WIRE AND CABLE TECHNICAL INFORMATION HANDBOOK

$80.00 HARDBOUND $50.00 SOFTBOUND

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TRADEMARKS

Trademarks
The following registered trademarks appear in this handbook:
Alumel is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Chromel is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Constantan is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. CSA is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards Association Ethernet® is a registered trademark of Xerox Flamarrest® is a registered trademark of Belden Inc. Halar is a registered trademark of Ausimont, Inc. Hypalon is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. Kevlar® is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. K FIBER® is a registered trademark of BICC Kynar® is a registered trademark of Atochem, Inc. Megger® is a registered trademark of AVO International Mylar® is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. NEC® is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association Nicrosil is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Nisil is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Scotchlok® is a registered trademark of 3M Solef® is a registered trademark of Solvay ST® is a registered trademark of AT&T Teflon® is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. Tefzel® is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. UL® is a registered trademark of Underwriter’s Laboratories Inc. UniBlend® is a registered trademark of BICC UniShield® is a registered trademark of BICC Unistrand is a registered trademark of Belden Inc. Valox® is a registered trademark of General Electric Co. Z-Fold® is a registered trademark of Belden Inc.

3RD Edition 1st Printing ISBN 0-9638139-0-0 (Hardbound) ISBN 0-9638139-1-9 (Softbound)

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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Information in this handbook has been drawn from authoritative sources in their latest available editions. These include publications of: • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), • Canadian Standards Association (CSA), • Electronic Industries Association/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA), • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), • Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA), • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), • Underwriters Laboratories (UL), • U.S. Navy Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) and from many publications of the leading wire and cable companies in the industry. National Electrical Code (NEC) is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA for a triennial electrical publication. The term, National Electrical Code, as used herein means the triennial publication constituting the National Electrical Code and is used with permission of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc. All due concern has been devoted to accuracy but Anixter Inc. cannot be responsible for errors, omissions or obsolescence. All data herein are subject to change without notice. Anixter Inc. does not manufacture the items described in this handbook. Users are requested to determine directly from the manufacturer’s tests or to make their own tests to determine the suitability of these materials for their application and to be guided by the results of such tests. All applicable warranties are provided by the manufacturer. Purchasers are requested to determine directly from the manufacturer the applicable product warranty and limitations. Data and suggestions made in this publication are not to be construed as recommendations to use any product in violation of government law or regulation relating to any material or its use.

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CONTRIBUTORS

CONTRIBUTORS
We wish to acknowledge the contributions of the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this edition of the handbook. We especially want to recognize the efforts of Deborah Altman, Illia Baker, Randy Clark, Mark Fordham, Jeff Gronemeyer, Vince Halloran, Mark Latz, Tom McMillan, Mitch Milford, Salvatrice Scharpenberg, George Spisak, Ron Vollink and Lance Wright. W. D. Wilkens, Editor

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PREFACE

PREFACE
Anixter Inc. was founded in 1957 as a specialized distributor of electrical and electronic wire and cable. Today Anixter is a specialist in the supply of wiring systems for the transmission of voice, data, video, and power with an international network of service centers. Anixter Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Anixter International. For over three decades, Anixter has been a major supplier of power, control, and instrumentation cable of business and industry. With the emergence of data communications, word processing, the electronic office, and local area networks, Anixter fills your need as a one-stop source for cable and hardware. To assure product availability and on-time delivery, Anixter has linked its service centers and sales offices throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia with the most modern on-line “real time” Business Information system available. Anixter provides its customers with its exclusive Action electronic order entry and inquiry system. Call your nearest Anixter location for more information. This handbook is designed to be a useful collection of engineering and technical information on electrical and optical wire and cable and related products. It is primarily intended for those individuals who design, specify, or troubleshoot wire and cable systems. We have tried to make this handbook the best in the industry and hope we have succeeded. We welcome your comments and suggestions for improvement in future editions. Anixter Inc. Wire & Cable Group 1996

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTS
Page

Contributors Preface 1. Basic Principles of Electricity 2. Conductors 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 4. Shields 5. Armor 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 7. Electrical Characteristics 8. Installation and Testing 9. Connectors, Lugs & Terminations 10. Packaging of Wire and Cable 11. Standards and Specifications 12. Conversion Tables 13. Formulas and Constants 14. Continental Europe 15. United Kingdom 16. Latin and South America

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)

CONTENTS
17. Canada 18. Asia and the Pacific Rim Glossary Index 275 289 297 325

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1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
1.1 Electricity

ITEM

PAGE

CONTENTS

1.1 Electricity 1.1 Electricity 1.2 The Volt 1.2 The Volt 1.3 The Ampere 1.3 The Ampere 1.4 The Ohm 1.4 The Ohm 1.5 Ohm’s Law 1.5 Ohm’s Law 1.6 Ampacity 1.6 Ampacity 1.7 Electrical Systems 1.7 Electrical Systems

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY

1.1 Electricity
Electricity, simply put, is the flow of electric current along a conductor. This electric current takes the form of free electrons which transfer from one atom to the next. Thus, the more free electrons a material has, the better it conducts. There are three parameters involved in the electrical equation: the volt, the ampere, and the ohm.

1.2 The Volt
The pressure that is put on free electrons that causes them to flow is known as electromotive force (EMF). The volt is the unit of pressure, i.e., the volt is the amount of electromotive force required to push a current of one ampere through a conductor with a resistance of one ohm.

1.3 The Ampere
The ampere defines the flow rate of electric current. For instance, when one coulomb (or 6 1018 electrons) flows past a given point on a conductor in one second, it is defined as a current of one ampere.

1.4 The Ohm
The ohm is the unit of resistance in a conductor. Three things determine the amount of resistance in a conductor: its size, its material, e.g., copper or aluminum, and its temperature. A conductor’s resistance increases as its length increases or diameter decreases. The more conductive the materials used, the lower the conductor resistance becomes. Conversely, a rise in temperature will generally increase resistance in a conductor.

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1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY

1.5 Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s Law expresses the correlation between electric current (I), voltage (V), and resistance (R) in a conductor. Ohm’s Law can be expressed as: V I R V I R volts amps ohms

Where:

1.6 Ampacity
Ampacity is the amount of current a conductor can handle before its temperature exceeds accepted limits. These limits are given in the National Electrical Code (NEC), the Canadian Electrical Code, and in other engineering documents such as those published by the Insulated Cable Engineers Assocation (ICEA). It is important to know that many external factors affect the ampacity of an electrical conductor and these factors should be taken into consideration before selecting the conductor size.

1.7 Electrical Systems
The most widely used medium voltage (5 to 35 kV) alternating current (AC) electrical distribution systems in North America are illustrated below:

Figure 1.1–Three phase wye (star) Three wire

Figure 1.2–Three phase delta Three wire

Figure 1.3–Three phase star Four wire, grounded neutral

Typical low voltage systems are illustrated below:

Figure 1.4–Three phase wye (star) Three wire, grounded neutral

Figure 1.5–Three phase delta Four wire, grounded midpoint

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2. CONDUCTORS
2.1 Strand Types

ITEM

PAGE

CONTENTS

2.1 Strand Types 2.1.1 Concentric Strand 2.1.2 Bunch Strand 2.1.3 Rope Strand 2.1.4 Sector Conductor 2.1.5 Segmental Conductor 2.1.6 Annular Conductor 2.1.7 Compact Strand 2.1.8 Compressed Strand 2.2 Coatings 2.2 Coatings 2.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire 2.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire 2.4 Copper Strand Properties 2.4.1 Strand Classes 2.4.2 Solid Copper 2.4.3 Class B Copper 2.4.4 Class H Copper 2.4.5 Class K Copper 2.4.6 Class M Copper 2.5 Aluminum Strand Properties 2.5.1 Solid Aluminum 2.5.2 Class B Aluminum 2.5.3 ACSR

7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9

10

11

12 14 15 17 19 20

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2. CONDUCTORS
The conductor is the metallic component of cables through which electrical power or electrical signals are transmitted. Conductor size is usually specified by American Wire Gauge (AWG), circular mil area, or in square millimeters.

AWG
The American Wire Gauge (AWG) (sometimes called Brown and Sharpe or B. and S.) is used almost exclusively in the U.S.A. for copper and aluminum wire. The Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG) is used for steel armor wire. The diameters according to the AWG are defined as follows: The diameter of size 4/0 (sometimes written 0000) equals 0.4600 inch and that of size #36 equals 0.0050 inch; the intermediate sizes are found by geometric progression. That is, the ratio of the diameter of one size to that of the next smaller size (larger gauge number) is:
39

0.4600 0.0050

1.122932

Circular Mil
Sizes larger than 4/0 are specified in terms of the total area of a cross-section of the copper in circular mils (cmil). A circular mil is a unit of area equal to the area of a circle one mil in diameter. It is /4 (0.7854) of a square mil (one mil 0.001 inch). The area of a circle in circular mils is therefore equal to the square of its diameter in mils. A solid wire one inch in diameter has an area of 4 1,000,000 cmils (one square inch equals 1,000,000 cmils 1,273,200 cmils).

Square Millimeters

Metric sizes are given in terms of square millimeters (mm2).

Conductor Characteristics
Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common metal conductors are as follows: Table 2.1–Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common conductor materials
Relative Electrical Conductivity @20°C 106 100 97 72 62 39 29 25 23 Relative Thermal Conductivity @20°C 108 100 – 76 56 41 29 15 24

Metal

Silver COPPER (annealed) COPPER (hard drawn) Gold Aluminum Magnesium Zinc Nickel Cadmium

Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
TABLE 2.1–Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common conductors Continued
Relative Electrical Conductivity @20°C 18 17 16 15 12 8 Relative Thermal Conductivity @20°C 17 17 18 17 – 9

Metal

Cobalt Iron Platinum Tin Steel Lead

2.1 Strand Types
2.1.1 Concentric Strand
A concentric stranded conductor consists of a central wire or core surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. Each layer after the first has six more wires than the preceding layer. Except in compact stranding, each layer is applied in a direction opposite to that of the layer under it. If the core is a single wire and if it and all of the outer strands have the same diameter, the first layer will contain six wires; the second, twelve; the third, eighteen; etc.

Figure 2.1–Concentric strand

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2. CONDUCTORS
2.1.2 Bunch Strand
The term “bunch stranding” is applied to a collection of strands twisted together in the same direction without regard to the geometric arrangement.

2.1.3 Rope Strand
A rope stranded conductor is a concentric stranded conductor each of whose component strands is itself stranded. A rope stranded conductor is described by giving the number of groups laid together to form the rope and the number of wires in each group. Figure 2.2 –Rope strand

2.1.4 Sector Conductor
A sector conductor is a stranded conductor whose crosssection is approximately the shape of a sector of a circle. A multiple conductor insulated cable with sector conductors has a smaller diameter than the corresponding cable with round conductors. Figure 2.3 –Sector conductor

2.1.5 Segmental Conductor
A segmental conductor is a round, stranded conductor composed of three or four sectors slightly insulated from one another. This construction has the advantage of lower AC resistance (less skin effect). Figure 2.4 –Segmental conductor

2.1.6 Annular Conductor
An annular conductor is a round, stranded conductor whose strands are laid around a suitable core. The core is usually made wholly or mostly of nonconducting material. This construction has the advantage of lower total AC resistance for a given cross-sectional area of conducting material by eliminating the greater skin effect at the center.

Figure 2.5 –Annular conductor

2.1.7 Compact Strand
A compact stranded conductor is a round or sector conductor having all layers stranded in the same direction and rolled to a predetermined ideal shape. The finished conductor is smooth on the surface and contains practically no interstices or air spaces. This results in a smaller diameter.

Figure 2.6 –Compact concentric strand

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2. CONDUCTORS
2.1.8 Compressed Strand
Compressed conductors are intermediate in size between standard concentric conductors and compact conductors. A comparison is shown below:

Concentric

Compressed

Compact

Figure 2.7–Comparative sizes and shapes of 1000 kcmil conductors

In a concentric stranded conductor, each individual wire is round and considerable space exists between wires. In a compressed conductor, the conductor has been put through a die which “squeezes out” some of the space between wires. In a compact conductor each wire is preformed into a trapezoidal shape before the wires are stranded together into a finished conductor. This results in even less space between wires. A compact conductor is, therefore, the smallest in diameter (except for a solid conductor, of course). Diameters for common conductor sizes are given in the table below: Table 2.2 –Diameters for copper and aluminum conductors
Conductor Size AWG kcmil Solid Nominal Diameters (in.) Class B Compact Class B Compressed Class B Concentric

8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 – – – – –

16.51 26.24 41.74 52.62 66.36 83.69 105.6 133.1 167.8 211.6 250 300 350 400 450

0.1285 0.1620 0.2043 0.2294 0.2576 0.2893 0.3249 0.3648 0.4096 0.4600 0.5000 0.5477 0.5916 0.6325 0.6708

0.134 0.169 0.213 0.238 0.268 0.299 0.336 0.376 0.423 0.475 0.520 0.570 0.616 0.659 0.700

0.141 0.178 0.225 0.252 0.283 0.322 0.361 0.406 0.456 0.512 0.558 0.611 0.661 0.706 0.749

0.146 0.184 0.232 0.260 0.292 0.332 0.373 0.419 0.470 0.528 0.575 0.630 0.681 0.728 0.772 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.2 –Diameters for copper and aluminum conductors Continued
Conductor Size AWG kcmil Solid Nominal Diameters (in.) Class B Compact Class B Compressed Class B Concentric

– – – – – – – – –

500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1,000

0.7071 0.7416 0.7746 0.8062 0.8367 0.8660 0.8944 0.9487 1.0000

0.736 0.775 0.813 0.845 0.877 0.908 0.938 0.999 1.060

0.789 0.829 0.866 0.901 0.935 0.968 1.000 1.061 1.117

0.813 0.855 0.893 0.929 0.964 0.998 1.031 1.093 1.152

Sources: ASTM B3, B496 ICEA S-66-524

2.2 Coatings
There are three materials commonly used for coating a copper conductor. These are tin, silver, and nickel. Tin is the most common and is used for improved corrosion resistance and solderability. Silver plated conductors are used in high temperature environments (150°C– 200°C). It is also used for high frequency applications where silver’s high conductivity (better than copper) and the “skin effect” work together to reduce attenuation at high frequencies. Nickel coatings are used for conductors that operate between 200°C and 450°C. At these high temperatures, copper oxidizes rapidly if not nickel plated. One drawback of nickel, however, is its poor solderability.

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2. CONDUCTORS

2.3 Tensile Strength of Copper Wire
Table 2.3 –Tensile strength of copper wire
Soft or Annealed Max. Breaking Load lbs. Max. Tensile Strength lbs. per sq in. Medium Hard Drawn Min. Breaking Load lbs. Min. Tensile Strength lbs. per sq in. Hard Drawn Min. Breaking Load lbs. Min. Tensile Strength lbs. per sq in.

Size AWG

4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

6,000 4,750 3,765 2,985 2,435 1,930 1,535 1,215 765 480 315 200 125 78.5 49.5

36,000 36,000 36,000 36,000 37,000 37,000 37,000 37,000 37,000 37,000 38,500 38,500 38,500 38,500 38,500

6,970 5,660 4,600 3,730 3,020 2,450 1,990 1,580 1,010 645 410 262 167 106 68

42,000 43,000 44,000 45,000 46,000 47,000 48,000 48,330 49,000 49,660 50,330 51,000 51,660 52,330 53,000

8,140 6,720 5,530 4,520 3,690 3,010 2,440 1,970 1,280 825 530 335 215 135 86

49,000 51,000 52,800 54,500 56,100 57,600 59,000 60,100 62,100 63,700 64,900 65,700 66,200 66,600 67,000

Source: ASTM B1, B2 and B3

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2. CONDUCTORS

2.4 Copper Strand Properties
2.4.1 Strand Classes
Table 2.4 –Strand classes
ASTM Standard

Construction

Class

Application

AA A B8 Concentric lay B C D B173 Rope lay with concentricstranded members G

For bare conductors—usually used in overhead lines. For bare conductors where greater flexibility than is afforded by Class AA is required. For conductors insulated with various materials such as EP, XLP, PVC, etc. This is the most common class. For conductors where greater flexibility is required than is provided by Class B. Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5,000,000 circular mils and employing 61 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No. 14 AWG containing 7 stranded members of 7 wires each. Typical uses are for portable (flexible) conductors and similar applications. Conductor constructions having a range of areas from 5,000,000 circular mils and employing 91 stranded members of 19 wires each down to No. 9 AWG containing 19 stranded members of 7 wires each. Typical uses are for rubberjacketed cords and conductors where flexibility is required, such as for use on take-up reels, over sheaves and extraflexible apparatus conductors. Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.4 –Strand classes Continued
ASTM Standard Construction Class Conductor Size kcmil/AWG Individual Wire Size In AWG Application

B172

Rope lay with bunchstranded members

I

Up to 2,000

0.0201

24

Typical use is for special apparatus cable. Typical use is for portable cord. Typical use is for welding cable. Rubber-covered conductors. Fixture wire. Fixture wire, flexible cord, and portable cord. Fixture wire and portable cord with greater flexibility than Class K. Heater cord and light portable cord. Heater cord with greater flexibility than Class M. More flexible conductors than provided in preceding classes. Oscillating fan cord. Very good flexibility.

K M B174 Bunch stranded I J K L

Up to 2,000 Up to 1,000 7, 8, 9, 10

0.0100 0.0063 0.0201

30 34 24 28 30 32

10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 0.0126 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 0.0100 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 0.0080

M O P

14, 16, 18, 20 16, 18, 20 16, 18, 20

0.0063 0.0050 0.0040

34 36 38

Q

18, 20

0.0031

40

Source: Compiled from ASTM standards listed.

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2. CONDUCTORS
2.4.2 Solid Copper

Table 2.5 –Standard nominal diameters and cross-sectional areas of solid copper wire
Size AWG or kcmil Diameter mils Cross-Sectional Area kcmils Weight lbs./1000ft. Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lbs.)

4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

460.0 409.6 364.8 324.9 289.3 257.6 229.4 204.3 181.9 162.0 144.3 128.5 114.4 101.9 90.7 80.8 72.0 64.1 57.1 50.8 45.3 40.3 35.9 32.0 28.5 25.3 22.6 20.1 17.9 15.9 14.2 12.6 11.3

211.600 167.800 133.100 105.600 83.690 66.360 52.620 41.740 33.090 26.240 20.820 16.510 13.090 10.380 8.230 6.530 5.180 4.110 3.260 2.580 2.050 1.620 1.290 1.020 0.812 0.640 0.511 0.404 0.320 0.253 0.202 0.159 0.128

– – – – – – – – – – – – – 31.43 24.92 19.77 15.68 12.43 9.86 7.82 6.20 4.92 3.90 3.09 2.452 1.945 1.542 1.223 0.970 0.770 0.610 0.484 0.384

– – – – – – – – – – – – – 314.0 249.0 197.5 156.6 142.2 98.5 78.1 61.9 49.2 39.0 30.9 24.5 19.4 15.4 12.7 10.1 7.98 6.33 5.02 3.98 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.5 –Standard nominal diameters and cross-sectional areas of solid copper wire Continued
Size AWG or kcmil Diameter mils Cross-Sectional Area kcmils Weight lbs./1000ft. Breaking Strength Soft or Annealed (lbs.)

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

10.0 8.9 8.0 7.1 6.3 5.6 5.0 4.5 4.0

0.100 0.0792 0.0640 0.0504 0.0397 0.0314 0.0250 0.0202 0.0160

0.303 0.241 0.191 0.152 0.120 0.095 0.076 0.060 0.048

3.16 2.50 1.99 1.58 1.25 0.990 0.785 0.623 0.494

Source: ASTM B258, Specification for Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wires Used as Electrical Conductors

2.4.3

Class B Copper

Table 2.6 –Class B concentric-lay-stranded copper conductors
Number of Wires Diameter of Each Wire mils

Size AWG or kcmil

Weight lbs./1000ft.

5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,900 1,800 1,750 1,700 1,600

217 217 217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127

151.8 144 135.8 143.9 133.2 140.3 125.5 122.3 119.1 117.4 115.7 112.2

15,890 14,300 12,590 11,020 9,353 7,794 6,175 5,866 5,558 5,402 5,249 4,940 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.6 –Class B concentric-lay-stranded copper conductors Continued
Size AWG or kcmil Number of Wires Diameter of Each Wire mils Weight lbs./1000ft.

1,500 1,400 1,300 1,250 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

128.4 124.0 119.5 117.2 114.8 109.9 128.0 121.5 114.5 110.9 107.1 103.2 99.2 95.0 116.2 110.3 104.0 97.3 90.0 82.2 105.5 94.0 83.7 74.5 66.4 97.4 86.7 77.2 68.8 61.2 54.5 48.6 43.2

4,631 4,323 4,014 3,859 3,705 3,396 3,088 2,779 2,470 2,316 2,161 2,007 1,853 1,698 1,544 1,389 1,235 1,081 926.3 711.9 653.3 518.1 410.9 325.8 258.4 204.9 162.5 128.9 102.2 81.05 64.28 50.97 40.42 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.6 –Class B concentric-lay-stranded copper conductors Continued
Size AWG or kcmil Number of Wires Diameter of Each Wire mils Weight lbs./1000ft.

10 12 14 16 18 20

7 7 7 7 7 7

38.5 30.5 24.2 19.2 15.2 12.1

32.06 20.16 12.68 7.974 5.015 3.154

Source: ASTM B8 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors, Hard, Medium-Hard, or Soft

2.4.4 Class H Copper
Table 2.7–Class H rope-lay-stranded copper conductors
Number of Wires

Size AWG or kcmil

Diameter in.

Weight lbs./1000ft.

5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,900 1,800 1,750 1,700 1,600 1,500 1,400 1,300

1,729 1,729 1,729 1,729 1,729 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159 1,159 703 703 703

2.959 2.805 2.646 2.475 2.294 2.088 1.868 1.823 1.773 1.751 1.724 1.674 1.617 1.561 1.505

16,060 14,430 12,840 11,235 9,650 8,010 6,400 6,100 5,770 5,625 5,455 5,145 4,815 4,485 4,170 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.7–Class H rope-lay-stranded copper conductors Continued
Size AWG or kcmil Number of Wires Diameter in. Weight lbs./1000ft.

1,250 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 703 427 427 427 427 427 427 259 259 259 259 259 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133

1.477 1.446 1.386 1.320 1.253 1.180 1.145 1.106 1.064 1.022 0.980 0.923 0.878 0.826 0.772 0.716 0.653 0.601 0.536 0.477 0.424 0.378 0.335 0.299 0.266 0.237 0.210 0.188 0.167 0.149

4,015 3,845 3,535 3,205 2,895 2,560 2,410 2,255 2,085 1,920 1,770 1,590 1,435 1,270 1,110 953 795 670 533 422 334 266 208 167 132 105 82 65 52 41

Source: ASTM B173 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Concentric-Stranded Members

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2. CONDUCTORS
2.4.5 Class K Copper
Table 2.8 –Class K rope-lay-stranded copper conductors
Size AWG or kcmil Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of 30 AWG Wires Strand Construction Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of 30 AWG Wires Approx. O.D. (inches) Weight lbs./1000ft.

1,000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

10,101 9,065 7,980 7,581 6,916 6,517 5,985 5,453 5,054 4,522 3,990 3,458 2,989 2,499 2,107 1,666 1,323 1,064 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 – – – – – –

37 37 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7

39 35 60 57 52 49 45 41 38 34 30 26 61 51 43 34 27 56 44 35 28 60 48 38 30 24 19 – – – – – –

10,101 9,065 7,980 7,581 6,916 6,517 5,985 5,453 5,054 4,522 3,990 3,458 2,989 2,499 2,107 1,666 1,323 1,064 836 665 532 420 336 266 210 168 133 104 65 41 26 16 10

1.419 1.323 1.305 1.276 1.207 1.166 1.125 1.056 0.988 0.933 0.878 0.809 0.768 0.682 0.627 0.533 0.470 0.451 0.397 0.338 0.304 0.272 0.235 0.202 0.179 0.157 0.146 0.126 0.101 0.078 0.060 0.048 0.038

3,270 2,935 2,585 2,455 2,240 2,110 1,940 1,765 1,635 1,465 1,290 1,120 960 802 676 535 425 338 266 211 169 132 106 84 66 53 42 32.5 20.3 12.8 8.0 5.0 3.2

Sources: ASTM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-68-516 (NEMA WC8)
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2. CONDUCTORS
2.4.6 Class M Copper
Table 2.9 –Class M rope-lay-stranded copper conductors
Size AWG or kcmil Rope-Lay with Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of 34 AWG Wires Strand Construction Bunch Stranding Nominal Number of 34 AWG Wires Approx. O.D. (inches) Weight lbs./1000ft.

1,000 900 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

25,193 22,631 20,069 18,788 17,507 16,226 14,945 13,664 12,691 11,396 10,101 8,806 7,581 6,384 5,320 4,256 3,325 2,646 2,107 1,666 1,323 1,064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 – – – –

61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 37 37 37 37 19 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7

59 53 47 44 41 38 35 32 49 44 39 34 57 48 40 32 25 54 43 34 27 56 44 35 28 60 48 37 24 – – – –

25,193 22,631 20,069 18,788 17,507 16,226 14,945 13,664 12,691 11,396 10,101 8,806 7,581 6,384 5,320 4,256 3,325 2,646 2,107 1,666 1,323 1,064 836 665 532 420 336 259 168 104 65 41 26

1.404 1.331 1.256 1.207 1.183 1.133 1.084 1.035 0.997 0.940 0.901 0.825 0.768 0.713 0.645 0.576 0.508 0.423 0.376 0.337 0.305 0.269 0.240 0.215 0.196 0.162 0.146 0.126 0.101 0.078 0.060 0.048 0.038

3,240 2,910 2,580 2,415 2,250 2,085 1,920 1,755 1,630 1,465 1,300 1,130 975 821 684 547 427 337 268 212 169 134 105 84 67 53 42 32.5 21.0 12.8 8.0 5.0 3.2

Sources: ASTM B172 Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Stranded Members and ICEA S-68-516 (NEMA WC8)
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2. CONDUCTORS

2.5 Aluminum Strand Properties
2.5.1 Solid Aluminum
Table 2.10 –Aluminum 1350 solid round wire
Size AWG or kcmil Diameter mils Cross-Sectional Area kcmils Weight lbs./1000ft.

4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

460.0 409.6 364.8 324.9 289.3 257.6 229.4 204.3 181.9 162.0 144.3 128.5 114.4 101.9 90.7 80.8 72.0 64.1 57.1 50.8 45.3 40.3 35.9 32.0 28.5 25.3 22.6 20.1 17.9 15.9

211.600 167.800 133.100 105.600 83.690 66.360 52.620 41.740 33.090 26.240 20.820 16.510 13.090 10.380 8.230 6.530 5.180 4.110 3.260 2.580 2.050 1.620 1.290 1.020 0.812 0.640 0.511 0.404 0.320 0.253

194.4 154.2 122.3 97.0 76.91 60.98 48.36 38.35 30.40 24.12 19.13 15.17 12.03 9.542 7.559 5.999 4.764 3.776 2.996 2.371 1.886 1.492 1.184 0.9410 0.7464 0.5882 0.4693 0.3713 0.2944 0.2323 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.10 –Aluminum 1350 solid round wire Continued
Size AWG or kcmil Diameter mils Cross-Sectional Area kcmils Weight lbs./1000ft.

27 28 29 30

14.2 12.6 11.3 10.0

0.202 0.159 0.128 0.100

0.1853 0.1459 0.1173 0.09189

Source: ASTM B609 Specification for Aluminum 1350 Round Wire, Annealed and Intermediate Tempers

2.5.2 Class B Aluminum
Table 2.11–Class B concentric-lay-stranded aluminum 1350 conductors
Number of Wires Diameter of Each Wire mils

Size AWG or kcmil

4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,900 1,800 1,750 1,700 1,600 1,500 1,400 1,300 1,250 1,200 1,100 1,000 900 800 750 700

217 169 169 127 127 127 127 127 127 127 91 91 91 91 91 91 61 61 61 61 61

135.8 143.9 133.2 140.3 125.5 122.3 119.1 117.4 115.7 112.2 128.4 124.0 119.5 117.2 114.8 109.9 128.0 121.5 114.5 110.9 107.1 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.11–Class B concentric-lay-stranded aluminum 1350 conductors Continued
Size AWG or kcmil Number of Wires Diameter of Each Wire mils

650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 4/0 3/0 2/0 1/0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

61 61 61 37 37 37 37 37 37 19 19 19 19 19 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

103.2 99.2 95.0 116.2 110.3 104.0 97.3 90.0 82.2 105.5 94.0 83.7 74.5 66.4 97.4 86.7 77.2 68.8 61.2 54.5 48.6 43.2 38.5 30.5 24.2 19.2 15.2 12.1

Source: ASTM B231 Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum 1350 Conductors

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2. CONDUCTORS
2.5.3 ACSR
Table 2.12 –Concentric-lay-stranded aluminum conductors, coatedsteel reinforced (ACSR)
Stranding Size AWG or kcmil Aluminum Number/Diameter (in.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.) Weight lbs./1000ft.

2,156 1,780 1,590 1,590 1,431 1,431 1,272 1,272 1,113 1,113 954.0 954.0 795.0 795.0 795.0 636.0 636.0 636.0 556.5 556.5 556.5 477.0 477.0 477.0 477.0 397.5 397.5 397.5 336.4 336.4 336.4 266.8 266.8

84/.1602 84/.1456 54/.1716 45/.1880 54/.1628 45/.1783 54/.1535 45/.1681 54/.1436 45/.1573 54/.1329 45/.1456 45/.1329 26/.1749 24/.1820 26/.1564 24/.1628 18/.1880 26/.1463 24/.1523 18/.1758 30/.1261 26/.1354 24/.1410 18/.1628 26/.1236 24/.1287 18/.1486 30/.1059 26/.1137 18/.1367 26/.1013 18/.1217

19/.0961 19/.0874 19/.1030 7/.1253 19/.0977 7/.1189 19/.0921 7/.1121 19/.0862 7/.1049 7/.1329 7/.0971 7/.0886 7/.1360 7/.1213 7/.1216 7/.1085 1/.1880 7/.1138 7/.1015 1/.1758 7/.1261 7/.1053 7/.0940 1/.1628 7/.0961 7/.0858 1/.1486 7/.1059 7/.0884 1/.1367 7/.0788 1/.1217

2,511 2,074 2,044 1,792 1,840 1,613 1,635 1,434 1,431 1,255 1,229 1,075 896 1,094 1,023 875 819 690 766 717 604 747 657 615 518 547 512 432 527 463 365 367 290 Continued

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2. CONDUCTORS
Table 2.12 –Concentric-lay-stranded aluminum conductors, coatedsteel reinforced (ACSR) Continued
Stranding Size AWG or kcmil Aluminum Number/ Diameter (in.) Steel Number/Diameter (in.) Weight lbs./1000ft.

4/0 211.3 203.2 190.8 176.9 3/0 159.0 134.6 2/0 110.8 1/0 101.8 80.0 2 2 4 4 6

6/.1878 12/.1327 16/.1127 12/.1261 12/.1214 6/.1672 12/.1151 12/.1059 6/.1489 12/.0961 6/.1327 12/.0921 8/.1000 7/.0974 6/.1052 7/.0772 6/.0834 6/.0661

1/.1878 7/.1327 19/.0977 7/.1261 7/.1214 1/.1672 7/.1151 7/.1059 1/.1489 7/.0961 1/.1327 7/.0921 1/.1670 1/.1299 1/.1052 1/.1029 1/.0834 1/.0661

291.1 527.5 676.8 476.3 441.4 230.8 396.8 336.0 183.1 276.6 145.2 254.1 149.0 106.7 91.3 67.0 57.4 36.1

Source: ASTM B232 Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors, Coated-Steel Reinforced (ACSR)

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

3.1 Purpose 3.1 Purpose 3.2 Types and Applications 3.2.1 Thermoplastics 3.2.2 Thermosets 3.2.3 Fibrous Coverings 3.3 Color Coding 3.3.1 Power, Control, and Instrumentation 3.3.2 Belden Electronic Color Code 3.3.3 Telecommunication Color Codes 3.4 Properties 3.4.1 Thermoplastic 3.4.2 Thermoset 3.4.3 EPR Versus XLPE 3.4.4 Thermal Properties 3.4.5 Halogen Content 3.4.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) 3.4.7 Dielectric Constant

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28 30 32

33 38 39

41 44 46 46 47 48 48

3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS

3.1 Purpose
Conductors need to be electrically isolated from other conductors and from the environment to prevent short circuits. Insulation is applied around a conductor to provide this isolation. Most wire and cable insulations consist of polymers (plastics) which have a high resistance to the flow of electric current. A jacket is the outermost layer of a cable whose primary function is to protect the insulation and conductor core from external physical forces and chemical deterioration.

3.2 Types and Applications
3.2.1 Thermoplastics
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Sometimes referred to simply as “vinyl,” PVC does not usually exhibit extremely high and low temperature properties in one formulation. Certain formulations may have a 55°C to 105°C rating, while other common vinyls may have a 20°C to 60°C rating. The many varieties of PVC also differ in pliability and electrical properties. The price range can vary accordingly. Typical dielectric constant values range from 3.5 to 6.5. When properly formulated, thermoplastic jackets of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) provide cables with the ability to resist oils, acids, alkalis, sunlight, heat, weathering, and abrasion. This range of properties makes PVC a suitable outer covering for such cable types as underground feeders (Type UF), control, aerial, street lighting, and cables for direct burial. PVC is frequently used as an impervious jacket over and/or under metal armor where the installation requires PVC’s protective characteristics. Flamarrest is a plenum grade, PVC-based jacketing material with low smoke and low flame spread properties. Plenum rated cables jacketed with Flamarrest meet UL Standard 910. Fluoropolymers Fluoropolymers, with the exception of TFE Teflon, are extrudable thermoplastics used in a variety of low voltage insulating situations. Fluoropolymers contain fluorine in their molecular composition which contributes to their excellent thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical characteristics. The most commonly used fluoropolymers are: Teflon (TFE, FEP, and PFA), Tefzel (ETFE), Halar (ECTFE), and Kynar or Solef (PVDF). Teflon Teflon has excellent electrical properties, temperature range, and chemical resistance. It is not suitable where subjected to nuclear radiation and does not have good high voltage characteristics. FEP Teflon is extrudable in a manner similar to PVC and polyethylene. This means that long wire and cable lengths are available. TFE Teflon is extrudable in a hydraulic ram type process. Lengths are limited due to amount of material in the ram, thickness of the insulation, and preform size. TFE must be extruded over a silver- or nickel-coated wire. The nickel- and silver-coated designs are rated 260°C and 200°C maximum, respectively. The cost of Teflon is approximately 8 to 10 times more per pound than PVC compounds.

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Teflon TFE is the original Teflon resin invented by DuPont in 1938. It is an opaque, white material although some forms are translucent in thin sections. It does not melt in the usual sense. To coat wire for insulating purposes, Teflon TFE is extruded around the conductor as a paste, then sintered. Conductors can also be wrapped with tape of Teflon TFE. Maximum continuous service temperature of Teflon TFE is 500°F (250°C). Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon TFE include: • non-flammability • extremely high insulation resistance • very low dielectric constant • small size compared to elastomer insulated wires • excellent lubricity for easier installation • chemically inert Teflon FEP was also invented by DuPont and became commercially available in 1960. It has a glossy surface and is transparent in thin sections. Teflon FEP is a true thermoplastic. Wire insulated with Teflon FEP can be melt extruded by conventional methods. Maximum continuous service temperature is 400°F (205°C). Teflon FEP is an excellent nonflammable jacketing material for multiconductor cables. Specific advantages of wire insulated with Teflon FEP include: • high current carrying ability (ampacity) • easily color coded • smallest diameter of any high temperature wire • nonflammable • very low moisture absorption Tefzel (ETFE) is commonly used in computer backplane wiring and has the highest abrasion and cutthrough resistance of any fluoropolymer. Tefzel is a thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties, heat resistance, chemical resistance, toughness, radiation resistance, and flame resistance. Tefzel’s temperature rating is 65°C to 150°C. Halar (ECTFE) is similar to Tefzel and is also used in wirewrap applications, but since it is less expensive than Tefzel, it is often used as insulation on multipair plenum telephone cables. It has a maximum operating temperature of 125°C (UL). Halar has excellent chemical resistance, electrical properties, thermal characteristics, and impact resistance. Halar’s temperature rating is 70°C to 150°C. Kynar (PVDF) is one of the least expensive fluoropolymers and is frequently used as a jacketing material on plenum cables. Because of its high dielectric constant, however, it tends to be a poor insulator. PVDF has a temperature maximum of 135°C (UL). Polyolefins (PO) Polyolefin is the name given to a family of polymers. The most common polyolefins used in wire and cable include: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylene has excellent electrical properties. It has a low dielectric constant, a stable dielectric constant over a wide frequency range, and very high insulation resistance. However, polyethylene is stiff and very hard, depending on molecular weight and density. Low density PE (LDPE) is the most flexible, with high-density, high-molecular weight formulations being least flexible. Moisture resistance is excellent. Properly formulated PE has excellent weather resistance. The dielectric constant is 2.3 for solid and 1.6 for cellular (foamed) insulation. Flame retardant formulations are available, but they tend to have poorer electrical properties.
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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Polypropylene (PP) Similar in electrical properties to polyethylene, this material is primarily used as an insulation material. Typically, it is harder than polyethylene. This makes it suitable for thin wall insulations. The UL maximum temperature rating may be 60°C or 80°C, but most UL styles call for 60°C maximum. The dielectric constant is typically 2.25 for solid and 1.55 for cellular designs. Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) TPE, sometimes called TPR (thermoplastic rubber), has excellent cold temperature characteristics making it an excellent insulating and jacketing compound in cold climates. It is resistant to aging from sunlight, oxidation and atmospheric ozone. It retains most of its physical and electrical properties in the face of many severe environmental conditions such as a salt water environment. TPE compounds can be rated as high as 125°C (257°F). TPE has good chemical resistance to all substances except hydrocarbons. It has a tendency to swell in a hydrocarbon environment, causing the material to degrade. It has good abrasion resistance. It will resist wear, cutting, and impact. These properties make TPE jackets an excellent choice for use in control cables that are dragged around or frequently moved. TPE compounds are used as insulating materials up to a 600 volt rating. The most common cables using TPE insulation are portable control cables such as SEO and SJEO. Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethane is used primarily as a cable jacket material. It has excellent oxidation, oil, and ozone resistance. Some formulations also have good flame resistance. It has excellent abrasion resistance. It has outstanding “memory” properties, making it an ideal jacket material for retractile cords.

3.2.2 Thermosets
Chlorinated Polethylene (CPE) Chlorinated polyethylene is a crosslinked synthetic rubber with outstanding physical and electrical properties for many cable jacket applications. It is highly resistant to cold flow (compression set) and other forms of external loading as well as heat, light, and chemical attack. CPE compares favorably with most other currently used synthetic elastomers used for cable jacketing. It is resistant to ozone and ultraviolet (sunlight) degradation. Properly compounded, CPE will withstand prolonged immersion in water. It will not support combustion, but under the right conditions of excessive heat, oxygen supply, and flame source it will burn slowly. Removal of the ignition source will extinguish the flame. CPE jacketed cables pass the IEEE 383, UL, CSA, and ICEA flame tests. CPE maintains its flexibility at 18°C (0°F) and does not become brittle at 40°C ( 40°F). Its low temperature impact resistance is excellent. CPE jackets are suited to 149°C (300°F) and intermittently to higher temperatures. They will maintain adequate flexibility after repeated aging at elevated temperatures. They are known for abrasion resistance and long life in mining cable applications. CPE does not support the growth of mold, mildew, or fungus. CPE is resistant to most strong acids and bases and many solvents except for chlorinated organics. It is particularly well-suited to chemical plant use where both above ground (ultraviolet and flame retardancy) and below ground (water and chemical resistance) properties are desired. CPE’s resistance to oils and fuels is good. CPE can be conveniently colored over a wide range and will maintain color upon aging.

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Neoprene (CP) Neoprene is a vulcanized synthetic rubber. It provides a resilient jacket that resists permanent deformation under heat and load, and does not embrittle at low temperatures. It is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation, and is virtually immune to atmospheric ozone. Samples of neoprene-jacketed cable, tested outdoors under constant exposure for 40 years, have remained tough, resilient, uncracked, and completely serviceable. Neoprene jackets are “flame resistant,” i.e., not combustible without directly applied heat and flame. Neoprene will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied, but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. Neoprene-jacketed power cable can be flexed without damage to the jacket at 40°C ( 40°F) and will pass a mandrel wrap test down to about 45°C ( 50°F). Neoprene jackets resist degradation for prolonged periods at temperatures up to 121°C (250°F). Satisfactory performance at even higher temperatures is possible if the exposures are brief or intermittent. Neoprene jackets have excellent resistance to soil acids and alkalis. Mildew, fungus, and other biological agents do not deteriorate properly compounded neoprene. These jackets perform well in many chemical plants. They are tough, strong, resilient, and have excellent resistance to abrasive wear, impact, crushing, and chipping. Because of these properties, neoprene is the jacketing material frequently used for mine trailing cables and dredge cables. Neoprene’s oil resistance was an important factor in its early adoption as a superior jacketing material for industrial-type portable cords, cables, and automotive ignition wire. It gives excellent protection against lubricating oils, grease, animal and vegetable fats, and oils. The electrical properties of neoprene are sufficient to permit its use as an insulation for 60 Hz current at 600 V and below. Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLP or XLPE) Crosslinked Polyethylene is a frequently used polymer in wire and cable. It is most often used as the insulation of 600 volt building wire (e.g., Type XHHW), as the insulation in 5 to 69 kV and higher rated power cables, and as the insulation in many control cables. XLP has very high insulation resistance (IR), high dielectric strength, and low dielectric constant (2.3). It also is a very tough material at temperatures below 100°C so it is resistant to cutting, impact, and other mechanical forces. Its low temperature performance is also very good down to 40°C and below. XLP’s fire resistance, however, is poor unless flame retardants are added. XLP is lower in cost than EPR. Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EP, EPR, or EPDM) Ethylene Propylene Rubber is a common synthetic rubber polymer used as an insulation in electrical wire and cable. EPR is used as the insulation in 600 volt through 69 kV power cables, as an integral insulation/jacket on welding cables, and as an insulation in many cords, portable mining cables, and control/instrumentation cables. Because of its rubber-like characteristics, EPR is used in many highly flexible cables. Its dielectric strength is good but not as high as that of PE or XLP. Dielectric constant ranges from 2.8 to 3.2 depending on the specific EPR formulation. EPR is abrasion resistant and is suitable for use at temperatures down to 60°C. It is fairly flame retardant and can be made even more flame retardant by careful formulation. Flame retardant versions are often referred to as “FREP” or “flame retardant EP.” EPR’s high temperature characteristics are very good. Some formulations can withstand continuous temperatures as high as 150°C.

