
increases above aD the motor will be overloaded and may fail. It, therefore,
becomes more difficult to decide on a choice of motor in these later cases (radial
and forwardfacing blades).
H I Forward facing(Pz>900j
. c:::::: Radial (11.=90")
11  ..,..... 1.0..11\.<90'1
IL'~ ___________________________~ ~ __
Q
Figure Theoretical headdischarge characteristic curves of a
centrifugal pump for different blade settings
128 BC2.1
P.H
Power
Forward
Q
Figure Actual headdischarge and powerdischarge characteristic
curves of a centrifugal pump
6. What do you mean by Manometric Head and Manometric Efficiency in case of
Centrifugal Pump?
Ans: Manometric Head:
This is defined by British Standards as the sum of the actual lift (H) + the friction
losses in the pipes + the discharge velocity head. However for special pumps
allowance must also be made for the velocity of flow towards the suction intake and
any pressure differences at the watersurfa.ces in the supply and receiving tanks.
Thus
2
·H H h Vd
= + J+
m 29
2
:....P2_....:.P....:..1 + vi  V1
W 29
Commonly the suction and delivery pipes are of equal diameter.
In which case:
H _ P2  PI
m  .
w
f the two pressures are registered on different gauges. A correction must be made
for any difference in the datum heights of the gauges.
129 BC2.1
Manometric Efficiency:
This is defined as the Manometric head divided by the work done by the impeller on
the water.
11 =Hm + Vol1u; Vrou
g
and V wis usually zero
7.' What do you mean by Slip and Slip Factor? Explain in detail.
Ans: Under certain circumstances, the angle at which the fluid leaves the impeller may
not be the same as the actual blade angle. This is due to a phenomenon known as
fluid slip, which finally results in a reduction in V w2the tangential component of fluid
velocity at impeller outlet. One possible explanation for slip is given as follows.
In course of flow through the impeller passage, there occurs a difference in
pressure and velodty between the leading and trailing faces ofthe impeller blades.
On the leading face of a blade there is relatively a high pressure and low velocity,
while on the trailing face, the pressure is lower and hence the velocity is higher.
This results in a circulation around the blade and a nonuniform velocity distribution
at any radius. The mean direction of flow at outlet, under this situation, changes
from the blade angle at outlet 132 to a different angle 132 as shown in Figure.
Therefore the tangential velocity component at outlet V
W2
is reduced to V'W2' as
shown by the velocity triangles in Figure, and the difference t:N)s defined as the
slip. The slip factor O'sis defined asO's= V'w2/V'w2.The typical values of slip factor lie
in the region of 0.9.
u
J
..•• ,  ,  . ~ .  .  Ideal
Actual
1
AV
w
+ High pressure
 Low pressure
Figure Slip and velocity in the impeller blade passage of a centrifugal pump
130 BC·2,1
8. What are the various factors which influence the choice of pump?
Ans: Selection of Pumps:
The following factors influence the choice of pump for a particular operation:
1. The quantity of liquid to be handled: This primarily affects the size of the pump
and determines whether it is desirable to use a number of pumps in parallel.
2. The head against whIch the liquid is to be pumped. This will be determined by
the difference in pressure, the vertical height of the downstream and
upstream reservoirs and by the frictional losses which occur in the delivery
line. The suitability of a centrifugal pump and the number of stages required
will largely be determined by this factor.
3. The nature of the liquid to be pumped. For a given throughput, the viscosity
largely determines the frictional losses and hence the power required. The
corrosive nature will determine the material of construction both for the pump
and the packing. With suspensions, the clearance in the pump must be large
compared with the size ofthe particles.
4. The nature of power supply. If the pump is to be driven by an electric motor or
internal combustion engine, a highspeed centrifugal or rotary pump will be
preferred as it can be coupled directly to the motor.
5. If the pump is used only intermittently, corrosion troubles are more likely than
with continuous working.
9. What are the advantages Reciprocating pumps over centrifugal pumps and vice
versa?
Ans: The advantages of reciprocating pumps in general over centrifugal pumps may be
summarized as follows:
1. They can be designed for higher heads than centrifugal pumps.
2. They are not subject to air binding, and the s u c ~ i o n may be under a pressure
less than atmospheric without necessitating special devices for priming.
3. They are more flexible in operation than centrifugal pumps.
4. They operate at nearly constant efficiency over a wide range of flow rates.
The advantages of centrifugal pumps over reciprocating pumps are:
1. The simplest centrifugal pumps are cheaper than the simplest reciprocating
pumps.
2. Centrifugal pumps deliver liquid at uniform pressure without shocks or
pulsations.
3. They can be directly connected to motor derive without the use of gears or
belts.
4. Valves in the discharge line may be c.ompletely closed without injuring them.
5. They can handle liquids with large amounts of solids in suspension.
The general result ofthe above considerations is strongly in favor ofthe centrifugal
pump.
131 BC21
10. Pump delivers 400 g.p.m against a head of 110ft. when running at 1.400 r.p.m. A
geometrically similar pump 1.5timesthe linear size operates at 1200 r.p.m.
Determine the head and discharge of the larger pump assuming that both pumps
are working at their points of maximum efficiency.
Assume that the pumps are working under dynamically similar conditions.
Solution:
From equation:
i.e.
=
( ~ ~ ) ' ( ~ : ) '
G!)' G)' =  : ~
therefore
81 .
H.} =  X 110 = 182 ft.
 49
Also from equation·
_ 12 ( ~ ) : ~ _ 81
14 2 28
therefore
81
. Q2 = 28 x 400 1160g.p.m.
132 BC2.1
SECTION E
OVER VIEW QUESTIONS
1. Which factor changes the viscosity of an oil?
2. What does high viscous oil lead to in machines?
3. List the different types of reciprocating pumps.
4. Which are the most common pumps used in industries?
5. Write the expression for manometric efficiency.
6. What happens due to a fluid slip?
7. Which factors influence the choice of a pump?
8. How do the centrifugal pumps deliver liquids?
9. Why is rotary pump preferred for electric pump?
10. What does power requirement of a pump depend upon?
133 BC2.1
Applied Hydraulics & Fluid Machines
(Be 2.1)
Date: 21st, July, 2008 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
• Assume any missing data if necessary.
Section A
• Choose the correct or best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
1. If the dynamic viscosity of the fluid is 0.5 poise and specific gravity is 0.5, then the
kinetic viscosity ofthe fluid in stokes is
a. 0.25 b. 0.50
c. 1 .0 d. None of the above
2. The intensity of pressure developed by surface tension of 0.0075 kg/m in a droplet
of water of 0.075 mm diameter is
a. 0.08 kg/cm2 b. 0.06 kg/cm2
. c. 0.04 d. 40
3. The increase in metacentric height
(i.) increases stability
(ii.) decreases stability
(iii.) increases comfort for passengers
(iv. )decreases comfort for passengers
The correct answer is
a. (i) and (ii)
b. (i) and (iv)
c. (ii) and (iv)
d. (iii) and (iv) .
4. The horizontal component of force on a curved surface is eq ual to the
a. Product of pressure intensity at its centroid of area
b. Force on a vertical projection of the curved surface
c. Weight on a vertical projection ofthe curved surface
d. Force on the horizontal projection ofthe curved surface
134 BC2.1
7
5. In a two dimensional incompressible steady flow around a airfoil, the stream lines
are 2 cm apart at a great distance from the airfoil, where the velocity is 30 m/sec.
The velocity near the airfoil, where the stream lines are 1.5 em apart is
a. 22.5 m/sec
b. 33m/sec
c. 40m/sec
d. 90m/sec
6. Least possible value of correction factor for
(i.) Kinetic energy is zero
(iL) Kinetic energy is 1
(iiL)Momentum is zero
(iv.)Momentum is 1
The correct answer is
a) (i) and (ii)
b) (i) and (iv)
c) Oi) and (iii)
d) (ii) and (iv)
In a forced vortex motion, the velocityofthe flow is
a. Directly proportional to its radial distance from the axis of rotation·
b. Inversely proportional to its radial distance from the axis of rotation
c. Inversely proportional to the square of its radial distance from the axis of
rotation
d. Directly proportional to the square of its radial distance from the axis of
rotation
8. Due to each end contraction, the discharge of rectangular sharp crested weir is
reduced by
a. 5%
b. 10%
c. 15%
d. 20%
9. If the velocity is zero over half of the cross sectional area and is uniform over the
remaining half, then the momentum correction factor is
a 1
b. 4/3
135 BC2.1
c. 2
d. 4
10. The magnitude of the component of velocity at a point (1,1) for a stream function
'1'= x
2
iis equal to
a. 2
b. 2";2
c. 4
d. 4";2
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1. The falling drops of water become sphere due to surface tension of water.
2. When the two tanks having different water levels are connected by an orifice at
their bottom, the time required to bring the water surfaces at the same levels is
directly proportional to difference of initial water levels.
3. If a convergent mouthpiece is replaced by a convergentdivergent mouthpiece,
then the discharge through the mouthpiece \i\fill remain same.
4. In the casing of centrifugal pump, the kinetic energy of water is converted into
pressure energy.
5. The slip of a reciprocating pump is the difference of theoretical discharge and
actual discharge.
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks ..
• Maximum limit 150 words per question.
1. State limitations of Bernoulli's Theorem.
2. What is Cripoletti weir? What is its advantage?
3. Explain the reasons for connecting two tanks with the pipes in parallel.
4. Explain the term critical velocity.
136 BC2.1
5. What do you understand by the term 'specific turbine' and 'specific speed'?
6. Distinguish between upper and lower critical velocity.
7. Define velocity of approach. How does it affects the discharge over weir.
8. . How would you find the total pressure and resultant pressure on a curved
surface immersed influid.
Section'D
• .Answer any three questions out of five questions.
• Each question carries equal marks.
1. Water is discharging from a tank through a convergentdivergent mouthpiece. The
exit from the tank is rounded so that losses there may be neglected and the
minimum diameter is 0.05m. If the head in the tank above the centreline of the
"'. :...b
mouthpiece is 1.83m. a) What is the discharge? b) What must be the diameter at
the exit if the absol,ute pressure at the minimum area is to be 2.44m of water? c)
What would the' discharge be if the divergent part of the mouth piece were
removed?
2. A Venturimeter is to fitted in a horizontal pipe of 0.15m diameter to measure a flow
of water which is upto 240rn3/hour. The pressure head at the inlet for this flow is
18m above atmospheric and the pressure head at the throat must not be lower
than 7m below atmospheric. Between the inlet and the throat there is an estimated
frictional loss of 10% of the difference in pressure head between. these points.
Calculate the minimum allowable diameter for the throat.
3. An old water supply distribution pipe of 250mm diameter is to be replaced by two
parallel pipes of equal diameter having equal lengths and identical values of
coefficient offriction. Find the diameter ofthe new pipes.