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Hypalon (CSP) Hypalon is a thermosetting, crosslinked, chlorosulphonated polyethylene made by DuPont with many excellent physical and electrical properties. It is inherently resistant to cold flow (compression set) resulting from clamping pressures and other forms of external loading; it is immune to attack by ozone; and it is highly resistant to aging from sunlight and oxidation. Water absorption of properly compounded Hypalon cable sheathing is extremely low. Hypalon sheathing will not support combustion. It will burn slowly as long as an outside source of flame is applied but is self-extinguishing as soon as the flame is removed. It remains flexible at 18°C (0°F) and will not become brittle at 40°C ( 40°F). Hypalon jacketed constructions pass both the Underwriters Laboratories’ vertical flame test and the U.S. Bureau of Mines’ flame test for mining cable. At high temperatures Hypalon will perform satisfactorily after short-term exposure at up to 148°C (300°F) — even higher if compounded for maximum heat resistance. It is well-known for its resistance to chemicals, oils, greases, and fuels. It is particularly useful as a cable sheathing in plant processing areas, where airborne chemicals attack ordinary jacketing materials and metal conduit. Hypalon surpasses most elastomers in resistance to abrasion. It is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. It is especially useful in contact with oils at elevated temperatures. Sheathing of Hypalon provides high resistance to impact, crushing, and chipping. Hypalon’s electrical properties make it appropriate as insulation for low-voltage applications (up to 600 volts) and as jacketing for any type of wire and cable. Silicone Silicone is a soft, rubbery insulation which has a temperature range from 80°C to 200°C. It has excellent electrical properties plus ozone resistance, low moisture absorption, weather resistance, and radiation resistance. It typically has low mechanical strength and poor scuff resistance.

3.2.3 Fibrous Coverings
Fibrous coverings are commonly used on high temperature cables due to their excellent heat resistance. They are normally constructed of a textile braid (i.e., Fiberglass or K-fiber) impregnated with a flame and heat resistant finish. K-Fiber insulating materials are a blend of polyaramid, polyamid, phenolic-based and fiberglass fibers. They are available as roving and yarn for insulating applications and as rope for use as fillers. They provide a non-asbestos, abrasion-, moisture-, flame- and temperature-resistant, non-melting insulating material for all applications requiring a 250°C (482°F) temperature rating which would have previously utilized asbestos.

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS

3.3 Color Coding
3.3.1 Power, Control, and Instrumentation
ICEA standard S-73-532 (NEMA WC57) contains several methods for providing color coding in multiconductor cables. The three most widely used are Methods 1, 3, and 4. Method 1—Colored Compounds with Tracers Method 2—Neutral Colored Compounds with Tracers Method 3—Neutral or Single-Color Compounds with Surface Printing of Numbers and Color Designations Method 4—Neutral or Single-Color Compounds with Surface Printing of Numbers Method 5—Individual Color Coding with Braids Method 6—Layer Indentification Method 7—Paired Conductors ICEA has historically established the sequence of colors used for Method 1 color coding. The sequence consists of six basic colors, then a repeat of the colors with a colored band or tracer. This sequence of colors is referred to as K-1 color coding because it is found in Table K-1 of many ICEA standards. (See Tables 3.1 through 3.5.) In the latest ICEA standard the color sequences are located in Tables E-1 through E-7. The National Electrical Code (NEC) specifies that a conductor colored white can only be used as a grounded (neutral) conductor and that a conductor colored green can only be used as an equipment grounding conductor. The use of Table K-1 color coding would therefore be in violation of the Code in a cable having more than six conductors if conductors #7 (white/black), #9 (green/black), #14 (green/white), etc. are energized. To address this issue, a different color coding sequence was developed by ICEA for cables that are used in accordance with the NEC. Table K-2 of the ICEA standard provides this color sequence. The ICEA standard provides further guidance stating that if a white conductor is required, this color may be introduced into Table K-2 as the second conductor in the sequence. If a green insulated conductor is required, it likewise can be introduced into the table. However, the white and green colors may only appear once. The most popular multiconductor control cables in sizes 14 AWG –10 AWG have Method 1, Table K-2 color coding. The cables do not contain a white or green conductor. The most popular control cables used in sizes 8 AWG and larger are three conductor cables having black insulation surface ink printed with the numbers 1, 2, and 3. This is Method 4 color coding in the ICEA standards. The electric utility industry generally specifies control cables with the K-1 color coding sequence. Utilities, in general, do not have to comply with the NEC. For applications where the NEC is applicable, such as in industrial and commercial applications, the K2 color sequence is normally used.

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.1–K-1 color sequence
Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color

Conductor Number

Conductor Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue – White Red

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

Green Orange Blue Black White Orange White Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange

Black Black White White Red White Red White Black White White Red Red White Black White Orange Red Red Orange Black Orange Red Black Black Orange Orange Orange Black Green

Orange Green Orange Orange Orange Blue Blue Green Green Green Blue Green Green Blue Blue Blue Red Blue Orange Red Orange Black Blue Blue Orange Green Green Green Blue Blue

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.2 –K-2 color sequence
Background or Base Color

Table 3.3 –K-3 color sequence
First Tracer Color (e.g., Wide Tracer) Second Tracer Color (e.g., Narrow Tracer)

Conductor Number

Tracer Color

Conductor Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.4 –K-4 color sequence
First Tracer Color (e.g., Wide Tracer) Second Tracer Color (e.g., Narrow Tracer)

Conductor Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Black Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Red Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Blue Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Orange Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Yellow Brown Black Red Blue Orange Brown Black Red Blue Orange Yellow

– – – – – – Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Red Red Red Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Orange Orange Orange Orange Orange Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Brown Brown Brown Brown Brown

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.5 –K-5 color sequence
Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color

Conductor Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Black White Red Green Orange Blue White Red Green Orange Blue Black Red Green Blue Black White Orange Blue Red Orange Black White Red Green Orange Blue Black White Red Green Orange Blue

Black Black Black Black Black White White White White Red Red Red Red Green Green White Black Black Black Black Black Red Red Black Black Black White

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Red Red White White White White Green Green Green Orange Green Orange Continued

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Table 3.5 –K-5 color sequence Continued
Conductor Number Background or Base Color First Tracer Color Second Tracer Color

34 35 36 37

Black White Orange White

White Red White Red

Orange Orange Blue Blue

3.3.2 Belden Electronic Color Code
Table 3.6 –Common multiconductor color code (Belden standard)
Conductor Color

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

Black White Red Green Brown Blue Orange Yellow Purple Gray Pink Tan

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.7–Common multipair color code (Belden standard)
Pair No. Color Combination Pair No. Color Combination

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Black & Red Black & White Black & Green Black & Blue Black & Yellow Black & Brown Black & Orange Red & White Red & Green Red & Blue Red & Yellow Red & Brown Red & Orange Green & White Green & Blue Green & Yellow Green & Brown Green & Orange White & Blue

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

White & Yellow White & Brown White & Orange Blue & Yellow Blue & Brown Blue & Orange Brown & Yellow Brown & Orange Orange & Yellow Purple & Orange Purple & Red Purple & White Purple & Dark Green Purple & Light Blue Purple & Yellow Purple & Brown Purple & Black Gray & White

3.3.3 Telecommunication Color Codes
Individual telecommunication cable conductors are color-coded with solid colors (Table 3.8) or by applying a colored band of contrasting color to solid colored wires (Table 3.9). Bandmarking is used on inside wiring cable, plenum cable, and switchboard cable. The color combinations are such that each wire is banded with the color of its mate. For example, in a blue and white pair, the blue wire has a white band, and the white wire a blue band. Telephone wires (e.g., inside-outside station wire and distribution frame and jumper wire) that do not have paired constructions have solid color wires. All colors must be readily distinguishable and lie within the Munsell color standard. Large Pair Count Cables In cables having more than 25 pairs, the pairs are arranged in groups, each containing a maximum of 25 pairs and wrapped with distinctively colored binder threads to permit distinction between groups.

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Table 3.8 –Telecommunication cable color code (solid colors)
No. Tip Ring

Table 3.9 –Telecommunication cable color code (band marked)
No. Tip Ring

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

White White White White White Red Red Red Red Red Black Black Black Black Black Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Violet Violet Violet Violet Violet

Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate Blue Orange Green Brown Slate

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

White-Blue White-Orange White-Green White-Brown White-Slate Red-Blue Red-Orange Red-Green Red-Brown Red-Slate Black-Blue Black-Orange Black-Green Black-Brown Black-Slate Yellow-Blue Yellow-Orange Yellow-Green Yellow-Brown Yellow-Slate Violet-Blue Violet-Orange Violet-Green Violet-Brown Violet-Slate Red-White

Blue-White Orange-White Green-White Brown-White Slate-White Blue-Red Orange-Red Green-Red Brown-Red Slate-Red Blue-Black Orange-Black Green-Black Brown-Black Slate-Black Blue-Yellow Orange-Yellow Green-Yellow Brown-Yellow Slate-Yellow Blue-Violet Orange-Violet Green-Violet Brown-Violet Slate-Violet White-Red

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3.4 Properties
3.4.1 Thermoplastic
Table 3.10 –Properties of thermoplastic insulation & jacket materials
Low-Density Polyethylene Cellular Polyethylene High-Density Polyethylene

PVC

Polypropylene

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temperature Flexibility Weather, Sun Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Radiation Resistance Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance Underground Burial

E G-E F P-G G-E E F-G F-G E F F-G G-E G-E P

E G G-E E E E G E P G-E E G-E G-E G-E

E G G E E E F E P G E G-E G-E G

E E G-E E E E E E P G-E E E E G-E

E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P-F

P-F

P

P

P

P-F

P-F

G

G

G

P

G-E P-G

E G

E F

E E

E E Continued
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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.10 –Properties of thermoplastic insulation & jacket materials Continued
Cellular Polypropylene Plenum PVC

Polyurethane

Nylon

CPE

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temperature Flexibility Weather, Sun Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Radiation Resistance Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance Underground Burial

E E F P E E F-G E P F E E E P

E G E G G E O P P G P-G F F P-G

E E E G E E E P P F-G P-F P-E E G

E E E E E E E-O E E O O E E E

E G-E F P-G G E F-G G E F F G G P

P

P-G

G

G-E

P-F

P

P-G

G

E

P-F

E F

P-G G

P P

E E-O

G P Continued

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.10 –Properties of thermoplastic insulation & jacket materials Continued
FEP Teflon Tefzel (ETFE) TFE Teflon Solef/Kynar (PVDF)/PVF Halar (ECTFE)

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temperature Flexibility Weather, Sun Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Radiation Resistance Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance Underground Burial

O O O O O E E E O P-G E E E E

E E E E E E E E G E E E E E

O O E-O O O O O E E E E E E E

O O E O E-O E E G-E E E E G-E E E

O O O O O E E E E-O E E E E E

E

E

E

G-E

E

E

E

E

G

E

E E

E E

E E

E E

E E

P Poor F Fair G Good E Excellent O Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden

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3.4.2 Thermoset
Table 3.11–Properties of thermoset insulation & jacket materials
Hypalon (ChloroSulfonated Polyethylene)

Insulation or Jacket Material

Butadiene Rubber)

SBR (Styrene Synthetic Rubber

PolyButadiene

Neoprene

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temperature Flexibility Weather, Sun Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Radiation Resistance Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance Underground Burial

F F-G P F-G F P G-E E P F-G G-E F-G F-G P

G F P E F P E E P F-G E F-G F-G P

G F P E F P E E P P E F-G F-G P

G G G F-G G G G-E P G F-G E G G G

E E G F E E G G G E E E E F

P

P

P

P-F

F

P

P

P

P

P-F

F G

G G

F-G G-E

F G-E

G E Continued

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3. INSULATION & JACKET MATERIALS
Table 3.11–Properties of thermoset insulation & jacket materials Continued
Insulation or Jacket Material NBR (Nitrile or Butadiene Acrylo Nitrile) EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber)

NBR/PVC

XLPE

CPE

Silicone Rubber

Oxidation Resistance Heat Resistance Oil Resistance Low Temperature Flexibility Weather, Sun Resistance Ozone Resistance Abrasion Resistance Electrical Properties Flame Resistance Nuclear Radiation Resistance Water Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resistance Gasoline, Kerosene, Etc. (Aliphatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Benzol, Toluol, Etc. (Aromatic Hydrocarbons) Resistance Degreaser Solvents (Halogenated Hydrocarbons) Resistance Alcohol Resistance Underground Burial

F G G-E F F-G P G-E P P F-G G-E G F-G E

E G G F G G E F G P E G G G-E

E E P G-E E E G E P G G-E G-E G-E P

E G G O G G F-G E P E G-E G-E G-E F

E E G-E F E G-E G-E F-G G G G-E E E F

E O F-G O O O P G F-G E G-E F-G F-G P-F

G

G

F

F

F

P

P

G

P

F

P

P-G

E G

G G

P E

E E

G-E E

G G

P Poor F Fair G Good E Excellent O Outstanding These ratings are based on average performance of general purpose compounds. Any given property can usually be improved by the use of selective compounding. Source: Belden
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3.4.3 EPR Versus XLPE
Table 3.12 –Properties of EPR compared with those of XLPE Crosslinked Polyethylene Less Deformation Below 100°C Lower in Cost Lower Dissipation Factor Lower Dielectric Constant Higher Dielectric Strength Physically Tougher More Resistant to Chemicals More Oil Resistant Ethylene Propylene Rubber Less Deformation Above 100°C More Heat Resistance Less Shrinkback Less Thermal Expansion More Corona Resistant More Flexible More Tree Retardant More Sunlight Resistant

3.4.4 Thermal Properties
˚C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 ˚C

-20˚ PVC (STANDARD) 80˚ -55˚ PVC (PREMIUM) 105˚ -60˚ POLYETHYLENE 80˚ -40˚ POLYPROPYLENE 105˚ -40˚ CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE 130˚ -60˚ ETHYLENE PROPYLENE RUBBER 150˚ -40 HYPALON (CSPE) 105˚ -50˚ NEOPRENE 90˚ -40˚ RUBBER 75˚ -65˚ SILICONE BRAIDLESS 150˚ -65˚ SILICONE W/ BRAID 200˚ -70˚ TEFLON 260˚ ˚C –80 –60 –40 –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 ˚C

Figure 3.1–Nominal temperature range of cable polymers
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3.4.5 Halogen Content
Table 3.13 –Halogen content in typical insulation and jacket materials
Material Typical Halogen Content % by weight

PE Insulation or Jacket XLP Insulation 600V (6 AWG & larger)* XLP Insulation 5-35 kV EPR Insulation 5-35 kV XLP Insulation 600V (14-8 AWG)** FR-EPR Insulation Hypalon (Insulation Grade) FR-XLP Insulation Hypalon Jacket (Heavy Duty) Neoprene Jacket CPE Jacket Hypalon Jacket (Extra Heavy Duty) PVC Jacket

0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 7 9 13 14 16 16 –18 14 –18 18 – 20 22 – 29

*Passes UL1581 horizontal flame test without halogenated flame retardants in sizes 6 AWG and larger. **Sufficient halogenated flame retardant added to pass UL1581 horizontal flame test in sizes 8 AWG and smaller. NOTE: Halogen content can vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The above values should be used for general comparisons only.

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3.4.6 Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI)
LOI values are used to determine the relative flammability of polymers. Tests are usually conducted in accordance with ASTM D2863 which finds the percent oxygen required to sustain combustion. Typical values are shown below. Table 3.14 –LOI of common wire and cable materials Teflon PVDF (Kynar) Halar Plenum grade PVC FR-EP FR-XLP CPE Hypalon Neoprene Tefzel PVC Kevlar NBR PVC XLP (Unfilled) 93% 43 – 85% 55% 38 – 42% 30 – 40% 30 – 40% 28 – 36% 34% 32% 30 – 32% 28 – 32% 29% 28% 20 – 23%

3.4.7 Dielectric Constant
Table 3.15 –Dielectric constant of common wire and cable materials Teflon (FEP, PFA, or TFE) Polypropylene Crosslinked Polyethylene Polyethylene Halar (ECTFE) Tefzel (ETFE) EPR Polyester (Mylar) Silicone Mica PVC Hypalon Neoprene Kynar (PVDF) 2.1 2.2 – 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.8 – 3.5 3.3 – 3.8 3–4 6.9 3.5 – 8 8 –10 9 –10 6 –12

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5. ARMOR
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

5.1 Interlocked Armor 5.1 Interlocked Armor 5.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) 5.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW) 5.3 Basket Weave 5.3 Basket Weave 5.4 Lead Sheath 5.4 Lead Sheath 5.5 Wire Serve 5.5 Wire Serve

56

56

57

57

57

5. ARMOR
Cables often need to be placed in areas where they are subjected to harsh mechanical stresses. These stresses could damage the insulated conductors or the optical fibers in the cable if they are not properly protected. Armor (usually a metal) is frequently applied over the cable core to provide this protection. The armor extends the life while improving the reliability, safety and performance of the cable core. The following are some frequently used armor types.

5.1 Interlocked Armor
Galvanized steel or aluminum are the typical materials used for interlocked armor. However, other metals are sometimes used for specialized applications. The interlocking construction protects the cable from damage during and after installation. The armor may be applied directly over the insulation or over an inner jacket. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of UL, CSA and/or ICEA. Table 5.1–ICEA recommended thickness of interlocked armor
Diameter of Cable Inch Nominal Thickness, mils Steel or Bronze Aluminum

0 to 1.500 1.501 and larger

20 25

25 30

5.2 Continuously Corrugated and Welded (CCW)
CCW armor is made by forming an aluminum strip into a circle along its length and then welding it at the seam. This smooth tube is then rolled or crimped to form ridges to prevent kinking while bending (see illustration). This type of sheath provides an impervious seal against moisture and other chemicals as well as physical protection.

Jacket

Armor

Figure 5.1–Continuously corrugated and welded (CCW) armor
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5. ARMOR

5.3 Basket Weave
Basket weave armor is constructed of metal wires forming a braided outer covering. The wires may be of galvanized steel, aluminum or bronze. This armor is generally used on shipboard cables because it provides the mechanical protection of an armored cable, yet is much lighter in weight than other types of armored coverings. Materials and construction generally comply with the requirements of IEEE Standard 45 and various military specifications.

5.4 Lead Sheath
For underground installations in conduits, ducts and raceways, a lead sheath may be used to protect insulated cables from moisture. In locations where corrosive conditions may be encountered, a jacket over the lead is recommended. Commercially pure lead is used on some lead-covered cables, which conforms to the requirements of ASTM B29 and ICEA S-19-81. Lead alloy sheaths, containing added tin or antimony, are used where a harder sheath is desired or where vibration may be encountered.

5.5 Wire Serve
Wire serve armor is most commonly found on submarine cable because it provides excellent physical protection from boat anchors, sharp rocks, sharks, etc. This type of armor normally consists of 1⁄8 to 1 ⁄4 inch diameter solid steel wires which are laid helically around the circumference of the cable. Tar or asphalt (bitumen) is placed over and around the steel wires to reduce the effects of corrosion.

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ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

6.1 Portable Power and Control 6.1.1 Flexible Cords 6.1.2 Mining Cable 6.2 Construction and Building Wire 6.2 Construction and Building Wire 6.3 Control, Instrumentation, and Thermocouple 6.3.1 Control 6.3.2 Instrumentation 6.3.3 Thermocouple Wire 6.4 High Temperature 6.4 High Temperature 6.5 Power 6.5.1 Voltage Rating 6.5.2 Conductor Size 6.5.3 Short Circuit Current 6.5.4 Voltage Drop Considerations 6.5.5 Special Conditions 6.6 Armored Power and Control 6.6 Armored Power and Control 6.7 Electronic Cable 6.7.1 Coaxial Cable 6.7.2 Twinax Cable 6.7.3 UTP and STP 6.7.4 IBM Cabling System

61 62

62

63 63 64

66

67 68 68 69 69

70

70 72 73 75

6. CABLE TYPES AND SELECTION CRITERIA (CONT)
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

6.8 Telephone 6.8.1 Outside Cables 6.8.2 Indoor Cables 6.8.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials 6.9 Military 6.9 Military 6.10 Shipboard Cables 6.10 Shipboard Cables 6.11 Optical Fiber Cables 6.11.1 Fiber Types 6.11.2 Fiber Selection 6.11.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection 6.12 Tray Cables 6.12 Tray Cables

76 76 77

78

79

80 81 82

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6. CABLE TYPES AND SELECTION CRITERIA

6.1 Portable Power and Control
6.1.1 Flexible Cords
Flexible cords come in a number of UL and CSA Types including SO, SOW, SOW-A, SOOW-A, SJ, SJO, SJOW-A, STO and SJTO. In portable cord terminology, each letter of the cable type indicates the construction of the cable. For example: S stranded, O oil resistant, J junior service (300 V), W weather resistant, T thermoplastic, and OO oil resistant insulation and jacket. The temperature rating of these cables can range from 50°C to 105°C for SOOW-A and 37°C to 90°C for other thermoset cords. Thermoplastic cords typically have temperature ratings that range from 20°C to 60°C. Thermoset portable cords have excellent cold bend characteristics and are extremely durable. Table 6.1–Flexible cord type designations TS TST SPT-1 SPT-2 SPT-3 SPE-1 SPE-2 SPE-3 SV SVO SVOO SVT SVTO SVTOO SVE SVEO SVEOO SJ SJO SJOO SJT SJTO SJTOO SJE SJEO SJEOO S Tinsel Service Tinsel Service Thermoplastic Service Parallel Thermoplastic—1⁄64" Insulation Service Parallel Thermoplastic—2⁄64" Insulation Service Parallel Thermoplastic—3⁄64" Insulation Service Parallel Elastomer—1⁄64" Insulation Service Parallel Elastomer—2⁄64" Insulation Service Parallel Elastomer—3⁄64" Insulation Service Vacuum Service Vacuum Oil-Resistant Jacket SVO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Vacuum Thermoplastic SVT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Vacuum Elastomer SVE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SVEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Junior SJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Junior Thermoplastic SJT with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJTO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Junior Elastomer SJE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SJEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Continued
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Table 6.1–Flexible cord type designations Continued SO SOO ST STO STOO SE SEO SEOO HPN HSJ HSJO HS HSO Service with Oil-Resistant Jacket SO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Thermoplastic ST with Oil-Resistant Jacket STO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Service Elastomer SE with Oil-Resistant Jacket SEO with Oil-Resistant Insulation Heater Parallel Neoprene Heater Service Junior HSJ with Oil-Resistant Jacket Heater Service HS with Oil-Resistant Jacket

6.1.2 Mining Cable
Mine power cables are generally designed to be used as flexible feeder cables for circuits between the main power source and mine load centers or as equipment trailing cables. Mine power feeder (MPF) cables typically have voltage ratings of 5, 8, 15 or 25 kV and are available with or without a ground check conductor. A ground check (GC) conductor is a separate insulated ground wire that is used to monitor the “health” of the normal ground wire. MPF cables are flexible but are designed for only limited or occasional movement. Shovel (SHD) cables are generally used to power heavy duty mobile mining equipment. SHD cables are unique in that they not only carry voltage ratings up to 25 kV but also have great flexibility and incredible physical toughness. Like mine power cables, SHD cables are generally available with or without a ground check conductor. For low voltage applications, there are a number of portable cables used by the mining industry. Among the most common are Type W and Type G. Both cables are a heavy duty construction, can withstand frequent flexing, and carry a voltage rating of up to 2 kV.

6.2 Construction and Building Wire
Construction and building wire encompasses a wide variety of 300 and 600 volt wire and cable including UL Types: THW, THW-2, THWN, THWN-2, THHN, TFFN, TFN, RHH, RHW, RHW-2, USE, USE-2, thermostat wire, SER, SE-U, XHHW, XHHW-2 and others. This category of wire is typically used as the permanent wiring in residential, commercial and industrial facilities. UL types with a “-2” suffix are rated 90°C in both dry and wet locations.

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6.3 Control, Instrumentation, and Thermocouple
6.3.1 Control
Control cables differ from power cables in that they are used to carry intermittent control signals which generally require little power. Therefore, current loading is rarely a deciding factor in the choice of control cable. Primary criteria that are applied to the selection of control cable are voltage level and environmental conditions. The voltage level for control circuits may range anywhere from millivolts up to several hundred volts. Environmental Conditions Control cables are generally subject to rather severe environmental conditions. For this reason an examination of these conditions is at least as important as electrical considerations. High ambient temperature conditions, (such as near boilers and steam lines) along with possible exposure to oils, solvents, and other chemicals (in chemical, petroleum, steel, pulp and paper, and cement plants) are vital considerations. A typical 600 volt control cable is shown below:
Stranded, bare copper PVC Nylon jacket PVC jacket

PVC insulation

Nylon jacket Tape binder (optional)

Figure 6.1–A typical 600 volt control cable

6.3.2 Instrumentation
Instrumentation cable is generally used to transmit a low power signal from a transducer (measuring for example, pressure, temperature, voltage, flow, etc.) to a PLC or DCS process control computer or to a manually operated control panel. It is normally available in 300 or 600 volt constructions with a single overall shield, or with individual shields over each pair (or triad) and an overall shield.

Figure 6.2 –Control cable with overall shield

Figure 6.3 –Control cable with individually shielded pairs and an overall shield
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6.3.3 Thermocouple Wire
A thermocouple is a temperature measuring device consisting of two conductors of dissimilar metals or alloys that are connected together at one end. At this thermocouple junction, as it is called, a small voltage is produced. Electronic instrumentation senses this voltage and converts it to temperature. Thermocouple wire or extension grade wire is recommended for use in connecting thermocouples to the sensing or control instrumentation. The conditions of measurement determine the type of thermocouple wire and insulation to be used. Temperature range, environment, insulation requirements, response, and service life should be considered. Thermocouple Types Type J (Iron vs Constantan) is used in vacuum, oxidizing, inert or reducing atmospheres. Iron oxidizes rapidly at temperatures exceeding 538°C (1,000°F), and therefore heavier gauge wire is recommended for longer life at these temperatures. Type K (Chromel vs Alumel) is used in oxidizing, inert or dry reducing atmospheres. Exposure to a vacuum should be limited to short time periods. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. Reliable and accurate at high temperatures. Type T (Copper vs Constantan) is used for service in oxidizing, inert or reducing atmospheres or in a vacuum. It is highly resistant to corrosion from atmospheric moisture and condensation and exhibits high stability at low temperatures; it is the only type with limits of error guaranteed for cryogenic temperatures. Type E (Chromel vs Constantan) may be used in oxidizing, inert or dry reducing atmospheres, or for short periods of time under vacuum. Must be protected from sulfurous and marginally oxidizing atmospheres. Produces the highest EMF per degree of any standardized thermocouple. Type N (Nicrosil vs Nisil) is used in oxidizing, inert or dry reducing atmospheres. Must be protected from sulfurous atmospheres. Very reliable and accurate at high temperatures.

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6. CABLE TYPES AND SELECTION CRITERIA
Thermocouple wire can be fabricated into an accurate and dependable thermocouple by joining the thermoelements at the sensing end. Thermocouple wire or thermocouple extension wire of the same type must be used to extend thermocouples to indicating or control instrumentation. RED color code is negative throughout circuit. Hook up Red Color-Coded wire to negative terminal of instrument.

Temperature limit of the thermocouple depends on the thermocouple wire: wire size; wire insulation; and environmental factors.

Use thermocouple connectors if required. They are made of the same alloys and have the same color codes as extension wire.

Source: PMC Corporation Figure 6.4 –A typical thermocouple circuit

Table 6.2 –Color code for thermocouple wire
Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys ANSI Symbol Color Code Individual

*Iron ( ) vs Constantan ( ) Chromel ( ) vs *Alumel ( ) Copper ( ) vs Constantan ( ) Chromel ( ) vs Constantan ( ) Nicrosil ( ) vs Nisil ( ) *Magnetic

J K T E N

White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red Orange/Red

Table 6.3 –Color code for thermocouple extension wire
Thermocouple Type Wire Alloys ANSI Symbol Color Code Individual Jacket

*Iron vs Constantan Chromel vs *Alumel Copper vs Constantan Chromel vs Constantan Nicrosil vs Nisil *Magnetic

JX KX TX EX NX

White/Red Yellow/Red Blue/Red Purple/Red Orange/Red

Black Yellow Blue Purple Orange

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6.4 High Temperature
The term “high temperature” generally refers to wire or cable with a temperature rating of 125°C (302°F) or higher. However, depending on your point of reference, the ratings can be as low as 90°C (194°F). Below are listed some of the most common high temperature wire and cable types along with their temperature rating: Table 6.4 –High temperature cable ratings chart
°C °F Type

1,000 538 450 400 250

1,832 1,000 842 752 482

Heating Cable: Type 2 Apparatus and Motor Lead Wire: MG (Non-UL) Appliance and Fixture Wire: MG (UL) Heating Cable: Type 1 Apparatus and Motor Lead Wire: MG, TGGT, TKGT Appliance and Fixture Wire: HRSR, MG, TGGT, TKGT, TGC Instrumentation Cable: TKGT, TKGK Control Cable: TKGT, TMMG, TKGK Power Cable: TKGK, TMKS, TMMG Heating Cable: SRG, PFA Appliance and Fixture Wire: HRSR Apparatus and Motor Lead Wire: KK, SRG, SRK, SRGT (Hot Spot) Appliance and Fixture Wire: KG, SR, SRG, SRK, TE, HVSR, TGS Heating Cable: Type 9 Thermocouple Cable: SRGK, SRGS Instrumentation Cable: SRGK, SRGS Control Cable: SRGK, SRGS, SRGT, SRGT K, SRGT S Power Cable: SRGK, SRGS, SRGT, SRK, SRGT L, SRGT S Fire Alarm Cable: SSFA Apparatus and Motor Lead Wire: KK, SRG, XLPO Thermocouple Cable: SRGK Appliance and Fixture Wire: HVSR, K, KG, KK, SR, SRG, TE, XLPO, TGS Instrumentation Cable: SRGK, SRGT F, SRGS Control Cable: SRGK, SKSM, SRGT F, SRGS Power Cable: SKSM, SRGK, SRGT F, SRGS Apparatus and Motor Lead Wire: SRK, XPT, XXT Appliance and Fixture Wire: FREP, XPT, XXT Continued

230 200

446 392

150

302

125

257

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6. CABLE TYPES AND SELECTION CRITERIA
Table 6.4 –Temperature ratings chart Continued
°C °F Type

105

221

Thermocouple Cable: PV*X, SGNV, SRNV, PX*X Instrumentation Cable: SGNV, SRNV, PVIC, PZIC Fire Alarm Cable: SVFA Switchboard Wire: SIS, VW-1, SIS Thermocouple Cable: FREP-CPE, FREP-II Instrumentation Cable: FREP-CPE, FREP-II, SRGT/V, SRGT/C Control Cable: FREP-CPE, FREP-II, SRGT/V, SRGT/C Power Cable: FREP-CPE, FREP-II, SRGT/V, SRGT/C

90

194

*Insert J, K, T, E or N depending upon thermocouple type.

6.5 Power
Below are some of the key factors that influence the choice of power cable: • System voltage rating. • Current loading requirements. • External thermal conditions such as ambient temperature, proximity of other cables, adjacent sources of heat, thermal conductivity of soil, etc. • Voltage drop considerations. • Special conditions, such as the presence of corrosive agents, flexibility, and flame resistance.

6.5.1 Voltage Rating
The system voltage on which the cable is to operate determines the required cable voltage rating. Cables rated 5 kV and above are separated into two classifications: grounded neutral service (100 percent insulation level), and ungrounded neutral service (133 percent insulation level). In case of a phase to ground fault, it is possible to operate ungrounded systems for up to one hour with one phase conductor at ground potential. This condition results in full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation of each of the other two phase conductors. For this reason each phase conductor of such a cable has additional insulation. Cables designed for use on grounded systems take advantage of the absence of this full line-to-line voltage stress across the insulation and use thinner insulation. The direct result of such a design is lower cost, as well as reduced cable diameter.

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6.5.2 Conductor Size
Conductor size is based principally on three considerations: • Current-carrying capacity (ampacity). • Short-circuit current. • Voltage drop. The current-carrying capacity of a cable is affected primarily by the permissible operating temperature of its insulation. The higher the operating temperature of the insulation, the higher the currentcarrying capacity of a given conductor size. The temperature at which a particular cable will operate is affected by the ability of the surrounding material to conduct away the heat. Therefore, the current-carrying capacity is materially affected by the ambient temperature as well as by the installation conditions. For example, assuming a 40°C ambient temperature, a three-conductor 4/0 copper, 15 kV, XLPE insulated cable in an overhead cable tray in open air will carry 325 amperes. The same cable installed in a conduit in air will only carry 289 amperes. Running a single conductor cable through a magnetic conduit will increase the apparent resistance of the cable and will result in a lower current-carrying capacity due to the additional resistance and magnetic losses. Similarly, when cables are run close together the presence of the other cables, in effect, increases the ambient temperature, which decreases the ability of the cable to dissipate its heat. As a result, many conditions must be known before an accurate current-carrying capacity can be assigned to a particular cable installation. Occasionally, emergency overload conditions are involved and these may also affect conductor size.

6.5.3 Short Circuit Current
A second consideration in selection of conductor size is that of the short circuit current which the cable must carry. The construction of cable is such that its mechanical strength is high and it can handle short-circuit currents without any mechanical difficulty. From a thermal standpoint, however, there is a limit to the amount of short-circuit current which can be carried.

PVC jacket Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield

Copper conductor Copper shielding tape EPR insulation

Figure 6.5 –Typical tape shielded 15 kV power cable

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PVC jacket Binder tape Extruded insulation shield Extruded conductor shield

Copper wire shield

Copper conductor XLP insulation

Figure 6.6 –Typical wire shielded 15 kV power cable

6.5.4 Voltage Drop Considerations
Cable conductor size is sometimes governed by voltage drop rather than by heating. Generally, conductor size on long, low-voltage lines is governed by voltage drop; on short, high-voltage lines by heating. Due to voltage drop considerations, it might be necessary to increase conductor size, even though the current load is adequately handled by a smaller size conductor.

6.5.5 Special Conditions
The following are only a few of the many special conditions which may affect cable selection: • The presence of large sources of heat (boilers, steam lines, etc.). • The effect of magnetic materials such as pipes or structural members close to large cables carrying heavy current loads. • The presence of corrosive reagents in the soil or other locations in which the cable is installed. • The interference that may occur in telecommunication circuits because of adjacent power cables. • Flame and radiation resistance. • Mechanical toughness. • Moisture resistance. • Overload and fault current requirements. All special conditions should be carefully investigated, and the advice of competent engineers obtained, before proceeding with an important cable installation.

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6.6 Armored Power and Control
Armored cables comprise a group of cables that are designed to withstand severe mechanical and chemical environments. For information on the various types and their applications, see Chapter 5 on Armor.

6.7 Electronic Cable
This category of wire and cable covers thousands of small gauge single conductor wire types along with many types of multiconductor cables. These basic types come in various combinations of stranding, insulation material, conductor count, jacket material, etc. Some common types are described below.

6.7.1 Coaxial Cable
A coaxial cable consists of four basic parts: • Inner conductor. (Center Conductor) • Outer conductor. (Shield) • Dielectric, which separates the inner and outer conductors. • Jacket, which is the outer polymer layer protecting the parts inside.

Figure 6.7–Typical coaxial cable Nominal Impedance. The nominal or characteristic impedance of a coaxial cable is a function of its geometry and materials. Nominal impedance for coax ranges from 35 to 185 ohms; the most common values are 50, 75, and 93 ohms. The most efficient transfer of energy from a source to a load occurs when all parts of the system have the same impedance. For example, a transmitter, interconnecting cable, and receiver should all have the same impedance. This need for impedance matching is especially critical at higher frequencies, where the consequences of mismatches are more severe.

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VSWR. The voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) is a measure of the standing waves that result from reflections. It expresses the uniformity or quality of a cable’s nominal impedance. Uniformity is also measured as Structural Return Loss (SRL). Velocity of Propagation. Velocity of propagation is the speed at which electromagnetic energy travels along the cable. In free space or air, electromagnetic energy travels at the speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second. In other materials, however, the energy travels slower, depending on the dielectric constant of the material. Velocity of propagation is expressed as a percentage of the speed of light. For example, a velocity of 65% means that the energy travels at 120,900 miles per second—or 35% slower than in free space. The dielectric separating the two conductors determines the velocity of propagation. Although the electromagnetic energy travels in the dielectric, the current associated with the energy travels primarily on the outside of the center conductor and the inside of the outer conductor (shield). The two conductors bind the energy within the cable. Consequently, the quality of the dielectric is important to efficient, speedy transfer of energy. Speed is important to engineers who must know the transit time of signals for digital transmission. Voltage Rating. This rating specifies the maximum voltage the cable is designed to handle. Operating Temperature Range. This specifies the minimum and maximum temperatures at which the cable can operate. Types of Coaxial Cables. The following paragraphs briefly identify the common types of coaxial cable available. Flexible Coax. The most common type, flexible cables use a braided outer conductor (shield) of extremely fine wires. While the braid makes the cable flexible, it does not provide complete shielding— energy (RF signals) can leak through the shield via minute gaps in the braid. To combat this, many cables have several layers in the outer conductor. In addition, thin foils supplement the braid to provide better coverage for greater shielding effectiveness. The greater the coverage, the better the shield. Semirigid Coax. Semirigid cables have a solid, tubular outer conductor, similar to a pipe. This construction gives the cable a very uniform impedance (low VSWR) and excellent shielding, but at the expense of flexibility.

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Triaxial Cable. This cable has two outer conductors (shields) separated by a dielectric layer. One outer conductor (shield) serves as a signal ground, while the other serves as earth ground, providing better noise immunity and shielding. One caution: Do not confuse a flexible cable having a multilayer outer shield with triaxial cable. Dual Coaxial Cable. This cable contains two individual coaxial cables surrounded by a common outer jacket. Flexible coax Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Semirigid coax Outer conductor Inner conductor

Inner conductor Dielectric Triaxial Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor (braid) Dual coaxial Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Dielectric Dielectric

Inner conductor Dielectric

Inner conductor

Figures 6.8 – 6.11–Common types of coaxial cable

6.7.2 Twinax Cable
Twinax cable has a pair of insulated conductors encased in a common outer conductor (shield). The center conductors may be either twisted or run parallel to one another. In appearance, the cable is often similar to a shielded twisted pair, but it is held to the tighter tolerances common to fixed-impedance coaxial cable. A common use of twinax cable is high-speed, balanced-mode multiplexed transmission in large computer systems. Balanced mode means that the signal is carried on both conductors, which provides greater noise immunity. Twinaxial Jacket Outer conductor (braid) Inner conductor

Dielectric

Figures 6.12 –A typical twinaxial cable
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6.7.3 UTP and STP
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) are low pair count cables (usually 2 to 8 pairs) that have been designed for use in local area networks such as Token Ring, Ethernet, etc. Because of their relatively low cost these cable types are widely used and are available in several different performance categories (levels)—Categories 3, 4 and 5. Attenuation, crosstalk and impedance are specified in EIA/TIA-568. An overview of their electrical requirements are shown below. Table 6.5 –Twisted pair cable performance categories
Attenuation dB/1000 ft Mutual Capacitance Maximum

Category

Impedance

NEXT*

3 LAN & Medium Speed Data 4 Extended Distance LAN 5 High Speed LAN

100 ohm 15% 1–16 MHz

7.8 @ 1 17 @ 4 30 @ 10 40 @ 16 6.5 @ 1 13 @ 4 22 @ 10 27 @ 16 31 @ 20 6.3 @ 1 13 @ 4 20 @ 10 25 @ 16 28 @ 20 32 @ 25 36 @ 31.25 52 @ 62.5 67 @ 100

MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz

41 dB @ 1 32 dB @ 4 26 dB @ 10 23 dB @ 16 56 dB @ 1 47 dB @ 4 41 dB @ 10 38 dB @ 16 36 dB @ 20

MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz MHz

20 pF/ft

100 ohm 15% 1– 20 MHz

17 pF/ft

100 ohm 15% 1–100 MHz

MHz 62 dB @ 1 MHz 53 dB @ 4 MHz 47 dB @ 10 MHz 44 dB @ 16 MHz 42 dB @ 20 MHz 41 dB @ 25 MHz 40 dB @ 31.25 MHz 35 dB @ 62.5 MHz 32 dB @ 100

17 pF/ft

*Worst pair near end crosstalk

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Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) vs Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) There are two basic types of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that cable engineers worry about— electromagnetic emissions and electromagnetic immunity. Emissions refer to energy that is radiated by the cable that might affect the proper operation of a neighboring circuit or system. Immunity is the ability of the cable to reject outside signals that might interfere with the proper operation of the circuit or system to which the cable is attached. Electromagnetic interference is present in all types of cabling to some degree. In local area networks (LANs), failure to properly manage EMI can have an adverse effect on the integrity of the transmitted information. Shielded (STP) cables generally use an aluminum or copper shield to provide protection. When properly grounded (connected) to the associated electronic equipment, the shield acts as a barrier to incoming as well as outgoing EMI. In an unshielded (UTP) cable, careful design of the cable and the associated electronic equipment results in a “balance” of the currents in the two conductors of a pair. That is, the currents in the two conductors are equal in magnitude but flowing in opposite directions. In a balanced system, there is very little radiation of EMI since the external field from one conductor is effectively canceled by the external field from the other conductor of the pair. Generally, the more twists per foot of cable, the better the cable is electrically balanced. Category 5 cable has more twists per foot than Category 3 or 4 cables and, therefore, offers better protection from EMI problems.

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6.7.4 IBM Cabling System
In the 1980s, IBM developed the IBM Cabling System. It is designed to be used as a “structured” building wiring system that is compatible with all other IEEE 802.5 networks and equipment. Details of cable types, cable performance requirements, test methods, quality requirements and accessories are contained in the document “IBM Cabling System Technical Interface Specification” published by IBM. It covers the following IBM cable types: Table 6.6 –IBM cable types
Cable Type Construction and (Identifier) Spec. No.