4. A right angled triangular notch and a rectangular notch of 0.5m width are used
alternatively for measuring the discharge of about 20 liters/sec. Find in each case,
the percentage of error in measuring discharge, if an error of 2 mm is expected in
measuring the head of water in both the cases, Assume Cd for triangular and
rectangular notches as 0.62 and 0.63 respectively.
5. Derive an equation forthe power required to drive a centrifugal pump.
137 BC2.1
Applied Hydraulics &Fluid Machines
(Be 2.1)
• Assume any missing data if necessary.
Date: 15th, Jan, 2009 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choose the corrector best alternative in the following.
•• Each question carries two marks.
1. Newton's law of viscosity relates
(a) Intensity of pressure and rate of angular deformation
(b) Shear stress and rate of angular deformation
(c) Shear stress, viscosity and temperature
(d) Viscosity and rate of angular deformation
2. Surface tension of water
(a) Increases with decrease in temperature
(b) Decreases with increase in temperature
(c) Is independent oftemperature
(d) None ofthe above
3. The intensity of pressure developed by surface tension of 0.0075 kg/min a droplet
of water of 0.075 mm diameter is
(a) 0.08 kg/cm
2
(b) 0.06 kg/cm
2
(c) 0.04 kg/cm2
(d) 40 kg/cm
2
4. A floating body is said to be in a state of stable equilibrium
(a) When its Metacentric height is zero
(b) When the metacentre is above the centre of gravity
(c) When the metacentre is below the centre of gravity
(d) Only when its centre of gravity is below its centre of buoyancy
138 BC2.1
5. An open cubical tank 2m side is filled with water. If the tank is rotated with an
acceleration such that half of the water spills out, then the acceleration is equal to
(a) g/3
(b) g/2
(c) 2g/3
(d) 9
6. When the velocity distribution is uniform aver the crosssection, the correction
factor for the momentum is
(a) 0
(b) 1
(c) 4/3
(d) 2
7. Which of the following velocity potentials satisfies the continuity equation
(a)
(b) x"y
2 2
(c) X  Y
(d) cos x
x2 + y2
8. In steady flow of a fluid, the total acceleration of any fluid particle
(a) Can be zero
(b) Is never zero
(c) Isalwayszero
(d) Is independent of the coordinates
9. Super critical flow can occur in a
(a) Channel with mild slope
(b) Channel with a steep slope
(c) A horizontal channel
(d) All of the above
10. Selectthe nondimensional parameter from the following
(a) Specific weight
(b) Manning's coefficient
(c) Angular velocity
(d) Specific gravity
139 BC2.1
Section 8
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1 . The centre of pressure acts below the centre of gravity of the immersed surface.
2. The maximum hydraulic efficiency of impulse turbine is equal to (1 +coscp}/2.
3. An orifice is said to be large if available head of water is more than 5 times of its
height.
4. The discharge in an open channel corresponding to the critical depth is minimum.
5. In a centrifugal pump with vortex casing, eddies are reduced to a considerable
extent with corresponding increase in efficiency.
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks
• Maximum limit 150 words per question
1. State the assumptions of Bernoulli's Theorem.
2. Differentiate between free vortex flow and forced vortex flow.
3. Explain the reasons for connecting two tanks with the pipes in parallel.
4. Explain the term critical velocity.
5. Explain the terms geometric similarity, kinematic similarity, and dynamic similarity.
6. . Name the different types of casings for the impeller of centrifugal pumps.
7. Give the range of specific speed values of Kaplan, Francis, and Pelton Wheels.
8. What is the difference between laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow.
140 BC2.1
Section 0
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries ten marks
1. A 150 mm x 75 mm venturimeter is connected in a pipe discharging water, which is
inclined at an angle of 45° with the horizontal. Find the discharge through the
venturimeter, if the mercury gauge show$ a deflection of 175 mm and coefficient of
discharge for venturi meter is 0.95.
2. A rectangular swimming pool is 1 m deep at one end and increases uniformly in
depth to 2.6m at the other end'. The pool is 8m wide and 32m long and is emptied
through an orifice of area 0.224m2, at the lowest point in the side of the deep end.
Taking Cd for the orifice as 0.6, find, from first principles, a) the time for the depth to
fall by 1 m b) the time to empty the pool completely.
3. Two pipes are connected parallel to each other between two reservoirs with
lengths, diameters, and Darcy's coefficient to be 2400m, 1.2m, 0.006; and 2400m,
1:0m, and 0.0005 respectively. Find the total flow, if the difference in elevation is
20m.
4. A pipeline of 300mm diameter and 3200m length is used to pump 50 cU.m. per
second of oil whose specific gravity is 0.95 and kinematic viscosity is 2.1 stokes.
The centre of the pipe line at the upper end is 40m above that at the lower end. Find
the difference of pressures at the ends.
5. An old water supply distribution pipe of 250mm diameter is to be replaced by two
parallel pipes of equal diameter having equal lengths and identical values of
coefficient of friction. Find the diameter of the new pipes.
6. A log of wood 0.9m in diameter and 7.5m long is floating in river water. If the
specific gravity of log is 0.7, what is the depth of wooden log in water.
7. A trapezoidal channel with side slopes' : 1 has to be designed to convey 10 m3/s at
a velocity of 2 m/sec, so that the concrete lining for the bed and sides is
minimum. (i) calculate the area of lining required for one metre length of canal (ii) if
the rugosity coefficient N=0.015, calculate the bed slope of the canal for uniform
flow.
8. A centrifugal pump impeller has at outlet a diameter of 360mm and width of 60mm.
The vanes are curved backwards at 35°to the tangent at outer periphery and the
thickness of vanes occupies 20% of the peripheral area and the velocity of flow is
constant from inlet to outlet. The impeller rotates at 800 rpm. If the rate of flow
through the pump is 0.13 m3/sec, deterrnine (i)the pressure rise in impeller (ii) the
percentage oftotal work converted to kinetic energy.
141 BC2.1
Applied Hydraulics & Fluid Machines
(Be 2.1)
'
• Assume any missing data if necessary .
Date: 22ndJune 2009 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choose the correct or the best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
1. Critical flow occurs in an open channel when
[a] specific energy is minimum forgiven discharge
[b] discharge is minimum for given specific energy
[c] discharge is independent of slope
[d] Froudenumberis2000
2. In agradually varied flow, the channel bed slope SO and energy slope Sf are related
by
[a] SO:;t:Sf
[b] SO>Sf
[c] So <Sf
[d] So ::::Sf
. 3. The thickness of a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is 2 cm at x:::: Ll2. The
thickness at x::::L is
[a] 8 cm
[b] 4.414cm
[c] 4.707 crn
[d] 2.828cm
4. The velocity distribution in turbulent boundary layer is nearly uniform over a greater
part of the layer. This is due to
[a] change from laminar to turbulent conditions
[b] rapid growth of boundary layer thickness
[c] effect of viscous friction
[d] transverse mixing offluid particles
142 BC2.1
L
5. The form drag component of profile drag is the highest in the case of a
[a] parallel flat plate
[b] normal flat plate
[c] circular cylinder
[d] aerofoil
6. A series of normal flat vanes are mounted on the periphery of a wheel, the vane
speed being v. For maximum efficiency, the speed of liquid jet striking the vanes
should be
[a] v/3
[b] v/2
[c] v
. [d] 2v
7. Hydraulic efficiency ofthe waterturbine is the ratio of
[a] power from runner to water power atturbine entrance
[b] power of shaft to water power at turbine entrance
[c] power of shaft to power from runner
[d] power from run ner to shaft power
8. The hydraulic turbines are said to be dynamically similar when they are
geometrically similar and have
[a] similar stream lines
[b] same cavitation number
[c] same efficiency
[d] same Reynold's number
9. Acentrifugal pump fails to lift liquid if
[a] centrifugal head is less than Hm
[b] excessive shock losses occur at exit of impeller
[c] delivery pipe is leaky
[d] shaft alignment is defective
10. The local drag coefficient for laminar boundary layer flow is
[a] .0587/R.
115
[b] O.0735/R.
115
[c] O.6671.J(R.)
[d] 1.328/.J(R
e
)
143 BC2.1
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1. Hydraulically efficient channel cross section is the one which carries maximum
discharge under given conditions of slope, roughness and flow area.
2. The resistance due to viscosity is confined to boundary layer only. The fluid
outside the boundary layer may be considered as ideal.
3. Main characteristics curves of turbine are the performance curves obtained under
conditions of constant head. '
4. Prismatic channels are those which have the shape of prism.
5. The percentage power saving achieved by fitting air vessels to reciprocating
pumps is more in the case of double acting pump as compared to single acting
pump.
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks
• Maximum limit 150 words per question
1. The average Froude number of flow in a horizontal channel is 0.5. If the wate
sUrface slopes downward at 1 in 100, what is the slope ofthe energy line?
2. In a gradually varied flow on a steep channel, F=2 and 8
0
8
r
=0.0006. What is the
slope of water su rface?
3. If the Reynolds number of the flow pasta smooth flat plate is 10
6
, what proportion of
its length is likely to be covered by laminar boundary layer?
4. A circular cylinder is of 10 cmdiameter and 50 cm length. It is exposed to an air
stream of uniform velocity 10 mls with its curved surface facing the flow .If Cd = 1.2
and density of air = 1.2 Kg/m
3
, what is the drag?
5. What is a critical control section?
6. What isthe limit slope of open channel?
144 BC2.1
7. What is the primary objective of using more than one jet in Pelton wheel
installation?
8. Whydodrafttubes have enlarging passage area in the direction offlow?
Section 0
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions
• Each question carries ten marks.
1 . A gutter in the shape of isosceles triangle conveys wastewater at a uniform depth of
250mm. If the discharge is 0.04 cu.m.lsec, determine the gradient of trough. Use
Chezy's formula assuming C=52.
2. A river 45m wide has normal depth of flow of 3m and an average bed slope of 1 in
10,000. A weir is built across the river raising the water surface level at the weir side
to 5m above the bottom of river. Assuming that the back water curve is an arc of
circle, calculate the approximate length of backwater curve. Consider that the river
is prismatic. Take Manning's n as 0.025.
3. Find the ratio of friction drag on the front half and rear hall of the flat plate kept at
zero incidence in a stream of uniform velocity, if the boundary layer is laminar over
the whole ofthe plate.
4. A jet of 50 mm diameter impinges on a curved vane and is deflected through an
angle of 175°. the vane moves in the same direction as that of jet with a velocity of
35 mls. If the rate of flow is 170 lit/s, determine the component of force on the vane
in the direction of motion. How much would be the power d e v e l o p ~ d by the vane
and what would be the water effiCiency? Neglect friction.