Type 1, Non-plenum Type 1, Plenum Type 1, Riser Type 1, Outdoor Type 2, Non-plenum Type 2, Plenum Type 3, Telephone Twisted Pair Type 5, Fiber Optic Type 6, Non-plenum Type 8, Undercarpet Type 9, Plenum

2-#22 AWG CU TP (NP) 2-#22 AWG CU TP (P) 2-#22 AWG CU TP (R) 2-#22 AWG CU TP (OD) 2-#22 AWG CU TP (NP) 4-#22 AWG CU TP (VGM) 2-#22 AWG CU TP (P) 4-#22 AWG CU TP (VGM) 2-#22 or 24 AWG CU TP 2-100/140µm fibers (OFM) 2-#26 AWG CU TP ST (NPO) 2-#26 AWG CU FP (UC) 2-#26 AWG CU TP (P)

4716748 4716749 6339585 4716734 4716739 4716738 AT&T 403595051 or equivalent 4716744 4716743 4716750 6339583

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6.8 Telephone
Telephone cables play a major role in modern communications. In conjunction with microwave and satellite transmission, copper and fiber optic cables provide the communication links that have become essential to society. With the advent of fiber optic cables in the early 1980s, telephone wire and cable has generally been grouped into three broad categories: 1) fiber, 2) copper, and 3) hybrid (composite) cable with both fiber and copper components under one jacket. Telephone cable is usually classified according to its location of use. Cable used outdoors between the telephone company’s central office and the building being served is referred to as “outside cable,” or sometimes called “black” cable. Wire or cable used indoors, e.g., inside homes and commercial buildings, is referred to as “premises distribution wiring” or more simply as “inside cable.”

6.8.1 Outside Cables
Outside cables typically range in size from small (2 to 6 pair) constructions, which are usually referred to as “service drop” or “buried distribution” wire (the cable installed in many residential backyards), up to large 3600 pair “exchange” cables, which are typically installed between central offices of the telephone company. Exchange cables, because they are often installed in underground ducts or directly buried in the earth, are designed with various combinations of polyethylene (PE) jacket(s) and aluminum, copper, or steel sheaths. The PE jacket and metal armoring isolate signal-carrying conductor pairs from moisture, mechanical damage, and lightning induced voltages. Exchange cables are manufactured in “filled” and “unfilled” (aircore) versions. With filled cables, the interstices between insulated conductors are filled with a waterproofing gel to prevent the ingress and longitudinal movement of water. Some aircore cable designs are kept dry by pressurizing the core of the cable with dry air or nitrogen. Water is the “Achilles’ heel” of outdoor telephone cable because it increases capacitance (normally 0.083 µF per mile) between the “tip” and “ring” conductors, and compromises crosstalk (pair-to-pair signal coupling) performance of the cable. The terms “tip” and “ring” are carryovers from earlier days when each twisted pair was terminated with a 1⁄4-in. diameter plug at a manually operated switchboard. One conductor was attached to the “tip,” the other to the “ring” of the plug.

6.8.2 Indoor Cables
Inside wire and cable is usually divided into 1) station wire, and 2) inside (sometimes called “IC”) cable. Station wire is usually 2 to 4 pair, 22 or 24 AWG wire and is typically installed in residences. While station wire is one type of “inside” wire, it is usually designed for both indoor and outdoor use since it often extends to the exterior of the building. True inside cable, on the other hand, is typically larger (25 to 600 pair) 22 or 24 AWG cable which is installed exclusively indoors in larger public and commercial buildings. Station wire and inside cables are usually used in plenum, riser, and general purpose versions. The plenum version is a highly flame retardant construction that is capable of passing the Steiner Tunnel Flame Test (NFPA-262 or UL 910).

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Article 800 of the National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that telephone wire and cable be plenum rated when installed indoors in plenums (air handling spaces) without conduit, i.e., it must carry the marking “CMP” (CM for communication and P for plenum). When installed in vertical risers in multistory buildings, a riser rating, i.e., Type CMR, is required. General purpose communication cables must be labeled Type CM. Cables installed in one- and two-family dwellings must be identified as Type CMX.

6.8.3 Insulation and Jacket Materials
Two thermoplastic polymers are generally used to insulate the conductors of outdoor telephone wire and cable: polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE). These polymers are used primarily because of their low dielectric constant, high dielectric strength (to withstand lightning induced overvoltages), excellent moisture resistance, mechanical toughness, extrudability in thin walls, and low cost. Indoor dielectrics include PP and PE but, in addition, include FEP (fluorinated ethylene-propylene or Teflon), ECTFE (ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene or Halar and PVC (polyvinyl chloride). FEP and ECTFE are used in plenum cables to provide the necessary flame retardancy and are extruded on the wire in either solid or foamed (expanded) versions. The most important telephone wire and cable electrical characteristics and their usual units of measurement include capacitance (microfarads per mile), conductor resistance (ohms per loop-mile), crosstalk (decibel isolation between pairs), and attenuation (decibels per mile). When used for high speed digital applications, characteristic impedance (ohms) and structural return loss (decibels) also become important. The mechanical and chemical characteristics of telephone cable insulation are as important as the electrical characteristics. Several important mechanical and chemical characteristics include compression cut resistance, low temperature brittleness, resistance to the base oils used in filling gels, adequate tensile and elongation properties, and acceptable long-term aging characteristics.

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6.9 Military
The U.S. Military has developed extensive specifications for many wire and cable types used in military applications. This includes hookup and lead wire, airframe wire, control cable and coax. A mil-spec wire or cable must meet rigorous performance requirements. Tests which prove the wire or cable meets the specified requirements must be conducted by the manufacturer and must be carefully documented. Following is a partial list of military wire and cable types:
Type Description

MIL-W-76 MIL-W-5845 MIL-W-5846 MIL-W-8777 MIL-W-16878 MIL-W-25038 MIL-W-81822

General purpose hookup wire, PVC insulated Thermocouple wire, iron and constantan Thermocouple wire, chromel and alumel Aircraft wire, silicone insulated General purpose hookup and lead wire Aircraft wire, inorganic fibrous/teflon insulation, high temperature and fire resistant, engine zone wire Solderless wrap (wire wrap), for use around terminal pins, Kynar, TFE, TEFZEL, TFE/Polyimide, PVC, FEP or Mylar insulated, also available uninsulated Shipboard cable, inactive for new design except outboard types Power and special purpose cables used for ground support systems (“CO” types) Cable and wire, portable power, rubber insulated Cable, aerospace vehicle, Irradiated Polyalkene/Kynar, PVC, Kapton, Teflon insulated Field wire, WD-1/TT Cable, special purpose, low tension, single and multiconductor ordinance, neoprene or Hypalon Cable, ground support, polyethylene insulation, neoprene jacket Shipboard cable, lightweight Shipboard cable, low smoke Cable, special purpose, multiconductor ground support, for electronic circuits, PVC or Teflon insulated Aerospace and other general application wire Continued

MIL-C-915 MIL-C-3432 MIL-C-5756 MIL-C-7078 MIL-C-13294 MIL-C-13486 MIL-C-13777 MIL-C-24640 MIL-C-24643 MIL-C-27072 MIL-C-27500

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Continued
Type Description

MIL-C-47206 MIL-C-49055 MIL-C-55021 MIL-I-23053 MIL-I-22129

Cable, single conductor, twisted pairs, and multiconductor, high temperature; PVC and Teflon insulated Cable, power, flat, PVC, Tefzel, TFE and FEP insulated Cable, twisted pairs and triples, internal hookup, PVC and Teflon insulated Tubing, heat shrink Tubing, nonshrink

6.10 Shipboard Cables (MIL-C-24643, MIL-C-24640 and MIL-C-915)
Due to concern about flammability, smoke, and toxicity, the U.S. Navy introduced the MIL-C-24643 cable specification. Generally, this document provides low smoke, flame retardant cables that are approximately equivalent in size, weight, and electricals to many of the older MIL-C-915 constructions. It has been mandated that these cables must be used on all new constructions and major Navy ship modernization projects. In consideration of circuit density, weight, and size, the U.S. Navy produced the MIL-C-24640 cable document. The cables covered by this specification are also low smoke, flame resistant constructions, but they are significantly lighter in weight and smaller in diameter. MIL-C-24640 cables are used to interconnect systems where weight and space savings are critical; however, they are not direct replacements. Since the overall diameters have been reduced and electrical characteristics may have been changed, they should not be used to replace existing MIL-C-915 or MIL-C-24643 constructions unless a comprehensive electrical and physical system evaluation or redesign has been completed. For many years most of the shipboard power and lighting cables for fixed installation had silicone-glass insulation, polyvinyl chloride jacket, and aluminum armor and were of watertight construction. It was determined that cables with all of these features were not necessary for many applications, especially for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas above the watertightness level. Therefore, for applications within watertight compartments and noncritical areas a new family of nonwatertight lower cost cables was designed. This family of cables is electrically and dimensionally interchangeable with silicone-glass insulated cables of equivalent sizes and is covered by Military Specification MIL-C-915. Additionally, cables jacketed with polyvinyl chloride presented the dangers of toxic fumes and dense, impenetrable smoke when undergoing combustion. These hazards became increasingly evident when an electrical fire smoldered through the cableways aboard the DDG 19 (USS Tattnall ). Due to the overwhelming amount of smoke and fumes, firefighters were unable to effectively control the fire and a large amount of damage resulted. A family of low smoke, low toxicity cable, constructed with a polyolefin jacket rather than a polyvinyl chloride jacket, conforms to rigid toxic and smoke indexes to effectively reduce the hazards associated with PVC jacketed cables. The low smoke cable is covered by military specification MIL-C-24643.
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A family of lightweight cables was also introduced to aid in the elimination of excessive weight from the fleet. Considering the substantial amount of cable present on a ship or submarine, a reduction in cable weight will have a considerable impact on the overall load, thus improving performance and increasing efficiency. This new family of lightweight cables is constructed from cross-linked polyalkene and micapolyimide insulation and a cross-linked polyolefin jacket. The lightweight cable is covered by military specification MIL-C-24640.

6.11 Optical Fiber Cables
In all types of optical fiber cables, the individual optical fibers are the signal transmission media which act as individual optical wave guides. The fibers consist of a central transparent core region which propagates the optical radiation and an outer cladding layer that completes the guiding structure. The core and the cladding are typically made of pure silica glass, though other materials can be used. PCS (plastic clad silica) fiber, with a glass core and plastic cladding, and all-plastic fibers are available for special applications. To achieve high signal bandwidth capabilities, the core region sometimes has a varying (or graded) refractive index.

6.11.1 Fiber Types

Figure 6.13 –Optical fiber types
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There are two basic fiber types—single mode and multimode. Single mode has a core diameter of 8 to 10 microns and is normally used for long distance requirements (i.e., interstate) and high bandwidth (information carrying capacity) applications. Multimode, on the other hand, has a core diameter of 50, 62.5 or 100 microns (62.5 being the most common) and is usually used intrabuilding.

6.11.2 Fiber Selection
The three major fiber parameters used in selecting the proper fiber for an application are bandwidth, attenuation, and core diameter. Bandwidth The bandwidth at a specified optical radiation wavelength represents the highest sinusoidal light modulation frequency which can be transmitted through a length of fiber with an optical signal power loss equal to 50 percent ( 3dB) of the zero modulation frequency component. The bandwidth is expressed in megahertz over a kilometer length (MHz km). Attenuation The optical attenuation denotes the amount of optical power lost due to absorption and scattering of optical radiation at a specified wavelength in a length of fiber. It is expressed as an attenuation in decibels of optical power per kilometer (dB/km). The attenuation is determined by launching a narrow spectral band of light into the full length of fiber and measuring the transmitted intensity. This measure is then repeated for the first 1.5 to 2.5 meters of the same fiber cable without disturbing the input end of the fiber. The dB/km attenuation is then calculated and normalized to 1 km. Core Diameter The fiber core is the central region of an optical fiber whose refractive index is higher than that of the fiber cladding. Various core diameters are available to permit the most efficient coupling of light from commercially available light sources, such as LEDs or laser diodes.

Figure 6.14 –Optical fiber attenuation

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6.11.3 Optical Fiber Cable Selection
Another important consideration when specifying fiber optic cable is the cable construction. Proper selection depends on the environment in which the cable will be installed. Loose Buffer Two different types of cable construction are generally employed to contain the optical fibers. The first is a loose buffer tube construction where the fiber is contained in a gel-filled polymer tube that has an inner diameter considerably larger than the fiber itself. This provides a high level of isolation for the fiber from external mechanical forces that might be present on the cable. For multifiber cables a number of these tubes, each containing one or more fibers, are combined with the necessary longitudinal strength member. Loose buffer is used in outdoor applications and can accommodate the changes in external conditions (i.e., contraction in cold weather and elongation in warm weather). Tight Buffer The second cable construction is a tight buffer design, usually used in indoor applications. Here, a thick buffer coating is placed directly on the fiber. This type of buffer provides excellent protection against bending and offers better crush resistance than does a loose buffer. Both constructions have inherent advantages. The loose buffer tube construction offers lower cable attenuation from a given fiber, plus a high level of isolation from external forces. This means more stable transmission characteristics under continuous mechanical stress. The tight buffer construction permits smaller, lighter weight designs and generally yields a more flexible cable. A comparison of these two cable constructions is shown below.

Figure 6.15 –Optical fiber cable designs

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Table 6.7–A comparison of loose tube and tight buffer optical fiber cable
Cable Construction Cable Parameter Loose Tube Tight Buffer

Bend Radius Diameter Tensile Strength, Installation Impact Resistance Crush Resistance Attenuation Change at Low Temperatures

Larger Larger Higher Higher Higher Lower

Smaller Smaller Lower Lower Lower Higher

Strength Members Once the optical fiber is surrounded with a buffer, either loose or tight, strength members are added to the cable structure to keep the fibers free from stress and minimize elongation and contraction. Such strength members provide tensile load properties similar to electronic cables and, in some cases, are used as temperature stabilization elements. Jacket As with conventional metallic cables, the jacket protects the core from the external environment. With optical fibers, however, the selection of materials is influenced by the fact that the thermal coefficient of expansion of glass is significantly lower than that of the metal or plastic used in the cable structure. Installation Normal cable loads sustained during installation or environmental movements first stress the strength members without transferring the stress to the optical fibers. If the load is increased, the fiber may ultimately be placed in a tensile stress state. This level of stress may cause microbending losses which result in attenuation increase and possibly fatigue effects.

6.12 Tray Cables
Tray cables are a special class of cables designed to meet stringent flame test requirements. A tray cable rating is given to a cable if it can meet the UL or CSA Standard for the rating. To obtain the rating, a cable must pass the 70,000 BTU, UL 1581 Vertical Tray Flame test or the Vertical Flame Test described in CSA C22.2 No. 0.3 (see Section 11.2 Fire Safety Tests for additional information). A cable does not have a tray cable rating unless it is so marked, for example, “for CT use” or Type “TC.” Electrical inspectors will usually reject a cable even if it is capable of passing the tray cable fire test unless it is clearly marked on the cable as being a tray rated cable. A summary of applicable UL Standards, listings and markings is shown in Table 6.8. Note that, in some cases, the tray rating is an optional marking and is not an inherent part of the listing. Other UL and CSA Types that can be installed in tray in accordance with the NEC include CL2, CL2R, CL2P, CL3, CL3R, CL3P, CM, CMR, CMP, CMG, FPL, FPLR, FPLP, OFN, OFNR, and OFNP.

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Table 6.8 –Tray cable listings and markings
Standard UL Listings (Types) Optional Markings

UL 4 UL 13 UL 44

AC PLTC XHHW-2 RHW-2, RHH, RH SIS, SA MV

“for CT use” “Direct burial” “Sunlight resistant” “For CT use” “Sunlight resistant” “Oil resistant” “Pump Cable” “for CT use” “Direct burial” “Sunlight resistant” “Oil resistant” “Direct burial” “Sunlight resistant” “Oil resistant” “for CT use” “Direct burial” “Sunlight resistant” “Oil resistant”

UL 1072

UL 1277

TC

UL 1569

MC

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ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

7.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors 7.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors 7.2 DC and AC Resistance of Class B Copper Conductors 7.2 DC and AC Resistance of Class B Copper Conductors 7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Class B Aluminum Conductors 7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Class B Aluminum Conductors 7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hertz 7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hertz 7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hertz 7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hertz 7.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance 7.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance 7.7 Voltage Drop 7.7 Voltage Drop 7.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current 7.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current 7.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current 7.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current 7.10 Resistance and Ampacity at 400 & 800 Hz 7.10 Resistance and Ampacity at 400 & 800 Hz 7.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables 7.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables

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CONTENTS

7.12 Ampacity of Power Cables 7.12 Ampacity of Power Cables 7.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings 7.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings

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For a wire or cable to perform its intended function reliably, safely and efficiently, the wire or cable must be selected so that its many electrical, physical, chemical and thermal properties match those of the application. The following sections provide information on some of the most frequently requested electrical parameters.

7.1 DC Resistance of Plated Copper Conductors
Table 7.1–DC resistance of plated copper conductors
Nominal DC Resistance Ohms/1000 ft @ 20°C (68°F) Wire Size AWG/kcmil Number of Wires/Size AWG or inches Strand Class Nominal Area cmils Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated

777 750 750 750 700 700 700 650 650 650 646 600 600 600 550 550 550 535 500 500 500 450 450 450

1952/24 703/.0327 1862/24 7448/30 703/.0316 1729/24 6916/30 703/.0304 1596/24 6517/30 1647/24 703/.0292 1470/24 5985/30 703/.028 1372/24 5453/30 1332/24 427/.0342 1125/24 5054/30 427/.0325 1127/24 4522/30

AAR H I K H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K AAR H I K H I K

788,728 751,711 752,267 744,800 701,988 698,533 691,600 649,684 644,800 651,700 665,404 599,406 593,895 598,500 551,152 554,302 545,300 538,141 449,436 494,912 505,400 451,019 455,319 452,200

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

0.0139 0.0146 0.0146 0.0148 0.0157 0.0158 0.0165 0.0169 0.0171 0.0169 0.0165 0.0183 0.0185 0.0184 0.0200 0.0200 0.0200 0.0204 0.0220 0.0222 0.0218 0.0244 0.0241 0.0243 Continued

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Table 7.1–DC resistance of plated copper conductors Continued
Nominal DC Resistance Ohms/1000 ft @ 20°C (68°F) Wire Size AWG/kcmil Number of Wires/Size AWG or inches Strand Class Nominal Area cmils Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated

444 400 400 400 373 350 350 350 313 300 300 300 262 250 250 250 4/0 4/0 3/0 3/0 2/0 2/0 1/0 1/0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 8 8 8

1110/24 427/.0306 980/24 3990/30 925/24 427/.0286 882/24 3458/30 777/24 427/.0265 735/24 2989/30 646/24 427/.0242 637/24 2499/30 2109/30 427/.0223 1665/30 427/.0198 1330/30 427/.0177 1045/30 259/.0202 817/30 259/.018 665/30 259/.016 133/.0223 133/.0199 133/25 133/.0158 133/27 19/.0295 37/.0211 133/29

AAR H I K AAR H I K AAR H I K AAR H I K K H K H K H K H K H K H H H H H H C D H

448,451 399,826 395,930 399,000 373,709 349,269 356,337 345,800 313,916 299,861 296,947 298,900 260,990 250,068 257,354 249,900 210,900 212,343 166,500 167,401 133,000 133,775 104,500 105,682 81,700 83,916 66,500 66,304 66,140 52,669 42,615 33,202 26,818 16,535 16,473 16,983

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.052 0.052 0.066 0.066 0.083 0.083 0.105 0.105 0.134 0.134 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.249 0.249 0.393 0.628 0.630 0.616

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.053 0.053 0.067 0.067 0.084 0.084 0.107 0.107 0.137 0.137 0.168 0.168 0.168 0.168 0.259 0.259 0.409 0.689 0.692 0.642

0.025 0.028 0.028 0.028 0.029 0.031 0.031 0.032 0.035 0.037 0.037 0.037 0.042 0.043 0.043 0.044 0.052 0.052 0.069 0.066 0.088 0.082 0.116 0.103 0.144 0.129 0.177 0.164 0.164 0.205 0.264 0.325 0.417 0.640 0.655 0.654 Continued

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Table 7.1–DC resistance of plated copper conductors Continued
Nominal DC Resistance Ohms/1000 ft @ 20°C (68°F) Wire Size AWG/kcmil Number of Wires/Size AWG or inches Strand Class Nominal Area cmils Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated

10 10 10 12 12 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 24 24 25 26 26 28 28 30 30

7/.0385 19/.0234 37/26 7/.0305 19/25 19/.0185 37/28 65/30 7/.0242 19/27 19/.0147 37/.0105 41/30 7/.0192 19/29 19/.0117 26/30 7/.0152 7/26 16/30 19/30 19/.0092 7/.28 10/30 19/32 7/30 19/34 7/34 19/36 7/.0067 7/34 19/38 7/36 19/40 7/38 19/42

B C D B C C D K B C C D K B C C K B B K C C B K C B C B C B B C B C B C

10,376 10,404 9,354 6,512 6,088 6,503 5,874 6,500 4,099 3,831 4,105 4,079 4,100 2,580 2,426 2,600 2,600 1,617 1,769 1,600 1,900 1,608 1,111 1,000 1,216 700 754 448 475 314 277 304 175 182 112 118

1.00 1.00 1.13 1.59 1.71 1.60 1.80 1.80 2.53 2.70 2.62 2.62 2.62 4.02 4.23 4.14 4.14 6.58 5.86 5.86 5.38 6.69 9.27 – 8.53 14.60 13.70 23.10 21.50 33.00 37.10 33.30 58.40 54.60 90.30 82.70

1.10 1.10 1.18 1.75 1.78 1.75 1.87 1.87 2.69 2.81 2.65 2.65 2.65 4.28 4.41 4.20 4.20 6.67 6.10 6.10 5.60 6.82 9.65 – 9.07 15.20 14.60 24.60 22.90 34.80 39.50 36.60 62.10 60.00 99.20 94.00

1.02 1.03 1.20 1.65 1.81 1.70 1.91 1.61 2.63 2.86 2.78 2.59 2.58 4.27 4.49 4.39 4.07 6.99 6.22 6.61 5.77 7.18 9.84 10.58 9.15 15.60 14.70 24.80 23.10 36.40 39.80 35.70 66.50 58.60 96.20 88.80 Continued

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Table 7.1–DC resistance of plated copper conductors Continued
Nominal DC Resistance Ohms/1000 ft @ 20°C (68°F) Wire Size AWG/kcmil Number of Wires/Size AWG or inches Strand Class Nominal Area cmils Silver Plated Nickel Plated Tin Plated

32 34 36

7/40 7/42 7/44

B B B

67 43 28

148.0 225.0 244.0

163.0 256.0 391.0

159.0 241.5 369.2

Note: AAR—American Association of Railroads Strand classes B, C, D, H, I and K per ASTM

7.2 DC and AC Resistance of Class B Copper Conductors
Table 7.2 –DC and AC resistance of class B copper conductors, ohms per 1,000 feet
60°C Conductor Temp. Size AWG/ kcmil DC 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond. DC 75°C Conductor Temp. 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond. DC 90°C Conductor Temp. 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond.

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0

2.98 1.88 1.18 0.744 0.466 0.295 0.184 0.147 0.116

2.98 1.88 1.18 0.744 0.466 0.295 0.184 0.147 0.116

2.98 1.88 1.18 0.744 0.466 0.295 0.185 0.148 0.118

3.14 1.97 1.24 0.783 0.491 0.310 0.195 0.154 0.122

3.14 1.97 1.24 0.783 0.491 0.310 0.194 0.154 0.122

3.14 1.97 1.24 0.783 0.491 0.310 0.196 0.155 0.124

3.29 2.07 1.31 0.822 0.515 0.325 0.203 0.162 0.128

3.29 2.07 1.31 0.822 0.515 0.325 0.203 0.162 0.128

3.29 2.07 1.31 0.822 0.515 0.325 0.205 0.163 0.130 Continued

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Table 7.2 –DC and AC resistance of class B copper conductors, ohms per 1,000 feet Continued
60°C Conductor Temp. Size AWG/ kcmil DC 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond. DC 75°C Conductor Temp. 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond. DC 90°C Conductor Temp. 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond.

2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000

0.0923 0.0730 0.0579 0.0490 0.0409 0.0350 0.0307 0.0246 0.0205 0.0175 0.0164 0.0123

0.0923 0.0730 0.0579 0.0492 0.0411 0.0353 0.0310 0.0250 0.0210 0.0181 0.0170 0.0131

0.0950 0.0971 0.0759 0.0769 0.0608 0.0610 0.0519 0.0516 0.0437 0.0431 0.0378 0.0369 0.0338 0.0323 0.0278 0.0258 0.0238 0.0215 0.0208 0.0184 0.0198 0.0172 0.0160 0.0129

0.0971 0.0769 0.0610 0.0518 0.0433 0.0372 0.0326 0.0262 0.0220 0.0190 0.0178 0.0137 0.0113 0.00983 0.00874 0.00795

0.100 0.0799 0.0640 0.0547 0.0461 0.0398 0.0355 0.0291 0.0249 0.0219 0.0208 0.0167 0.0145 0.0132 0.0123 0.0117

0.102 0.0807 0.0639 0.0541 0.0452 0.0387 0.0339 0.0271 0.0226 0.0193 0.0181 0.0135 0.0108 0.00904 0.00774 0.00677

0.102 0.0807 0.0639 0.0543 0.0454 0.0390 0.0342 0.0275 0.0231 0.0199 0.0188 0.0144

0.105 0.0839 0.0671 0.0573 0.0483 0.0418 0.0373 0.0306 0.0262 0.0229 0.0219 0.0175

0.00982 0.0108 0.0138 0.0103 0.00818 0.00934 0.0125 0.00861 0.00701 0.00830 0.0117 0.00738 0.00613 0.00755 0.0111 0.00645

0.0119 0.0152 0.01030 0.0138 0.00917 0.0129 0.00835 0.0123

*One single conductor in air, buried, or in nonmetallic conduit. †Multiconductor cable or 2 or 3 single conductors in one metallic conduit. Table 7.3 –Temperature correction factors for Table 7.2
Multiplying Factors for Correction to Temperature Degrees C 20°C 25°C

60 75 90

0.864 0.822 0.784

0.881 0.838 0.800

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7.3 DC and AC Resistance of Class B Aluminum Conductors
Table 7.4 –DC and AC resistance of class B aluminum conductors, ohms per 1000 feet
60°C Conductor Temp. Size AWG/ kcmil DC 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond. DC 75°C Conductor Temp. 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond. DC 90°C Conductor Temp. 60 Hz *Single Cond. †MultiCond.

12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000

3.08 1.93 1.21 0.765 0.483 0.382 0.303 0.240 0.191 0.151 0.119 0.0953 0.0806 0.0672 0.0575 0.0504 0.0403 0.0336 0.0288 0.0269 0.0201 0.0162 0.0135 0.0115 0.0101

3.08 1.93 1.21 0.765 0.483 0.382 0.303 0.240 0.191 0.151 0.119 0.0954 0.0808 0.0674 0.0578 0.0507 0.0406 0.0340 0.0292 0.0273 0.0207 0.0176 0.0143 0.0124 0.0111

3.08 1.93 1.21 0.765 0.483 0.382 0.303 0.240 0.191 0.151 0.120 0.0963 0.0822 0.0686 0.0593 0.0525 0.0428 0.0370 0.0320 0.0302 0.0239 0.0215 0.0184 0.0168 0.0158

3.24 2.03 1.28 0.080 0.507 0.402 0.319 0.253 0.201 0.159 0.126 0.101 0.0848 0.0706 0.0605 0.0500 0.0424 0.0353 0.0303 0.0283 0.0212 0.0170 0.0142 0.0121 0.0106

3.24 2.03 1.28 0.808 0.507 0.402 0.319 0.253 0.201 0.159 0.126 0.101 0.0850 0.0708 0.0608 0.0533 0.0427 0.0357 0.0307 0.0288 0.0218 0.0177 0.0150 0.0131 0.0117

3.24 2.03 1.28 0.808 0.507 0.402 0.319 0.253 0.201 0.159 0.127 0.102 0.0865 0.0720 0.0623 0.0552 0.0450 0.0381 0.0337 0.0317 0.0253 0.0216 0.0193 0.0177 0.0186

3.40 2.13 1.34 0.848 0.533 0.422 0.335 0.266 0.211 0.167 0.132 0.106 0.0890 0.0741 0.0635 0.0557 0.0445 0.0370 0.0318 0.0297 0.0222 0.0179 0.0149 0.0127 0.0111

3.40 2.13 1.34 0.848 0.533 0.422 0.335 0.266 0.211 0.167 0.132 0.106 0.0892 0.0744 0.0638 0.0560 0.0448 0.0374 0.0322 0.0302 0.0228 0.0186 0.0158 0.0137 0.0122

3.40 2.13 1.34 0.848 0.533 0.422 0.335 0.266 0.211 0.167 0.133 0.107 0.0908 0.0756 0.0654 0.0580 0.0472 0.0400 0.0353 0.0333 0.0265 0.0228 0.0203 0.0186 0.0173

*One single conductor in air, buried, or in nonmetallic conduit. †Multiconductor cable or 2 or 3 single conductors in one metallic conduit.

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Table 7.5 –Temperature correction factors for Table 7.4
Multiplying Factors for Correction to Temperature Degrees C 20°C 25°C

60 75 90

0.861 0.818 0.780

0.878 0.835 0.796

7.4 Reactance and Impedance at 60 Hertz
Table 7.6 –Reactance and impedance at 60 Hz for single copper conductor cables installed in air, buried or in separate nonmetallic conduits
Distance Between Centers of Conductors—Inches Conductor Size 2 4 6 8

Approximate Ohms per 1000 Feet per Conductor at 25°C (77°F) AWG/ kcmil Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance

8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300

0.0816 0.0764 0.0710 0.0682 0.0656 0.0627 0.0600 0.0598 0.0573 0.0520 0.0500 0.0481

0.659 0.417 0.255 0.216 0.175 0.143 0.118 0.0993 0.0884 0.0728 0.0661 0.0602

0.0976 0.0922 0.0868 0.0842 0.0815 0.0787 0.0760 0.0732 0.0706 0.0680 0.0660 0.0640

0.661 0.420 0.261 0.221 0.181 0.151 0.127 0.109 0.0954 0.0850 0.0789 0.0734

0.1070 0.1016 0.0962 0.0934 0.0908 0.0880 0.0853 0.0826 0.0799 0.0773 0.0753 0.0732

0.662 0.422 0.264 0.225 0.186 0.156 0.133 0.116 0.103 0.0926 0.0869 0.0816

0.1135 0.1082 0.1025 0.1000 0.0974 0.0945 0.0918 0.0892 0.0866 0.0840 0.0819 0.0798

0.664 0.424 0.267 0.228 0.189 0.160 0.137 0.121 0.108 0.0982 0.0926 0.0876 Continued

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Table 7.6 –Reactance and impedance at 60 Hz for single copper conductor cables installed in air, buried or in separate nonmetallic conduits Continued
Distance Between Centers of Conductors—Inches Conductor Size 2 4 6 8

Approximate Ohms per 1000 Feet per Conductor at 25°C (77°F) AWG/ kcmil Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance Reactance Impedance

350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000

0.0462 0.0445 0.0422 0.0400 0.0380 0.0376 0.0370 0.0354 0.0342 0.0314 0.0296 0.0276 0.0264

0.0557 0.0522 0.0476 0.0441 0.0412 0.0404 0.0396 0.0376 0.0360 0.0328 0.0307 0.0285 0.0272

0.0622 0.0606 0.0581 0.0559 0.0539 0.0534 0.0527 0.0512 0.0500 0.0472 0.0453 0.0434 0.0422

0.0695 0.0664 0.0621 0.0588 0.0561 0.0554 0.0546 0.0527 0.0512 0.0481 0.0460 0.0440 0.0427

0.0715 0.0700 0.0674 0.0652 0.0633 0.0628 0.0621 0.0606 0.0594 0.0566 0.0548 0.0527 0.0514

0.0779 0.0750 0.0709 0.0678 0.0652 0.0645 0.0636 0.0619 0.0605 0.0574 0.0554 0.0532 0.0518

0.0780 0.0766 0.0740 0.0718 0.0700 0.0694 0.0687 0.0673 0.0660 0.0632 0.0614 0.0593 0.0582

0.0840 0.0814 0.0772 0.0741 0.0718 0.0710 0.0701 0.0685 0.0670 0.0639 0.0619 0.0597 0.0585

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7.5 AC/DC Resistance Ratio at 60 Hertz
Table 7.7–AC/DC resistance ratio at 60 hertz To determine effective 60 Hertz AC resistance, multiply DC resistance values corrected for proper temperature, by the AC/DC resistance ratio given below.
Single Copper Conductors in Air, or in Individual Nonmetallic Conduits Multiple Copper Conductor Cable or 2 or 3 Single Conductor Cables in Same Metallic Conduit

Conductor Size AWG/kcmils

Up to 3 2&1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.005 1.006 1.009 1.011 1.018 1.025 1.034 1.039 1.044 1.067 1.102 1.142 1.185 1.233

1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.10 1.13 1.16 1.19 1.21 – – – – – –

The single conductor column in the table above covers single conductor nonshielded cable including all conditions of use except when two or more cables are pulled into the same metallic or nonmetallic conduit. The multiple conductor column in the table above covers the following conditions: (a) Single conductor cable; two or three cables in the same metallic conduit. (b) Single conductor shielded cable; two or three cables in the same metallic or nonmetallic duct or conduit, but only with conductor sizes up to 250 kcmils. For larger conductor sizes the shortcircuited sheath losses increase rapidly and the table above does not apply. (Continued)
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(c) Three conductor nonshielded cable; one cable in metal conduit. (d) Three conductor shielded cable; all conditions of use in air, in ducts and in conduit. The table represents maximum AC losses for the conditions outlined.

7.6 Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance
Table 7.8 – Temperature correction factors for the resistance of copper conductors
Temp °C Multiplying Factor

25 40 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 100 105 125 130 150 200

1.000 1.058 1.096 1.116 1.135 1.154 1.173 1.193 1.212 1.231 1.250 1.289 1.308 1.385 1.404 1.482 1.674

The DC resistance of copper wire increases with increasing temperature in accordance with the formula:

Rt
where R t

Ro [1

a (T

T )] o

Resistance at temperature T Resistance at temperature T o Temperature Coefficient of Resistance at T [At 20°C (68°F) the temperature coefficient o of copper is 0.00393 per degree Centigrade]

Ro a

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7.7 Voltage Drop
The values in Tables 7.9 and 7.10 are calculated at 60°C, the estimated average temperature which may be anticipated in service. They may be used without significant error for conductor temperatures up to and including 75°C. For 90°C multiply by 1.102 for copper, by 1.105 for aluminum. To obtain values for other circuits, multiply by 1.155 for single-phase line-to-line and by 0.577 for single- or three-phase line-toneutral. Voltage Drop in volts Table Value Current in amps 100 Length of Circuit in feet

Voltage Drop in %

Voltage Drop in volts 100 Circuit Voltage in volts

Table 7.9 –Phase-to-phase voltage drop per amp per 100 ft of circuit for a 3-phase, 60 Hz system operating at 60° C with copper conductors
In Non-Magnetic Conduit Size AWG/ kcmil 80 % Power Factor 90 100 80 In Magnetic Conduit % Power Factor 90 100

12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1,000

0.2710 0.1710 0.1090 0.0720 0.0470 0.0310 0.0260 0.0210 0.0170 0.0140 0.0120 0.0110 0.0097 0.0088 0.0081 0.0073 0.0066 0.0062 0.0059 0.0050

0.3030 0.1910 0.1200 0.0790 0.0510 0.0330 0.0270 0.0220 0.0180 0.0150 0.0120 0.0110 0.0095 0.0085 0.0076 0.0067 0.0059 0.0055 0.0054 0.0043

0.3330 0.2080 0.1300 0.0840 0.0530 0.0330 0.0260 0.0210 0.0160 0.0130 0.0100 0.0088 0.0073 0.0062 0.0055 0.0045 0.0038 0.0033 0.0029 0.0023

0.2720 0.1720 0.1100 0.0730 0.0480 0.0320 0.0260 0.0220 0.0190 0.0160 0.0140 0.0120 0.0110 0.0100 0.0095 0.0085 0.0080 0.0074 0.0073 0.0066

0.3030 0.1910 0.1210 0.0800 0.0520 0.0340 0.0280 0.0230 0.0190 0.0160 0.0130 0.0120 0.0110 0.0095 0.0088 0.0078 0.0071 0.0066 0.0064 0.0055

0.3320 0.2080 0.1300 0.0840 0.0530 0.0340 0.0260 0.0210 0.0170 0.0140 0.0110 0.0093 0.0078 0.0067 0.0061 0.0050 0.0042 0.0037 0.0035 0.0023

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Table 7.10 –Phase-to-phase voltage drop per amp per 100 ft of circuit for a 3-phase, 60 Hz system operating at 60° C with aluminum conductors
In Nonmagnetic Conduit Size AWG or kcmil 80 % Power Factor 90 100 80 In Magnetic Conduit % Power Factor 90 100

12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 1,000

0.4240 0.2680 0.1700 0.1110 0.0710 0.0460 0.0380 0.0310 0.0250 0.0210 0.0170 0.0150 0.0130 0.0120 0.0110 0.0092 0.0083 0.0076 0.0073 0.0068

0.4750 0.2990 0.1890 0.1230 0.0780 0.0500 0.0400 0.0330 0.0260 0.0220 0.0180 0.0150 0.0130 0.0120 0.0110 0.0089 0.0079 0.0071 0.0068 0.0063

0.5230 0.3290 0.2070 0.1330 0.0830 0.0520 0.0420 0.0330 0.0260 0.0210 0.0170 0.0140 0.0120 0.0099 0.0087 0.0070 0.0059 0.0050 0.0048 0.0042

0.4260 0.2690 0.1720 0.1120 0.0730 0.0470 0.0390 0.0320 0.0260 0.0220 0.0180 0.0160 0.0140 0.0130 0.0120 0.0100 0.0095 0.0088 0.0085 0.0077

0.4760 0.2140 0.1910 0.1230 0.0790 0.0510 0.0410 0.0340 0.0270 0.0230 0.0180 0.0160 0.0140 0.0130 0.0120 0.0099 0.0088 0.0082 0.0079 0.0069

0.5230 0.3290 0.2070 0.1320 0.0840 0.0520 0.0420 0.0330 0.0260 0.0210 0.0170 0.0140 0.0120 0.0100 0.0091 0.0074 0.0062 0.0055 0.0052 0.0042

7.8 Maximum Conductor Short Circuit Current
Because of the large KVA capacity of many power systems, the high short circuit current that is possible should be considered in power system design. The short circuit current is the maximum allowable current that the cable can withstand without damage. The maximum allowable short circuit current for copper and aluminum conductors can be determined with the aid of Figures 7.1 and 7.2, respectively.

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Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7.1–Maximum conductor short circuit current for copper cables

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Source: ICEA P-32-382 Figure 7.2 –Maximum conductor short circuit current for aluminum cables
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7.9 Maximum Shield Short Circuit Current
Table 7.11–Maximum short circuit current for copper shielding tape (amperes)
Short Circuit Time in Number of Cycles (60 Hz) Shield Diam. Inches
1 3

Effective Shield Area Circular Mils 1 2 4 8 16 30 60

⁄2 ⁄4 1

7,484 11,264 15,044 18,824 22,604 26,384 30,164 33,944 37,724 41,504 45,284

4,016 6,044 8,073 10,101 12,130 14,158 16,187 18,215 20,243 22,272 24,300

2,840 4,274 5,708 7,143 8,577 10,011 11,446 12,880 14,314 15,749 17,183

2,008 3,022 4,036 5,051 6,065 7,079 8,093 9,107 10,122 11,136 12,150

1,420 2,137 2,854 3,571 4,289 5,006 5,723 6,440 7,157 7,874 8,591

1,004 1,511 2,018 2,525 3,032 3,540 4,047 4,554 5,061 5,568 6,075

733 1,104 1,474 1,844 2,215 2,585 2,955 3,326 3,696 4,066 4,437

518 780 1,042 1,304 1,566 1,828 2,090 2,352 2,613 2,875 3,137

11⁄4 11⁄2 13⁄4 2 21⁄4 21⁄2 23⁄4 3

Source: ICEA P-45-482 Based on initial temperature of 65°C, final temperature of 200°C, 5 mil copper tape with 12.5% overlap.

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7.10 Resistance and Ampacity At 400 & 800 Hz
Table 7.12 – 400 & 800 Hz ampacity factors for 600 volt cables with Class B strand, installed with minimum triangular spacing in air or in nonmetallic conduit
DC Resistance 75°C

Conductor Size AWG/ kcmil

Conductor Diameter

Cable Diameter

400 Hertz AC/DC Resistance Ratio Ampacity Derating Factor*

800 Hertz AC/DC Resistance Ratio Ampacity Derating Factor*

Inches

Inches

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 750 1,000

0.073 0.092 0.116 0.146 0.184 0.232 0.292 0.332 0.372 0.418 0.470 0.528 0.575 0.681 0.813 0.998 1.152

0.21 0.23 0.25 0.32 0.39 0.44 0.50 0.61 0.65 0.69 0.75 0.81 0.92 1.08 1.16 1.38 1.54

3.14 1.97 1.24 0.780 0.490 0.310 0.194 0.154 0.122 0.097 0.0767 0.0608 0.0515 0.0368 0.0258 0.0172 0.0129

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.15 1.22 1.33 1.40 1.56 1.90 2.30 2.60

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.84 0.80 0.72 0.66 0.62

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.05 1.12 1.16 1.25 1.40 1.53 1.70 1.82 2.05 2.54 3.06 3.44

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.81 0.77 0.74 0.70 0.63 0.57 0.54

* These derating factors do not apply to cables with metallic sheath or armor, nor to cables installed in conduit or adjacent to steel structures. Ampacity equals the 60 Hertz ampacity multiplied by the derating factor. Source: ICEA P-43-457

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7.11 Current Ratings for Electronic Cables
The maximum continuous current rating for an electronic cable is limited by conductor size, number of conductors contained within the cable, maximum temperature rating of the cable, and environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and air flow. To use the current capacity chart (Figure 7.3), first determine conductor gauge, temperature rating, and number of conductors for the cable of interest. Next, find the current value on the chart for the proper temperature rise (temperature rating minus ambient temperature) and conductor size. To calculate the maximum current rating per conductor, multiply the chart value by the appropriate conductor factor. The chart assumes cable is surrounded by still air at an ambient temperature of 25°C. Current values are in RMS amperes and are valid for copper conductors only. Note: Current ratings are intended as general guidelines for low power, electronic communications and control applications. Current ratings for power applications generally are set by regulatory agencies such as UL, CSA, NEC, and others.

Figure 7.3 –Current ratings for electronic cables

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7.12 Ampacity of Power Cables
The ampacity of a power cable depends primarily on its conductor size, conductor material (e.g., copper or aluminum), temperature rating, ambient temperature, installed cable configuration and other factors. Because so many external conditions affect ampacity, tables covering all situations are not possible. However, tables covering many common situations are available. The most frequently used ampacity tables are contained in the following publications: NFPA Standard 70, National Electrical Code CSA Standard C22.1, Canadian Electrical Code IEEE Standard 835, Power Cable Ampacity Tables ICEA P-53-426 (NEMA WC 50), Ampacities Including Shield Losses for 15 Through 69 kV Cables ICEA P-54-440 (NEMA WC 51), Ampacities of Cables in Open-top Cable Trays

7.13 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Ratings
Electrical equipment, including wire and cable, is designed to withstand short-term, but very high voltage pulses such as those sometimes caused by lightning and switching surges. These “spikes,” as they are sometimes called, typically have a risetime in the range of 1.5 microseconds and a falltime around 40 microseconds. The Basic Impulse Level (BIL) is the maximum pulse voltage that a cable is designed to withstand. BIL ratings for various system voltage ratings are shown below: Table 7.13 –Basic impulse level (BIL) ratings
System Voltage Rating (kV) Basic Impulse Level (kV)

5 15 25 35 69 138

95 110 150 200 350 650

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ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

8.1 Receiving, Handling and Storage 8.1.1 Receiving 8.1.2 Handling 8.1.3 Storage 8.2 Conduit Fill 8.2 Conduit Fill 8.3 Pulling 8.3.1 Methods of Gripping Cables 8.3.2 Tension Limitations 8.3.3 Helpful Hints 8.3.4 Pulling Tension Calculations 8.3.5 Pulling Lubricants 8.3.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP) 8.3.7 Minimum Bending Radii 8.4 Installation Methods 8.4 Installation Methods 8.5 Overhead Messengers 8.5 Overhead Messengers 8.6 Vertical Suspension 8.6.1 Supended by Clamping Around Cable 8.6.2 Suspended by Conductor 8.7 Hipot Testing 8.7.1 Test Equipment 8.7.2 Test Procedure 8.7.3 Test Voltage

107 107 107

108

113 113 114 115 117 117 118

120

123

125 125

126 126 128

8. INSTALLATION AND TESTING (CONT)
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

8.8 Fault Locating 8.8 Fault Locating 8.9 Megger Testing 8.9 Megger Testing

129

130

8.10 Moisture Removal 8.10.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield 131 8.11 Fiber Optic Testing 8.11 Fiber Optic Testing 8.12 LAN Cable Testing 8.12 LAN Cable Testing

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This section is intended as a guide for the installer’s use in the field. The information has been obtained from many sources and covers some of the major considerations when installing and testing power, control, instrumentation, fiber and communication cable.

8.1 Receiving, Handling and Storage
The following guidelines are recommended to prevent possible deterioration or damage of cable during handling or storage prior to installation:

8.1.1 Receiving
Before accepting any shipment, all reels should be visually inspected for both hidden and obvious damage. Be especially alert if: • A reel is lying flat on its side. • Reels are poorly stacked. • Cable covering is removed or damaged. • Cable end seals are removed or damaged. • Reel flanges are broken. • A reel has been dropped. • Cable ties are loose.

8.1.2 Handling
Cable reels should always be rolled in the direction of the “roll this way” stenciled on the flanges. This prevents loosening of the cable turns which may cause problems during installation. If the roll direction is not indicated, roll the reel in the same direction it was turned when the cable was wound onto the reel. Cable reels should only be lifted by forklift trucks from the sides and only if forks are long enough to cradle both flanges. Steel lifting bars of a suitable diameter and length should be used when lifting cable reels by crane or other overhead lifting devices. With heavy reels or reels that may be unbalanced the use of a lifting yoke is recommended to prevent reels from slipping or tipping during lifting.

8.1.3 Storage
Where possible, reels should be stored indoors on a hard, dry surface. If reels must be stored outside they should be supported off the ground and covered with a suitable weatherproof material. • Align reels flange to flange. • Each reel should be chocked. • Reels should be stored to allow easy access for lifting and moving. When cable lengths are cut from a master cable reel, all exposed cable ends should be resealed with plastic weatherproof caps or tape to prevent the entrance of moisture.

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8.2 Conduit Fill
Below is a table of the maximum number of conductors that can be installed in electrical metallic tubing (EMT). The table is based on Table1, Chapter 9 of the National Electrical Code. For installation in other types of conduits or for installation of compact stranded conductors, refer to Tables C1 through C12 in Appendix C of the 1996 NEC. Table 8.1–Maximum number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing
Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (inches) Type Letters Conductor Size AWG/kcmil

1

⁄2

3

⁄4

1

11⁄4

11⁄2

2

21⁄2

3

31⁄2

4

RH RHH, RHW, RHW-2 RH, RHH, RHW, RHW-2

14 12 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1,000

6 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6

10 8 7 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10

16 13 11 9 8 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16

28 23 20 17 13 7 5 4 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28

39 31 27 23 18 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 39

64 112 169 51 90 136 46 38 30 16 13 10 9 7 5 4 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 80 120 66 100 53 28 22 17 15 13 9 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 81 42 34 26 23 20 13 11 10 8 7 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1

221 282 177 227 157 201 131 167 105 135 55 70 44 56 34 30 26 17 15 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 44 38 33 22 19 17 14 12 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 3

THHW, THW, THW-2*

14

64 112 169

221 282 Continued

* This row is also valid for single layer insulated RHH, RHW, and RHW-2

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Table 8.1–Maximum number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing Continued
Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (inches) Type Letters Conductor Size AWG/kcmil
1

⁄2

3

⁄4

1

11⁄4

11⁄2

2

21⁄2

3

31⁄2

4

THHW, THW THW-2* THHW, THW, THW-2* TW, THW, THHW, THW-2*

12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1,000

4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 9 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

8 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 16 10 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

13 10 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 26 16 9 7 4 3 3 1 1 1 1

23 18 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 61 45 28 16 12 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

31 24 14 11 8 7 6 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0

51 40 24 18 13 12 10 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

90 136 70 106 42 32 24 20 17 12 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 63 48 36 31 26 18 16 13 11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2 2

177 227 138 177 83 106 63 47 40 34 24 20 17 15 12 10 8 7 7 6 4 4 4 3 3 3 81 60 52 44 31 26 22 19 16 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 5 5 4 4

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0

84 138 241 364 61 101 176 266 38 63 111 167 22 16 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 36 26 16 13 11 8 7 6 5 64 46 28 24 20 15 12 10 8 96 69 43 36 30 22 19 16 13

476 608 347 443 219 279 126 161 91 116 56 71 47 40 29 25 20 17 60 51 37 32 26 22

* This row is also valid for single layer insulated RHH, RHW, and RHW-2
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Table 8.1–Maximum number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing Continued
Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (inches) Type Letters Conductor Size AWG/kcmil
1

⁄2

3

⁄4

1

11⁄4

11⁄2

2

21⁄2

3

31⁄2

4

THHN, THWN, THWN-2

4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1,000

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 6 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 11 8 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 19 14 8 6 4 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 43 33 24 13 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 58 45 33 18 14 10 8 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1

11 9 7 6 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2

14 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3

18 15 13 11 10 8 7 6 5 5 4 4

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2

96 168 254 74 129 195 55 96 145 30 22 16 14 11 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 53 39 28 24 20 15 13 10 9 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 81 60 43 36 31 23 19 16 13 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 2

332 424 255 326 190 243 105 135 78 100 56 72 48 40 30 25 21 17 14 12 10 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 61 51 38 32 27 22 18 15 13 11 10 8 6 6 5 5 4 4

XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2

1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1,000

Continued
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Table 8.1–Maximum number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing Continued
Conduit or Tubing Trade Size (inches) Type Letters Conductor Size AWG/kcmil
1

⁄2

3

⁄4

1

11⁄4

11⁄2

2

21⁄2

3

31⁄2

4

TFN, TFFN Source: 1996 NEC, Appendix C1

18 16

22 17

38 29

63 48

108 83

148 244 113 186

Table 8.2 –Maximum cable diameters for permissible conduit fill
Nominal Conduit Size (in.)
1

⁄2

3

⁄4

1

11⁄4

11⁄2

2

21⁄2

3

31⁄2

4

Actual ID of Conduit (in.) 0.622 No. of Wires or Cables 0.824 1.05 1.38 1.61 2.07 2.47 3.07 3.55 4.03

Max. Diam. of Wires or Cables in Conduit (in.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0.462 0.249 0.231 0.201 0.178 0.164 0.152 0.141 0.133 0.125 0.119 0.114 0.109 0.106 0.102

0.610 0.380 0.305 0.266 0.235 0.216 0.201 0.187 0.175 0.165 0.157 0.151 0.144 0.139 0.135

0.778 0.420 0.390 0.339 0.300 0.276 0.256 0.239 0.224 0.210 0.200 0.193 0.184 0.178 0.172

1.02 0.552 0.511 0.445 0.395 0.364 0.337 0.314 0.294 0.276 0.263 0.254 0.242 0.234 0.226

1.19 0.644 0.596 0.519 0.460 0.424 0.392 0.366 0.342 0.322 0.307 0.296 0.283 0.273 0.264

1.53 0.828 0.767 0.668 0.591 0.545 0.505 0.470 0.441 0.414 0.394 0.380 0.363 0.351 0.339

1.83 0.988 0.914 0.796 0.706 0.650 0.603 0.562 0.525 0.494 0.471 0.453 0.435 0.418 0.405

2.27 1.23 1.14 0.999 0.876 0.807 0.749 0.698 0.653 0.614 0.584 0.563 0.538 0.520 0.503

2.63 1.42 1.31 1.14 1.01 0.935 0.868 0.806 0.755 0.710 0.676 0.651 0.623 0.601 0.583

3.00 1.61 1.49 1.30 1.15 1.06 0.984 0.916 0.858 0.807 0.768 0.740 0.707 0.683 0.661

Source: Based on NEC Table 1, Chapter 9

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Table 8.3 –Dimensions and maximum allowable percent fill of electrical metallic tubing (EMT)
Allowable Fill—Square In. Trade Size In.
1 3

Internal Diameter In.

Total Area Sq. In.

1 2 Over 2 Cond. Cond. Cond. 53% Fill 31% Fill 40% Fill

⁄2 ⁄4 1

0.622 0.824 1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469 3.068 4.026 5.047 6.065

0.30 0.53 0.86 1.50 2.04 3.36 4.79 7.38 12.72 20.00 28.89

0.16 0.28 0.46 0.80 1.08 1.78 2.54 3.91 6.74 10.60 15.31

0.09 0.16 0.27 0.47 0.63 1.04 1.48 2.26 3.94 6.20 8.96

0.12 0.21 0.34 0.60 0.82 1.34 1.92 2.95 5.09 8.00 11.56

11⁄4 11⁄2 2 21⁄2 3 4 5 6

Source: National Electrical Code, Chapter 9, Table 4 For other conduit types, please refer to Table 4 in Chapter 9 of the NEC. Area In Square Inches OD2 4 n

Example: Pulling (3) 2/0 15 kV cables, each cable has an overall diameter of 1.20 inches. 2 Using the formula, solve as follows: 3.14 1.2 3 3.39 square inches. Referring to 4 the table, minimum conduit size would be 4 inches.

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8.3 Pulling
8.3.1 Methods of Gripping Cables
In general, insulated cables may be gripped either directly by the conductors or by a basket-weave pulling grip applied over the cables. The method used depends on the anticipated maximum pulling tension in each case. When pulls are relatively light a basket-weave grip is often used. Heavier pulls usually require connecting directly to the conductor either by means of pulling eyes or by forming a loop with the conductor itself. In some instances it is desirable to use a grip over the outer covering in addition to the conductor connection to prevent any slippage of one with respect to the other. Nonmetallic Sheathed Cables The smaller sizes of nonmetallic sheathed cables are usually gripped directly by the conductors by forming them into a loop to which the pull wire or rope can be attached. The insulation on each conductor is removed before the loop is formed. Larger sizes are more easily handled by applying a pulling grip over the cable or cables provided the pull is not too severe. If more than one cable is involved the ends should be bound together with electrical tape before applying the grip overall. Long, hard pulls will necessitate the use of pulling eyes. Lead-Sheathed Cables Pulling eyes for lead-sheathed cables can be applied either at the factory or in the field. They often must be wiped to the lead sheath to prevent the entrance of moisture. For shorter pulls a basket-weave grip may be applied over the lead sheath or over the jacket if one is present over the lead sheath. Interlocked Armor Cables When pulling interlocked armor cable it is necessary to grip both the armor and the conductors. This can be accomplished in a number of ways. One method requires that a portion of the armor be removed. Electrical tape is then applied over the armor and down over the conductors and a long basket-weave grip is applied such that it grips both the armor and the conductors. Another method requires that two holes be drilled through the cable (armor and conductors) at right angles to each other and a loop formed by passing steel wires through the holes and out over the end of the cable. A third approach is to use a pulling eye and a grip together, the grip being applied over the armor to prevent it from slipping back. This latter approach provides the greatest strength. Preassembled Aerial Cable This type of cable should always be gripped by the messenger which is usually attached to a pulling swivel. In addition, a basket grip should be applied over the conductors to prevent any slippage and to facilitate guiding the conductors through the pulleys.

8.3.2 Tension Limitations
When the pulling force is applied directly to the conductor (i.e., when pulling eyes are used or when the conductor is formed into a loop) it should be limited to 0.008 lb per circular mil area of cross-section for copper and 0.006 lb per circular mil for aluminum. When a grip is applied over nonmetallic sheathed cables, the pulling force should be limited to 1,000 pounds provided this is not in excess of the force calculated above using the 0.008 or 0.006 factors.

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To limit the sidewall pressure to a safe value at bends in duct and conduit runs, the pulling force in pounds should not exceed 300 times the radius of the bend in feet. The above limits are maximum values which should not be exceeded. However, it is possible to damage cables while applying lower tensions if, for example, there are sharp projections in a poorly constructed duct bank, or if an interlocked armor cable is pulled around too small a sheave. Every installation detail cannot be covered here but staying within the above tension limits will help assure a successful installation.

8.3.3 Helpful Hints
The following suggestions—though not all-inclusive—will give greater assurance of success. (1) Be sure there is adequate clearance between conduit and cable. Clearance refers to the distance between the uppermost cable in the conduit and the inner top of the conduit. Clearance should be 1/4 inch at minimum and up to one inch for large cable installations or installations involving numerous bends. It is calculated as follows:
# of Conductors/Cables Configuration Formula

D 1

d

3 CRADLED

D 2

1.366d

D 2

d 1

 d     (D d)

2

3 TRIPLEXED

D 2

d 2

D 2

d 1

  d    2(D d)

2

Figure 8.1–How to calculate clearance Where “D” is the inner diameter of the conduit and “d” is the outer diameter of the cable. When calculating clearance, ensure all cable diameters are equal. Use the triplexed configuration formula if you are in doubt. The cables may be of single or multiple conductor construction. Do not exceed recommended “percent fill” requirements.
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(2) Jamming is the wedging of three cables lying side by side in a conduit. This usually occurs when cables are being pulled around bends or when cables twist. Jam Ratio is calculated by slightly modifying the ratio D/d. A value of 1.05D is used for the inner diameter of the conduit because bending a cylinder creates an oval cross-section in the bend. • If 1.05D/d is larger than 3.0, jamming is impossible. • If 1.05D/d is between 2.8 and 3.0, serious jamming is probable. • If 1.05D/d is less than 2.5, jamming is impossible but clearance should be checked. Since there are manufacturing tolerances on cable, the actual overall diameter should be measured prior to computing jam ratio. (3) Use adequate lubrication of the proper type to reduce friction in conduit and duct pulls. The grease and oil type lubricants used on lead sheathed cables should not be used on nonmetallic sheathed cables. There are a number of commercially available wire pulling compounds (many of which are UL Listed) that are suitable for use with polymer jacketed cables. They usually consist of soap, talc, mica or the like, and are designed to have no deleterious effect on the cable. Graphite and other electrically conducting lubricants should not be used on nonshielded cables rated 2kV and above. These materials can lead to tracking of the cable jacket. (4) Avoid sharp bending of the cable at the first pulley in overhead installations by locating the pay-off reel far enough away from the first pulley that the lead-in angle is kept relatively flat. (5) After installation check that end seals are still intact and have not been damaged to the point where water could enter. Apply plastic or rubber tape to help protect against invisible damage if the cable will be subjected to immersion or rain. This is particularly important if there will be a delay of some time between the pulling operation and splicing and terminating. (6) When installing interlocked armor cables in cable tray, use sufficient rollers to prevent the cable from dragging on the tray which might result in excessive tension. Avoid sharp bends in the cable by using one 3-sheave pulley at 45-degree bends and two 3-sheave pulleys at 90-degree bends. (7) Keep adequate tension on the messenger in aerial cable installations to prevent sharp bends at pulleys. Do not release the tension on the messenger until it is secured to poles on both ends.

8.3.4 Pulling Tension Calculations
The following recommendations are based on a study sponsored by ICEA. These recommendations may be modified if experience and more exact information so indicate. (1) Maximum Pulling Tension a. With pulling eye attached to copper conductors, the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0.008 times the circular mil area. b. With pulling eye attached to aluminum conductors, the maximum pulling tension in pounds should not exceed 0.006 times the circular mil area.

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Example: For copper T
M

0.008

n

CM

where T n CM
M

maximum tension, lb. number of conductors circular mil area of each conductor

(2) Maximum Permissible Pulling Length: LM where L
M M

TM

C

W

maximum pulling length, feet (valid only for straight sections) maximum tension, lb. weight of cable per foot, lb. coefficient of friction (typically 0.5 but can vary from 0.2 to 1.0 depending on condition of the duct and the amount of lubricant used)

T

W C

(3) Bend Multipliers For a curved section, the multipliers given below are applied to the tension calculated for the straight section preceding the bend. Table 8.4 –Bend multipliers for pulling tension calculations
Bend Angle Degrees Multiplier Bend Angle Degrees Multiplier

15 30 45 60

1.14 1.30 1.48 1.70

75 90 105 120

1.94 2.20 2.50 2.86

Note: These multipliers are based on a coefficient of friction of 0.5. If the coefficient of friction were 1.0 instead of 0.5 the multipliers would have to be squared. If the coefficient of friction were 0.75, the multipliers would be raised to the one and one-half power.

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8.3.5 Pulling Lubricants
Many commercial lubricants are available and may be employed to reduce pulling tensions provided they do not affect electrical or mechanical characteristics of the cable. The primary function of a pulling lubricant is to reduce the tension on the cable as it is installed in a duct. This is accomplished by reducing the friction (technically the “coefficient of friction”) between the cable and the inside surface of the conduit, i.e., it makes the cable more “slippery.” Cable pulling lubricants should be formulated for the conditions of the pull, be safe for the environment, not degrade the cable jacket, and be easy to work with. The quantity of lubricant required depends on various factors: The pull length, the condition and size of the conduit, and the difficulty of the pull. The recommended average quantity of lubricant per pull is equal to: Q 0.0015 L D

Where Q is the quantity of lubricant needed in gallons, L is the length of the pull in feet, and D is the inner diameter (ID) of the conduit in inches. The appropriate quantity to use can vary by 50% from the average depending on installation conditions. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the conditions affecting each pull.

8.3.6 Sidewall Pressure (SWP)
To prevent damage to a cable from pressure which develops when a cable is pulled around a bend under tension, the pressure must be kept as low as possible and should not exceed the following values. Sidewall pressure Tension out of the bend divided by bend radius. Note: Many cable manufacturers recommend a maximum SWP of 500 pounds/foot. Table 8.5 –Maximum sidewall pressure (SWP) for power cables
Cable Type Maximum SWP (lbs/ft) x

XLPE Insulation/Jacket – 600V Cable EPR, Neoprene – 600V Cable PE & XLPE insulation, concentric wire shield: without jacket with encapsulating jacket PE & XLPE insulation, LC shield LDPE jacket PE, XLPE, EPR insulation, concentric wire or tape shield, LDPE & PVC sleeved jackets Lead sheathed cable, with & without jackets: XLPE insulation EPR insulation XLPE insulation, copper ribbon shield, MDPE sleeved jacket

1,200 1,000 1,200 y 2,000 1,500 2,000 z

2,000 2,000

Continued
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Table 8.5 –Maximum sidewall pressure (SWP) for power cables Continued NOTES x When considering the use of the above sidewall pressures the stress on the cable conductor should not exceed the following values: 16,000 psi for copper conductor (annealed) 14,000 psi for stranded aluminum conductors (1/2 thru Full Hard) 10,000 psi for solid aluminum conductors (3/4 & Full Hard) For three conductor cables in parallel configuration, the allowable conductor stress should be based on two cables sharing the load. y For a three cable pull, a maximum SWP limit of 750 lb/ft is recommended. z The recommended SWP limit should be reduced to 1500 lb/ft when the jacket is not applied tightly to the cable core. Source: EPRI Report EL-3333-CCM, Volume 2

8.3.7 Minimum Bending Radii
Power Cables without Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radii for both single and multiple-conductor cable without metallic shielding are as follows: Table 8.6 –Minimum bending radii for cables without metallic shielding
Thickness of Conductor Insulation in Mils Minimum Bending Radius as a Multiple of Cable Diameter Overall Diameter of Cable in Inches 1.00 and less 1.01 to 2.00 2.01 and Over

155 and Less 170 – 310 325 and over

4 5 –

5 6 7

6 7 8

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Example: If minimum bending radius is 6 times cable O.D. and cable O.D. is 2.0 inches, the minimum bending radius is 12 inches (minimum bending diameter is 24 inches).

270°

RADIUS 12" 2.0"

90°

2.0" O.D. CABLE

180°

Figure 8.2 –Calculating minimum bending radius

Power Cables with Metallic Shielding The minimum bending radius for all cables with metallic shielding is twelve times the overall diameter of the cable. Portable Cables The minimum bending radius for portable cables during installation and handling in service is six times the cable diameter for cables rated 5000 volts and less. For cables rated over 5000 volts use eight times the cable diameter. For flat twin cables, the minor diameter is used to determine the bending radius. Fiber Optic Cables Minimum bending radius for fiber optic cable is ten times the cable diameter for multimode and 20 times the cable diameter for single mode. Interlocked Armor or Corrugated Sheath (Type MC) Cables The minimum bending radius for Type MC cable is seven times the external diameter of the metallic sheath. Sources: NEC Articles 300-34, 334-11(b), and 336-16 ICEA S-66-524 (NEMA WC7) and S-68-516 (NEMA WC8), Appendix H

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8.4 Installation Methods

The feed-in setup should unreel the cable with the natural curvature (a) as opposed to a reverse “S” curvature (b).

Figure 8.3 –Cable feed-in setups Continued
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Continued

A setup with timbers because pulling eyes were not available.

Figure 8.3 –Cable feed-in setups Continued

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Continued

Single sheaves should be used only for guiding cables. Arrange multiple blocks if necessary to maintain minimum bending radii whenever cable is deflected.

For pulling around bends, use conveyor sheave assemblies of the appropriate radius.

The pulleys must be positioned to ensure that the effective curvature is smooth and deflected evenly at each pulley. Never allow a polygon curvature to occur as shown.

The fit of the pulley around the cable is also important when the pulling tension is high (for example, pulleys at the top of a vertical drop). Remember to use the radius of the surface over which the cable is bent, not the outside flange diameter of the pulley. A “10 inch” cable sheave typically has an inside (bending) radius of 3 inches!

Figure 8.3 –Cable feed-in setups

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8.5 Overhead Messengers
Table 8.7–Messenger breaking strength in lbs.
Nominal Messenger Size
1 ⁄4 inch (7 12 AWG) 5 ⁄16 inch (7 10 AWG) 3 ⁄8 inch (7 8 AWG)

30% EHS* Copper-Clad Steel

Aluminum Clad Steel

EHS* Galvanized Steel

High-Strength Galvanized Steel

Type 316 Stainless Steel

Type 302 Stainless Steel

6,282 9,196 13,890 16,890 20,460

6,301 10,020 15,930 19,060 22,730

6,650 11,200 15,400 20,800 26,900

4,750 8,000 10,800 14,500 18,800

7,650 11,900 16,200 23,400 30,300

8,500 13,200 18,000 26,000 33,700

⁄16 inch (7 7 AWG) 1 ⁄2 inch (7 6 AWG)
7

* Extra-High Strength Table 8.8 –Messenger weight in lbs./1000ft
Nominal Messenger Size
5

30% EHS Copper-Clad Steel

Aluminum Clad Steel

EHS Galvanized Steel

High-Strength Galvanized Steel

Type 316 Stainless Steel

Type 302 Stainless Steel

⁄4 inch ⁄16 inch 3 ⁄8 inch
1

139 204 324 408 515

104 165 262 330 416

121 205 273 399 517

121 205 273 399 517

136 208 278 405 525

132 208 278 405 525

7

⁄16 inch 1 ⁄2 inch

Table 8.9 –Maximum core weight in lbs./ft (Based on final sag of 30 inches at 60°F in a 150ft span, 30% of ultimate strength)
Nominal Messenger Size
5 1 ⁄4 inch ⁄16 inch 3 ⁄8 inch

30% EHS Copper-Clad Steel

Aluminum Clad Steel

EHS Galvanized Steel

High-Strength Galvanized Steel

Type 316 Stainless Steel

Type 302 Stainless Steel

1.5 2.2 3.3 4 4.9

1.5 2.4 3.9 4.7 5.6

1.6 2.7 3.8 5.1 6.6

1.1 1.9 2.6 3.4 4.4

1.8 2.9 3.9 5.8 7.5

2.1 3.3 4.5 6.5 8.4

7

⁄16 inch 1 ⁄2 inch

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Table 8.10 –Galvanized steel strand/physical specifications
Nominal Messenger Size inch
3 3

Weight Grade lbs. per 1000 ft

Minimum Strength lbs.

⁄16 ⁄16 1 ⁄4 ⁄4 ⁄4 1 ⁄4
1 1

Common Utility 2.2M Common Siemens Martin High Strength Ex. High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utilities Grade 6M High Strength Ex. High Strength Common Siemens Martin Utility 10M High Strength Ex. High Strength Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 16M Siemens Martin High Strength Utility 25M

73 73 121 121 121 121 205 205 225 205 205 273 273 273 273 273 399 399 399 517 517 517

1,150 2,400 1,900 3,150 4,750 6,650 3,200 5,350 6,000 8,000 11,200 4,250 6,950 11,500 10,800 15,400 9,350 14,500 18,000 12,100 18,800 25,000

⁄16 ⁄16 5 ⁄16
5 5 5 5

⁄16 ⁄16 3 ⁄8 ⁄8 ⁄8 3 ⁄8
3 3

⁄8 ⁄16 7 ⁄16
3 7 7

⁄16 1 ⁄2 1 ⁄2
1

⁄2

Class A: Minimum amount of zinc coating. Class B: Twice the amount of zinc coating as “A.” Class C: Three times the amount of zinc coating as “A.”

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8.6 Vertical Suspension
8.6.1 Suspended By Clamping Around Cable
Table 8.11–Spacings for conductor supports
Maximum Support Spacing for Conductors in Vertical Raceways AWG or Circular Mil Size of Wire Aluminum or Copper-Clad Aluminum Copper

18 AWG through 8 AWG 6 AWG through 1/0 AWG 2/0 AWG through 4/0 AWG over 4/0 AWG through 350 kcmil over 350 kcmil through 500 kcmil over 500 kcmil through 750 kcmil over 750 kcmil Source: NEC, Article 300-19

100 feet 200 feet 180 feet 135 feet 120 feet 95 feet 85 feet

100 feet 100 feet 80 feet 60 feet 50 feet 40 feet 35 feet

8.6.2 Suspended by Conductor
Source: NEMA WC3 (ICEA S-19-81) Section 7.2.2.1 A T F Where A conductor area in sq. in. W L T conductor tensile strength in lbs./sq. in. W cable weight in lbs./ft L length in feet F minimum safety factor (7 unless otherwise required by appropriate authority) Example: Suspend 470 ft of cable having three 4/0 AWG (211,600 circular mils each) soft-drawn copper conductors, total cable weight is 3,240 lbs./1,000ft or 1,080 lbs./1,000ft per conductor, each conductor is supported at the top with a full tension terminal: F [(211, 600) ( / 4 ) / 1, 000, 000 ] 36, 000 (1, 080 / 1, 000)470 11.8 (OK)

If the suspended cable is installed in a conduit elbow at the top, check sidewall loading.

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8.7 Hipot Testing
Overview This procedure is intended to provide general guidelines for high potential DC testing of power cables. For more details see IEEE Standard 400. All tests made after cable installation and during the guarantee period should be made in accordance with applicable specifications. All safety precautions must be observed during testing at high voltage. Read and understand and follow the Operator’s Manual for the particular test set being used!

8.7.1 Test Equipment
Direct current test equipment is commercially available with a wide range of voltages. Accessory equipment is necessary to safely conduct high voltage tests such as safety barriers, rubber gloves and nonconducting hard hats. Consult appropriate safety officer.

8.7.2 Test Procedure
Refer to IEEE Standard 400. Acceptable procedures, although varying slightly in technique, have more or less been standardized as either a “withstand test” or a “time-leakage current test.” Before performing any DC overpotential tests: • All equipment must be disconnected from the cable circuit, i.e., disconnect transformers, switch taps, motors, circuit breakers, surge arrestors, etc. This will preclude damage to such equipment and will prevent test interruptions due to flashovers and/or trip-outs resulting from excessive leakage current. • Establish adequate clearance between the circuit test ends and any grounded object, and to other equipment not under test (about 2.5 feet). • Ground all circuit conductors not under test and all cable shields as well as nearby equipment. • Consult termination manufacturer for maximum test voltage recommendations and time limitations. The direct current test may be applied either continuously or in predetermined steps to the maximum value in accordance with applicable specifications: • Continuous Method—Apply test voltage at an approximate rise rate of 1 kV per second or 75% of the rated current input of the equipment, whichever is less. Some equipment will take longer to reach the maximum test voltage because of the amount of charging current. • Step Method—Apply test voltage slowly in 5 to 7 increments of equal value, to the maximum specified. Allow sufficient time at each step for the leakage current to stabilize. Normally this requires only a few seconds unless cable circuits of high capacitance are involved. Record leakage current at each step. • Maintain the test voltage at the prescribed value for the time designated in applicable specifications. • At the end of the test period, set the test set voltage control to zero. Allow the residual voltage on the circuit to decay then ground the conductor just tested. • Caution—It should be recognized that DC charges on cable can build up to potentially dangerous levels if grounds are removed too quickly. Maintain solid grounds after the test on the cable for at least 4 times the duration of the test. It is a good safety practice to maintain these grounds longer and while reconnecting circuit components.

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Acceptance Testing—After installation and before the cable is placed in regular service the specified test voltage is applied for 15 consecutive minutes. Proof Testing—At any time during the period of guarantee the cable circuit may be removed from service and tested at a reduced voltage (normally 65 percent of the original acceptance value) for 5 consecutive minutes.
Record the leakage current at one minute intervals for the duration of the test. A constant or decreasing leakage current with respect to time at maximum test voltage is the usual acceptance criterion for DC hipot testing. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS High potential testing of medium voltage power cables is usually performed with negative polarity connected to the conductor. High potential testing is a tool for determining insulation resistance at high voltages. Effective insulation resistance of the cable system may be calculated by means of Ohm’s Law: R V/I. Restated another way the relation is: Megohms Kilovolts Microamperes 1000

Insulation resistance may also be measured with instruments which give a direct reading at 500 volts (or higher, depending on the model). IR in general has little or no direct relationship to breakdown strength. The significance of conducting DC High Voltage tests on nonshielded, nonmetallic-sheathed cable is dependent upon the environment in which it is installed because the characteristics of the return circuits are unknown. The environment must be carefully considered or test results may not be significant. In fact these tests can result in damage to the cable insulation. Humidity, condensation or actual precipitation on the surface of a cable termination can increase the leakage current by several orders of magnitude. Humidity also increases the termination leakage current, which is included in the total leakage current. Wind prevents the accumulation of space charges at all bare energized terminals. This results in an increase of corona. It is desirable to reduce or eliminate corona current at the bare metal extremities of cable or terminations. This may be accomplished by covering these areas with plastic envelopes, plastic or glass containers, plastic wrap (e.g., “Saran”® or “Handiwrap”®) or suitable electrical putty. Routine periodic DC maintenance testing of cable for the evaluation of the insulation strength is not a common practice. Some power cable users have adopted a program of testing circuits during planned outages, preferring possible breakdowns during testing rather than experiencing a service outage. It is nearly impossible to recommend test voltage values for maintenance. An arbitrary test voltage level could break down a cable circuit that would otherwise render long trouble-free service at normal operating AC voltage. One advantage of DC high voltage testing is that it can detect conducting particles left on the creepage surface during splicing or termination. Test equipment should be supplied from a stable, constant voltage source. Do not use the same source which is supplying arc welders or other equipment causing line voltage fluctuations. The output voltage of the test set must be filtered and regulated. Consider using a portable motor driven alternator to energize the test set.

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COMMON TESTING PROBLEMS High leakage current can be caused by: • Failure to guard against corona • Failure to clean insulation surface • Failure to keep cable ends dry (high relative humidity, dampness, dew, fog, wind, snow) • Failure to provide adequate clearance to ground • Improper shield termination Erratic readings can be caused by: • Fluctuating voltage to test set • Improper test leads

8.7.3 Test Voltage
Table 8.12 –Maximum DC test voltages for shielded power cables
Acceptance Rated Circuit Voltage Phase to Phase Volts 100% (Grounded) kV 133% (Ungrounded) kV

2,001– 5,000 5,001– 8,000 8,001–15,000 15,001– 25,000 25,001– 28,000 28,001– 35,000

25 35 55 80 85 100

25 35 65 100 – –

Sources: IEEE Standard 400 NEMA WC-8 (ICEA S-68-516) NEMA WC-7 (ICEA S-66-524) NEMA WC-5 (ICEA S-61-402) The acceptance test is to be made immediately after installation. A proof test can be made during the guarantee period. Maintenance testing is not recommended. However, if tests must be conducted use 40% of the above value for 5 minutes.

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DC hipot test voltages are also specified by AEIC for tests conducted during and after installation as follows: • At any time during installation, a DC proof test may be made at a voltage not exceeding the test voltage specified below, applied for 5 consecutive minutes. • After the cable has been completely installed and placed in service, a DC proof test may be made at any time within the first 5 years at the test voltage specified below, applied for 5 consecutive minutes. After that time, DC testing is not recommended. Table 8.13 –AEIC hipot test voltages
Maximum DC Field Test Voltages in kV Rated Voltage Phase-to-Phase kV During Installation First 5 Years

100% (Grounded) 133% (Ungrounded) 100% (Grounded) 133% (Ungrounded)

5 8 15 25 28 35 46 Source: AEIC CS5 & CS6

28 36 56 80 84 100 132

36 44 64 96 100 124 172

9 11 18 25 26 31 41

11 14 20 30 31 39 54

8.8 Fault Locating
One of the many types of fault locating equipment is the Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR). These units are portable, commercially available devices which can be used in the field to locate some types of conductor breaks or shorts. Connected to the end of a cable, the device functions much like radar, sending out low voltage pulses which travel the length of the cable and echo back when an open, short, or tap is encountered. The device can usually locate faults within 2% of the cable length. However, TDRs are only capable of locating breaks or shorts having an impedance different than that of the cable. For most cables, this includes shorts having a resistance of less than a few ohms and opens having a resistance greater than several hundred ohms. Splices, taps, etc., sometimes distort the echo and can mask the fault. Nevertheless, the method is nondestructive and is used successfully on faults having characteristics within the capabilities of the method.

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8.9 Megger Testing
If the DC voltage applied during an insulation resistance (IR) test on power cables is relatively low (0.6 to 2.5 kV) the test is often referred to as a “Megger” test. Low voltage IR tests are particularly useful in detecting shorts and indicating grossly deteriorated insulation on 600 volt rated cables. An inherent limitation of low voltage IR tests is their interpretation. The readings obtained from such testing on nonshielded, nonmetallic-sheathed cable is very dependent upon the environment because the environment determines the characteristics of the return circuit. Low resistance readings may be caused by contaminated or moist cable ends, high humidity, etc. Failure to clean water based cable pulling lubricants from the cable test ends has caused erroneous rejection of good cable. Refer to the figures below for suggested hookup. Reminders: • Safety—Follow the test equipment supplier’s instructions. Stay clear of energized cable. Operators must know the equipment. Be sure shields are grounded! Remember that insulated conductors are capacitors. • Voltages—Check cable and termination manufacturer’s guidelines. • Records—Keep detailed records and provide a copy to the owner.

Figure 8.4 –Connections for testing insulation resistance between one wire and ground, without being affected by leakage to other wires. Note use of the Guard (G) connection

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Figure 8.5 –Connections for testing insulation resistance between one wire and all other wires, without being affected by leakage to ground

8.10 Moisture Removal
8.10.1 Purging Water from Conductor Strand or Shield
All Cables: Purge the shield separately from the insulated strands; otherwise the nitrogen gas will only flow through the path offering the least resistance. Cables Not Installed: Remove end seals. Position one cable end to its lowest possible elevation. At the cable end having the highest elevation apply two layers of half-lapped HV insulating tape to act as a sealing cushion. Connect the cable ends to a dry nitrogen or dry air supply using hoses, valves, fittings, and flow regulators as shown in Figure 8.6. Attach a one-gallon plastic bag to the exhaust end of the cable. Secure the bag with tape or clamps. Make a small vent hole by clipping one bag corner. As shown, several cables may be connected to the gas supply. Dry nitrogen is available from welding gas suppliers. Apply 15 – 25 psi (gauge). Maintain pressure for at least eight hours after all indications of moisture have stopped. Water vapor may be readily detected by sprinkling one tablespoon of anhydrous cupric sulfate in the plastic bag, which turns blue instead of “off” white when wet. The sulfate is available from scientific laboratory supply houses. A hardware store humidity gauge may also be used. Installed Cables: The splices and terminations must be removed if they interfere with the flow of air or nitrogen. The cable can then be purged as described above.

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Figure 8.6 –Moisture removal equipment

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8.11 Fiber Optic Testing
Testing a newly installed fiber optic system can increase the overall performance of a system, decrease the amount of downtime and reduce costs for the system owner. Attenuation is the parameter most frequently measured and includes the attenuation of the cable as well as that of attached connectors. Cable attenuation can be caused by “microbending” of the fiber, impurities in the fiber, excessive mechanical force on the cable or, of course, a broken fiber. Handheld optical power meters and light sources (normally LED types for multimode and laser types for single mode fibers) are used to determine the total attenuation of the fiber and any splices or connectors. These devices can be considered the optical equivalent of the handheld “multimeters” used to troubleshoot electrical equipment. Optical Time Domain Reflectometers (OTDRs) are used to locate faults and to measure attenuation of cables and connectors. A light pulse is sent down the fiber and as it encounters a fault, connector, splice, etc., a portion of the optical pulse is reflected back to the source. An OTDR is able to determine the distance to the reflection and the amount of signal loss at that point. OTDRs work on a radar-like principle. Small optical microscopes are used to visually inspect the workmanship of installed fiber optic connectors.

8.12 LAN Cable Testing
As more and more users depend on data networks around the world, the ability to maintain proper system operation becomes increasingly important. There are several types of test equipment that are commonly used to evaluate LAN unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. Low cost handheld LAN cable testers are available that are used to certify the electrical performance, e.g., Category III, IV or V, of newly installed LAN cable. This characterizes the installed system with regard to near-end crosstalk, attenuation and impedance. Time Domain Reflectometers (TDRs) are devices used to locate faults, determine length, and measure attenuation of the cable. The TDR sends a low voltage pulse along the cable and then “looks” for reflections that result from impedance mismatches that are caused by shorts, opens or severely deformed cable. TDRs analyze the reflections and report the amount of impedance mismatch and the location of faults.

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ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

9.1 Coaxial Connectors 9.1.1 Selection 9.1.2 BNC 9.1.3 TNC 9.1.4 SHV 9.1.5 SMA 9.1.6 UHF 9.1.7 N Series 9.1.8 F Series 9.2 Telecommunication Connectors 9.2 Telecommunication Connectors 9.3 Power Connectors 9.3.1 3M 9.3.2 Stud Sizes 9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors 9.4.1 Selection 9.4.2 ST 9.4.3 SC 9.4.4 FDDI 9.4.5 SMA 9.4.6 Mini BNC 9.4.7 FC 9.4.8 Biconic

136 136 137 137 137 138 138 138

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9.1 Coaxial Connectors
Coaxial connectors should appear electrically as extensions to the cable; in other words, they should connect to the cable with as little disruption of the electrical signal as possible. Thus a connector is usually specified by its nominal impedance and its allowable Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR). The nominal impedance of the connector indicates its basic match to the nominal impedance of the cable. The VSWR indicates the quality of the match.

9.1.1 Selection
Just as MIL-C-17 covers the main types of coaxial cables, MIL-C-39012 covers many popular types of coaxial connectors. It includes mating and overall dimensions, materials, performance, and testing procedures for each type of connector covered. In selecting a connector, users generally consider cable size, frequency range, and coupling method. Cable Size determines the connector series as subminiature, miniature, medium, or large. Frequency Range determines the upper frequency limit of the application. The connectors can be used at lower frequencies but are not recommended at higher frequencies where performance (especially VSWR) becomes degraded. Both BNC and TNC series connectors, for instance, can be used with miniature cable. The TNC connector, however, is usable to 11 GHz, while the BNC is limited to 4 GHz. (This is due to the difference between bayonet and screw couplings.) If the highest frequency of the application is 2 GHz, either connector can be used. If the highest frequency is 8 GHz, the TNC is the obvious choice. Coupling Method determines the procedure for joining two mating connectors. The three common types are bayonet, screw, and snap-on. Often the coupling method is the main difference between two series of connectors. For example, the BNC connector uses bayonet coupling; the TNC connector is essentially the same, but with a threaded coupling.

9.1.2 BNC
By far, BNC connectors are the most common for miniature cables because of the easy connection/ disconnection offered by their bayonet coupling. In most versions, BNC connectors are 50-ohm connectors rated to 4 GHz. 75-ohm, 4 GHz connectors are now available to meet the demand and usage of 75-ohm coax cable.