5. A three stage centrifugal pump has impellers 400 mm in diameter and 20 mm wide
at outlet. The vanes are curved back at the outlet at 45° and reduce the
circumferential area by 10%. The manometric efficiency is 90% and overall
efficiency is 80%. The pump is operating at 100 rpm and delivering 0.05 m
3
/sec.
determine (i) head generated by the pump (ii) Shaft power required to run the
pump.
6. A Kaplan turbine develops 22000 kW at an average head of 35m. Assuming a
speed ratio of 2, flow ratio of 0.6, diameter of the boss equal to 0.35 times the
diameter of runner and overall efficiency of 88%, calculate the diameter, speed,
and specific speed ofthe turbine.
7. Design a concrete lined channel to carry a discharge of 500 m
3
/s at a slope of 1 in
4000. the side slopes of channel may be taken as 1 :1. The Manning's roughness
145 BC2.1
coefficient for the lining is 0.014. Assume the permissible velocity in the section as
2.5m/sec.
\ ' : ~
8. The diameter and stroke of single acting reciprocating pump are 300mm and 500
mm respectively. The pump takes its supply of water from sump 3.2 m below the
pump axis through a pipe 9m long and 200 mm diameter. If separation occurs
at 2.4m of water absolute, determine (i) the speed at which separatio may take
place at the beginning of suction stroke (ii) the speed of pump if an airvessel
is fitted on the suction side 2.4 m above the sump water level. Take atmospheric
pressure head as 10.3 m of water and friction coefficient as 0.01.
146 BC2.1
l
Applied Hydraulics & Fluid Machines
(Be 2.1)
• Assume any missing data if necessary.
Date: 18th Dec 2009 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choose the correct or the best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
1. The average velocity in a open channel of rectangular cross section is
approximately equal to the velocity at a depth of
{a] O.4y
{b] O.5y
{c] O.6y
[d] O.75y
2. Critical depth in an open channel is function of
[a] discharge, hydraulic fadius, roughness
[b] discharge, hydraulic depth, area of section
{c] discharge, bed slope, roughness
[d] hydraulic radius, bed slope, roughness
3. In a gradually varied flow, the channel bed slope So and energy slope Slare related
by
[a] SO*Sf
[b] SO>Sf
{c] SO<Sf
[0] SO=SI
4. The local drag coefficient in turbulent boundary layer flow is
{a] O.0587/RellS
[b] O.0735/R
e
115
(c] 1.3281J(R
e
)
[d] 4.91/J(R
e
)
147 BC2,1
5. Separation of boundary layer occurs
[a] in a region of progressively increasing pressure
[b] in a zone where the pressure approaches the vapor pressure offluid
[c] when boundary friction has dissipated all the Kinetic Energy offluid particles in
the layer
[d] whenthe pressure gradient is reduced to zero
6. Theform drag component of profile drag is the highest in the case of a
[a] parallel flat plate
[b] normal flat plate
[c] circular cylinder
[d] aerofoil
7. A series of normal flat vanes are mounted on the periphery of a wheel, the vane
speed being v. For maximum efficiency, the speed of liquid jet striking the vanes
should be
[a] v/3
[b] v/2
[c] v
[d] 2 v
8. An impulse turbine
[a] completely converts the available hydraulic energy initially into kinetic
energy
[b] should not be run with the wheel exposed to atmospheric pressure
[c] has runnervanes that convert the pressure into mechanical work
[d] operates under low heads and heavy discharges
9. The runner blades of Kaplan turbine are
[a] more curved than the propeller blades
[b] more curved than the Pelton wheel blades
[c] more curved than the Francis blades
[d] less curved than the Francis blades
10. A centrifugal pump
[a] is a positive displacement pump
[b] utilizes the hydraulic energy ofthe fluid
[c] increases the energy offluid
[d] is a turbo machine whose action is the reverse of an impulse turbine
148 BC2.1
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1. In the case of open channels uniform flow is characterized by constant slope of
channel bottom.
2. The displacement thickness of boundary layer is the layer in which loss of energy is
minimum.
3. Specific speed of a turbo machine remains unchanged under different conditions.
4. Higher specific speed (160 to 500) of centrifugal pump indicates that the pum
is of mixed flow type.
5. The difference between theoretical and actual discharge is called the slip of
reciprocating pump.
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks.
1. In an open channel flow, y=1 m, V=v (9.81) m/s and a ;:: 1.15. What is the specific
energy?
2. If the Reynold's number of the flow past a smooth flat plate is 106, what proportion
of its length is likely to be covered by laminar boundary layer?
3. If the surface roughness factor of Pelton bucket is 90% and the deflection angle is
170°, what is its hydraulic efficiency?
4. Why are centrifugal pump impeller vanes curved backwards?
5. Find the most economical section for a rectangular channel to convey 12 m
3
/sec
with average velocity of 3 m/sec. Assume Chezy's C=50.
6. The boundary layer thickness at a distance of 1 m frorn the leading edge of a flat
plate kept over zero incidence to the flow direction is 1 mm. The velocity outside the
boundary layer is 25 m/ec. Determine the boundary layer thickness at a distance of
4m from the leading edge.
149 BC2.1
7. Vertical component of landing speed of parachute is 6 m/sec. Treating the
parachute as open hemisphere determine its diameter if the total weight to be
carried is 1200 N. Take p=1.208 Kg/m
3
, andC
D
=1.33
'
8. Write the advantages and disadvantages of Francis Turbine over a Pelton Wheel.
Section 0
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions
• Each question carries ten marks.
1. A rectangular channel 4m wide has depth of water 1.5m. The slope of the bed
of the channel is 1 in 1000·and value of Chezy's constant C=55. It is desired to
increase the discharge to a maximum by changing the dimensionS of section for
. constant area of cross section, slope of the bed and roughness coefficient of the
channel. Find the new dimensions ofthe channel and increase of discharge.
2. A kite weighing 9.8 N and having an area of 1 m
2
makes an angle of 7° to the
horizontal when flying in a wind of 36 Kmph. If pull on th string attached to the
kite is 49 N and it is inclined to the horizontal at 45°, calculate the lift and drag
coefficients. Take pforairas 1.2 Kg/m
3
•
3. In an inward flow reaction turbine the head on the turbine is 32 m. the external and
internal diameters are 1.44 m and 0.72 m respectively. The velocity of flow through
the runner is constant and equal to 3 m/s. the guide blade angle is 10°and the
runner vanes are rigid at inlet. If the discharge at outlet is radial, determine (i) the
speed of turbine (ii) the vane angle at outlet of the runner (ii) hydraulic efficiency.
4. A Pelton wheel generates 8000 KW under a net head of 130 m at a speed of 200
rpm. Assuming the coefficient of velocity for he nozzle 0.98, hydraulic efficiency
. 87%, speed ratio 0.46 and jet diameter to wheel diameter ratio as 1/9, determine (i)
discharge required (ii) diameter of wheel (iii) djameter and number of jets required
(iv) specific speed. Assume mechanical efficiency as 75%.
5. A plate 25m long and 1.25m wide is moving under water in the direction of its
length. The drag force on the two sides of the plate is estimated to be 8500 N.
calculate (i) the velocity of plate (ii) the boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge
of the plate, and (iii) the distance at Which the boundary layer eXisting at the leading
edge transforms into turbulent boundary layer. Take p=1 000 Kg/m
3
, viscosity = 1 X
10'" m
2
/sec.
6. Water flows at a steady and uniform depth of 2m in an open channel of rectangular
cross section having base width equal to 5m and laid at a slope of 1 in 1000. It is
150 BC2.1
desired to obtain a critical flow in the channel by providing a hump in the bed.
Calculate the height of the hump and sketch the flow profile. Consider the value of
Manning's N=0.02.
7. A centrifugal pump impeller has at outlet a diameter of 360 mm and width 60 mm.
the vanes are curved backwards at 35° to the tangent at outer 'periphery and
thickness of vanes occupies 20 percent of the peripheral area and the velocity of
;
flow is constant from inlet to outlet. The impeller rotates at 800 rpm. If the rate of iow
through the pump is 0.13 m
3
/sec. determine (i) the pressure rise in impeller (ii) the
percentage of total work converted to kinetic energy.
8. A jet of water having a velocity of 45 m/sec impinges without shock on a series of
vanes moving at 15 m/sec. the direction of motion of the vanes is inclined at 20°to
that of jet, the relative velocity at outlet is 0.9 of that at inlet, and absolute velocity of
1 water at exit is to be normal to the motion of vanes. Find (i) vane angles at inlet and
.'"
outlet (ii) work done on vanes per N of water supplied by the jet, and (ii) hydraulic
efficiency
151 BC2.1
Applied Hydraulics and Fluid Machines
(Be 2.1)
• Assume any missing data if necessary.
Date: 24th June 201 0 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choose the correct or the best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
I'
\.
1. The critical velocity head in an open channel flow is equal to
[a] two third of specific energy
[b] half the hydraulic depth
[c] one third the depth of flow
[d] twice the hydraulic radius
2. Alternate depths in an open channel are the depths
[a] before and after the hydraulic jump
[b] for which specific force is the same
[c] for which specific energy is the same
[d] having the same Froude number
3. The dynamic section in gradually varied flow in an open channel gives
[a] water surface slope with respect to horizontal
[b] water surface slope with respect to channel bottom
[c] length of profile measured along the water surface
[d] length of profile measured along the channel bottom
4. The average drag coefficient of a laminar boundary layer is
[a]
[b]
[c]
[d]
152 BC2.1
',,
5. The wake formed in boundary layer flows
[a] always occurs after boundary layer separation
[b] tends to push the body against the direction of flow
[c] is a zone of high pressure
[d] is the principal source of surface drag
6. The lift on an immersed body exposed to a fluid stream is
[a] always against gravity
[b] due to force of buoyancy of dtsplaced fluid
[c] com ponent of dynamic force normal to free stream direction
[d] component of dynamic force parallel to free stream direction
7. Water moves over a series of curved vanes mounted on a wheel. The component
of velocity of water in the radial direction of the wheel is called
[a] relative velocity
[b] velocity of flow
[c] velocity of whirl
[d] wheel velocity
8. Multiple jets are used in Pelton wheel for
[a] increasing the power output with the same specific speed
[b] increasing the speed of rotation while keeping the same specific speed
[c] increasing the specific speed with the same power output
[d] increasing the power output with the same head
9. For a Reaction turbine model to be geometrically similar to the prototype the
following parameters of the model and prototype should be equal
[a] jet ratios
[b] flow ratios
[c] unit
[d] unit powers
10. A turbine pump is a special type of centrifugal pump which
[a] can generate power like a turbine when required
[b] has propeller blades similar to a Kaplan turbine
[c] contains vortex chamberto increase the pump efficiency
[d] contains guide vanes to improve the pressure generation
153 BC2.1
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1. The flow in open channel would be super critical if the depth of flow is greater than
critical depth.