Figure 9.1–BNC connectors

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9.1.3 TNC
The TNC connector is essentially identical to the BNC connector, except it replaces the bayonet coupling with a threaded coupling. The tight interface of the threads, especially when subjected to vibrations, allows the connector to maintain a low VSWR up to 11 GHz with flexible cable and up to 15 GHz with semirigid cable.

9.1.4 SHV
For medium size cables, SHV connectors are high voltage connectors rated to 5,000 volts (rms) and featuring bayonet coupling and a nonconstant impedance. They were originally designed for high energy physics applications.

9.1.5 SMA
Widely used in avionics, radar, military, and high performance test equipment applications, SMA connectors are the most popular type for subminiature cable and offer the highest performance in their class. They meet MIL-C-39012 requirements up to 12.4 GHz when used on flexible cable and up to 18 GHz on semirigid cable.

Figure 9.2 –SMA series coax connectors for semirigid cable

Figure 9.3 –SMA series coax connectors for flexible cable
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9.1.6 UHF
The first coaxial connectors, designed in the 1930s, UHF connectors exhibit nonconstant impedance and a low upper-frequency limit of 500 MHz, 2 GHz for the miniature version. Their main application is in cost sensitive consumer applications.

Figure 9.4 –UHF series coax connectors

9.1.7 N Series
These screw thread connectors were the first true RF connectors, developed during World War II to handle microwave frequencies up to 11 GHz. Despite the connector’s age, it still is widely used, offering dual-crimp, low cost commercial, and 75-ohm versions in a variety of styles and materials. It is the standard coaxial connector for many coaxial cable based local area networks, including Ethernet and other IEEE 802 networks using medium size coaxial cable.

Figure 9.5 –N series coax connectors

9.1.8 F Series
The F type connectors are 75-ohm, screw threaded couplers for RG59, RG6, and RG11 type coaxial cables and are the standard for CATV/MATV systems. The F Connector is simple to install, economical, and meets the specifications of CATV systems. Most connectors are terminated to the cable by a single crimp on the attached ferrule.

Figure 9.6 –F series coax connector

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9.2 Telecommunication Connectors
Specifications for 100 ohm UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) connectors are contained in the document ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-A Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard. The first four pairs of Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable are connected as follows: Table 9.1–Connections for the first four pairs of UTP cable
Pair Color Code Connection

one two three four

white/blue blue/white white/orange orange/white white/green green/white white/brown brown/white

T1 (Tip side of a Voice line) R1 (Ring side of a Voice line) T2 (Tip side of a Voice line) R2 (Ring side of a Voice line) T3 (Tip side of a Voice line) R3 (Ring side of a Voice line) T4 (Tip side of a Voice line) R4 (Ring side of a Voice line)

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RJ-11 and RJ-45 modular plugs and jacks are widely used in telecommuncation applications. They are designed to meet FCC (Federal Communication Commission) specifications and dimensions, including wire gauge and conductor insulation diameter. Some are designed for use with wires with solid conductors, others for stranded wire. The wiring configuration varies, depending on the wiring method selected for the system. The most used standards are ANSI/TIA/EIA 568-A (wiring methods “A” and “B”) and U.S.O.C. (FCC Universal Service Order Code). With the locking tab down, the conductors are inserted into the rear of the plug in a specific pattern. The pins of the plug are numbered 1 through 8 from left to right as shown in Figure 9.7.

Rear View

Front View
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Side View

12345678

Figure 9.7–RJ-45 (8 pin) modular plug

Figure 9.8 –Wiring methods A (left) and B (right) on an RJ-45 modular jack

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9.3 Power Connectors
9.3.1 3M

Figure 9.9 – 3M Scotchlok connector

Table 9.2 – 3M Scotchlok connector dimensions
Scotchlok Connector No.

Wire Size AWG/ kcmil

Length Inch (mm)

Inside Diameter Inch (mm)

Outside Diameter Inch (mm)

Color Code

10001 10002 10003 10004 10005 10006 11006 10007 11007 10008 11008 10009 11009 10010 11010 10011 11011 10014 11014 10019 11019 10024 11024

6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 250 250 300 300 350 350 500 500 750 750 1,000 1,000

1.75 (44.4) 1.75 (44.4) 1.88 (47.7) 1.88 (47.7) 1.88 (47.7) 2.00 (50.8) 3.13 (79.4) 2.13 (54.0) 3.13 (79.4) 2.13 (54.0) 3.38 (85.8) 2.25 (57.2) 3.38 (85.8) 2.25 (57.2) 4.13 (104.8) 2.38 (60.4) 4.13 (104.8) 2.88 (73.1) 4.63 (117.5) 3.38 (85.8) 5.88 (149.3) 3.88 (98.5) 6.13 (155.6)

0.196 (5.0) 0.247 (6.2) 0.307 (7.8) 0.358 (9.1) 0.394 (10.0) 0.439 (11.2) 0.439 (11.2) 0.490 (12.4) 0.490 (12.4) 0.548 (13.9) 0.548 (13.9) 0.595 (15.1) 0.595 (15.1) 0.650 (16.5) 0.650 (16.5) 0.700 (17.8) 0.700 (17.8) 0.836 (21.2) 0.836 (21.2) 1.031 (26.2) 1.031 (26.2) 1.173 (29.8) 1.173 (29.8)

0.290 (7.3) 0.340 (8.6) 0.416 (10.6) 0.462 (11.7) 0.512 (13.0) 0.560 (14.2) 0.560 (14.2) 0.617 (15.7) 0.617 (15.7) 0.687 (17.4) 0.687 (17.4) 0.750 (19.0) 0.750 (19.0) 0.813 (20.7) 0.813 (20.7) 0.875 (22.2) 0.875 (22.2) 1.060 (27.0) 1.060 (27.0) 1.299 (33.0) 1.299 (33.0) 1.500 (38.1) 1.500 (38.1)

Blue Grey Brown Green Pink Black Black Orange Orange Purple Purple Yellow Yellow White White Red Red Brown Brown Black Black – –

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O.D. L.D.
L P C C' P C

O.D. L.D.

B L

B

W

W

Figure 9.10 – 3M Scotchlok lugs

Table 9.3 – 3M Scotchlok lug dimensions
Scotchlok Lug No. B Barrel Length Inch (mm) P Pad Length Inch (mm) W Pad Width Inch (mm) C One Hole Inch (mm) C Two Hole Inch (mm)

Wire Size AWG/ kcmil

I.D. Inch (mm)

O.D. Inch (mm)

L Length Inch (mm)

Stud Color Size Code*

30014 30015 30016 30018 30019 30021 30022 30023 30024 30027 30028

6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 1

0.196 (5.0) 0.196 (5.0) 0.196 (5.0) 0.247 (6.2) 0.247 (6.2) 0.247 (6.2) 0.307 (7.8) 0.307 (7.8) 0.307 (7.8) 0.358 (9.1) 0.358 (9.1)

0.290 (7.4) 0.290 (7.4) 0.290 (7.4) 0.340 (8.6) 0.340 (8.6) 0.340 (8.6) 0.416 (10.5) 0.416 (10.5) 0.416 (10.5) 0.460 (11.7) 0.460 (11.7)

0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.810 (20.7) 0.810 (20.7) 0.810 (20.7) 0.810 (20.7) 0.810 (20.7)

0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1) 0.890 (22.6) 0.890 (22.6) 0.890 (22.6) 0.890 (22.6) 0.890 (22.6) 0.890 (22.6) 0.750 (19.1) 0.750 (19.1)

0.435 (11.0) 0.435 (11.0) 0.435 (11.0) 0.485 (12.3) 0.485 (12.3) 0.590 (15.1) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9) 0.690 (17.4) 0.690 (17.4)

1.780 (45.2) 1.780 (45.2) 1.780 (45.2) 1.940 (49.3) 1.940 (49.3) 1.940 (49.3) 1.970 (50.0) 1.970 (50.0) 1.970 (50.0) 1.970 (50.0) 1.970 (50.0)

0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5)

– – – – – – – – – – –

#10
1

Bl Bl Bl Gy Gy Gy Bn Bn Bn Gn Gn

⁄4"

5

⁄16"

#10
1

⁄4" ⁄8" ⁄4"

3

1

5

⁄16"
3

⁄8"

5

⁄16"
3

⁄8"

Continued

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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS
Table 9.3 – 3M Scotchlok lug dimensions Continued
Scotchlok Lug No. Wire Size AWG/ kcmil B Barrel Length Inch (mm) P Pad Length Inch (mm) W Pad Width Inch (mm) L Length Inch (mm) C One Hole Inch (mm) C Two Hole Inch (mm) Stud Color Size Code*

I.D. Inch (mm)

O.D. Inch (mm)

30031 30032 30036 31036 30041 31041 30045 31045 31145 31049 31149 31053 31153 31056 31156 31060

1/0 1/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 250 250 300 300 350 350 400

0.394 (10.0) 0.394 (10.0) 0.439 (11.2) 0.439 (11.2) 0.490 (12.4) 0.490 (12.4) 0.548 (13.9) 0.548 (13.9) 0.548 (13.9) 0.595 (15.1) 0.595 (15.1) 0.650 (16.5) 0.650 (16.5) 0.700 (17.8) 0.700 (17.8) 0.762 (19.3)

0.510 (13.0) 0.510 (13.0) 0.560 (14.2) 0.560 (14.2) 0.620 (15.8) 0.620 (15.8) 0.687 (17.4) 0.687 (17.4) 0.687 (17.4) 0.750 (19.0) 0.750 (19.0) 0.812 (20.6) 0.812 (20.6) 0.880 (22.4) 0.875 (22.2) 0.950 (24.1)

0.810 (20.7) 0.810 (20.7) 0.870 (22.2) 1.440 (36.5) 0.940 (23.8) 1.440 (36.5) 0.970 (24.6) 1.560 (39.7) 1.560 (39.7) 1.500 (38.0) 1.560 (39.7) 2.000 (50.8) 1.940 (49.2) 2.000 (50.8) 1.940 (49.2) 2.000 (50.8)

0.890 (22.6) 0.890 (22.6) 1.110 (28.2) 0.890 (22.6) 1.110 (28.2) 1.110 (28.2) 1.110 (28.2) 1.110 (28.2) 3.000 (76.2) 1.110 (28.2) 3.000 (76.2) 1.090 (27.8) 3.000 (76.2) 1.090 (27.8) 3.000 (76.2) 1.340 (34.2)

0.750 (19.0) 0.750 (19.0) 0.810 (20.6) 0.812 (20.6) 0.910 (23.0) 0.910 (23.0) 1.000 (25.4) 1.000 (25.4)

2.160 (54.8) 2.160 (54.8) 2.370 (60.2) 2.840 (72.2) 2.630 (66.8) 3.130 (79.5) 2.600 (65.9) 3.320 (84.4)

0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.375 (9.5) 0.530 (13.4) 0.530 (13.4) 0.530 (13.4) 0.530 (13.4) 0.630 (15.9) 0.530 (13.4) 0.630 (15.9) 0.530 (13.4) 0.630 (15.9) 0.528 (13.4) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9)

– – – – – – – – 1.750 (44.4) – 1.750 (44.4) – 1.750 (44.4) – 1.750 (44.4) –

5

⁄16"
3

Pk Pk Bk Bk Or Or Pu Pu Pu Ye Ye Wh Wh Rd Rd Bl

⁄8" ⁄8" ⁄8" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2"

3

3

1

1

1

1

1.000 5.160 (25.4) (131.0) 1.130 (28.6) 3.380 (85.8)

1

1

1.130 5.310 (28.6) (134.9) 1.220 (30.9) 3.780 (96.0)

1

1

1.220 5.750 (30.9) (146.0) 1.310 (33.4) 3.850 (97.6)

1

1

1.310 5.750 (33.4) (146.0) 1.410 4.160 (35.8) (105.7)

1

1

Continued

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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS
Table 9.3 – 3M Scotchlok lug dimensions Continued
Scotchlok Lug No. Wire Size AWG/ kcmil B Barrel Length Inch (mm) P Pad Length Inch (mm) W Pad Width Inch (mm) L Length Inch (mm) C One Hole Inch (mm) C Two Hole Inch (mm) Stud Color Size Code*

I.D. Inch (mm)

O.D. Inch (mm)

31160 31066 31067 31166 31068 31168 31172 31178 *Bl Or

400 500 500 500 600 600 750 1,000 Gy Pu

0.762 (19.3) 0.836 (21.2) 0.836 (21.2) 0.836 (21.2) 0.923 (23.4) 0.923 (23.4) 1.031 (26.2) 1.173 (29.8) Grey Purple

0.950 (24.1) 1.060 (27.0) 1.060 (27.0) 1.060 (27.0) 1.188 (30.1) 1.188 (30.1) 1.299 (33.0) 1.500 (38.1) Bn Ye

2.120 (53.8) 2.250 (57.2) 2.190 (55.6) 2.190 (55.6) 2.690 (68.2) 2.620 (66.5) 2.810 (71.5) 3.000 (76.2) Brown Yellow

3.000 (76.2) 1.340 (34.2) 1.340 (34.2) 3.000 (76.2) 1.750 (44.4) 3.000 (76.2) 3.000 (76.2) 2.940 (74.6) Gn Wh

1.410 6.000 (35.8) (152.4) 1.530 4.500 (38.9) (114.3) 1.530 4.500 (38.9) (114.3) 1.530 6.160 (38.9) (156.4) 1.690 5.120 (42.9) (130.0) 1.690 6.720 (42.9) (170.6) 1.720 7.000 (43.7) (177.8) 1.720 7.280 (43.7) (184.9) Green White Pk Rd

0.630 (15.9) 0.660 (16.8) 0.660 (16.8) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9) 0.630 (15.9) Pink Red

1.750 (44.4) – – 1.750 (44.4) – 1.750 (44.4) 1.750 (44.4) 1.750 (44.4) Bk

1

⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄8" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2" ⁄2"

Bl Bn Bn Bn Gn Gn Bk –

1

5

1

1

1

1

1

Blue Orange

Black

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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS
9.3.2 Stud Sizes
Hole diameter

English Bolt Size #2 #4 #5 #6 #8 #10 1/4" 5/16" .3125 3/8" .375 7/16" .4375 1/2" .500 .515 .450 M12 .397 M10 .328 M10 Bolt Diameter Inch .086 .112 .125 .138 .164 .190 .250 Hole Diameter Inch .095 .120 .148 .148 .174 .200 .265 M2 M2.5 M3 M3.5 M4 M5 M6 M8 Bolt Size

Metric Bolt Diameter mm 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 Hole Diameter mm 2.4 3.0 3.8 3.8 4.4 5.1 6.7

8.0

8.3

10.0

10.1

10.0

11.4

12.0

13.1

5/8" .625 .656

M16 16.0 16.7

3/4" .750 .781

M18 18.0 19.8

Source: ISO 263 for English stud sizes and ISO 262 for metric stud sizes. Note: Bolt illustrations not drawn to scale. Figure 9.11–Terminal stud size chart in English and metric units
145
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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS

9.4 Fiber Optic Connectors
9.4.1 Selection
Below are the steps required to select a fiber optic connector: Step 1: Determine the connector type. There are a variety of types available. ST and SC connectors are the most common types. The opto-electronic equipment used will have an optical interface of a specific connector type. Therefore, this type must be used at the equipment interface. It is suggested, though, to use ST or SC type connectors in all of the distribution cabinets and to use custom cable assembly jumpers from the cabinets to the opto-electronic equipment. Step 2: Determine the mode type and fiber OD. Fibers are either multimode or single mode. • Multimode The fiber OD is the second number of the fiber size; e.g., 62.5/125 indicates a core diameter of 62.5 µm and a fiber (cladding) diameter of 125 µm. • Single mode Single mode fibers are also 125 µm in overall diameter. Core diameter is approximately 8 µm. Step 3: Determine the cable construction type. There are four basic construction types to choose from. They are jumper cordage, multifiber tight buffered building cable, multifiber-fanout (breakout) building cable, and outdoor loose buffer cable. • Jumper Cordage Jumper cordage is divided into four construction types: simplex, zipcord duplex, dual subunit duplex, and round duplex. Simplex, zipcord, and dual subunit cordages can be connectorized with no additional apparatus. Round duplex requires a breakout kit if: a) the cordage is being used to make an assembly, and b) connectors other than duplex (such as FDDI) are to be used. • Multifiber Tight Buffered Building Cable Multifiber building cable has multiple 900 µm (diameter over the tight buffer) tight buffered fibers under a common jacket with a shared strength member. As a result, a crimping procedure is not used during the installation of a connector. The connector can be installed directly onto a tight buffered fiber. • Fanout/Breakout Cable Fanout/Breakout cable has individually jacketed and strength membered fiber subunits. Thus, each subunit is effectively a simplex cable. A connector can be installed directly onto these subunits with no additional hardware required. • Outdoor Loose Buffer Cable Outdoor loose buffer cable contains the fibers in a buffer tube(s) surrounded by a series of sheathing layers. Virtually all outdoor cables require a breakout kit in order to connectorize the fibers. Choose a connector which matches the breakout kit subunit type for a proper fit.

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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS
Fiber Optic Connectors Below are some of the most common fiber optic connector types:

9.4.2 ST
ST is a trade name of AT&T for a connector developed by Bell Laboratories. The ST type connector is spring-loaded, which keeps the fibers and connector tips in physical contact (PC) inside the coupling sleeve. These connectors, because they are PC type, have a key to lock the contacting position and prevent tip rotation, protecting the fibers from scratches and chips. The key also ensures performance repeatability from reconnection to reconnection. The bayonet latching offers easier connection and disconnection. There are several versions available. The variations are mainly the tip material. Materials used are alumina ceramic, zirconia ceramic, ceramic/glass composite, stainless steel, plastic, and plastic/glass composite. Ceramic is the preferred material because it closely matches the thermal characteristics of glass, and ceramic is a hard, durable material which won’t wear after multiple reconnections. Ceramic/glass composite tips offer easier polishing. The glass insert protrudes slightly from the ceramic, so if the fiber end still needs more polishing even after the fiber end becomes level with the glass insert, the connector tip can be further polished, thus polishing both the fiber end and the glass insert simultaneously. With all ceramic tips, once the fiber end becomes flush with the ceramic tip end and the fiber still has scratches and/or chips, the installer must start all over to obtain a finely polished termination. Ceramic/glass composite tips also allow the installer to use UV adhesive, which is much faster to cure than epoxy. Stainless steel tips offer durability. The stainless steel ST type connector remains durable from reconnection to reconnection. Plastic tip connectors offer a low cost solution when loss is not critical. Be alert, though, that all plastics are NOT alike. Mating different plastics could lead to intermolecular migration, which means material from one tip will, over time, embed itself in the opposing tip and vice versa. This will cause an increase in attenuation.

Figure 9.12 –SC (top) and ST (bottom) type connectors

9.4.3 SC
The SC connector has many positive attributes to compete with other connectors such as the ST type. These attributes include a 2.5 mm spring-loaded ferrule tip, a keying channel, and a push-pull latching mechanism. Because of its square design and latching, the SC (subscriber connector) can be arranged in very high density patching systems. Another feature (and possibly the most important) is the standard non-optical disconnect incorporated into the design. A pulling force applied on the cable will not separate the physically contacting tips within a coupler; a feature very attractive to securing a successful transmission of information.

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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS
9.4.4 FDDI
The connector used for FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a duplex connector housing both a transmit and receive fiber within a single plug. The ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard X3T9.5 refers to this connector as the MIC (Media Interface Connector). The PMD document within X3T9.5 defines the receptacle geometry and tolerances into which the connector must fit. This allows the connector manufacturers flexibility to design their own style into a compliant connector. The FDDI connector also has a keying system to prevent connections of incompatible network nodes. There are four receptable keys: A, B, M, and S. The A and B keys are used for dual attach network devices. The A key accepts the primary ring IN/secondary ring OUT while the B key accepts the primary ring OUT/secondary ring IN. The M and S keys are used off of the main ring for single attach network connections.

Figure 9.13 –FDDI connector

9.4.5 SMA
This connector, before the ST, was the dominant connector in data and closed-circuit video applications. Originally designed for the military, this connector is small in size and easy to work with. Because it has been in existence for a long time, many manufacturers produce SMA connectors. Though there are a few variations in tip material, this connector is most often an epoxy (oven or 24 hour) cure type installation. Tip materials include stainless steel, nickel-plated brass, ceramic, plastic, and aluminum.

Figure 9.14 –SMA connector

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9. CONNECTORS, LUGS & TERMINATIONS
9.4.6 Mini BNC
Not to be confused with the coaxial connector, this connector originated in Japan and is popular there. In this country, the only application (with maybe one or two exceptions) is with the IBM 8219, 8220 and 8230 token ring products. They are stainless steel (tip and body) and are virtually all multimode only.

9.4.7 FC
The FC connector has a 2.5 mm ferrule tip with a threaded latching mechanism. The FC is a physical contacting connector within its coupler as well as being keyed to prevent tip rotation and subsequent damage. Most FC connectors have a ceramic tip and are an oven or 24 hour cure epoxy type installation system. These connectors are typically used for single mode applications but multimode connectors are available.

9.4.8 Biconic
Biconic connectors were one of the first types to be used in the fiber optic arena. Since the telephone industry was the first to use fiber optics, the telephone industry has been the primary user of the biconic connector. It offers high performance though it is large in size and cumbersome to handle.

Figure 9.15 –Biconic connector

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

10.1 Reel Size 10.1.1 Reel Terminology 152 10.1.2 Minimum Drum Diameter 152 10.1.3 Capacities and Dimensions of Shipping Reels 154 10.2 Reel Handling 10.2.1 Winding Cable onto Reels 10.2.2 Moving and Lifting

159 162

10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE

10.1 Reel Size
Selection of proper reel (spool) size depends on the length and overall diameter (OD) of the cable or wire to be rewound. A reel not matched to the weight of the cable wound on it may be damaged during shipment. All wire and cable has a minimum safe bending radius. If cable is subjected to bends sharper than the minimum radius, damage to the material is likely. The minimum drum (hub) diameters given in Section 10.1.2 should be observed.

10.1.1 Reel Terminology

Figure 10.1–Reel terminology

10.1.2 Minimum Drum Diameter
Table 10.1–Minimum drum diameter for wire and cable
Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable*

Type of Cable

A. Single- and multiple-conductor nonmetallic-covered cable 1. Nonshielded and wire shielded, including cable with concentric wires a. 0-2,000 Volts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Over 2,000 Volts (1) Nonjacketed with concentric wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2) All others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tape Shielded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 14 12 14 Continued

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
Table 10.1 Minimum drum diameter for wire and cable Continued
Minimum Drum Diameter as a Multiple of Outside Diameter of Cable*

Type of Cable

B. Single- and multiple-conductor metallic-covered cable 1. Tubular metallic sheathed a. Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Aluminum (1) Outside diameter—1.750" and less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2) Outside diameter—1.751" and larger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Wire armored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Flat tape armored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Corrugated metallic sheath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Interlocked armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Multiple single conductors cabled together without common covering, including self-supporting cables—the circumscribing overall diameter shall be multiplied by the factor given in item A or B and then by the reduction factor of 0.75. D. Combinations—For combinations of the types described in items A, B and C, the highest factor for any component type shall be used. E. Single- and multiple-conductor cable in coilable nonmetallic duct Outside diameter of duct, inches—0.0 – 0.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.51–1.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.01–1.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.26 –1.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Over 1.50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 25 30 16 16 14 14

26 24 22 21 20

F. Fiber Optic Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 * 1. When metallic-sheathed cables are covered only by a thermosetting or thermoplastic jacket, the “outside diameter” is the diameter over the metallic sheath itself. In all other cases, the outside diameter is the diameter outside of all the material on the cable in the state in which it is to be wound upon the reel. 2. For “flat-twin” cables (where the cable is placed upon the reel with its flat side against the drum), the minor outside diameter shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor to determine the minimum drum diameter. 3. The multiplying factors given for item E refer to the outside diameter of the duct. Sources: ICEA A-9-428 NEMA WC 26

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
10.1.3 Capacities and Dimensions of Shipping Reels
Table 10.2 –Capacities and dimensions of standard shipping reels 22"– 66" in diameter
Reel Dimensions-Inches

Diam. of Side Diam. of Drum Traverse Width Overall Wt. Capacity Max Wt. of Reel Wt. of Lags Total Wt.
Reel Code No. Cable Diam. In.

22 13 13 16.0 500 40 35 75
22-W

30 16 12 16.6 800 70 47 117
30A-W

36 16 18 22.6 1500 100 98 198
36B-W

42 16 24 30.0 3,000 175 132 307
42-W

48 24 24 30.0 3,000 220 152 372
48A-W

54 30 25 32.6 4,500 360 179 539
54-W

62 42 32 39.5 4,500 535 252 787
62-W

66 40 36 43.0 10,000 710 260 970
66-W

Maximum Capacity—Feet

0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55

15,959 7,120 3,958 2,563 1,759 1,206 908 703 628 481 439 318 301 284 188 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -

37,149 16,210 9,118 5,943 4,052 2,870 2,195 1,756 1,485 1,182 1,013 810 669 630 506 472 439 337 337 – – – – – – – – – – -

– – 24,245 15,701 10,775 7,850 6,061 4,618 3,925 3,078 2,693 2,251 1,924 1,693 1,411 1,346 1,154 923 923 – – – – – – – – – – -

– – – 23,750 16,493 11,776 8,906 6,993 5,937 4,609 3,958 3,265 2,803 2,638 2,226 1,847 1,715 1,443 1,385 1,071 1,022 973 811 771 730 689 689 519 519 -

– – – – 25,289 18,245 14,090 11,010 9,104 7,379 6,141 5,202 4,606 4,046 3,522 3,034 2,583 2,483 2,167 1,762 1,682 1,424 1,424 1,352 1,121 1,059 1,059 854 854 -

– – – – – 22,902 17,367 13,656 11,133 9,266 7,570 6,616 5,725 4,898 4,272 3,689 3,265 3,032 2,650 2,261 2,167 1,843 1,759 1,675 1,392 1,319 1,319 1,068 1,005 942

– – – – – – 22,211 16,896 14,384 11,502 9,809 8,421 7,139 6,108 5,288 4,891 4,164 3,490 3,384 2,748 2,657 2,120 2,042 1,963 1,884 1,505 1,439 1,439 1,374 1,308

– – – – – – – 26,965 22,327 17,527 15,370 12,606 11,001 9,707 8,494 7,361 6,471 5,986 5,339 4,539 4,272 3,725 3,604 2,990 2,883 2,777 2,336 2,243 2,243 2,149 Continued

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
Table 10.2 –Capacities and dimensions of standard shipping reels 22"– 66" in diameter Continued
Reel Dimensions-Inches

Diam. of Side Diam. of Drum Traverse Width Overall Wt. Capacity Max Wt. of Reel Wt. of Lags Total Wt.
Reel Code No. Cable Diam. In.

22 13 13 16.0 500 40 35 75
22-W

30 16 12 16.6 800 70 47 117
30A-W

36 16 18 22.6 1,500 100 98 198
36B-W

42 16 24 30.0 3,000 175 132 307
42-W

48 24 24 30.0 3,000 220 152 372
48A-W

54 30 25 32.6 4,500 360 179 539
54-W

62 42 32 39.5 4,500 535 252 787
62-W

66 40 36 43.0 10,000 710 260 970
66-W

Maximum Capacity—Feet

1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

942 733 733 733 680 – – – – – – – – – –

1,308 994 942 942 890 890 837 837 837 589 589 549 510 510 471

1,762 1,682 1,682 1,602 1,602 1,268 1,201 1,201 1,201 1,134 1,134 1,068 801 801 747

Notes: Clearance 1.5" on cable diameters up to 1.0" inclusive. Clearance 2.0" on cable diameters larger than 1.0". All capacity figures are based on minimum drum diameter of 16 times cable diameter. All dimensions in inches, all weights in pounds.

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
Table 10.3 –Capacities and dimensions of standard shipping reels 78"–108" in diameter
Reel Dimensions-Inches

Diam. of Side Diam. of Drum Traverse

78 48 36

80 42 32 41.0 8,000 880 331 1,211
80A-W

84 48 36 43.0 10,000 1,013 363 1376
84-W

92 56 42 50.3 12,000 1,540 432 1,972
92-W

96 56 42 50.3 12,000 1,640 450 2,090
96-W

104 56 40 50.5 15,000 2,370 507 2,877
104-W

108 60 64 76.0 15,000 3,300 – –
108-W

Width Overall 43.0 Wt. Capacity Max 10,000 Wt. of Reel 850 Wt. of Lags Total Wt.
Reel Code No. Cable Diam. In.

305 1,155
78-W

Maximum Capacity—Feet

0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05

21,252 17,710 15,601 13,910 11,592 10,143 9,660 8,340 7,535 6,515 5,621 5,445 4,790 4,471 4,311 3,736 3,593 3,066 3,066 2,938 2,810 2,347 2,347 2,235 2,235 2,123 1,724 1,724 1,724 1,628

23,942 19,845 17,524 15,047 13,084 11,527 10,358 9,252 8,473 7,414 6,719 5,838 5,622 5,020 4,819 4,263 4,077 3,737 3,568 3,089 3,089 2,934 2,780 2,502 2,363 2,363 1,977 1,977 1,977 1,853

– 23,218 19,807 17,831 15,197 13,475 12,157 10,621 9,726 8,545 7,506 6,752 6,534 5,629 5,428 4,791 4,607 4,423 4,021 3,853 3,068 3,166 3,166 3,015 2,680 2,546 2,412 2,412 2,412 1,993

– – 26,193 23,383 19,739 17,670 15,715 14,197 12,754 11,309 10,027 8,821 8,576 7,464 7,238 6,427 6,220 5,805 5,277 5,089 4,900 4,241 4,071 4,071 3,468 3,317 3,317 3,166 3,166 2,638

– – – 26,213 23,326 20,069 17,943 16,305 14,745 13,173 11,778 10,461 10,170 8,950 8,059 7,807 6,974 6,509 6,509 5,753 5,540 4,843 4,649 4,647 4,455 3,835 3,835 3,661 3,661 3,099

– – – – – 25,113 22,606 19,852 18,085 15,519 14,702 13,191 12,129 11,108 9,801 9,475 8,576 8,270 7,433 7,147 6,636 6,371 5,636 5,390 5,390 4,717 4,717 4,492 4,492 3,879

– – – – – – – – 26,808 23,876 21,865 19,582 17,760 17,090 15,393 13,781 13,194 11,979 11,435 10,304 10,053 9,550 8,542 8,293 8,063 7,120 6,911 6,702 6,702 5,843 Continued

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Table 10.3 –Capacities and dimensions of standard shipping reels 78"–108" in diameter Continued
Reel Dimensions-Inches

Diam. of Side Diam. of Drum Traverse

78 48 36

80 42 32 41.0 8,000 880 331 1,211
80A-W

84 48 36 43.0 10,000 1,013 363 1376
84-W

92 56 42 50.3 12,000 1,540 432 1,972
92-W

96 56 42 50.3 12,000 1,640 450 2,090
96-W

104 56 40 50.5 15,000 2,370 507 2,877
104-W

108 60 64 76.0 15,000 3,300 – –
108-W

Width Overall 43.0 Wt. Capacity Max 10,000 Wt. of Reel 850 Wt. of Lags Total Wt.
Reel Code No. Cable Diam. In.

305 1,155
78-W

Maximum Capacity—Feet

2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50

1,628 1,277 1,197 1,197 1,117 1,038 830 766 766 – – – – –

1,853 1,513 1,405 1,405 1,112 1,112 1,019 1,019 772 772 772 695 – –

1,993 1,876 1,507 1,507 1,407 1,306 1,089 1,005 1,005 – – – – –

2,638 2,506 2,035 1,922 1,809 1,809 1,413 1,413 1,319 1,225 1,225 904 904 904

3,099 2,944 2,441 2,035 2,169 1,859 1,743 1,743 1,627 1,259 1,259 1,162 1,162 1,162

3,879 3,675 3,124 2,940 2,613 2,450 2,287 2,001 1,858 1,715 1,470 1,470 1,347 1,347

5,654 5,466 4,523 4,356 4,188 3,518 3,371 3,225 2,638 2,513 2,513 2,387 1,884 1,884

Notes: Clearance 1.5" on cable diameters up to 1.0" inclusive. Clearance 2.0" on cable diameters larger than 1.0". Capacities for the 108-W Reel are based on a mimimum clearance of 4.0". All capacity figures are based on minimum drum diameter of 16 times cable diameter. All dimensions in inches, all weights in pounds.

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Table 10.4 –Typical small reel dimensions
A Flange Diameter (In.) B Arbor Hole (In.) D Drum Diameter (In.) T W Overall Width (In.) Approx. Reel Weight (Lb.)

Reel

Traverse (In.)

Material

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

12 13 16 24 30 115⁄8 16 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 61⁄2 101⁄2 101⁄2

11⁄2 11⁄2 11⁄2 2 2 2 2 ⁄4 3 ⁄4
3

6 5 5 12 12 8 12 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 115⁄16 31⁄2 31⁄2

6 123⁄4 12 14 14 35⁄8 31⁄4 11⁄2 2 31⁄4 71⁄2 23⁄4 8

63⁄4 123⁄4 123⁄4 15 15 4 33⁄4 13⁄4 21⁄4 31⁄2 73⁄4 3 81⁄4

21⁄2 33⁄4 41⁄2 11 21 2 41⁄4 1 ⁄2 1 ⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄4 11⁄4
1 3

Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plywood Plastic Fiberboard Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal

⁄4 ⁄4 15⁄8
3 3

15⁄8

13⁄4

The following formula can be used to calculate approximate footage per reel: .262 T (H C) (D H C) FOOTAGE (WIRE OD)2

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE

10.2 Reel Handling
10.2.1 Winding Cable onto Reels
Leading (Start) End Locate the hole in the flange just above the drum. The hole size should be approximately 1⁄2 inch larger than the diameter of the cable. When starting the rewind operation, the leading end of the cable should be inserted through this hole (often referred to as the “start hole”) and allowed to extend approximately 6 to 10 inches through the hole. Larger diameter cables or those requiring on-the-reel tests may necessitate a longer lead. Cables smaller than 1⁄2" in diameter should be stapled to the outside of the flange per Figure 10.2. Cables larger than 1⁄2" in diameter should be secured to a staple with a short length of 1⁄8" to 1⁄4" rope as shown in Figure 10.3

Figure 10.2 –Winding cables smaller than 1⁄2" in diameter

Figure 10.3 –Winding cables larger than 1⁄2" in diameter CAUTION: Make sure staples are shorter than flange thickness so that they cannot extend through the flange and damage the cable. Caution must also be used to prevent damage to the cable end as it is frequently utilized for hipot, continuity, or other tests. Be sure all staples and nails that might damage the cable are removed.
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Trailing (Finish) End After all cable is fully wound onto the take-up reel, the same staple (or rope and staple) tie-down method should be used to fasten the trailing end of the cable to the inside of the flange. This will assure that the material on the reel will not unwind or slip during shipping and handling operations. The cable should be stapled or tied with rope to a staple in the upper portion of the inside of the flange as shown in the diagram below.

Figure 10.4 –Fastening the trailing end of the cable CAUTION: Cable should not be wound closer than approximately 2" from the outer diameter of the flange. Greater cable loading than this greatly increases the likelihood of forklift and other damage. Feeding Cable onto Reel Care must be used when feeding cable onto the take-up reel. A uniform tight pattern must be maintained all through the rewind operation until the end of the cable is secured to the flange. Sealing of Cable Ends Both cable ends should be sealed against the entrance of moisture. Cables larger than 1⁄2 inch in diameter should be sealed with tight-fitting heat-shrinkable or hot-dipped (Peel Coat) end caps designed for the purpose. Smaller diameter cables should be sealed with PVC tape such as 3M Scotch 33 or with end caps (end caps preferred).

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
Rewinding of Interlocked Armor Cable When interlocked armor is not tight-fitting on the core, such as with Teck cable, the following procedure should be used: 1. At the start of each length, secure the conductors to the outside of the interlocked armor or outer covering over the interlocked armor with a light gauge (10 to 16 AWG) lashing wire. 2. As an added precaution, check the finish end of each cable after rewinding to insure that the cable and interlocked armor are still lined up with each other.

Figure 10.5 –Rewinding of interlocked armor cable

Storage and Shipment Except for reels less than 2 feet in diameter and weighing less than 200 pounds, reels should be stored and shipped upright, i.e., resting on both flanges. Do not store or ship reels on their side. Storage or shipment of the reel while lying on its side greatly increases the likelihood of tangling and damage to the cable.

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10. PACKAGING OF WIRE AND CABLE
10.2.2 Moving and Lifting

Figure 10.6 –Proper handling of cable reels
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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

11.1 Standards Organizations 11.1.1 AAR 11.1.2 AEIC 11.1.3 ANSI 11.1.4 ASTM 11.1.5 Bellcore 11.1.6 CANENA 11.1.7 EIA 11.1.8 FAA 11.1.9 ICEA 11.1.10 IEC 11.1.11 IEEE 11.1.12 ISA 11.1.13 ISO 11.1.14 ITU 11.1.15 MSHA 11.1.16 NEMA 11.1.17 NFPA 11.1.18 NIST 11.1.19 REA 11.1.20 SAE 11.1.21 UL 11.1.22 U.S. Government Specifications 11.1.23 U.S. Military Specifications 11.2 Fire Safety Tests 11.2.1 Fire Safety Test Methods 11.2.2 NEC Fire Test Summary 11.2.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests 11.2.4 UL 910 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable 11.2.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test 11.2.6 UL 1581 Vertical Tray Flame Test (IEEE 383)

165 166 167 168 172 174 175 177 178 179 182 184 184 184 185 185 187 187 188 188 189 190 191

193 194 195 196 197 197

11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS (CONT.)
ITEM PAGE 198 198 198 198 199

CONTENTS

11.2.7 ICEA T-29-520 11.2.8 CSA FT-4 11.2.9 IEEE 1202 11.2.10 UL 1685 11.2.11 UL 1581 VW-1 Flame Test

11.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies 11.3.1 Underwriters Laboratories 11.3.2 National Electrical Code (NEC) 11.3.3 International

200 201 203

11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS

11.1 Standards Organizations
11.1.1 AAR Association of American Railroads 50 F., N.W. Washington, DC 20001 (202) 639-2100
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

168 168 168 168 575.2

Copper-Covered Steel Wire with or without Weather-Resistant Covering Copper Alloy Wire with or without Weather-Resistant Covering Hard-Drawn Copper Wire with or without Weather-Resistant Covering Copper-Bearing Steel Wire with or without Weather-Resistant Covering Specification for Single Conductor No. 18 AWG to 400,000 CM, Clean Stripping, Rubber Insulated, 0 – 3,000 Volt Braided Cable for Train Lighting and Air Conditioning Service Specification for Single Conductor, Clean Stripping Rubber Insulated, 0 – 600 Volt, Neoprene Jacketed Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Train Line Control Cable for Multiple Unit Cars and Electric Locomotives, 0 – 600 Volt, Clean Stripping, Rubber Insulated, Braided Specification for Single Conductor, Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Integral Insulated-Jacketed, 0 – 300 Volt, 0 – 600 Volt Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor, Silicone Rubber Insulation, 0 – 300 Volt, 0 – 600 Volt, Glass Polyester Braided, 125°C Cable for High Temperature Use on Locomotive and Car Equipment Specification for Single Conductor, Clean Stripping Ethylene Rubber Insulated, 0 – 600 Volt, Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jacketed Cable for Locomotive and Car Equipment

581.3 582.2 589

590

591

165

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.2 AEIC Association of Edison Illuminating Companies 600 N. 18th St., PO Box 2641 Birmingham, AL 35291-0992 (205) 250-2530
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4 CS5 CS6 CS7 CS31 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G7

Impregnated-Paper-Insulated, Lead-Covered Cable, Solid Type Impregnated-Paper-Insulated Cable, High-Pressure Pipe Type Impregnated-Paper-Insulated, Lead-Covered Impregnated-Paper-Insulated Low and Medium-Pressure, Self-Contained, Liquid-Filled Cable Thermoplastic and Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulated Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 through 46 kV Ethylene Propylene Rubber, Insulated Shielded Power Cables, Rated 5 through 69 kV Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulated Shielded Power Cables, 46 through 138 kV Electrically Insulating Low Viscosity Pipe Filling Liquids for High-Pressure Pipe-Type Cables Guide for Application of AEIC Maximum Insulation Temperatures at the Conductor for Impregnated-Paper-Insulated Cables Electrical Tests of Cables, Joints 138 kV and above Installation of Pipe Type Cable Systems Installation of Extruded Dielectric Insulated Power Cable Systems Rated 69 kV through 138 kV Underground Extruded Cable Pulling Guide Guide for Replacement and Life Extension of Extruded Dielectric 5 – 35 kV Underground Distribution Cables

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.3 ANSI American National Standards Institute 11 West 42nd Street New York, NY 10036 (212) 642-4900
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

0337-D 0338-D 0382-D 0503-D 0684-D 719 C8.16 C8.18 C8.19 C8.34 C8.35 C8.9 S-87-640 X3.129 X3.148 X3.184 X3T9.5

Local Distributed Data Interface (LDDI) Network Layer Protocol Data-Link Layer Protocol for Local Distributed Data Interfaces Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Network Layer Protocol Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Station Management Standard FDDI—Media Access Control Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cables Rubber-Insulated Tree Wire Weather-Resistant (Weatherproof) Wire and Cable-URD Type Weather-Resistant Saturants and Finishes Weather-Resistant Wire and Cable, Neoprene Type Weather-Resistant Wire and Cable, Polyethylene Type Slow-Burning Wire and Cable Fiber Optic Outside Plant Communications Cable Intelligent Peripheral Interface (IPI) Enhanced Physical Interface Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Physical Layer Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Physical Layer Medium Dependent Fiber Distributed Data Interface

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Material 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 (610) 832-9585
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

B1 B2 B3 B5 B8 B29 B33 B47 B49 B105 B172 B173 B174 B189 B193 B227 B228 B229 B230 B231 B232 B233 B246 B258 B263 B298

Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Electrolytic Tough-Pitch Copper Refinery Shapes Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors, Hard, Medium-Hard, or Soft Pig Lead Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Copper Trolley Wire Hot-Rolled Copper Rods Hard-Drawn Copper Alloy Wires for Electrical Conductors Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Bunch Stranded Members) Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors (Concentric Stranded Members) Bunch-Stranded Copper Conductors Lead-Alloy-Coated Soft Copper Wire Resistivity of Electrical Conductor Materials Hard-Drawn Copper Clad Steel Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper-Clad Steel Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper and Copper-Clad Steel Composite Conductors Aluminum 1350-H19 Wire, for Electrical Purposes Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors, Coated, Steel-Reinforced (ACSR) Aluminum 1350 Drawing Stock for Electrical Purposes Tinned Hard-Drawn and Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire Standard Nominal Diameters and Cross-Sectional Areas of AWG Sizes of Solid Round Wire Used as Electrical Conductors Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Stranded Conductors Silver-Coated Soft or Annealed Copper Wire Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Material 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 (610) 832-9585
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

B314 B324 B397 B399 B401 B410 B452 B496 B500 B549 B566 B609 B624 B694 B736 D353 D373 D469 D470 D532 D574 D752 D753

Aluminum 1350 Wire for Communication Cable Aluminum Rectangular and Square Wire Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Alloy 5005-H19 Conductors Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Alloy 6201-T81 Conductors Compact-Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors, Steel Reinforced (ASCR/COMP) Bonded Copper Conductors for Use in Hookup Wire for Electronic Equipment Copper-Clad Steel Wire for Electronic Application Compact Round Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Galvanized and Aluminized Stranded Steel Core for Aluminum Conductors, Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Concentric-Lay-Stranded Aluminum Conductors, Aluminum Clad Steel Reinforced (ACASR/AW) Copper-Clad Aluminum Wire Aluminum 1350 Round Wire, Annealed and Intermediate Tempers High Strength, High Ductility, Copper Alloy Wire Copper, Copper Alloy, Copper-Clad Stainless Steel and Strip for Electrical Cable Shielding Aluminum; Aluminum Alloy, Aluminum Clad Steel Cable Shielding Stock Natural Rubber Performance Insulation for Wire and Cable, 60°C Varnished Cloth for Electrical Insulation Natural Rubber Heat Resisting Insulation for Wire and Cable, 75°C Test Methods for Testing Cross-Linked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable Natural Rubber Sheath for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resisting Insulation for Wire and Cable Heavy-Duty Black Neoprene Sheath for Wire and Cable General-Purpose Neoprene Sheath for Wire and Cable Continued
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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Material 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 (610) 832-9585
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

D754 D755 D866 D1047 D1351 D1352 D1523 D1679 D1929 D2219 D2220 D2308 D2655 D2656 D2708 D2768 D2770 D2802 D2819 D2863 D3554

Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable, 75°C Operation Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable, 60°C Operation Styrene-Butadiene (SBR) Synthetic Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyvinyl Chloride Jacket for Wire and Cable Polyethylene-Insulated Wire and Cable Ozone-Resisting Butyl Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable, 90°C Operation Synthetic Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable, 75°C Operation Setchkin Furnace Fire Test Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable, 60°C Operation Polyvinyl Chloride Insulation for Wire and Cable, 75°C Operation Polyethylene Jacket for Electrical Insulated Wire and Cable Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 0 to 2,000 Volts Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Rated 2,001 Volts to 35 kV Extra-Heavy-Duty Acrylonitrile-Butadiene/Polyvinyl Chloride (NBR/PVC) Jacket for Wire and Cable General-Purpose Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Jacket for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resisting Ethylene Propylene Rubber Integral Insulation and Jacket for Wire Ozone Resistant Ethylene Propylene Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable Extra-Heavy Duty Black Polychloroprene Jacket for Wire and Cable Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index) Track-Resistant Black Thermoplastic High Density Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.4 ASTM American Society for Testing and Material 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 (610) 832-9585
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

D3555 D4244 D4245 D4246 D4247 D4314 D4565 D4566 D5537

Track-Resistant Black Cross-linked Thermosetting Polyethylene Insulation for Wire and Cable General Purpose, Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty NBR/PVC Jackets for Wire and Cable Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable, 90°C Dry–75°C Wet Operation Ozone-Resistant Thermoplastic Elastomer Insulation for Wire and Cable, 90°C Operation Specification for General-Purpose Black Heavy-Duty and Black ExtraHeavy-Duty Polychloroprene Jackets for Wire and Cable Specification for General Purpose Heavy-Duty and Extra-Heavy-Duty Cross-linked Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Jackets for Wire and Cable Test Methods for Physical and Environmental Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable Testing Electrical Performance Properties of Insulations and Jackets for Telecommunications Wire and Cable Heat Release, Flame Spread and Mass Loss Testing of Insulating Materials Contained in Electrical or Optical Fiber Cables When Burning in a Vertical Cable Tray Configuration Duplex, Base Metal Thermocouple Wire with Glass Fiber or Silica Fiber Insulation Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials Type N Thermocouple Wire Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter

E574 E662 E1223 E1354

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.5 Bell Communications Research Corporation (Bellcore) Customer Service Piscataway, NJ 08854-4196 (800) 521-2673
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

TA-NWT-000063 TA-NWT-000078 TA-NWT-000347 TA-NWT-001398 TA-NWT-001399 TA-TSY-000120 TA-TSY-000121 TA-TSY-000122 TA-TSY-000123 TA-TSY-000124 TA-TSY-000125 TA-TSY-000126 TA-TSY-000127 TA-TSY-000128 TA-TSY-000129 TA-TSY-000130 TA-TSY-000131 TA-TSY-000132 TA-TSY-000133 TA-TSY-000134 TA-TSY-000135 TA-TSY-000136 TA-TSY-000137 TA-TSY-000138 TA-TSY-000139 TA-TSY-000140 TA-TSY-000141

Revisions to Network Equipment-Building System. Generic Equipment Requirements Generic Physical Design Requirements for Telecommunication Products and Equipment Generic Requirements for Central Office Power Cables Generic Requirements for Broadband Coaxial Drop Cable Generic Requirements for Broadband Coaxial Distribution Cable Customer Premises or Network Ground Wire One Pair Aerial Service Wire Multiple Pair Aerial Service Wire Single Pair Buried Wire Multiple Pair Buried Wire Rural Aerial Distribution Wire Network Cross-Connecting Wire Network Aerial Block Wire Bridle Wire Tree Wire Customer Premises Cross-Connecting Wire Customer Premises Plenum Cable/Wire Customer Premises Shielded Station Wire Inside Wiring Cable (3 to 125 Pair Sizes) Two Pair Station Wire Miniature Ribbon Connector and Cable Assembly Distributing Frame Wire Standard PVC Switchboard Cable Cross-linked PVC Switchboard Cable Central Office Coaxial Cable Standard Shielded Polyethylene Insulated Twisted Pair Cable Terminating Cable Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.5 Bell Communications Research Corporation (Bellcore) Customer Service Piscataway, NJ 08854-4196 (800) 521-2673
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

TA-TSY-000142 TR-NWT-000020 TR-NWT-000492 TR-TSY-000100 TR-TSY-000101 TR-TSY-000102 TR-TSY-000103 TR-TSY-000104 TR-TSY-000105 TR-TSY-000106 TR-TSY-000107 TR-TSY-000108 TR-TSY-000109 TR-TSY-000110 TR-TSY-000111 TR-TSY-000112 TR-TSY-000113 TR-TSY-000114 TR-TSY-000115 TR-TSY-000116 TR-TSY-000117 TR-TSY-000119 TR-TSY-000326 TR-TSY-000356 TR-TSY-000409 TR-TSY-000442 L-780000

Central Office Hookup Wire Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cable Generic Requirements for Metallic Telecommunication Wire PIC Filled ASP Cable Aircore PIC ALPETH Cable PIC Self Support Cable Pulp Bonded STALPETH Cable Pulp Bonded PASP Cable Pulp Bonded Steam Resistance Cable Underground Foam-Skin PIC Bonded STALPETH Cable PIC Bonded PASP Cable PIC Reinforced Self-Support Cable PIC Filled Screened ASP Cable PIC Bonded Steam Resistant Cable PIC Riser Cable PIC Bonded Screened PASP Cable PIC PAP Cable PIC Screened PAP Cable Inner-City PIC Filled Screened ASP Cable Inner-City PIC Bonded Screened STALPETH Cable Inner-City PIC Bonded Screened PASP Cable PIC Filled Bonded ASP Cable Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber Cables Generic Requirements for Optical Cable Innerduct Generic Requirements for Intrabuilding Optical Fiber Cables Generic Requirements for Fiber Optic Couplers Filled Core, Duct and Direct Burial (Deactivated) Continued
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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.5 Bell Communications Research Corporation (Bellcore) Customer Service Piscataway, NJ 08854-4196 (800) 521-2673
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

L-780001 L-780002 L-780007 L-780008 L-780011 PUB-48007 PUB-48008 PUB-48012

Air Core, Aerial and Duct (Deactivated) Air Core, Self-Support Aerial Cable (Deactivated) Air Core, Direct Burial (Deactivated) Air Core, Reinforced Self-Support Aerial Cable (Deactivated) Riser Cable (Replaced by TR-TSY-000111) Inside Wiring Cable (Replaced by TA-TSY-000133) Two Pair Station Wire (Replaced by TA-TSY-000134) Miniature Ribbon Connector Cable (Deactivated)

11.1.6 CANENA Council for the Harmonization of Electrical Standards in North America c/o NEMA ` 1300 N. 17th Street Suite 1847 Rosslyn, VA 22209 (703) 841-3258

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.7 EIA Electronic Industries Association 2500 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22201-3834 (703) 907-7500
EIA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents, Inc. (800) 854-7179
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

199A 215 225 230 232-D 259 280-B 297-A 359-A 364-A 403 422-A 423-A 440-A 449-1

Solid and Semisolid Dielectric Transmission Lines Method for Calculation of Current Ratings on Hookup Wire Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines Color Marking of Thermoplastic Covered Wire Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange Rigid Coaxial Transmission Lines and Connectors, 75 Ohms Solderless Wrapped Electrical Connections Cable Connectors for Audio Facilities for Radio Broadcasting Munsell Color Chips for Color Coding of Wire and Cable Electrical Connector Test Procedure Precision Coaxial Connectors for CATV 75 Ohms Electrical Characteristics of Balanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Electrical Characteristics of Unbalanced Voltage Digital Interface Circuits Fiber Optic Terminology General Purpose 37-Position and 9-Position Interface for Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange Standard Test Procedures for Fiber Optic Fibers, Cables, Transducers, Connecting and Termination Detail Specification for 62.5 µm Core Diameter/125 µm Cladding Diameter Class 1a Multimode, Graded-Index Optical Waveguide Fibers Commerical Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces Residential and Light Commerical Telecommunications Wiring Standard Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Communication Cables for Outside Aerial Use Continued
175
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455 492AAAA 568 569 570 606 471000A

11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.7 EIA Electronic Industries Association 2500 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22201-3834 (703) 907-7500
EIA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents, Inc. (800) 854-7179 Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

471000B 472000 472000C 472000D 475000B 492000A 515000 546000 IS-43 IS-43AA IS-43AB IS-43AC IS-43AD IS-43AE IS-43AF IS-43AG IS-43AH

Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Communcations Cables for Underground and Buried Use Generic Specification for Fiber Optic Cables Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Communications Cables for Indoor Use Sectional Specification for Fiber Optic Communications Cables for Outside Telephone Plant Use Generic Specification for Fiber Optic Connectors Generic Specification for Optical Wave Guide Fibers Generic Specification for Optical Fiber and Cable Splices Inspection Device Omnibus Specification–Local Area Network Twisted Pair Data Communication Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1 Outdoor Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1 Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1 Riser Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 1 Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2 Non-Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 2 Plenum Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 6 Office Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 8 Undercarpet Cable Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.7 EIA Electronic Industries Association 2500 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22201-3834 (703) 907-7500
EIA documents are available from Global Engineering Documents, Inc. (800) 854-7179 Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

IS-43AI IS-43AJ

Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Patch Cable Cable for LAN Twisted Pair Data Communications–Detail Specification for Type 9 Plenum Cable

11.1.8 FAA Federal Aviation Agency 800 Independence Ave S.W. Washington, DC 20591 (202) 267-3826
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

FAA-701 L-824-A, B, C

Rubber-Insulated Cable (0 – 8,000 Volts) Underground Electrical Cables for Airport Lighting Circuits

177

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.9 ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association PO Box 440 South Yarmouth, MA 02664 (508) 394-4424
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

P-32-382 P-43-457 P-45-482 P-46-426 P-53-426 P-54-440 P-56-520 P-81-570 S-56-434 S-61-402 S-65-375 S-66-524

Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable Conductor Resistances and Ampacities at High Frequencies Short Circuit Performance of Metallic Shields and Sheaths of Insulated Cable Ampacity Tables (Replaced by IEEE 835) Ampacities, Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor SolidDielectric Power Cable 15 kV Through 69 kV (NEMA WC 50) Ampacities of Cables in Open-top Cable Trays (NEMA WC 51) Cable Tray Flame Test 600 V Direct Burial Cable Single Electrical Conductors and Assemblies with Ruggedized Extruded Insulation Polyolefin Insulated Communication Cables for Outdoor Use Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 5) Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 4) Cross-Linked-Thermosetting Polyethylene Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy for Wire and Cable (NEMA WC 7) Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (NEMA WC 8) Coaxial Communication Cable (CATV) (NEMA WC 41) Weather-Resistant Polyolefin Covered Wire and Cable Standard for Control Cables (NEMA WC 57) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (NEMA WC 58) Communications Wire and Cable for Wiring Premises Instrumentation Cables and Thermocouple Wire (NEMA WC 55) Fiber Optic Outside Plant Communications Cable Guide for Establishing Stability of Volume Resistivity for Conducting Polymeric Components of Power Cables Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power, Control, Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test (NEMA WC 54) Continued

S-68-516 S-69-530 S-70-547 S-73-532 S-75-381 S-80-576 S-82-552 S-87-640 T-25-425 T-26-465

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.9 ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association PO Box 440 South Yarmouth, MA 02664 (508) 394-4424
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

T-27-581 T-29-520 T-30-520 T-31-610 T-33-655

Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power, Control, Instrumentation and Portable Cables (NEMA WC 53) Guide for Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (210,000 BTU/Hour) Guide for Conducting Vertical Cable Tray Flame Tests (70,000 BTU/Hour) Water Penetration Resistance Test, Sealed Conductor Low-Smoke, Halogen-Free (LSHF) Polymeric Cable Jackets

11.1.10 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission 3 Rue de Varembe P.O. Box 131 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Tel: 41-22-734-01-50 Fax: 41-22-733-38-43
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

50 55

International electrotechnical vocabulary. Chapter 451. Electric cables. Paper-insulated metal-sheathed cables for rated voltages up to 18/30 kV (with copper or aluminum conductors and excluding gas pressure and oilfilled cables) Characteristic impedances and dimensions of radio-frequency coaxial cables Electrical installations in ships Radio-frequency cables Tests on oil-filled and gas-pressure cables and their accessories Radio-frequency connectors Colors of the cores of flexible cables and cords Guide to selection of high-voltage cables Low-frequency cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath Electrical equipment of industrial machines Aluminum alloy stranded conductors Continued
179
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78 92 96 141 169 173 183 189 204 208

11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.10 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission 3 Rue de Varembe P.O. Box 131 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Tel: 41-22-734-01-50 Fax: 41-22-733-38-43
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

212 227 228 229 230 245 287 304 331 332 339 344 446 457 465 488 502 538/B 540

Measurement of smoke density of electric cables burning under defined conditions PVC insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Conductors of insulated cables Tests on cable oversheaths which have a special protective function and are applied by extrusion Impulse tests on cables and their accessories Rubber insulated cables of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Calculations of the continuous current rating of cables (100% load factor) Standard colors for insulation for low-frequency cables and wires Fire-resisting characteristics of electric cables Tests on electric cables under fire conditions General purpose rigid coaxial transmission lines and their associated flange connectors Guide to the calculation of resistance of plain and coated copper conductors of low-frequency cables and wires Identification of conductors by colors and numerals Rigid precision coaxial lines and their associated precision connectors Specification for unused insulating mineral oils for cables with oil ducts Dimensions of copper conductors in local cables Extruded solid dielectric insulated power cables for rated voltages from 1 kV to 30 kV Electric cables, wires and cords: Method 5 of test for polyethylene insulation and sheath Test methods for insulations and sheaths of electric cables and cords (elastomeric and thermoplastic compounds) Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.10 IEC International Electrotechnical Commission 3 Rue de Varembe P.O. Box 131 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland Tel: 41-22-734-01-50 Fax: 41-22-733-38-43
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

541 649 693 695 702 708 719

Comparative information on IEC and North American flexible cord types Calculation of maximum external diameter of cables for indoor installations Dimensions of optical fibres Fire hazard tests Mineral insulated cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 750 V Low-frequency cables with polyolefin insulation and moisture barrier polyolefin sheath Calculations of the lower and upper limits for the average outer dimensions of cables with circular copper conductors and of rated voltages up to and including 450/750 V Guide to the short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 0.6/1.0 kV Cabled distribution systems Part I: Systems primarily intended for sound and television signals operating between 30 MHz and 1 GHz Tests on gases evolved during combustion of electric cables Heating cables with a rated voltage of 300/500 V for comfort heating and prevention of ice formation Common tests methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electric wires Performance and testing of teleprotection equipment of power systems Tests for power cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages above 30 kV up to 150 kV Cable connections for gas insulated metal enclosed switchgear for rated voltages of 72.5 kV and above Electrical test methods for electric cables Generic specification for radio-frequency and coaxial cable assemblies 3 meter cube smoke apparatus

724 728 754 800 811 834 840 859 885 966 1034

181

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.11 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc. 445 Hoes Lane Piscataway, NJ 08854 (800) 678-4333
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

45 48 82 83 101 120 127 146 323 383 400 402 404 422 510 524 525 532 539 575

Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations on Shipboard Test Procedures and Requirements for High-Voltage AC Cable Terminations Test Procedure for Impulse Voltage Tests on Insulated Conductors Test Procedures for Radial Power Factor Tests on Insulating Tapes in Paper-Insulated Power Cable Guide for the Statistical Analysis of Thermal Life Test Data Master Test Code for Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits Aerospace Equipment Voltage and Frequency Ratings Definitions of Fundamental Waveguide Terms Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Standard for Type Test of Class 1E Electric Cables, Field Splices and Connections for Nuclear Power Generating Stations Guide for Making High-Direct-Voltage Tests on Power Cable Systems in the Field Guide for Measuring Resistivity of the Cable Insulation Materials at High Direct Voltages Standard for Cable Joints for Use with Extruded Dielectric Cable Rated 5 through 138 kV Guide for Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Power Generating Stations Recommended Practices for Safety in High Voltage and High Power Testing Installation of Overhead Transmission Line Conductors Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations Guide for Selecting and Testing Jackets for Cables Definitions and Terms Relating to Overhead-Power-Line Corona and Radio Noise Guide for the Application of Sheath-Bonding Methods for Single Conductor Cables and the Calculation of Induced Voltages and Currents in Cable Sheaths Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.11 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc. 445 Hoes Lane Piscataway, NJ 08854 (800) 678-4333
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

576 610 634 635 690 789 802 812 816 835 930 972 1017 1018 1019 1202 C62.41 C62.92

Recommended Practice for Installation, Termination, and Testing of Insulated Power Cable as Used in the Petroleum and Chemical Industry Computer Dictionary Standard Cable Penetration Fire Stop Test Guide for Selection and Design of Aluminum Sheaths for Cables Standard for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems for Class 1E Circuits in Nuclear Power Generating Stations Standard Performance Requirements for Communications and Control Cables for Application in High Voltage Environments Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Overview and Architecture Definitions of Terms Relating to Fiber Optics Guide for Determining the Smoke Generation of Solid Materials Used for Insulations and Coverings of Electrical Wire and Cable Power Cable Ampacity Tables Analysis of Voltage Endurance Data for Electrical Insulation Trial-Use Standard for Connections of Insulated Aluminum Conductors Field Testing Electric Submersible Pump Cable Specifying Electric Submersible Cable-Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulation Specifying Electric Submersible Pump Cable-Polypropylene Insulation Flame Testing of Cables for Use in Cable Trays in Industrial and Commerical Occupancies Surge Voltage in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems

183

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.12 ISA Instrument Society of America 67 Alexander Drive PO Box 12277 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (919) 549-8411
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

RP 12.6 S50.02

Installation of Intrinsically Safe Systems for Hazardous (Classified) Locations Fieldbus Standard for Use in Industrial Control Systems

11.1.13 ISO International Standards Organization 1 Rue de Varembe 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Tel: 41-22-749-0111 Fax: 41-22-733-3430 (Publications also available from ANSI)
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

4589 5657 DP9306 TR9122

Oxygen Index Test Radiant Cone Flame Test Flammability Test Toxicity Test

11.1.14 ITU International Telecommunication Union General Secretariat-Sales Section Place des Nations CH-1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Tel: 42-22-730-5111 Fax: 41-22-730-5194
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

CCITT Blue Book, Vol. 3 Transmission Media Characteristics

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.15 MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor Industrial Park Boulevard R.R. 1, Box 201B Triadelphia, WV 26059 (304) 547-0400 11.1.16 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 N. 17th Street Suite 1847 Rosslyn, VA 22209 (703) 841-3200
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

HP 3 HP 4 HP 100 HP 100.1 HP 100.2 HP 100.3 HP 100.4 WC 1 WC 2 WC 3 WC 4 WC 5 WC 7

Electrical and Electronic PTFE Insulated High Temperature Hookup Wire; Types E (600 Volt), EE (1,000 Volt) and ET (250 Volt) Electrical and Electronic FEP Insulated High Temperature Hookup Wire, Types K, KK, and KT High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cable High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with FEP Fluorocarbons High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ETFE Fluoropolymers High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with Cross-linked (Thermoset) Polyolefin (XLPO) High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables Insulated and Jacketed with ECTFE Fluoropolymers Asbestos, Asbestos-Varnished Cloth and Asbestos-Thermoplastic Insulated Wire and Cable (ICEA S-28-357) Steel Armor and Associated Coverings for Impregnated-paper-insulated Cables (ICEA S-67-401) Rubber Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (ICEA S-19-81) Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (ICEA S-65-375) Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (ICEA S-61-402) Cross-Linked-Thermosetting Polyethylene Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy for Wire and Cable (ICEA S-66-524) Continued

185

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.16 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 N. 17th Street Suite 1847 Rosslyn, VA 22209 (703) 841-3200
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

WC 8 WC 26 WC 41 WC 50 WC 51 WC 52 WC 53 WC 54 WC 55 WC 56 WC 57 WC 58 WC 61 CC1 CC3

Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy (ICEA S-68-516) Wire and Cable Packaging Coaxial Communication Cable (CATV) (ICEA S-69-530) Ampacities, Including Effect of Shield Losses for Single-Conductor SolidDielectric Power Cable 15 kV through 69 kV (ICEA P-53-426) Ampacities of Cables in Open-top Cable Trays (ICEA P-54-440) High Temperature and Electronic Insulated Wire-Impulse Dielectric Testing Standard Test Methods for Extruded Dielectric Power, Control, Instrumentation and Portable Cables (ICEA T-27-581) Guide for Frequency of Sampling Extruded Dielectric Power, Control, Instrumentation and Portable Cables for Test (ICEA T-26-465) Instrumentation Cables and Thermocouple Wire (ICEA S-82-552) 3.0 kHz Insulation Continuity Proof Testing of Hookup Wire Standard for Control Cables (ICEA S-73-532) Portable and Power Feeder Cables for Use in Mines and Similar Applications (ICEA S-75-381) Transfer Impedance Testing Electrical Power Connectors for Substations Connectors for Use Between Aluminum or Aluminum Copper Overhead Conductors

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.17 NFPA National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park PO Box 9101 Quincy, MA 02269-9101 (617) 770-3000
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

70 75 99

National Electrical Code Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment Health Care Facilities Handbook

11.1.18 NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (301) 975-2000

187

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.19 REA Rural Electrification Administration U.S. Department of Agriculture Washington, DC 20250 (202) 382-8674
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

PE-7 PE-17 PE-19 PE-20 PE-21 PE-22 PE-23 PE-27 PE-28 PE-38 PE-39 PE-44 PE-50 PE-54 PE-71 PE-72 PE-86 PE-89

Aerial Drop Wire Rural Distribution Wire (deactivated) Polyethylene Insulated Bridle Wire (deactivated) Inside-Outside Station Wire (deactivated) Plastic Insulated Line Wire (deactivated) Aerial and Duct Telephone Cable Direct Burial Telephone Cable (deactivated) Figure 8 One Pair Distribution Wire (deactivated) Figure 8 Multipair Distribution Wire (deactivated) Figure 8 Telephone Cable Filled Telephone Cable Low-Loss Buried Distribution Wire (deactivated) Buried Distribution Wire (deactivated) Filled Buried Distribution Wire (deactivated) Inside Wiring Cable (deactivated) Switchboard Cable (deactivated) Filled Buried Service Wire Filled Telephone Cable With Expanded Insulation

11.1.20 SAE Society of Automotive Engineers 400 Commonwealth Dr. Warrendale, PA 15096 (412) 776-4970
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

J156 J1127 J1128 J1292 J1939

Fusible Links Battery Cable Low Tension Primary Cable Automobile Truck, Truck-Tractor, Trailer, and Motor Coach Wiring Serial Control and Communication for Vehicle Networks

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.21 UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 333 Pfingsten Rd. Northbrook, IL 60062 (708) 272-8800
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

4 13 44 62 83 133 183 444 486A 486B 486C 486D 486E 493 497 719 723 758 817 854 910 1063

Armored Cable (Type AC) Power Limited Circuit Cable (Types CL3P, CL2P, CL3R, CL2R, CL3, CL3X, PLTC) Rubber-Insulated Wires & Cables (Types XHHW, XHHW-2, RHH, RHW, RHW-2, RH, SA, SIS) Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire (Types SO, SOW, SOW-A, SJ, SJO, SPT-1, etc.) Thermoplastic Insulated Wires (Types TW, THW, THW-2, THWN, THWN-2, THHN, THHW, TA, TBS, TFE, FEP, FEPB) Varnished-Cloth Wires & Cables (Type V) Manufactured Wiring Systems Communication Cables (Types CMX, CM, CMR, CMP) Wire Connectors and Soldering Lugs Wire Connectors for Use with Aluminum Conductors Splicing Wire Connectors Insulated Wire Connectors for Use with Underground Conductors Equipment Wiring Terminals for Use with Aluminum and/or Copper Conductors Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables (Types UF, UF-B) Protectors for Communication Circuits Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables (Types NM-B, NMC-B) Tests for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials Appliance Wiring Material (Type AWM) Cord Sets and Power-Supply Cords Service Entrance Cables (Types USE, SE, SE-U, SE-R, USE-2) Test for Flame-Propagation and Smoke-Density Values for Electrical and Optical-Fiber Cables Used in Spaces Transporting Environmental Air Machines Tool Wires & Cables (Type MTW) Continued

189

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.21 UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 333 Pfingsten Rd. Northbrook, IL 60062 (708) 272-8800
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

1072 1277 1309 1424 1426 1459 1565 1569 1581 1604 1666 1685 1690 1740 1863

Medium Voltage Power Cable (Type MV) Type TC Power & Control Tray Cables (Type TC) Marine Shipboard Cable Cables for Power-Limited Fire-Protective-Signaling Circuits Electric Cables for Boats Telephone Equipment Wire Positioning Devices Metal Clad Cables (Type MC) Reference Standard for Electrical Wires, Cables, and Flexible Cords Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, and Class III Hazardous (Classified) Locations Standard Test for Flame Propagation Height of Electrical and Optical Fiber Cables Installed Vertically in Shafts Vertical-Tray Fire-Propagation and Smoke-Release Test for Electrical and Optical-Fiber Cables Data-Processing Cable Industrial Robots Communication Circuit Accessories

11.1.22 U.S. Government Specifications Superintendant of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402 (202) 783-3238
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

J-C-30 J-C-94 J-C-103 J-C-121 J-C-129
©Anixter Inc. 1996

Wire & Cable Electrical Power Nonmetallic Cable Rubber-Insulated Wire & Cable Rubber-Insulated Wire & Cable (0 – 8,000 Volts) Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire & Cable
190

11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Continued

11.1.22 U.S. Government Specifications Superintendant of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402 (202) 783-3238
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

J-C-138 J-C-145b J-C-580A QQ-W-343

Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire & Cable (0 – 5,000 Volts) Weather-Resistant Electric Wire & Cable Flexible Cord and Fixture Wire Electrical Copper Wire, Uninsulated

11.1.23 U.S. Military Specifications Commanding Officer Naval Publications and Forms Center 5801 Tabor Ave. Philadelphia, PA 19120 (215) 697-2667
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

DOD-C-84054C MIL-C-17F MIL-C-915 MIL-C-3432E MIL-C-4921 MIL-C-5756B MIL-C-5854C MIL-C-8777C MIL-C-13777G MIL-C-18959 MIL-C-23806A MIL-C-24640

General Specification for Cables, Fiber Optics (Metric) General Specifications for Cables, Radio Frequency, Flexible and Semirigid General Specification for Cable and Cord, Electrical, for Shipboard Use Cable (Power & Special Purpose) and Wire, Electrical (300 – 600 Volts) Airport Lighting Butyl and Neoprene Cable and Wire, Power, Electric, Portable Wire, Electrical, Iron and Constantan Thermocouple Wire, Electrical, Silicone-Insulated, Copper, 600 V, 200°C General Specifications for Cable, Special Purpose, Electrical Portable Power Cable General Specification for Cable, Radio Frequency, Coaxial, Semirigid, Foam Dielectric General Specification for Cable, Electrical, Lightweight for Shipboard Use Continued
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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.23 U.S. Military Specifications Commanding Officer Naval Publications and Forms Center 5801 Tabor Ave. Philadelphia, PA 19120 (215) 697-2667
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

MIL-C-24643 MIL-C-27072A MIL-C-27500 MIL-C-28830B MIL-C-31012C MIL-C-38359A MIL-C-49055B MIL-C-49059A MIL-C-55021A MIL-C-60220 MIL-C-83522A MIL-C-83526 MIL-C-550213A MIL-HDBK-299 MIL-S-81824 MIL-W-76B MIL-W-5086 MIL-W-5846C MIL-W-16878 MIL-W-22759D

General Specification for Cable and Cord, Electrical, Low Smoke, for Shipboard Use Special Purpose, Electrical, Multiconductor Cable Tefzel Aerospace Cable General Specification for Cable, Radio Frequency, Coaxial, Semirigid, Corrugated Outer Conductor General Specification for Connectors, Coaxial, Radio Frequency Cable, Power, Electrical, Airport Lighting, Cross-Linked, Polyethylene XLP General Specifications for Cables, Power, Electrical (Flexible, Flat, Unshielded). Round Conductor General Specifications for Cable, Electrical (Flexible, Flat, Unshielded), Flat Conductor General Specificaiton for Cables: Twisted Pairs and Triples, Internal Hookup Cables, Special Purpose, Electrical (Data Transmission Use) General Specification for Connectors, Fiber Optic, Plug-ReceptacleAdapter Style, Fixed Single Terminus General Specifications for Connectors, Fiber Optic, Circular Environmental Resistant, Hermaphroditic Cables: Twisted Pair Internal Hookup, Shielded and Jacketed, High Temperature Cable Comparison Handbook Data Pertaining to Electric Shipboard Cable Splices, Electric, Crimp Style, Copper, Insulated, Environment Resistant Wire and Cable, Hookup, Electrical, Insulated Wire, Electric, Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated, Copper or Copper Alloy Wire, Electrical, Copper and Constantan Thermocouple General Specifications for Wire, Electrical, Insulated Wire, Electric, Fluoropolymer-Insulated, Copper or Copper Alloy Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.1.23 U.S. Military Specifications Commanding Officer Naval Publications and Forms Center 5801 Tabor Ave. Philadelphia, PA 19120 (215) 697-2667
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

MIL-W-25038E MIL-W-81044 MIL-W-81381

General Specification for Wire, Electrical, High Temperature and Fire Resistant Wire, Electric, Cross-linked Polyalkene, Cross-linked Alkane-Imide Polymer, or Polyarylene Insulated, Copper or Copper Alloy Wire-Electric, Polymide-Insulated Copper or Copper Alloy

11.2 Fire Safety Tests
11.2.1 Fire Safety Test Methods
Some of the most common fire safety test methods used in the wire and cable industry are listed below: Table 11.1–Fire safety test methods
Fire Hazard North America Europe

Ignitability Propagation Smoke Toxicity Corrosivity

Oxygen Index (ASTM D2863) Vertical Tray UL 1581 NBS Chamber (ASTM E662) New York State (Univ. of Pittsburg) ASTM Copper Mirror Test

IEC 332-3 Appendix A IEC 332-3 3 Meter Cube (IEC 20(CO) 178) ISO Guide TR 9122 IEC 754-1

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.2.2 NEC Fire Test Summary
Table 11.2 –NEC fire test summary
GENERAL USE (UL-1581 VERTICAL TRAY) RESTRICTED (UL-1581 VERTICAL WIRE)

NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE ARTICLE

PLENUM (UL-910)

RISER (UL-1666)

645 725, Class 2 725, Class 3 725 Power Limited Tray Cable 727 Instrumentation Tray Cable 760 Fire Protective Power Limited 760 Fire Protective Nonpower Limited 770 Optical Fiber Nonconductive 770 Optical Fiber Conductive 800 Communication 800 Undercarpet Communication 820, Cable TV
CABLE APPLICATION

– CL2P CL3P No Listing No Listing FPLP

– CL2R CL3R No Listing No Listing FPLR

DP CL2 CL3 PLTC

– CL2X CL3X No Listing No Listing No Listing No Listing No Listing No Listing CMX CMUC

ITC

FPL

NPLFP

NPLFR

NPLF

OFNP

OFNR

OFN or OFNG

OFCP

OFCR

OFC or OFCG

CMP No Listing CATVP

CMR No Listing CATVR

CM or CMG No Listing CATV

CATVX
FLAME ENERGY

COMMON NAMES

Plenum Space Riser Shaft General Use Restricted Use
©Anixter Inc. 1996

UL UL UL UL

910, Steiner Tunnel (CSA FT-6) 1666, Riser Test (No CSA Equivalent) 1581 Vertical Tray, IEEE 383 (CSA FT-4) 1581 Vertical Wire, VW-1 (CSA FT-1)
194

300,000 527,000 70,000 3,000

BTU/Hr BTU/Hr BTU/Hr BTU/Hr

11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.2.3 Comparison of Vertical Cable Tray Tests
Table 11.3 –Comparison of vertical cable tray tests
IEEE 383 UL 1581 ICEA T-29-520 CSA FT-4 IEEE 1202 UL 1685 /ULa UL 1685 /IEEEb IEC 332-3

Burner power (kW) Time of flame (min) Alternate source Burner placementc

21 20 Yes, oily ragd 600 mm 75 mm in back horiz. 2.4 0.3 2.4 0.15 front only no
e

62 20 no 300 mm 200 mm in back horiz. 2.4 0.3 2.4 0.15

20 20 no 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 3.0 0.3 2.3 0.25 front only if D 13 mm

20 20 no 300 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2.4 0.3 2.3 full front only if D 13 mm

21 20 no 457 mm 75 mm in back horiz. 2.4 0.3 2.4 0.15 front only no

21 20 no 457 mm 75 mm in front 20° up 2.4 0.3 2.4 full front only

20 20, 40g no 600 mm 75 mm in front horiz. 3.5 0.5 3.5 0.30 front or front backi

Angle of burner Tray length (m) Tray width (m) Sample length (m) Width of tray used for cables (m)

Thin-size cables to be bundled

no

if D mounted 13 mm flush, with no spaces yes 5m3/s 1 1.786 0.40 150 yes
h

Test enclosure specified Required air flow rate Test runs needed Max. char length (m, from bottom) Peak smoke release rate (m2 s-1) Total smoke released (m2)

no N.A. 3 2.4 N.A. N.A.

no N.A 2 2.4 N.A. N.A.

yes 0.17 m3/s 2 1.786 N.A. N.A. 2

yes 0.65 m3/s 2f

yes 5 m3/s 1 2.4 0.25 95

1 3.1 N.A. N.A.

1.786 N.A. N.A.

Continued

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Table 11.3 –Comparison of vertical cable tray tests Continued
a b c d e f g h i

Version with UL 1581 exposure. Version with CSA FT-4/IEEE 1202 exposure. Height above bottom, distance from specimen surface. Not applicable in the UL 1581 version. This dimension is 457 mm in the UL 1581 version. Two each on two different sizes of specimens. Time is 20 minutes for Category C, 40 minutes for Categories A and B. Not yet specified. Depends on amount of cable loading

Source: NIST Technical Note 1291

11.2.4 UL 910 Steiner Tunnel Test for Plenum Rated Cable
The UL Standard 910 “Steiner Tunnel” Flame Test measures flame spread and smoke generation in a simulated air handling plenum. A 25 ft long Steiner Tunnel is used for the test, with intake and exhaust ducts and a means of regulating flow velocity of air through the tunnel. Windows at 1 ft intervals allow for flame spread measurements, and an optical device in the exhaust of the chamber measures smoke density. The cable samples are mounted in a cable tray in one layer in the tunnel and the tunnel is sealed. Two circular burners are mounted vertically at the intake end of the tunnel just in front of the cable tray. Methane is burned, along with a 240 ft/min forced draft through the tunnel for twenty minutes, and the flame is extinguished. Flame spread and smoke density are monitored throughout the test. A cable is listed for plenum use if flame spread is less than 5 ft from the end of the ignition flame, and optical density is less than 0.5 Maximum peak, and 0.15 Maximum average. The output of the burner is 300,000 BTU/hr and the energy consumed for the test is 100,000 BTUs. The Canadian version of this test is known as the CSA FT-6 fire test.

Figure 11.1–UL 910 Steiner tunnel test
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11.2.5 UL 1666 Riser Flame Test
The Riser Flame Test, as described in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1666, was developed to test cable flammability in riser applications. This test simulates a fire in a nonflame stopped riser within a high-rise building. The chamber for the test is a 3 story block construction design. Steel fire doors provide access to the 2nd and 3rd levels for installing cables, and 1 ft 2 ft rectangular holes in both the second and third level floors allow cable to be installed in racks extending between the first and third levels. A burner is made up of a 1⁄4 in. gas pipe with 90° elbow mounted below a 1 ft square drilled steel plate. The burner is mounted on the edge of the riser hole on the floor of the second level. A mixture of air and propane is burned for thirty minutes and then shut off, extinguishing the burner flame. A cable may be listed as riser cable if the flame does not propagate up to the floor of the third level. The energy output of the burner is 527,500 BTU/hr, or a consumed test energy of 263,750 BTUs.

Figure 11.2 –UL 1666 Riser flame test

11.2.6 UL 1581 Vertical Tray Flame Test (IEEE 383)
The Vertical Tray Flame Test is used as a good approximation of flame spread in cables run in groups. A steel ladder type tray 12 in. wide 3 in. deep and 8 ft long with 1 in. 1⁄2 in. rungs spaced 9 in. apart is mounted vertically on the floor of the test chamber. The center 6 in. of the tray is filled with cable samples in one layer spaced 1⁄2 cable diameter apart. A 6 to 1 mixture of air to propane is burned using a 10 in. wide ribbon burner. The burner is placed horizontally 3 in. from the back of the tray, 2 ft from the floor, and midway between 2 rungs. The flame is applied for twenty minutes and then removed. A cable passes the vertical tray test if it does not propagate flame to the top of the tray (6 ft). A cable may continue to burn after the burner is shut off; however, the test is not complete until the cable stops burning. The energy output of the burner is 70,000 BTU/hr and the cable is subjected to 23,333 BTUs for the test.

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.2.7 ICEA T-29-520
A variation on the UL 1581 Vertical Tray Test (IEEE 383) is the 210,000 BTU flame test specified in ICEA Standard T-29-520. In the 210,000 BTU test, the setup is essentially the same as with the 70,000 BTU test except the gas flow is increased to generate 210,000 BTU/hr instead of 70,000 BTU/hr of flame energy and the burner-to-cable spacing is increased to 200 mm. See Section 11.2.3 for more details.

Figure 11.3 –UL 1581 Vertical tray flame test

11.2.8 CSA FT-4
Another flame test variation similar to the IEEE 383 test is CSA’s FT-4 test. This test is a later generation of the IEEE 383 test and is generally considered more stringent than the IEEE 383 test.

11.2.9 IEEE 1202
The IEEE 1202 flame test is the latest version of the original IEEE 383 Flame Test developed in the 1970s. The 1202 test is virtually identical in test severity to the Canadian FT-4 test which was the most recent version of the IEEE 383 test until publication of IEEE 1202 in 1991.

11.2.10 UL 1685
UL Standard 1685 is essentially the UL 1581 (IEEE 383) fire test with a smoke emission requirement added. A cable passing this test can be given an “LS” (Limited Smoke) listing.
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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.2.11 UL 1581 VW-1 Flame Test
The VW-1 Flame Test was the first flame test developed for studying flame spread on wire and cable. The test measures relative flame propagation of a single wire or cable. The test procedure is detailed in Underwriters Laboratories Standard 1581, but a general overview of the test is as follows. The fixture used is a bench-mountable 12 in. wide, 14 in. deep, and 24 in. high steel box open at the front and top. Clamps hold a single specimen vertically in the center of the box. A Tirrill burner (similar to a Bunsen burner) is mounted on a 20° angle block and has a flame 4 to 5 inches high with a 1⁄2 in. inner blue cone. The burner is placed so the inner cone meets the test sample surface. Ten inches above this point a kraft paper “flag” is placed on the sample facing away from the burner, and cotton batting covers the floor of the chamber to a height 9 in. below the point. The flame is applied to the sample for 15 seconds 5 times (total 75 seconds) with a minimum 15 seconds between flame applications or until burning ceases, whichever is longer. A sample “Passes VW-1” if less than 25% of the flag is burned away, the cable doesn’t burn longer than 60 seconds after any flame application, and the cotton batting is not ignited by dripping particles. The energy output of the burner is less than 3,000 BTU/Hr and the test energy is less than 65 BTUs. The Canadian version of this test is the FT-1.

Figure 11.4 –UL 1581 VW-1 flame test

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11.3 Regulatory and Approval Agencies
11.3.1 Underwriters Laboratories
UL Standard UL Listing(s) Covered in the Standard

4 Armored Cable 13 Power Limited Circuit Cable 44 Rubber Insulated Wires & Cables 62 Flexible Cord & Fixture Wire 83 Thermoplastic Insulated Wires 133 Varnished Cloth Wires & Cables 444 Communication Cables 493 Thermoplastic Insulated Underground Feeder & Branch Circuit Cables 719 Nonmetallic-Sheath Cables 854 Service Entrance Cables 1063 Machine Tool Wires & Cables 1072 Medium Voltage Power Cable 1277 Electrical Power & Control Tray Cables with Optional Optical Fiber Members 1426 Standard for Electric Cables for Boats 1569 Metal Clad Cables 1581 Reference Standard for Electrical Wires, Cables, and Flexible Cords — No published UL Standard. UL Listing is by contract with each manufacturer.