2. Velocity profile for turbulent boundary layer is not valid very near to the boundary.
3. Form drag of normal flat p l ~ t e is almost entirely equal to its total drag, its skin
friction drag is virtually zero.
4. For maximum efficiencyofa series of curved vanes, the speed is 1/2 the jet speed.
5. In a Reaction turbine the function of draft tube is to prevent air from entering the
turbine.
Section t
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks.
1. A trapezoidal channel of the most economical section has wetted perimeter of 16m
and depth of flow of 1 m. If the velocity of flow is 1.5 m/sec,what is the discharge?
2. Explain why the boundary shear stress in a turbulent boundary layer is more than in
laminar boundary layer for the same Reynold's number.
3. Why do Pelton wheel buckets have a notch at the centre of their outer peri phery?
4. A fast Francis runner has a specific speed of 200 and unit power of 16. What is its
unit speed?
5. Determine the velocity of fall of rain drops of 0.3mm in diameter through
atmospheric air having density of 12 Kg/m
3
and kinematic viscosity of 0.15 Stokes.
Assume Stoke's law holds good.
6. What is a specific energy curve?
7. What are the functions of a draft tube?
8. State the advantages of centrifugal pump overa displacement pump.
154 BC2.1
'"
Section 0
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions
• Each question carries ten marks.
1. A gutter in the shape of isosceles triangle conveys wastewater at a uniform d e p t h
of 250mm. If the discharge is 0.04m
3
/sec, determine the gradient of trough. Use
Chezy's formula assuming C=52.
2. The normal depth of flow of water, in rectangular channel 1.5 m wide is 1 m. The
bed slope ofthe channel is 0.0006 and Manning's n = 0.012. Find the critical depth.
At a certain section ofthe same channel the depth is 0.92m while at second section
the depth is 0.86m. Find the distance between two sections. Also find whether the
section is located downstream or upstream with respect to first section.
3. Air is flowing over a flat plate 5 m long and 2.5 m wide with velocity of 4 m/s at 15°C.
If mass density of air is 1.208 Kg/m
3
and kinetic viscosity =1.47 x 10.
5
m
2
/s,
calculate (i) length of plate over which the boundary layer is laminar, and thickness
of the boundary layer (ii) shear stress at the location where boundary layer ceases
to be laminar (iii) total drag force on both sides on that portion of plate where
boundary layer is laminar.
4. A jet of 50 mm diameter impinges on a curved vane and is deflected through an
angle of 175°. The vane moves in the same direction as that of jet with a velocity of
35 m/s. If the rate of flow is 170 lit/s, detj3rmine the component of force on the vane
in the direction of motion. How much would be the power developed by the vane
and what would be the water efficiency? Neglect friction.
5. A submarine can be assumed to be having the shape of a cylinder with rounded
nose. Assuming its length to be 50m and diameter 5m, determine the total power
required to overcome boundary friction if it cruises at 8 m/sec velocity in sea water
at 20°C (p=1 030 kg/m
3
, viscosity 1 xi O's m2/sec)
6. A single jet Pelton wheel runs at 300 rpm under a head of 51 0 m. The jet diameter is
200mm, its deflection inside the bucket is 165°and its relative velocity is reduced
by'15% by friction. Determine (i) Water power (ii) Resultant force on the bucket (iii)
Overall efficiency. Take mechanici:allosses as 3%, coefficient of velocity as 0.98
and speed ratio as 0.45.
7. A three stage centrifugal pump has an impeller of 400 mm diameter and 20 mm
wide. The vane angle at outlet is 45°and the area occupied by thethickness of the
vanes may be assumed as 8% of the total area. Ifthe pump delivers 3.6 m
3
0fwater
per minute when running at 920 rpm, determine (i) Power of the pump (ii)
Manometric head (ii) Specific speed. Assume mechanical efficiency as 88% and
155 BC2.1
manometric efficiency as 77%.
8. A weir is installed across a rectangular channel thereby raising the flow depth from
1.5m in a normal flow to 2.5m at the weir. The width of the channel is 10m and· it is
laid at a slope of 1 in 10000. Find an approximate length of backwater curve
considering the average velocity, average depth and average slope midway
between two sections. Take n=0.02.
 ~ :..E
156 BC2.1
1..•.
Applied Hydraulics and Fluid Machines
(Be 2.1)
18th Dec, 2010
Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Note: • Each question carries equal marks in each section.
• Each Section should be answered at the same place and not at different
places.
• Assume data, if necessary.
Section A
20 Marks
• Choose the correct or the best alternative in the following.
1. In a gradually varied flow, the channel bed slope SO and energy slope Sf are
related by
[a] SO*Sf
[b] So> Sf
[c] So < Sf
[d] So=S(
2. Alternate depths in an open channel are the depths
[a] before and after the hydraulic jump
[b] for which specific force is the same
[c] for which specific energy is the same
[d] having the same Froude number
3. . The dynamic section in gradually varied flow in an open channel gives
[a1 water surface slope with respect to horizontal
[b1 water surface slope with respect to channel bottom
[c] length of profile measured along the water surface
[d) length of profile measured along the channel bottom
157 BC2.1
4. The depths of flow at the beginning and at the end of a short channel are O.8m and
O.7m respectively.lfYc=O.Bm and Yo = 1.2m, the water surface profile is
[a] S1
[b] S2
[c] M2
[d] M3
5. The thickness of a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is 2cm at x = Ll2. The
thickness at x = Lis
[a] Bcm
[I)] 4.414cm
[c] 4.707cm
[d] 2.B2Bcm
6. Separation of boundary layer occurs
[a] in a region of progressively increasing pressure
[b] in a zone where the pressure approaches the vapor pressure offluid
[c] when boundary friction has dissipated all the Kinetic Energy of fluid particles
in the layer
[d] when the pressure gradient is reduced to zero
7. The drag of an immersed body
[a] cannot be computed by means of boundary layer theory
[b] can be computed by boundary layer theory
[cl can be computed using 0' Alembert's paradox
[d] is negligible iffluid is gas
B. For a reaction turbine model to be geometrically simiiar to the prototype the
following parameter of the mOdel and prototype should be equal
[a] jet ratios
[b] flow ratios
[c] unit speeds
[d] unit powers
9. If N is the normal running speed of Kaplan Turbine, the probable value of its
runaway speed is
[a] 1.2N
[b] 1.5N
[c] 1.BN
[d] 2.5N
158 BC2.1
10. When the speed of centrifugal pump is constant
[a] shaft power decreases with increase of Q
[b] Hm decreases with increase of Q
[c] HmincreaseswithincreaseofQ
[d] Hm is independent of Q
Section B
5 Marks
• Choose True/False in the following.
1. Afflux is the increase in water level due to some obstruction across flowing fluid.
2. The displacement thickness of boundary layer is the layer in which loss of energy is
minimum.
3. Form drag of normal flat plate is almost entirely equal to its total drag. Its skin
friction drag is virtually zero.
4. Francis turbine is inward radial flow reaction turbine having discharge radial at
outlet.
5. A centrifugal pump should be so installed above the water level in the sump that the.
negative pressures do not reach as Iowa value as vapour pressure.
Section C
25 Marks
• Answer any four questions.
1. If the Reynolds number of the flow past a smooth flat plate is 106, what
proportion ofits length is likely to be covered by laminar boundary layer?
2. A trapezoidal channel has a bed width of 2.0m and side slopes: 1.5(H): 1.0(V). Bed
slope is 1 in4000. If Manning's n = 0.018. Compute average velocity of flow in the
channel for depth of flow of 1.4m.
3. Determine the normal depth in a trapezoidal channel with side slopes of
2(H): 1 (V). It carries discharge, Q = 15m3/s. The channel is hydraulically
efficient and laid at a slope of 1 in5000. Assume Manning's n =0.04.
4. A rectangular flat plate O. 5m 1.2m is to be set at right angles to the flow of water in a
river. If the design velocity of flow is 2.5m/s, estimate the force required to hold the
plate at rest. Take Dd =1.2 and p (water) =1000 kg/m
3
•
5. A fast Francis runner has a specific speed of 200 and unit power of 16. What is its
unitspeed?
159
BC2.1
6. A fluid jet striking a normal fixed plate exerts a force of iON on the plate. If the same
jet strikes a fixed curved vane and gets deflected through an angle of 135°. what is
the force exerted on the vane?
7.
8.
A centrifugal pump has an impeller of outer diameter 300mm. The vane angle at
the outlet is 90°. The speed of the impeller is 1450rpm. For manometric efficiency =
0.8, compute the net head developed by the pump.
What is the Magnus effect? Explain briefly.
•
Section 0
Answer any four questions.
50 Marks
1. Design an earthen trapezoidal channel for water having a velocity of 0.6m/s. side
slopes of the channel is 1 :1.5 and quantity of water flowing is 3m
3
/s, assume
Chezy's C as 65.
2. Uniform flow occurs at a depth of 1.5m in a long rectangular channel 3m wide and
laid to a slope of 0.0009, if Manning's n = 0.015. Calculate (i) the maximum height
of hump on the 'Hoor to produce critical depth (ii) width of contraction which will
produce critical depth without increasing the upstream depth of flow.
3. A 3.6m wide rectangular channel conveys 9 m
31
s of water with velocity of 6m/s. Is
there a condition for hydraulic jump to occur? If so, calculate the height, length and
strength of the jump. What will be the loss of energy per Kg of water flowing.
4. A submarine is moving at 8m/s in the sea water, p =1030kg/m
3
, v =1106m2/s.
Estimate the power required. Assume the body of the submarine of 50m long and
width =5m, with rounded ends. Consider only the skin friction.
5. A centrifugal pump rotating at 1500rpm delivers 0.2m3/s at a head of 15m.
Calculate the specific speed of the pump and the power input. Assume overall
efficiency of the pump as 0.68. If this pump were to operate at 900rpm, what would
be the head, discharge and power required for homplogous conditions? Assume
overall efficiency remains unchanged at .lew rpm.
6 A Pelton wheel having a mean bucket diameter of 1.2m is running at 1OOOrpm. The
net head on the Pelton wheel is 840m. If the side clearance angle is 15° and
discharge through the nozzle is 0.12m
3
/s, determine:
(i) Power available at the nozzle
(ii) Hydraulic efficiency ofthe turbine
7 The following data pertain to a Francis turbine:
Net head 70m
160 BC2.1
Speed power 700rpm
Shaft power 330kW
Overall efficiency 85%
Hydraulic efficiency 92%
Flow ratio 0.22
Breadth ratio 0.1
Outer diameter of runner 2 x inner diameter of runner
Velocity of flow constant
Outlet discharge radial
The thickness of vanes occupy 6% of circumferential area of the runner,
determine:
(i) Diameters of runner at inlet and outlet
(ii) Width ofthe wheel at inlet
(iii) Guide blade angle
(iv) Runner vane angles at inlet and outlet
161 BC2.1
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