AC CL3P, CL2P, CL3R, CL2R, CL3, CL3X, PLTC XHHW, RHH, RHW, RH, SIS, RHW-2, XHHW-2 XT, CXT, TFN, TFFN, TPT, TST, TS, S, SA, SE, SO, SEO, SOO, ST, STO, STOO T, TW, THW, THHN, THNN, FEP, FEPB, TFE, THW-2, THWN-2 V, VD, M, VL, VDL, VML MPP, CMP, MPR, CMR, MP, CM, CMX UF NM, NMC USE, SE, USE-2 MTW MV TC – MC – W, G

Typical examples of UL’s mark appear below:

®

Figure 11.5 –Typical UL marks

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.3.2 National Electrical Code (NEC)
History and Articles The first NEC document was written in 1897 at the insistence of various insurance, electrical, architectural, and other interested parties. Up to and including 1996, there have been a total of 47 editions. It is revised on a regular three year schedule. The National Electrical Code is divided into approximately 120 articles. The Code is published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) as a “recommended standard” and does not become law until officially adopted by state or local governments. Enforcement and interpretation of the Code is ultimately the responsibility of “the authority having jurisdiction,” i.e., the local inspector. The intent of the Code is to insure the electrical and fire safety of electrical equipment. It does not attempt to insure the reliability, performance, proper operation or long life of equipment—these considerations are beyond its scope. National Electrical Code Articles especially pertinent to the wire and cable industry include: Article 100 Definitions Article 110 Requirements for Electrical Installations Article 200 Use and Identification of Grounded Conductors Article 210 Branch Circuits Article 215 Feeders Article 220 Branch-Circuit and Feeder Calculations Article 225 Outside Branch Circuit and Feeders Article 230 Services Article 250 Grounding Article 300 Wiring Methods Article 305 Temporary Wiring Article 310 Conductors for General Wiring Article 318 Cable Trays Article 321 Messenger Supported Wiring Article 326 Medium Voltage Cable Type MV Article 328 Flat Conductor Cable Type FCC Article 330 Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Cable Article 333 Armored Cable Type AC Article 334 Metal-Clad Cable Article 336 Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Types NM and NMC Article 337 Shielded Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable Type SNM Article 338 Service-Entrance Cable Types SE and USE Article 339 Underground Feeder and Branch-Circuit CableType UF Article 340 Power and Control Tray Cable Type TC Continued

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Article 346 Rigid Metal Conduit Article 348 Electrical Metallic Tubing Article 351 Liquid-Tight, Flexible Metal Conduit and Liquid-Tight, Flexible Nonmetallic Conduit Article 362 Wireways Article 363 Flat Cable Assemblies Type FC Article 400 Flexible Cords and Cables Article 402 Fixture Wires Article 500 Hazardous (Classified) Locations Article 501 Class I Locations Article 502 Class II Locations Article 503 Class III Locations Article 504 Intrinsically Safe Systems Article 604 Manufactured Wiring Systems Article 610 Cranes and Hoists Article 645 Electronic Computer/Data Processing Article 725 Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, Remote-Control, Signaling and Power-Limited Circuits Article 727 Instrumentation Tray Cable Article 760 Fire Protective Signaling Systems Article 770 Optical Fiber Cables Article 800 Communication Circuits Article 820 Community Antenna Television (CATV) and Radio Distribution Systems Table 11.4 – NEC Article 725 — Summary of remote control, signaling and power-limited circuit types
Circuit Voltage Maximum Current

Class 1 Remote Control and Signaling (Not Power Limited) Class 1 Power Limited Class 2 Power Limited (Fire & Shock Safe) Class 3 Power Limited (Fire Safe Only)

0 thru 600 0 thru 30 0 thru 30 30 thru 150 30 thru 150

Unlimited 33 Amps 8 Amps 0.005 Amps 10 Amps

Note: The above is an overview only. See Article 725 of the NEC for complete requirements. Class 2 and 3 cables must be rated at least 300 volts, but may not be so marked.

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
11.3.3 International
Table 11.5 –Symbols of international organizations
Agency Country (ies) Represented Symbol

Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque (CEBEC)

Canada

Belgium

CEBEC

DEMKO

Denmark

Electrical Inspectorate

Finland
O

AU

S TRAL

IA

N

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standards (CENELEC) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

See Note 1.

See Note 2.

International Standards Organization (ISO)

More than 60 around the world Italy

Istituto Italiano del Marchio

N. V. Kema

Netherlands

NEMKO

Norway

Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik

Austria Continued

A

PP

Electricity Trust of South Australia

Australia

T

N STA DARD

ROVED

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11. STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Table 11.5 –Symbols of international organizations Continued
Agency Country (ies) Represented Symbol

SEMKO

Sweden

Technische Prüfanstalten des SEV’s

Switzerland

Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

USA
®

Union Technique de L’Electricite

France

VDE - Prüfstelle Note 1: Austria Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Canada China Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Finland Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands France Germany Greece Hungary India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Japan Korea, Republic of Luxemburg

Germany Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Malaysia Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Pakistan Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Singapore Slovakia

V D E

Note 2:

Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States of America Yugoslavia

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ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

12.1 Metric to English Conductor Size 12.1 Metric to English Conductor Size 12.2 Circular Measurements—Diameter, Circumference, Area 12.2 Circular Measurements—Diameter, Circumference, Area 12.3 Length, Weight, Area, Power, etc. 12.3 Length, Weight, Area, Power, etc. 12.4 Temperature Conversion 12.4 Temperature Conversion 12.5 KVA to Amperes 12.5 KVA to Amperes

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210

215

218

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12. CONVERSION TABLES

12.1 Metric to English Conductor Size
Table 12.1–Conductor size conversion: metric to English and English to metric
Metric Conductor Area mm
2

Standard Metric Sizes mm2

Standard English Sizes kcmil

English Conductor Area cmil

1,015 1,000 900 888 800 761 635 630 626 520 508 500 449 400 381 380 322 305 300 273 254 240 231 230 195 185 178 165 152 150

– 1,000 – – 800 – – 630 – – – 500 – 400 – – – – 300 – – 240 – – – 185 – – – 150

2,000 – – 1,750 – 1,500 1,250 – – – 1,000 – – – 750 – – 600 – – 500 – – 400 – – 350 – 300 –

2,000,000 1,970,000 1,780,000 1,750,000 1,580,000 1,500,000 1,250,000 1,240,000 1,233,000 1,024,000 1,000,000 987,000 884,000 788,000 750,000 748,000 634,000 600,000 592,000 537,000 500,000 474,000 455,000 400,000 384,000 365,000 350,000 325,000 300,000 296,000 Continued

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.1–Conductor size conversion: metric to English and English to metric Continued
Metric Conductor Area mm
2

Standard Metric Sizes mm2

Standard English Sizes kcmil or AWG

English Conductor Area cmil

140 127 120 119 107 100 95 85 72 70 67 60.9 54 51.6 50 43.7 42 37 35 34 31.3 27 25 22.4 21 19 17 16.1 16 13.6 13.3 11.5 10.5

– – 120 – – – 95 – – 70 – – – – 50 – – – 35 – – – 25 – – – – – 16 – – – –

– 250 – – 4/0 – – 3/0 – – 2/0 – 1/0 – – – 1 – – 2 – 3 – – 4 – 5 – – – 6 – 7

276,000 250,000 237,000 234,000 211,600 197,000 187,000 167,800 141,800 138,000 133,100 119,900 105,600 101,600 98,500 86,100 83,700 72,900 69,100 66,360 61,660 52,620 49,300 44,128 41,740 37,430 33,090 31,717 31,600 26,792 26,240 22,655 20,820 Continued

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.1–Conductor size conversion: metric to English and English to metric Continued
Metric Conductor Area mm
2

Standard Metric Sizes mm2

Standard English Sizes AWG

English Conductor Area cmil

10.00 9.77 8.38 8.27 7.00 6.64 6.00 5.93 5.26 5.02 4.25 4.00 3.60 3.31 2.58 2.50 2.18 2.08 1.85 1.57 1.50 1.33 1.31 1.12 1.00 0.95 0.82 0.75 0.68 0.58 0.52 0.50 0.49

10.00 – – – – – 6.00 – – – – 4.00 – – – 2.50 – – – – 1.50 – – – 1.00 – – 0.75 – – – 0.50 –

– – 8 – – 9 – – 10 – – – – 12 – – – 14 – – – – 16 – – – 18 – – – 20 – –

19,700 19,246 16,510 16,292 13,790 13,090 11,800 11,682 10,380 9,889 8,372 7,890 7,092 6,530 5,082 4,930 4,294 4,110 3,644 3,093 2,960 2,620 2,580 2,206 1,970 1,871 1,620 1,480 1,339 1,142 1,020 987 965 Continued

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.1–Conductor size conversion: metric to English and English to metric Continued
Metric Conductor Area mm
2

Standard Metric Sizes mm2

Standard English Sizes AWG

English Conductor Area cmil

0.324 0.205 0.128 0.081 0.051 0.032 0.020 0.013 0.0080 0.0050 0.0032 0.0020 0.0013 Reference: IEC 228

– 0.20 – – – – – – – – – – –

22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

640 404 253 159 100 63.2 39.8 25.0 15.7 9.61 6.25 4.00 2.56

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12.2 Circular Measurements — Diameter, Circumference, Area
Table 12.2 –Circular measurements — diameter, circumference, area
Diameter Inches Circumference Inches Area Sq. Inches

⁄64 ⁄32 3 ⁄64
1 1 1 3

0.015625 0.031250 0.046875 0.062500 0.093750 0.125000 0.156250 0.187500 0.218750 0.250000 0.281250 0.312500 0.343750 0.375000 0.406250 0.437500 0.468750 0.500000 0.531250 0.562500 0.593750 0.625000 0.656250 0.687500 0.718750 0.750000 0.781250 0.812500 0.843750 0.875000

0.049087 0.098175 0.147262 0.196350 0.294524 0.392699 0.490874 0.589049 0.687223 0.785398 0.883573 0.981748 1.07992 1.17810 1.27627 1.37445 1.47262 1.57080 1.66897 1.76715 1.86532 1.96350 2.06167 2.15984 2.25802 2.35619 2.45437 2.55254 2.65072 2.74889

0.00019 0.00019 0.00173 0.00307 0.00690 0.01227 0.01917 0.02761 0.03758 0.04909 0.06213 0.07670 0.09281 0.11045 0.12962 0.15033 0.17257 0.19635 0.22166 0.24850 0.27688 0.30680 0.33824 0.37122 0.40574 0.44179 0.47937 0.51849 0.55914 0.60132 Continued

⁄16 ⁄32 1 ⁄8

⁄32 ⁄16 7 ⁄32
5 3 1 ⁄4 ⁄32 5 ⁄16 9

⁄32 3 ⁄8 13 ⁄32
11 7 15

⁄16 ⁄32 1 ⁄2

⁄32 ⁄16 19 ⁄32
17 9 5 ⁄8 ⁄32 11 ⁄16 21

⁄32 3 ⁄4 25 ⁄32
23 13 27

⁄16 ⁄32 7 ⁄8

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.2 –Circular measurements — diameter, circumference, area Continued
Diameter Inches Circumference Inches Area Sq. Inches

⁄32 ⁄16 31 ⁄32
29 15

0.906250 0.937500 0.968750 1.000000 1.062500 1.125000 1.187500 1.250000 1.312500 1.375000 1.437500 1.500000 1.562500 1.625000 1.687500 1.750000 1.812500 1.875000 1.937500 2.000000 2.062500 2.125000 2.187500 2.250000 2.312500 2.375000 2.437500 2.500000 2.562500 2.625000 2.687500 2.750000 2.812500 2.875000 2.937500

2.84707 2.94524 3.04342 3.14159 3.33794 3.53429 3.73064 3.92699 4.12334 4.31969 4.51604 4.71239 4.90874 5.10509 5.30144 5.49779 5.69414 5.89049 6.08684 6.28319 6.47953 6.67588 6.87223 7.06858 7.26493 7.46128 7.65763 7.85398 8.05033 8.24668 8.44303 8.63938 8.83573 9.03208 9.22843

0.64504 0.69029 0.73708 0.78540 0.88664 0.99402 1.1075 1.2272 1.3530 1.4849 1.6230 1.7671 1.9175 2.0739 2.2365 2.4053 2.5802 2.7612 2.9483 3.1416 3.3410 3.5466 3.7583 3.9761 4.2000 4.4301 4.6664 4.9087 5.1572 5.4119 5.6727 5.9396 6.2126 6.4978 6.7771 Continued

1 11⁄16 11⁄8 13⁄16 11⁄4 15⁄16 13⁄8 17⁄16 11⁄2 19⁄16 15⁄8 111⁄16 13⁄4 113⁄16 17⁄8 115⁄16 2 21⁄16 21⁄8 23⁄16 21⁄4 25⁄16 23⁄8 27⁄16 21⁄2 29⁄16 25⁄8 211⁄16 23⁄4 213⁄16 27⁄8 215⁄16

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Table 12.2 –Circular measurements — diameter, circumference, area Continued
Diameter Inches Circumference Inches Area Sq. Inches

3 31⁄16 31⁄8 33⁄16 31⁄4 35⁄16 33⁄8 37⁄16 31⁄2 39⁄16 35⁄8 311⁄16 33⁄4 313⁄16 37⁄8 315⁄16 4 41⁄16 41⁄8 43⁄16 41⁄4 45⁄16 43⁄8 47⁄16 41⁄2 49⁄16 45⁄8 411⁄16 43⁄4 413⁄16 47⁄8 415⁄16 5 51⁄16

3.000000 3.062500 3.125000 3.187500 3.250000 3.312500 3.375000 3.437500 3.500000 3.562500 3.625000 3.687500 3.750000 3.812500 3.875000 3.937500 4.000000 4.062500 4.125000 4.187500 4.250000 4.312500 4.375000 4.437500 4.500000 4.562500 4.625000 4.687500 4.750000 4.812500 4.875000 4.937500 5.000000 5.062500

9.42478 9.62113 9.81748 10.0138 10.2102 10.4065 10.6029 10.7992 10.9956 11.1919 11.3883 11.5846 11.7810 11.9773 12.1737 12.3700 12.5664 12.7627 12.9591 13.1554 13.3518 13.5481 13.7445 13.9408 14.1372 14.3335 14.5299 14.7262 14.9226 15.1189 15.3153 15.5116 15.7050 15.9043

7.0686 7.3662 7.6699 7.9798 8.2958 8.6179 8.9462 9.2806 9.6211 9.9678 10.3206 10.6796 11.0447 11.4159 11.7932 12.1767 12.566 12.962 13.364 13.772 14.186 14.607 15.033 15.466 15.904 16.349 16.800 17.257 17.721 18.190 18.665 19.147 19.635 20.129 Continued

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.2 –Circular measurements — diameter, circumference, area Continued
Diameter Inches Circumference Inches Area Sq. Inches

5 ⁄8 53⁄16 51⁄4
1

5.125000 5.187500 5.250000 5.312500 5.375000 5.437500 5.500000 5.562500 5.625000 5.687500 5.750000 5.812500 5.875000 5.937500 6.000000 6.125000 6.250000 6.375000 6.500000 6.625000 6.750000 6.875000 7.000000 7.125000 7.250000 7.375000 7.500000 7.625000 7.750000 7.875000 8.000000 8.125000 8.250000 8.375000 8.500000 8.625000

16.1007 16.2970 16.4943 16.6897 16.8861 17.0824 17.2788 17.4751 17.6715 17.8678 18.0642 18.2605 18.4589 18.6532 18.8496 19.2423 19.6350 20.0277 20.4202 20.8131 21.2058 21.5984 21.9911 22.3838 22.7765 23.1692 23.5619 23.9546 24.3473 24.7400 25.1327 25.5254 25.9181 26.3108 26.7035 27.0962

20.629 21.135 21.648 22.166 22.691 23.221 23.758 24.301 24.850 25.406 25.967 26.535 27.109 27.688 28.274 29.465 30.680 31.919 33.183 34.472 35.785 37.122 38.485 39.871 41.282 42.718 44.179 45.664 47.173 48.707 50.265 51.849 53.456 55.088 56.745 58.426 Continued

55⁄16 53⁄8 57⁄16 51⁄2 59⁄16 55⁄8 511⁄16 53⁄4 513⁄16 57⁄8 515⁄16 6 61⁄8 61⁄4 63⁄8 61⁄2 65⁄8 63⁄4 67⁄8 7 71⁄8 71⁄4 73⁄8 71⁄2 75⁄8 73⁄4 77⁄8 8 81⁄8 81⁄4 83⁄8 81⁄2 85⁄8

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.2 –Circular measurements — diameter, circumference, area Continued
Diameter Inches Circumference Inches Area Sq. Inches

8 ⁄4 87⁄8 9
3

8.750000 8.875000 9.000000 9.125000 9.250000 9.375000 9.500000 9.625000 9.750000

27.4889 27.8816 28.2743 28.6670 29.0597 29.4524 29.8451 30.2378 30.6305 31.0232 31.4159

60.132 61.862 63.617 65.397 67.201 69.029 70.882 72.760 74.662 76.589 78.540

91⁄8 91⁄4 93⁄8 91⁄2 95⁄8 93⁄4

97⁄8 9.875000 10 10.000000

2 Notes: 1. Multiply square inches by 645.16 to calculate mm . 2. Multiply inches by 25.4 to calculate mm. 3. Multiply inches by 1,000 to calculate mils.

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12. CONVERSION TABLES

12.3 Length, Weight, Area, Power, etc.
Table 12.3 –Conversion factors
To Convert From To Multiply By

AREA Circular mils Circular mils Circular mils Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square inches Square inches Square inches Square meters Square millimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square mils LENGTH Centimters Centimeters Feet Feet Inches Inches Inches Inches Kilometers Meters Meters Meters Miles Millimeters Millimeters Mils Mils Yards

Square inches Square mils Square millimeters Square inches Square meters Circular mils Square centimeters Square millimeters Square mils Square feet Square inches Circular mils Circular mils Square inches Inches Feet Centimeters Meters Centimeters Meters Millimeters Mils Miles Feet Inches Yards Kilometers Inches Mils Inches Millimeters Meters

0.0000007854 0.7854 0.0005067 0.155 0.0929 1,273,240 6.4516 645.16 1,000,000 10.764 0.00155 1,973.53 1.2732 0.000001 0.3937 0.03281 30.48 0.3048 2.54 0.0254 25.4 1,000 0.6214 3.2808 39.3701 1.0936 1.6093 0.03937 39.3701 0.001 0.0254 0.9144 Continued
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Table 12.3 –Conversion factors Continued
To Convert From To Multiply By

POWER Foot-Pounds per minute Horsepower Foot-Pounds per minute Watts Foot-Pounds per second Horsepower Foot-Pounds per second Watts Horsepower Foot-Pounds per minute Horsepower Foot-Pounds per second Horsepower Watts Kilogram-meters per sec. Watts Watts Foot-Pounds per minute Watts Watts Watts ENERGY British thermal units British thermal units British thermal units Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Gram calories Joules Joules Joules Joules Joules Kilogram-meters Kilogram-meters Watt-hours Foot-Pounds per second Horsepower Kilogram-meters per sec. Foot-pounds Joules Watt-hours British thermal units Joules Kilogram-meters Joules British thermal units Ergs Foot-pounds Gram-calories Kilogram-meters Foot-pounds Joules British thermal units

0.0000303 0.0226 0.001818 1.356 33,000 550 746 9.807 44.25 0.7375 0.001341 0.1020 778 1,055 0.293 0.001285 1.356 0.1383 4.186 0.000947 107 0.7375 0.2388 0.10198 7.233 9.8117 3.4126 Continued

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.3 –Conversion factors Continued
To Convert From To Multiply By

MISCELLANEOUS Kilograms Pounds Kilograms per kilometer Pounds per 1,000 feet Ohms per kilometer Ohms per 1,000 feet Ohms per 1,000 feet Ohms per 1,000 yards Pounds Pounds per 1,000 feet Pounds per 1,000 yards Pounds per 1,000 yards Newtons Pound-force Diam. circle Diam. circle Diam. sphere cubed U.S. gallons U.S. gallons U.S. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) Inches of mercury (0°C) Knots Ohms per kilometer Ohms per kilometer Kilograms Kilograms per kilometer Kilograms per kilometer Pounds per kilometer Pound-force Newtons Circumference Side of equal square Volume of sphere Imperial gallons (British) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Miles per hour

2.205 0.6719 0.3048 3.2808 1.0936 0.4536 1.488 0.4960 1.0936 0.2248 4.4482 3.1416 0.8862 0.5236 0.8327 0.1337 8.33 62.427 0.4336 0.4912 1.1516

Note: Frequently used conversions are shown in bold type. To convert in the reverse direction, divide by the factor given in the table.

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12. CONVERSION TABLES

12.4 Temperature Conversion
Table 12.4 –Degrees centigrade (Celsius) vs. degrees Fahrenheit Conversion Formula: °F °C
°C °F °C °F

9/5 °C 5/9 (°F
°C °F

32° 32°)
°C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F

-80 -112.0 -15 -70 -94.0 -14 -60 -76.0 -13 -50 -45 -40 -39 -38 -37 -36 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -58.0 -12 -49.0 -11 -40.0 -10 -38.2 -36.4 -34.6 -32.8 -31.0 -29.2 -27.4 -25.6 -23.8 -22.0 -20.2 -18.4 -16.6 -14.8 -13.0 -11.2 -9.4 -7.6 -5.8 -4.0 -2.2 -0.4 1.4 3.2 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

5.0 6.8 8.6 10.4 12.2 14.0 15.8 17.6 19.4 21.2 23.0 24.8 26.6 28.4 30.2

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

59.0 60.8 62.6 64.4 66.2 68.0 69.8 71.6 73.4 75.2 77.0 78.8 80.6 82.4 84.2 86.0 87.8 89.6 91.4 93.2 95.0

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

113.0 114.8 116.6 118.4 120.2 122.0 123.8 125.6 127.4 129.2 131.0 132.8 134.6 136.4 138.2 140.0 141.8 143.6 145.4 147.2 149.0 150.8 152.6 154.4

75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

167.0 105 221.0 135 275.0 168.8 106 222.8 136 276.8 170.6 107 224.6 137 278.6

600 1,112 700 1,292 800 1,472

172.4 108 226.4 138 280.4 900 1,652 174.2 109 228.2 139 282.2 1,000 1,832 176.0 110 230.0 140 284.0 1,000 2,012 177.8 111 231.8 141 285.8 1,200 2,192 179.6 112 233.6 142 287.6 1,300 2,372 181.4 113 235.4 143 289.4 1,400 2,552 183.2 114 237.2 144 291.2 1,500 2,732 185.0 115 239.0 145 293.0 1,600 2,912 186.8 116 240.8 146 294.8 1,700 3,092 188.6 117 242.6 147 296.6 1,800 3,272 190.4 118 244.4 148 298.4 1,900 3,452 192.2 119 246.2 149 300.2 2,000 3,632 194.0 120 248.0 150 302.0 195.8 121 249.8 160 320.0 197.6 122 251.6 170 338.0 199.4 123 253.4 180 356.0 201.2 124 255.2 190 374.0 203.0 125 257.0 200 392 204.8 126 258.8 210 410 206.6 127 260.6 220 428 208.4 128 262.4 230 446

*0 *32.0 1 33.8 2 35.6 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

37.4 39.2 41.0 42.8 44.6 46.4 48.2 50.0 51.8 53.6 55.4 57.2 Boiling

36 96.8 37 98.6 38 100.4 39 102.2 40 104.0 41 105.8 42 107.6 43 109.4 44 111.2

156.2 99 158.0 †100 159.8 101 161.6 102 163.4 103 165.2 104

210.2 129 264.2 240 464 212.0 130 266.0 250 482 213.8 131 267.8 300 572 215.6 132 269.6 350 662 217.4 133 271.4 400 752 219.2 134 273.2 500 932

*Freezing

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12. CONVERSION TABLES

12.5 KVA to Amperes
Table 12.5 –KVA to amperes
SINGLE PHASE KVA Rating 120V Amperes 240V 480V

1 1.5 2 3 5 7.5 10 15 25 37.5 50 75 100 167 200

8.33 12.5 16.66 25 41 62 83 124 208 312 416 624 830 1,390 1,660

4.16 6.24 8.33 12.5 21 31 42 62 104 156 208 312 415 695 833

2.08 3.12 4.16 6.1 10.4 15.6 21 31 52 78 104 156 207 348 416 Continued

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12. CONVERSION TABLES
Table 12.5 –KVA to amperes Continued

THREE PHASE KVA Rating 208V 240V Amperes 480V 600V

3 6 9 15 30 45 75 112.5 150 200 225 300 400 500 750

8.3 16.6 25.0 41.6 83.0 125 208 312 415 554 625 830 1,110 1,380 2,080

7.2 14.4 21.6 36 72 108 180 270 360 480 540 720 960 1,200 1,800

3.6 7.2 10.8 18 36 54 90 135 180 240 270 360 480 600 900

2.9 5.8 8.7 14.4 28.8 43 72 108 144 192 216 288 384 480 720

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13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

13.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits 13.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits 13.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors 13.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors 13.3 Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance in AC Circuits 13.3 Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance in AC Circuits 13.4 Series and Parallel Connections 13.4 Series and Parallel Connections 13.5 Engineering Notation 13.5 Engineering Notation 13.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables 13.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables 13.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices 13.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices 13.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter 13.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter 13.9 Coaxial Capacitance 13.9 Coaxial Capacitance

222

223

223

224

224

225

226

226

227

13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS

13.1 Electrical Properties of Circuits
Table 13.1–Electrical properties of circuits
Desired Data Single Phase Direct Current Three Phase

Alternating Current Two Phase Four Wire*

Kilowatts (kw) Kilovoltamperes (kva) Horsepower Output Amperes When Horsepower is Known (I) Amperes When Kilowatts are Known (I) Amperes When Kilovoltamperes are Known (I) I

I

V cos θ 1,000 I V 1,000 V cos θ 746 Eff. 2

2

I

V cos θ 1,000 I V 1,000 cos θ 746 Eff.

1.73

I V cos θ 1,000

I V 1,000 I V 1,000

2

1.73 I V 1,000 1.73 I V cos θ 746 hp V 746 cos θ Eff. I

I

V

V Eff. 746 hp V 746 Eff.

V

hp 746 cos θ Eff.

2

hp 746 V cos θ Eff.

1.73

Eff.

kw V

1,000 cos θ

2

kw 1,000 V cos θ

kw 1,000 1.73 V cos θ

kw

1,000 V

kva

1,000 V

kva 1,000 2 V

kva 1,000 1.73 V

kva

1,000 V

* In two-phase three-wire circuits, the current in the common conductor is 1.41 times that in either phase conductor. NOTATION cos θ V Eff. Power factor of load (pf) Volts between conductors Efficiency of motor

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13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS

13.2 Resistance and Weight of Conductors
The resistance and weight of any uncoated copper wire at 20°C (68°F) having a conductivity of 100% IACS may be calculated from the following formulas: Ohms per 1,000 feet Pounds per 1,000 feet 0.0081455 10371.176 or Cross- sectional area in sq. in. Cross- sectional area in circ. mils Area in sq. in. 3,854.09 or Area in circ. mils 0.0030269

13.3 Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance in AC Circuits
Table 13.2 –Resistance, inductance, and capacitance in AC circuits
If Circuit Contains:

Reactance is:

Impedance is:

“V” for a Current “I” is:

Power Factor is:

Resistance (R) Inductance (L) Capacitance (C) Resistance & Inductance in Series (R & L) Resistance & Capacitance in Series (R & C)

0

R

IR

1

2 fL

2 fL

I2 fL

0

1 2 fC

1 2 fC

I

1 2 fC

0 R (2 fL)2

2 fL

R2

(2 fL)2

I R2

(2 fL)2

R

2

1 2 fC

R

2

 1   2 fC

2

I R

2

 1   2 fC

2

R R2  1   2 fC R R2  2 fL  1  2 fC 
2 2

Resistance, Inductance & Capacitance 2 fL in Series (R & L & C) V f C

1 2 fC

 2 fL 

1  2 fC 

2

I R

2

 2 fL 

1  2 fC 

2

Voltage in volts Frequency in cycles per second Capacitance in farads

I R π

Current in amperes Resistance in ohms 3.1416
223

L

Inductance in henries

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13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS

13.4 Series and Parallel Connections
Table 13.3 –Series and parallel connections
Resistance (R) Inductance (L) Capacitance (C)

Series 1 R

R

R1 1 R1

R2 1 R2

R3 1 R3

... ... 1 L

L

L1 1 L1

L2 1 L2

L3 1 L3

... ...

1 C C

1 C1 C1

1 C2 C2

1 C3 C3

... ...

Parallel

13.5 Engineering Notation
Table 13.4 –Engineering notation
Multiplying Factor Prefix Symbol Scientific Conventional
12

tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto

T G M k h da d c m µ n p f a

10 109 106 103 102 101

1,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001 0.000000001 0.000000000001 0.000000000000001 0.000000000000000001

10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-18

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13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS
Table 13.5 –Engineering notation e 2 3 /4 1/C 3/C 2.7183 3.1416 1.4142 1.7321 0.7854 one conductor three conductor greater than less than or equal to less than greater than or equal to sinh x cosh x (ex x (e e-x)/2 e-x)/2

13.6 Diameter of Multiconductor Cables
To calculate the overall diameter of a group of round conductors of uniform diameters twisted together, multipy the diameter of an individual conductor by the applicable factor below: Table 13.6 –Diameter of multiconductor cables
Number of Conductors Factor

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1.000 2.000 2.155 2.414 2.700 3.000 3.000 3.310 3.610

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13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS

13.7 Determination of Largest Possible Conductor in Cable Interstices
The following factors permit the calculation of the maximum size conductor that will fit into the interstices (open spaces) of various conductor configurations, while keeping within a circumscribing circle. Multiply the diameter of one main conductor by the factor from the chart below to obtain the largest diameter that will fit into the interstices. Table 13.7–Determination of largest possible conductor in cable interstices
Number of Main Conductors Factor

2 3 4 5 6

0.667 0.483 0.414 0.377 0.354

13.8 Conductor Diameter from Wire Diameter
To calculate the nominal diameter of any concentric-lay-stranded conductor made from round wires of uniform diameters, multiply the diameter of an individual wire by the applicable factor below: Table 13.8 –Concentric stranded conductor diameter from wire diameter
Number of Wires in Conductor Factor to Calculate Conductor Diameter

3 7 12 19 37 61 91 127 169 217 271

2.155 3.000 4.155 5.000 7.000 9.000 11.00 13.00 15.00 17.00 19.00 No. o f Wi res
226

For a greater number of wires use the formula: Conductor Diameter Wire Diameter 1.2 73
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13. FORMULAS AND CONSTANTS

13.9 Coaxial Capacitance
C 7.354 Log10 (1
0

2t /D)

Where C is 0 is t is D is Capacitance in picofarads per foot the Dielectric constant (SIC) Insulation thickness in mils Diameter over the conductor (diameter under the insulation) in mils

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

14.1 European Union (EU) Standards 14.1.1 CENELEC 14.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification 14.1.3 CENELEC Color Codes 14.1.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors 14.1.5 CEN 14.1.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 14.2 Austrian Standards 14.2.1 ÖVE 14.2.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 14.3 Belgian Standards 14.3.1 CEBEC 14.3.2 IBN/NBT 14.3.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 14.4 Danish Standards 14.4.1 DEMKO 14.4.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 14.5 French Standards 14.5.1 UTE 14.5.2 AFN 14.5.3 CIGRE 14.5.4 CNET 14.5.5 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations 14.6 German Standards 14.6.1 DIN 14.6.2 VDE 14.6.3 DKE 14.6.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

232 234 236 237 240 240

241 241

242 242 243

244 244

245 245 245 245 245

247 248 249 249

14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE (CONT)
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

14.7 Irish Standards 14.7.1 NSAI 14.7.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 14.8 Italian Standards 14.8.1 IMQ 14.8.2 CEI 14.8.3 CESI 14.8.4 UNEL 14.8.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 14.9 Dutch Standards 14.9.1 KEMA 14.9.2 NEC 14.9.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 14.10 Norwegian Standards 14.10.1 NEMKO 14.10.2 NTRA 14.10.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 14.11 Portuguese Standards 14.11.1 IPQ 14.11.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 14.12 Spanish Standards 14.12.1 AEE 14.12.2 AENC 14.12.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations

250 250

251 251 251 251 252

252 253 253

254 254 254

255 255

256 256 256

14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE (CONT)
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

14.13 Swedish Standards 14.13.1 SEMKO 14.13.2 ITS 14.13.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 14.14 Swiss Standards 14.14.1 SNV 14.14.2 PTT 14.14.3 TZV VS 14.14.4 SEV 14.14.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE

14.1 European Union (EU) Standards
14.1.1 CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization 2 rue Brederode 1000 Brussels, Belgium Tel: 32-2-550-0811
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

EN 50020 HD 21 HD 22 HD 359

Intrinsically Safe Electrical Apparatus PVC Insulated Wire & Cable Rubber Insulated Cables of Rated Voltages Up To and Including 450/750 V Flexible Elevator Cables

CENELEC has adopted common standards so the European community would have certain types of compatible cable. CENELEC adopts existing IEC standards whenever possible. As a result, HD-21 and HD-22 CENELEC committee documents are based on relevant IEC specifications. The member countries adopt these standards without any fundamental changes. Each country’s testing authority can do its own testing for a manufacturer to obtain HAR (Harmonized) approval. For example, in Germany the established specifications have been published as: • DIN 57281/VDE 0281 Specification for wire and cable for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation based on PVC. • DIN 57282/VDE 0282 Specification for wire and cable for power circuits with rubber insulation. German regulations in VDE 0250 refer to wire and cable which has been replaced by newer types complying with the harmonized regulations. The older types are no longer standard in the industry. The countries in Table 14.1 are permanent CENELEC members that recognize the HAR mark. When wire and cable is manufactured in a CENELEC country and is marked with the HAR approval on the jacket, it may be used interchangeably in the member countries. The HAR identification mark is applied along with the marks of origin and testing authority, to at least one conductor or the outer jacket. For example, Siemens products are marked: SIEMENS VDE HAR . In addition, there are country identification threads which are colored Black, Red, and Yellow. The different lengths of the colors indicate the nationality of the testing authority. For example, Black 3 cm (1.2 inches) long, Red 1 cm (0.4 inches) long, and Yellow 1 cm (0.4 inches) long, indicates Germany.

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
Table 14.1–CENELEC harmonized approvals in the European Union
Harmonized Marks (Imprint or Embossing on Jacket or Insulation)

CENELEC MEMBER COUNTRY

Licensing Body/ Certification Agency

Harmonized Marks (Black-Red-Yellow Identification Thread on Inside of Jacket) Black Red Yellow

Inches cm Inches cm Inches cm

Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Ireland

Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik (ÖVE) Comité Electrotechnique Belge (CEBEC) Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontroll Union Technique de l’Electricité (UTE) Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDE) National Standards Authority of Ireland (NSAI) Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita (IMQ)

ÖVE CEBEC DEMKO UTE VDE IIRS

HAR HAR HAR HAR HAR HAR

1.181 0.394 1.181 1.181 1.181 1.181

3 1 3 3 3 3

0.394 1.181 0.394 1.181 0.394 1.181

1 3 1 3 1 3

1.969 0.394 1.181 0.394 0.394 1.969

5 1 3 1 1 5

Italy

IEMMEQU

HAR

0.394

1

1.181

3

1.969

5

Netherlands N.V. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen (KEMA) Norway Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll (NEMKO)

KEMA-KEUR

HAR

0.394

1

1.181

3

1.181

3

NEMKO

HAR

0.394

1

0.394

1

2.756

7

Spain

Asociación Electrotécnica y Electrónica Española (AEE) Svenska Elektriska Materielkontrollanstalter (SEMKO)

UNE

HAR

1.181

3

0.394

1

2.756

7

Sweden

SEMKO

HAR

0.394

1

0.394

1

1.963

5

United Kingdom

British Approvals Service BASEC for Electric Cables

HAR

0.394

1

0.394

1

1.181

3

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
14.1.2 CENELEC Cable Identification

Type of Cable H A Harmonized standards Recognized national standards

Rated Voltage U0 / U 03 05 07 300/300 V 300/500 V 450/750 V

Insulating and sheathing material V R S E G N J T Q X N4 PVC Natural or synthetic rubber Silicone rubber Polyethylene EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) Polychloroprene (neoprene) Glass fiber braid Textile braid Polyurethane Cross-lined polyethylene CSP — Chlorosulfonated polyethylene

Special constructions H H2 flat construction - divisible flat construction - nondivisible

Conductor form U R K F H Y Rigid, round conductor, solid Rigid, round conductor, stranded Flexible conductor for fixed installations Flexible conductor of a flexible cable Highly flexible conductor of a flexible cable Tinsel conductor

Number of conductors Green/yellow conductor for earthing X G without earthing conductor with earthing conductor

Nominal cross section of the conductors

Figure 14.1–CENELEC cable identification code

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
PART 1 PART 2 PART 3

Harmonized type Rated voltage 450/750 V

Rubber insulated Neoprene jacketed Fine-stranded, flexible

3 conductors With protective ground conductor Conductor size 2.5 mm2

Figure 14.2 –Example of a CENELEC cable identification code Below are CENELEC identification codes for some common harmonized cable types:
CENELEC HARMONIZED ID CODE

H03VH-H . . . . . . . . . . . . PVC Flexible Figure “8” Cable H03VV-F2 . . . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300 V, 2 Core H03VV-F3 . . . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300 V, 3 Core H03VVH2-F2 . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300 V, 2 Core Oval H05RR-F2 . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 2 Core H05RR-F3 . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 3 Core H05RR-F4 . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 4 Core H05RR-F5 . . . . . . . . . . . Rubber/Rubber Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 5 Core H05V-U . . . . . . . . . . . . . PVC Single Conductor Building Wire, 450/750 V H05VV-F2 . . . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 2 Core H05VV-F3 . . . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 3 Core H05VV-F4 . . . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 4 Core H05VV-F5 . . . . . . . . . . . PVC/PVC Flexible Mains Cable, 300/500 V, 5 core H07V-K . . . . . . . . . . . . . PVC Appliance Wire, 450/750 V, Single Conductor H07V-R . . . . . . . . . . . . . PVC Single Conductor Building Wire, 450/750 V H07V-U . . . . . . . . . . . . . PVC Single Conductor Building Wire, 450/750 V, Solid Copper H05VVH2-F . . . . . . . . . . Flat Flexible Elevator Cable

235

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
14.1.3 CENELEC Color Codes
Through CENELEC, the EU countries have established the following color code systems. “Green/yellow” indicates green insulation with a yellow stripe:
• FOR FLEXIBLE CABLES:

1 conductor 2 conductor 3 conductor 4 conductor 5 conductor 5 conductors

all colors except yellow, green, white or grey brown and light blue green/yellow, brown and light blue green/yellow, black, light blue and brown green/yellow, black, light blue, brown and black one conductor green/yellow (placed in the outer layer), the other ones black with white number

• FOR FIXED INSTALLATIONS WITHOUT A GREEN/YELLOW EARTH CONDUCTOR:

1 conductor 2 conductor 3 conductor 4 conductor 5 conductor 5 conductors

all colors except yellow, green, white or grey black and light blue black, light blue and brown black, light blue, brown and black black, light blue, brown, black and black all conductors black with white numbers

• FOR FIXED INSTALLATIONS WITH A GREEN/YELLOW EARTH CONDUCTOR:

1 conductor 2 conductor 3 conductor 4 conductor 5 conductor 5 conductors

all colors except yellow, green, white or grey light blue and black green/yellow, black and light blue green/yellow, black, light blue and brown green/yellow, black, light blue, brown and black one conductor green/yellow (placed in the outer layer), the other ones black with white numbers

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
14.1.4 CENELEC Copper Conductors
In the EU, the number of wires in a conductor (the fineness of the strand) is indicated by a numeral instead of by a letter as with the U.S. system. For example, a Class 6 conductor has more wires than a Class 5. Tables 14.2 through 14.5 give the DC resistance for some common conductor sizes and stranding types. Table 14.2 –DC resistance of Class 1 (solid) copper conductors
NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

MINIMUM NUMBER OF WIRES

APPROXIMATE DIAMETER OF WIRE mm

MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C ohms/km

1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1.38 1.78 2.25 2.76 3.57 4.50 5.65 6.60

12.10 7.41 4.61 3.08 1.83 1.15 0.727 0.524

Table 14.3 –DC resistance and stranding of Class 2 copper conductors
MINIMUM NUMBER OF WIRES NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

CIRCULAR

COMPACT CIRCULAR OR SECTOR SHAPED

MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C ohms/km

1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 19 19 19 37

– – – – – 6 6 6 6 12 15 18

12.10 7.41 4.61 3.08 1.83 1.15 0.727 0.524 0.387 0.268 0.193 0.153 Continued
237
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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
Table 14.3 –DC resistance and stranding of Class 2 copper conductors Continued
MINIMUM NUMBER OF WIRES NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

CIRCULAR

COMPACT CIRCULAR OR SECTOR SHAPED

MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C ohms/km

150 185 240 300 400 500 630 800 1,000

37 37 61 61 61 61 91 91 91

18 30 34 34 53 53 53 53 53

0.124 0.0991 0.0754 0.0601 0.0470 0.0366 0.0283 0.0221 0.0176

Table 14.4 –DC resistance and stranding of Class 5 (flexible) copper conductors
MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

MAXIMUM DIAMETER OF WIRES mm

PLAIN COPPER ohms/km

TINNED COPPER ohms/km

0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120

0.21 0.21 0.21 0.26 0.26 0.31 0.31 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.51 0.51 0.51

39 26 19.5 13.3 7.98 4.95 3.30 1.91 1.21 0.780 0.554 0.386 0.272 0.206 0.161

40.1 26.7 20 13.7 8.21 5.09 3.39 1.95 1.24 0.795 0.565 0.393 0.277 0.210 0.164 Continued

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Table 14.4 –DC resistance and stranding of Class 5 (flexible) copper conductors Continued
MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

MAXIMUM DIAMETER OF WIRES mm

PLAIN COPPER ohms/km

TINNED COPPER ohms/km

150 185 240 300 400 500

0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.61

0.129 0.106 0.0801 0.0641 0.0486 0.0384

0.132 0.108 0.0817 0.0654 0.0495 0.0391

Table 14.5 –DC resistance and stranding of Class 6 (highly flexible) copper conductors
MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

MAXIMUM DIAMETER OF WIRES mm

PLAIN COPPER ohms/km

TINNED COPPER ohms/km

0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120

0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

39 26 19.5 13.3 7.98 4.95 3.30 1.91 1.21 0.780 0.554 0.386 0.272 0.206 0.161

40.1 26.7 20 13.7 8.21 5.09 3.39 1.95 1.24 0.795 0.565 0.393 0.277 0.210 0.164 Continued

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Table 14.5 –DC resistance and stranding of Class 6 (highly flexible) copper conductors Continued
MAXIMUM DC RESISTANCE AT 20°C NOMINAL CONDUCTOR SIZE mm
2

MAXIMUM DIAMETER OF WIRES mm

PLAIN COPPER ohms/km

TINNED COPPER ohms/km

150 185 240 300

0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

0.129 0.106 0.0801 0.0641

0.132 0.108 0.0817 0.0654

14.1.5 CEN European Committee for Standardization 2 rue Brederode 1000, Brussels, Belgium Tel: 32-2-550-0811 14.1.6 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations
Table 14.6 –EU supply voltages
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50 50

220 250

Table 14.7–EU power plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

“Schuko” European CEE 7

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

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14.2 Austrian Standards
14.2.1 ÖVE Österreichischer Verband Für Elektrotechnik Vienna Austria Tel: 43-1-587-6373 Fax: 43-1-586-7408 14.2.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration
Table 14.8 –Austrian supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated. Table 14.9 –Austrian plug configuration
Jack Plug Description

“Schuko” European CEE 7

241

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14.3 Belgian Standards
14.3.1 CEBEC Comité Electrotechnique Belge Brussels Belgium Tel: 32-2-556-0020 Fax: 32-2-556-0034 14.3.2 IBN/NBT Institut Belge de Normalisation Rue Van Orley, 5 1000 Bruxelles Belgium Tel: 32-2-217-2459 Fax: 32-2-223-1188
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

CEBEC

NBN C.33.111 NBN 146 NBN C.33.112 NBN C.33.121 NBN 751 NBN 759 NBN C.33.221 NBN C.33.321 NBN C.33.211 NBN C.33.322 NBN C.33.222 NBN 10 NBN 10.01 NBN 458.01
©Anixter Inc. 1996

Armored cables insulated with impregnated paper for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Lead-sheathed, paper-insulated telephone and signaling cables for industrial and private networks. Lead-sheathed, armored, paper-insulated cables for networks rated from 25 to 75 kV. Armored, PVC insulated cables for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Armored, polyethylene insulated cables for telephone networks. Armored, PVC insulated cables for signaling networks. Armored, aluminum conductor, PVC insulated cables for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Insulated, preassembled aerial conductors for low voltage distribution and branch circuits. Armored, aluminum conductor cables insulated with impregnated paper for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. PVC and XLP cables for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. PVC insulated cable assemblies with noninsulated neutral for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Stranded cables insulated with rubber. Flexible cables insulated with rubber. Flexible cables insulated with PVC.
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14.3.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations
Table 14.10 –Belgian supply voltages
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50 50

127/220 220/380

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Table 14.11–Belgian plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

Belgium Socket CEE 7/7 plug

243

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14.4 Danish Standards
14.4.1 DEMKO Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol Copenhagen Denmark Tel: 45-4-494-7266 14.4.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration
Table 14.12 –Danish supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

Table 14.13 –Danish plug configuration
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

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14.5 French Standards
14.5.1 UTE Union Technique de l’Electricité Immeuble Lavoisier 92052 Paris La Defense Cedex France Tel: 33-1-46-91-11-11 Fax: 33-1-47-89-47-75
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

NF C32-207 NF C33-209

Insulated Cables Covered with a Light PVC Sheath and Rated 300/500 V Cable Assemblies for Overhead Systems Rated 0.6/1 kV

14.5.2 AFN Association Française de Normalisation Tour Europe CEDEX 7 92080 Paris La Defense France 14.5.3 CIGRE Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques a Haute Tension 3-5 Rue de Metz F-75010 Paris France Tel: 33-1-42-46-50-85 Fax: 33-1-42-46-58-27 14.5.4 CNET
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

DEC-0611/C

Smoke Corrosiveness Test

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14.5.5 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations
Table 14.14 –French supply voltages
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/230 127/220

Table 14.15 –French plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

French Socket CEE 7/7 plug

“Schuko” European CEE 7

British Standard BS 1363

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14.6 German Standards
14.6.1 DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung Burggrafenstrasse 6 D-10787 Berlin Germany Tel: 49-30-260-10 Fax: 49-30-260-11231
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

0888

Optical Waveguides for Telecommunication Systems

Table 14.16 –DIN 47100 color code for single conductors
CONDUCTOR NO. COLOR CONDUCTOR NO. COLOR

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

white brown green yellow grey pink blue red black violet grey/pink red/blue white/green brown/green white/yellow yellow/brown white/grey grey/brown white/pink pink/brown white/blue brown/blue

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

white/red brown/red white/black brown/black grey/green yellow/green pink/green yellow/pink green/blue yellow/blue green/red yellow/red green/black yellow/black grey/blue pink/blue grey/red pink/red grey/black pink/black blue/black red/black

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Table 14.17–DIN 47100 color code for paired conductors
PAIR NO. WIRE A WIRE B

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

white green grey blue black grey/pink white/green white/yellow white/grey white/pink white/blue white/red white/black grey/green pink/green green/blue green/red green/black grey/blue grey/red grey/black blue/black

brown yellow pink red violet red/blue brown/green yellow/brown grey/brown pink/brown brown/blue brown/red brown/black yellow/grey yellow/pink yellow/blue yellow/red yellow/black pink/blue pink/red pink/black red/black

14.6.2 VDE Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (German Electrotechnical Society) Merianstrasse 29 D-63069 Offenbach (Frankfurt), Germany Tel: 49-69-840-0060 Fax: 49-69-840-00655
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

V D E

VDE 0472 part 813 VDE 0281 VDE 0282 VDE 0293 VDE 0295
©Anixter Inc. 1996

Corrosivity of combustion gases Wire and cable for power circuits with thermoplastic insulation based on PVC Wire and cable for power circuits with rubber insulation Identification of conductors in cables and flexible cords used in power installations rated up to 1,000 V Conductors of cables, wires, and flexible cords for power installation
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14.6.3 DKE Deutsche Elektrotechnische Kommission im DIN und VDE Stresemannallee 15 D-60596 Frankfurt 70 Germany Tel: 49-69-630-80 Fax: 49-69-630-8273 14.6.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.18 –German supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

Table 14.19 –German plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

“Schuko” European CEE 7

249

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14.7 Irish Standards
14.7.1 NSAI National Standards Authority of Ireland FORBAIRT - Glasnevin Dublin 9 Ireland Tel: 353-1-837-0101 Fax: 353-1-857-0441 14.7.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.20 –Irish supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Table 14.21–Irish plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

“Schuko” European CEE 7

British Standard BS 1363

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14.8 Italian Standards
14.8.1 IMQ Istituto Italiano del Marchio de Qualita Via Quintiliano, 43 20L38 Milano Italy Tel: 39-2-50731 Fax: 39-2-5073271 14.8.2 CEI Comitato Tecnico Italiano Viale Monza 259 20L56 Milano Italy Tel: 39-02-257-731 Fax: 39-2-25-773-210 14.8.3 CESI Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano Via Rubbattino 54 20134 Milano Italy Tel: 39-2-212-5340 Fax: 39-2-212-5481 14.8.4 UNEL Unificazione Electretechnia

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14.8.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.22 –Italian supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. Frequency tolerance: 2%; voltage tolerance: 10%. Table 14.23 –Italian plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

“Schuko” European CEE 7

14.9 Dutch Standards
14.9.1 KEMA N.V. tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische Materialen Utrechtseweg 310 6812 AR Arnhem Post Office Box 9035 6800 ET Arnhem Netherlands Tel: 31-85-56-91-11 Fax: 31-85-51-56-06

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
14.9.2 NEC Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee Post Office Box 5059 2600 Delft Netherlands Tel: 31-15-690-128 Fax: 31-15-690-242 14.9.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.24 –Dutch supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. Table 14.25 –Dutch plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

“Schuko” European CEE 7

253

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14.10 Norwegian Standards
14.10.1 NEMKO Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll 0371 Oslo Norway Tel: 47-2-296-0330 Fax: 47-2-296-8636 14.10.2 NTRA Post Office Box 2592 Solli 0203 Oslo 2 Norway Tel: 47-2-926-675 Fax: 47-2-441-177 14.10.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.26 –Norwegian supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

230

Table 14.27–Norwegian plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

“Schuko” European CEE 7

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE

14.11 Portuguese Standards
14.11.1 IPQ Instituto Portugues da Qualidade Rue José Estevao, 83 A 1199 Lisboa Codex Portugal Tel: 351-1-52-3978 Fax: 351-1-53-0033 14.11.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.28 –Portuguese supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

230/380

Table 14.29 –Portuguese plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

Old British Standard BS 546

255

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14.12 Spanish Standards
14.12.1 AEE Asociación Electrotécnica y Electrónica Española Spain 14.12.2 AENC Asociación Española de Normalización y Certificación Fernandez de la Hoz 52 28010 Madrid Spain Phone: 34-1-310-4961 Fax: 34-1-140-4976 14.12.3 Supply Voltages and Plug Configurations
Table 14.30 –Spanish supply voltages
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

UNE

50

127/220 220/380

A grounding conductor is required for the 220/380 voltage. Table 14.31–Spanish plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

Old British Standard BS 546

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14.13 Swedish Standards
14.13.1 SEMKO Svenska Electriska Materiel Kontrollanstalten Box 1103 S-16422 Kista Sweden Tel: 46-8-750-0000 Fax: 46-8-750-0303 14.13.2 ITS Information Technology Standardization Electrum 235 16440 Kista Sweden Phone: 46-8-793-9000 Fax: 46-8-751-5363 14.13.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.32 –Swedish supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

230/380

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances.

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Table 14.33 –Swedish plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

“Schuko” European CEE 7

14.14 Swiss Standards
14.14.1 SNV Schweizerische Normen Vereinigung (Swiss Standards Association) Postfach 8032 Zurich Switzerland Tel: 41-1-254-5454 Fax: 41-1-254-5474 14.14.2 PTT Swiss Postal and Telephone Agency 3030 Bern Switzerland
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

844.13

Standard for the Fabrication and Delivery of Hookup Wire and Standardized Communication Cable

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14. CONTINENTAL EUROPE
14.14.3 TZV VS Fachgremium für Technische Normierung 3000 Berne 29 Switzerland Phone: 41-31-622-713 Fax: 41-31-625-747 14.14.4 SEV Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein Switzerland 14.14.5 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 14.34 –Swiss supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

220/380

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Table 14.35 –Swiss plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

“Schuko” European CEE 7

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15. UNITED KINGDOM
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

15.1 Standards Organizations 15.1.1 BSI 15.1.2 BASEC 15.1.3 BBC 15.1.4 British Coal 15.1.5 BNFL 15.1.6 BRB 15.1.7 British Telecom 15.1.8 Department of the Environment 15.1.9 Department of Transport 15.1.10 ERA Technology Ltd. 15.1.11 EA 15.1.12 IEE 15.1.13 London Underground Limited 15.1.14 Ministry of Defense 15.1.15 Ministry of Defense (Navy) 15.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 15.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations

262 264 264 265 265 265 266 266 267 267 268 268 268 269 269

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15. UNITED KINGDOM

15.1 Standards Organizations
15.1.1 BSI British Standards Institution 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL England Tel: 44-181-996-9000 Fax: 44-181-996-7400
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

BS2G 210 BS23 BS115 BS125 BS174 BS176 BS177 BS182 BS183 BS215 BS443 BS638 BS1117 BS1432 BS2316 BS2627 BS2755 BS2873 BS3242 BS3573 BS4393 BS4565 BS4579 BS4066

PTFE insulated equipment wires with silver-plated conductors Copper and copper-cadmium trolley and contact wire for electric traction Metallic resistance materials for electric purposes Hard-drawn copper and copper-cadmium conductors for overhead power transmission purposes Hard-drawn copper and copper-cadmium wire for telegraph and telephone purposes Copper binding and jointing wires for telegraph and telephone purposes Copper and copper-cadmium tapes and binders for telegraph and telephone purposes Galvanized line-wire for telegraph and telephone purposes General purpose galvanized steel wire strand Aluminum conductors and aluminum conductors, steel-reinforced, for overhead power transmission Galvanized coatings on wire Welding Cables Bare fine resistance wire for precision electrical equipment Copper for electrical purposes; strip with drawn or rolled edges Radio frequency cables Wrought aluminum for electrical purposes wire Copper and copper-cadmium-stranded conductors for overhead electric traction systems Copper and copper alloys wire Aluminum alloy stranded conductors for overhead electric traction systems Polyethylene-insulated copper conductor telecommunication distribution cables Tin or tin-lead-coated copper wire Galvanized steel wire for aluminum conductors, steel reinforced Performance of mechanical and compression joints in electric cable and wire connectors Flame-retardant tests of electric cables Continued

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15. UNITED KINGDOM
15.1.1 BSI British Standards Institution 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL England Tel: 44-181-996-9000 Fax: 44-181-996-7400
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

BS4109 BS4553 BS4808 BS4990 BS5055 BS5099 BS5308 BS5425 BS5467 BS5468 BS5469 BS6004 BS6141 BS6195 BS6207 BS6231 BS6346 BS6360 BS6387 BS6480 BS6500 BS6708 BS6746 BS6853

Copper for electrical purposes. Wire for general electrical purpose and for insulated cables and flexible cords PVC-insulated split concentric cables with copper conductors for electric supply L.F. cables and wires with PVC insulation and PVC sheath for telecommunication Copper-clad aluminum conductors in insulated cables PVC-insulated and elastomer-insulated cables for electric signs and highvoltage luminous-discharge-tube installations Spark testing of electric cables Instrumentation cables Specification for coaxial cables for wire distribution systems Specification for armored cables with thermosetting insulation for electricity supply Specification for cross-linked polyethylene insulation of electric cables Specification for hard ethylene propylene rubber insulation of electric cables PVC-insulated cables for electric power and lighting Insulated cables and flexible cords for use in high temperature zones Insulated flexible cables and cords for coil leads Mineral-insulated cables PVC-insulated cables for switchgear and control gear wiring PVC-insulated cables for electricity supply Conductors in insulated cables and cords Cable test for circuit integrity under fire conditions Impregnated paper-insulated cables for electricity supply Insulated flexible cords Specification for trailing cables for mining purposes PVC insulation and sheath of electric cables 3 meter cube smoke apparatus Continued

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15.1.1 BSI British Standards Institution 389 Chiswick High Road London W4 4AL England Tel: 44-181-996-9000 Fax: 44-181-996-7400
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

BS6862 BS6883 BS6899 BS6977 PD6455

Cables for vehicles Elastomer-insulated cable for fixed wiring in ships Rubber insulation and sheath of electric cables Flexible cables for electric and hydraulic elevators Metric dimensions for l.f. cables and wires for telecommunications

15.1.2 BASEC British Approvals Service for Electric Cables Maylands Avenue Homel Hempstead, Hertfordshire HP2 4SQ England Tel: 44-190-869-1121 Contact: Milton Keynes 15.1.3 BBC British Broadcasting Company 56 Wood Lane London W12 7RJ England Tel: 44-171-580-4468
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

PSF 1/2M PSF 1/3M PSF 2/9M PSF 4/1M PSF 1/9M

Video Cable Video Cable Microphone Cable Microphone Cable Flexible Camera Cable

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15. UNITED KINGDOM
15.1.4 British Coal (formerly NCB) Ashby Road Stanthorpe Bretby Burton-on-Trent Staffordshire DE15 0QD England Tel: 44-128-355-0500
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

NCB188 BCS295 NCB504 NCB505 NCB653

Flexible trailing cables for use with coalcutters and similar purposes PVC insulated, wire armored and PVC sheathed cables Flexible trailing cables with galvanized steel pliable armoring Flexible trailing cables for use with drills Flexible multicore screened auxiliary cables with galvanized steel pliable armoring

15.1.5 BNFL British Nuclear Fuels Limited Engineering Division Risley Warrington WA3 6AS England Tel: 44-192-583-2000
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

PM73479

Cables for electricity supply and control having low emission of smoke and corrosive gases when affected by fire

15.1.6 BRB British Railways Board Railway Technical Centre London Road Derby DE24 8UP England Tel: 44-133-234-2442
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

BR 872 DC 112 TDE/76/P/16 TDE/74/P/74 BRB/RIA 10 BRB/LUL/RIA 21

Flame Retardant Compound Insulated Cables for Railway Signalling Track Feeder Cable for DC Electrified Lines Single Core Cables for Traction and Rolling Stock (Cross-linked Polyolefin Types) Internal Cabling for Electronic Equipment Twin and Multicore Jumper Cables for Diesel and Electric Vehicles Single Core Cables for Installation on Traction and Rolling Stock (Rubber Types)
265
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15.1.7 British Telecom 81 Newgate Street London EC1A 7AJ England Tel: 44-171-356-5000
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

2001 2002 2003A CW135 CW193 CW210 CW1109 CW1128 CW1198 CW1229 CW1236 CW1252 CW1257 CW1293 CW1308 CW1311 CW1316 CW1378 CW1600

Coaxial cable Coaxial cable Coaxial cable See CW 1293 & 1308 See CW 1293 & 1308 See CW 1293 & 1308 Single, twin and triple jumper wire for electronic equipment Polyethylene insulated and sheathed, jelly-filled, twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (up to & including 100 pairs) External telephone cable Coaxial cable Polyethylene insulated and sheathed, jelly-filled, twisted-pair telephone cable for outdoor use (above 100 pairs) Self-supporting aerial telephone cable Jumper wire Internal telephone cable PVC-insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use Telephone cordage Undercarpet telephone cable Drop wire No. 10 “LFH” insulated and sheathed telephone cable for indoor use

15.1.8 Department of the Environment
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

M&E 42

Aviation ground lighting. Single core 6 mm2 (2,000 volt) PVC-sheathed cable

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15. UNITED KINGDOM
15.1.9 Department of Transport Tollgate House Houlton Street Bristol BS2 9DJ England Tel: 44-117-921-8811
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

TR 1173 TR 1238 TR 2029

Multipair communications cable, polyethylene-insulated, polyethylenesheathed, armored Power cable for motorway communication systems (split concentric, armored) Inductive loop cable for vehicle detection systems

15.1.10 ERA Technology Ltd. Cleeve Road Leatherhead Surrey KT22 7SA England Tel: 44-137-237-4151 Fax: 44-137-237-4496
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

ERA 69-30 Part I ERA 69-30 Part III ERA 69-30 Part V ERA 93-0233R

Sustained current ratings for paper-insulated, lead-sheathed cables Sustained current ratings for PVC insulated cables Sustained current ratings for cables with thermosetting insulation User’s guide to power cable fault location

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15. UNITED KINGDOM
15.1.11 EA (Formerly ESI) Electricity Association 30 Millbank Street London SW1P 4RD England Tel: 44-171-963-5700
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

09-6 09-7 09-8

Auxiliary multicore and multipair cables PVC-insulated concentric service cables with stranded copper conductors and copper concentric conductors Impregnated paper insulated 600/1,000 volt cable with three solid aluminum phase conductors and aluminum sheath/neutral conductor (CONSAC) Impregnated paper insulated corrugated aluminum sheathed 6,350/11,000 volt cable (PICAS) Aerial bundled conductors (ABC) insulated with cross-linked polyethylene for low voltage overhead distribution

09-12 43-13

15.1.12 IEE Institution of Electrical Engineers Savoy Place London WC2R 0BL England Tel: 44-171-240-1871 15.1.13 London Underground Limited Scientific Services Frank Pick House Bollo Lane Acton, London W3 8RP England Tel: 44-171-724-5600
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

RSE/STD/024 part 6 EME-SP-14-027-A1 EME-SP-14-026-A1

Cables for use on rolling stock (“LFII” types) 2, 3 & 4 core SWA cable - low voltage, limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated), 2.5 mm2 to 300 mm2 Single core cable - insulated nonsheathed, limited fire hazard (low smoke nonhalogenated), 1.5 mm2 to 300 mm2

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15. UNITED KINGDOM
15.1.14 Ministry of Defense Directorate of Standardization Stan 1 Kentigern House 65 Brown Street Glasgow G2 8EX Scotland Tel: 44-141-248-7890
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

DEF.STAN 61-12 part I DEF.STAN 61-12 part 2 DEF.STAN 61-12 part 4 DEF.STAN 61-12 part 5 DEF.STAN 61-12 part 6 DEF.STAN 61-12 part 8

Cables, electrical (insulated flexible cords and flexible cables) Cables, electrical (for power and lighting) Cables, special purpose, electrical (subminiature electric cables) Cables, special purpose, electrical, and cables, power, electrical (small multicore cables) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, or silicone rubber insulated equipment wires PTFE insulated equipment wire

DEF.STAN 61-12 part 9 Cables, radio frequency (coaxial) DEF.STAN 61-12 part 18 Equipment wires, low toxicity DEF.STAN 61-12 part 25 Cables, electrical, limited fire hazard, up to conductor size 2.5 mm2

15.1.15 Ministry of Defense Naval Engineering Standards Block E Foxhill Bath BA1 5AB England Tel: 44-122-588-4884
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

NES525 NES526 NES527

Requirements for electric cables, thin-wall insulated, limited fire hazard Requirements for cables, electric, rubber insulated, limited fire hazard, sheathed for general services Requirements for cables, electric, fire survival, high temperature zones and limited fire hazard, sheathed

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15.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 15.1–United Kingdom supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

230/400

Table 15.2 –United Kingdom plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

British Standard BS 1363

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16. LATIN AND SOUTH AMERICA
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

16.1 Mexican Standards 16.1.1 NOM 16.1.2 ANCE 16.1.3 COTNNIE 16.1.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration 16.2 Venezuelan Standards 16.2.1 COVENIN 16.3 Brazilian Standards 16.3.1 ABNT 16.4 Colombian Standards 16.4.1 ICONTEC

272 272 272 273

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274

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16. LATIN AND SOUTH AMERICA

16.1 Mexican Standards
16.1.1 NOM Norma Oficial Mexicana Secretaria de Comercio y Fomento Industrial Dirección General de Normas México, D.F.
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

NOM-001-SEMP NOM-J-8 NOM-J-12 NOM-J-36 NOM-J-93 NOM-J-142 NOM-J-177 NOM-J-178 NOM-J-186 NOM-J-212 NOM-J-293 NOM-J-294 NOM-J-297 NOM-J-300

Installations Intended for the Administration and Use of Electrical Energy Annealing of Tractable Tin-Plated Copper Wire for Electrical Use Electrical Products — Wire and Cables — Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Cable for Electrical Applications Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Applications Determination of the Resistance to Fire Propagation on Electrical Conductors — Test Method Crosslinked Polyethylene or Ethylene Propylene Rubber Insulated Shielded Power Cable Rated 5 through 115 kV Determination of Thickness of Shields, Semiconductors, Insulations and Protective Covers of Electrical Conductors Determination of Tensile Strength and Elongation of Semiconducting Shields, Insulations and Protective Covers of Electrical Conductors Accelerated Heat Aging of Semiconducting Shields, Insulations and Protective Covers of Electrical Conductors Conductors, Electrical Resistance and Resistivity Test Method Electric Products — Insulated Electric Conductors — High-Voltage AC and DC — Test Method Insulation Resistance Test Method Electrical Products — Wires and Cables — Flexible Cords with Copper Conductors for Electrical and Electronic Applications Control Cables with Thermoplastic or Thermosetting Insulation for 600 V and 1,000 V AC and Maximum Conductor Temperature of 75°C and 90°C

16.1.2 ANCE Asociación Nacional de Normalización y Certificación del Sector Eléctrico 16.1.3 COTNNIE Mexican National Electrical Standards

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16. LATIN AND SOUTH AMERICA
16.1.4 Supply Voltage and Plug Configuration
Table 16.1–Mexican supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

127/220

Table 16.2 –Mexican plug configuration
Jack Plug Description

North American Ungrounded

16.2 Venezuelan Standards
16.2.1 COVENIN Caracas, Venezuela Contact: Carmen Diaz Suarez Tel: 58-2-575-4111
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

COVENIN #200

Venezuelan National Electrical Standards (Essentially the same as the U.S. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70])

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16.3 Brazilian Standards
16.3.1 ABNT Association of Brazilian Technical Standards (Associação Brazileira De Normas Técnicas) Niteroi, Brazil Contact: Fernando Rosa Tel: 55-21-210-3122 Fax: 55-21-240-8249
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

NBR 5410 NBR 11301

Electrical Installations for Buildings — Low Voltage — Procedure Calculation of the Continuous Current Ratings of Cables at 100% load factor (Based on IEC 287)

16.4 Colombian Standards
16.4.1 ICONTEC Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas (Colombian Institute for Standardization) Bogota, Colombia Tel: 57-1-315-0377 Fax: 57-1-222-1435
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

NTC 2050

Colombian National Electrical Standards (Essentially the same as the U.S. National Electrical Code [NFPA 70])

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17. CANADA
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

17.1 Standards Organizations 17.1.1 CSA 17.1.2 SCC 17.2 Cable Types 17.2 Cable Types 17.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 17.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 17.4 Fire Ratings 17.4.1 “FT1” Fire Test 17.4.2 “FT4” Fire Test 17.4.3 “FT6” Fire Test

276 278

279

287

288 288 288

17. CANADA

17.1 Standards Organizations
17.1.1 CSA Canadian Standards Association 178 Rexdale Boulevard Rexdale, Ontario M9W1R3 Canada Tel: 416-744-4000
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

C22.1 C22.2 No. 0 C22.2 No. 0.3 C22.2 No. 0.6 C22.2 No. 0.7 C22.2 No. 0.8 C22.2 No. 0.11 C22.2 No. 0.12 C22.2 No. 16 C22.2 No. 17 C22.2 No. 18 C22.2 No. 21 C22.2 No. 26 C22.2 No. 35 C22.2 No. 38 C22.2 No. 41 C22.2 No. 42 C22.2 No. 48 C22.2 No. 49 C22.2 No. 51 C22.2 No. 52 C22.2 No. 56 C22.2 No. 62 C22.2 No. 65 C22.2 No. 75 C22.2 No. 96 C22.2 No. 116

Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1 General Requirements—Canadian Electrical Code, Part 2 Test Methods for Electrical Wire and Cables Flammability Testing of Polymeric Materials Equipment Electrically Connected to a Telecommunication Network Safety Functions Incorporating Electronic Technology Classification of Polymeric Compounds Wiring Space and Wire Bending Space in Enclosures for Equipment Rated 750 V or Less Insulated Conductors for Power-Operated Electronic Devices Cable for Luminous-Tube Signs and for Oil and Gas-Burner Ignition Equipment Outlet Boxes, Conduit Boxes, and Fittings Cord Sets and Power Supply Cords Wireways, Auxiliary Gutters, and Associated Fittings Extra-Low-Voltage Control Circuit Cables, Low-Energy Control Cable, and Extra-Low-Voltage Control Cable Thermoset-Insulated Wires and Cables Grounding and Bonding Equipment General Use Receptacles, Attachment Plugs, and Similar Wiring Devices Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Flexible Cords and Cables Armored Cables Service-Entrance Cables Flexible Metal Conduit and Liquid-Tight Flexible Metal Conduit Surface Raceways and Lighting Fixture Raceways and Fittings Wire Connectors Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables Portable Power Cables Coil-Lead Wires Continued

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17. CANADA
17.1.1 CSA Canadian Standards Association 178 Rexdale Boulevard Rexdale, Ontario M9W1R3 Canada Tel: 416-744-4000
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

C22.2 No. 123 C22.2 No. 124 C22.2 No. 126 C22.2 No. 127 C22.2 No. 129 C22.2 No. 130 C22.2 C22.2 C22.2 C22.2 No. No. No. No. 131 138 174 179

Aluminum-Sheathed Cables Mineral-Insulated Cable Cabletroughs and Fittings Equipment Wires Neutral Supported Cable Heating Cables and Heating Cable Sets Type TECK 90 Cable Heat Tracing Cable and Cable Sets for Use in Hazardous Locations Cables and Cable Glands for Use in Hazardous Locations Airport Series Lighting Cables Splicing Wire and Cable Connectors PVC Insulating Tape Underground Cable Splicing Kits Fire Alarm and Signal Cable Appliance Wiring Material Products Rigid PVC (Unplasticized) Conduit Communications Cables Type FCC Under-Carpet Wiring Systems Tray Cables Optical Fiber Cables Control and Instrumentation Cables Round Wire, Concentric-Lay, Overhead Electrical Conductors Compact Aluminum Conductors Steel Reinforced (ACSR) Aluminum Alloy 1350 Round Wire, All Tempers for Electrical Purposes Concentric-Lay Aluminum-Stranded Conductors (ACSC) Compact Round Concentric-Lay Aluminum-Stranded Conductors (Compact ACSC) Zinc-Coated Steel Wires for Use in Overhead Electrical Conductors Aluminum Round Wires for Use in Overhead Electrical Conductors Electrical Power Connectors for use in Overhead Line Conductors Paper-Insulated Power Cable Concentric Neutral Power Cable Continued

C22.2 No. 188 C22.2 No. 197 C22.2 No. 198 C22.2 No. 208 C22.2 No. 210 C22.2 No. 211 C22.2 No. 214 C22.2 No. 222 C22.2 No. 230 C22.2 No. 232 C22.2 No. 239 C49.1 C49.2 C49.3 C49.4 C49.5 C49.6 C49.7 C57 C68.1 C68.2

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17. CANADA
CSA Canadian Standards Association 178 Rexdale Boulevard Rexdale, Ontario M9W1R3 Canada Tel: 416-744-4000
Continued
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

C68.3 C68.4 C83 C170.2 C170.3 Z243.12.2

Power Cable with Thermoset Insulation Portable Power Cable Communication and Power Line Hardware Polyethylene Protective Covering on Paper-Insulated Metallic-Sheathed Power Cable Polyvinyl-Chloride (PVC) Protective Covering on Paper-Insulated MetallicSheathed Power Cable Data Communication-15 Pin DTE/DCE Interface Connector and Pin Assignments

17.1.2 SCC Standards Council of Canada 350 Sparks Street Suite 1203 Ottawa, Ontario KIR 750 Canada Tel: 613-238-3222 Fax: 613-995-4564

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17. CANADA

17.2 Cable Types
Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For exposed wiring in dry locations only For exposed wiring in dry locations where exposed to corrosive action, if suitable for corrosive conditions encountered For exposed wiring in dry locations where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations, where not exposed to mechanical injury For exposed wiring in dry or damp locations

Armored Cable Armored Cable

TECK90 AC90 TECK90

90 90 90

Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable

NMD90

90

Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable

NMW, NMWU

60

Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable Nylon Jacketed Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable

R90 TW T90 NYLON

90 60 90

NMD90

90 Continued

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17. CANADA
Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For exposed wiring in wet locations

Armored Cable Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Aluminum-Sheathed Cable Mineral-Insulated Cable Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable

TECK90 ACWU90 RW75 RL90, RW90 RA75 RA90 MI, LWMI TW TW 75 NMWU TECK90 RW75 R90, RW90 TW, TWU TWU75 NS-1, NSF-2 NMWU TECK90 AC90 NMD90 NMW, NMWU

90 90 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 60 90 75 90 60 75 75 60 90 90 90 60

For exposed wiring where exposed to the weather

Armored Cable Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable Neutral-Supported Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable

For concealed wiring, dry locations only For concealed wiring, dry and damp locations For concealed wiring in dry locations and in Category 1 and 2 locations where not exposed to mechanical injury

Armored Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable

Continued

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17. CANADA
Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For concealed wiring in wet locations

Armored Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Aluminum-Sheathed Cable Mineral-Insulated Cable

TECK90 ACWU90 NMWU RA75 RA90 MI, LWMI R90 TW T90 NYLON RW75, RWU75 RW90, RWU90 TW, TWU TW75, TWU75 AC90 TECK90

90 90 60 75 90 90 90 60 90 75 90 60 75 90 90

For use in raceways, except cable trays, in dry or damp locations

Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable Nylon Jacketed Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable

For use in raceways, except cable trays, in wet locations

Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable

For use in ventilated, nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in dry locations only For use in ventilated, nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations

Armored Cable

Armored Cable

TECK90 ACWU90

90 90

Aluminum-Sheathed Cable Mineral-Insulated Cable Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Lead-Sheathed Cable

RA75 RA90 MI, LWMI RL90

75 90 90 90

Continued

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Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For use in ventilated and nonventilated cable trays in vaults and switch rooms For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority)

Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable

RW75 RW90

75 90

Armored Cable Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Aluminum-Sheathed Cable

ACWU90 TECK90 NMWU RWU75 RL90, RWU90 RA75 RA90 MI, LWMI TWU TWU75 ASLC AC90 ACWU90 TECK90 RA75 RA90 MI NS-1 NSF-2

90 90 60 75 90 75 90 90 60 75 90 90 90 90 75 90 90 75

For direct earth burial (with protection as required by inspection authority)

Mineral-Insulated Cable Thermoplastic-Insulated Cable Airport series lighting cable

For service entrance above ground

Armored Cable

Aluminum-Sheathed Cable Mineral-Insulated Cable Neutral Supported Cable

Continued

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17. CANADA
Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For service entrance below ground

Service-Entrance Cable Thermoplastic Insulated Wire Rubber- (Thermoset-) Insulated Cable Armored Cable Aluminum-Sheathed Cable

USEI90 USEB90 TWU TWU75 RWU75 RWU90 TECK90 ACWU90 RA75 RA90 GTO, GTOL – LVT

90 90 60 75 75 90 90 90 75 90 60 60 60

For high-voltage wiring in luminous-tube signs For use in raceways in hoistways For use in Class 2 circuits, in exposed or concealed wiring or use in raceways, in dry or damp locations For use in Class 2 circuits in dry locations in concealed wiring or exposed wiring where not subject to mechanical injury For use when concealed indoors under carpet squares, in dry or damp locations

Luminous-Tube Sign Cable Hoistway Cable Extra-Low-Voltage Control Cable

Extra-Low-Voltage Control Cable

ELC

60

Flat Conductor Cable

FCC

60

Continued

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Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For use in communication circuits when exposed, concealed or used in raceways, indoors in dry or damp locations, or in ceiling air handling plenums For use in communication and community antenna distribution circuits when exposed, concealed or used in raceways, indoors in dry or damp locations or in plenums For use in communication circuits, when exposed, concealed, or used in raceways, in dry or damp locations, within and between buildings For use in communication circuits when concealed indoors under carpet squares, in dry or damp locations

Inside Wiring Cable Z Station Wire Premise Communication Cable Communication Cable

IWC ZSW PCC MPP, CMP, MPR, CMR, MPG, CMG, MP, CM, CMX, CMH CXC

60 60 60 60

Coaxial Cable

60

Communication Building Cable

CBC

60

Communication Flat Cable

CFC

60

Continued

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17. CANADA
Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For use in communication circuits when exposed, concealed or used in raceways, indoors in dry or damp locations, or in ceiling air handling plenums For use in fire alarm, signal and voice communication circuits where exposed, concealed or used in raceways, indoors in dry or damp locations For use in raceways including ventilated, nonventilated and ladder type cable trays in wet locations and where exposed to weather For use in cable trays in Class I Division 2 and Class II Division 2 hazardous locations For use in buildings in dry or damp locations, where exposed, concealed or used in raceways, or in plenums

Flame and Smoke Tested Cable

FSTC

60

Fire Alarm and Signal Cable

FAS FAS 90 FAS 105 FAS 200

60 90 105 200

Tray Cable

TC

As marked on cable.

Tray Cable

TC

As marked on cable.

Nonconductive Optical Fiber Cable

OFNP, OFNR, OFNG, OFN, OFNH

60 (higher if so marked on cable)

Continued

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17. CANADA
Table 17.1–Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures Continued
Maximum Allowable Conductor Temperature °C

Conditions of Use

Trade Designation

CSA Type Designation

For use in buildings in dry or damp locations, where exposed, concealed or used in raceways, or in plenums For use in buildings in dry or damp locations, where exposed or concealed Source: CSA C22.1

Conductive Optical Fiber Cable

OFCP, OFCR, OFCG, OFC, OFCH

60 (higher if so marked on cable)

Hybrid Conductor Cable

NMDH90

90

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17. CANADA

17.3 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 17.2 –Canadian supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

60

120/240

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. Three-phase, 4-wire systems such as 120/208 volts are available as well as 347/600 volts for commercial establishments. Table 17.3 –Canadian plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

North American Ungrounded

North American NEMA 5-15

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17.4 Fire Ratings
The Canadian Electrical Code, published by the Canadian Standards Association, is the national safety code for electrical installations that is adopted into law by each province and territory with amendments or local rules. The Code includes references to a stringent series of tests developed for flame testing of wires and cables. Cables are marked from “FT1” to “FT6,” depending on which of the specified flame test requirements they fulfill.

17.4.1 “FT1” Fire Test
The FT1 test procedure is known as the “Vertical Test” (published in CSA Standard C22.2 No. 0.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables, para 4.11.1). Cables are subjected to five, 15 second duration applications of a specified flame. For the cable to pass the test, burning must cease within 60 seconds after removal of the flame source, and not more than 25% of the extended portion of the indicator can be burned.

17.4.2 “FT4” Fire Test
The FT4 test procedure is known as the Vertical Flame Test — Cables in trays (published in CSA Standard C22.2 No. 0.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables, para 4.11.4). Cables are mounted on a vertical tray and exposed for 20 minutes to a 70,000 BTU/hr flame. For the cable to pass the test, the resulting char distance must not be greater than 1.5 meters from the point of flame application.

17.4.3 “FT6” Fire Test
The FT6 test procedure is known as the Plenum Flame Test (published in CSA Standard C22.2 No. 0.3 Test Methods for Electrical Wires and Cables, para 4.11.6). Designations The markings for wires and cables meeting the flame spread requirements of the National Building Code of Canada (without additional fire protection) are: FT1—Wires and cables that are suitable for installation in buildings of combustible construction; and FT4—Wires and cables that are suitable for installation in: (a) buildings of noncombustible and combustible construction; and (b) spaces between a ceiling and floor, or ceiling and roof, that may be used as a plenum in buildings of combustible or noncombustible construction. Wires and cables with combustible outer jackets or sheaths that do not meet the above classifications should be located in noncombustible raceways, masonry walls or concrete slabs.

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18. ASIA AND THE PACIFIC RIM
ITEM PAGE

CONTENTS

18.1 Australian Standards 18.1.1 SAA 18.1.2 Austel 18.1.3 ETSA 18.1.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration 18.1.5 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables 18.2 Singapore Standards 18.2.1 SISIR 18.2.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations 18.3 Japanese Standards 18.3.1 JIS 18.3.2 Plug Configuration

290 291 291 292 292

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18. ASIA AND THE PACIFIC RIM

18.1 Australian Standards
18.1.1 SAA Standards Australia (Standards Association of Australia) 80 Arthur Street S TRAL AU IA Post Office Box 458 O North Sydney, NSW 2060 Australia Tel: 61-2-963-4111 Fax: 61-2-959-3896
N
T

N STA DARD

DOCUMENT NO.

TITLE

AS 1026 AS 1125 AS 2380 AS 2381 AS 2430 AS 3000 AS 3008 AS 3008.1 AS 3112 AS 3116 AS 3123 AS 3147 AS 3155 AS 3158 AS 3166 AS 3178 AS 3187

Impregnated Paper Insulated Cables for Electricity Supply at Working Voltages Up To and Including 33 kV (Metric Units) Conductors in Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cords Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Explosion Protection Techniques Electrical Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres — Selection, Installation and Maintenance Classification of Hazardous Areas SAA Wiring Rules Electrical Installations — Selection of Cables Part I: Cables for Alternating Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Plugs and Socket-Outlets Electric Cables — Elastomer Insulated for Working Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Plugs, Socket-Outlets and Couplers for General Industrial Application Electric Cables — Thermoplastic Insulated and Flexible Cables for Working Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Neutral Screened Cables for Working Voltages of 0.6/1 kV Fibrous-Insulated Electric Cables and Flexible Cables for Working Voltages of 0.6/1 kV PVC Insulated Cables for Electric Signs and High-Voltage Luminous Discharge Tube Installations Electric Cables — Silicone Rubber Insulated — for Working Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Mineral-Insulated Metal-Sheathed Cables Continued

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A

PP

ROVED

18. ASIA AND THE PACIFIC RIM
Continued

DOCUMENT NO.

TITLE

AS 3188 AS 3191 AS 3198 AS 3560

Terminations and Glands for Mineral-Insulated Metal-Sheathed Cables Electric Flexible Cords (Incorporation Corrigenda) Electric Cables — XLPE Insulated for Working Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV Electric Cables — Aerial-Bundled Voltages Up To and Including 0.6/1 kV

18.1.2 Austel Australian Telecommunications Authority
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

009

Installation Requirements for Customer Cabling (Wiring Rules)

18.1.3 ETSA Electricity Trust of South Australia

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18.1.4 Supply Voltages and Plug Configuration
Table 18.1–Australian supply voltages
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50 50

240/415 250/440

The neutral wire of the secondary distribution system is grounded. A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances that are not double insulated. Table 18.2 –Australian plug configuration
Jack Plug

18.1.5 Limiting Temperatures for Insulated Cables
Table 18.3 –Limiting temperatures for Australian insulated cables
Cable Operating Temperature, °C Type of Cable Insulation Normal Use Minimum

Elastomer compounds Type R-EP-90 Type R-CSP-90 Type R-CPE-90 Type R-HF-90 Type R-S-150 Type R-S-200 Thermoplastic compounds Type V-75 Type HFI-75-TP Type V-90 Type HFI-90-TP Type V-105

90 90 90 90 150 200 75 75 75 75 75

40 20 20 20 50 50 0 20 0 20 0 Continued

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Table 18.3 –Limiting temperatures for Australian insulated cables Continued
Cable Operating Temperature, °C Type of Cable Insulation Normal Use Minimum

Heat-resisting fibrous insulation Type 110 Type 150 Type 200 Type 200 plus Mineral-insulated cables copper-sheathed (MIMS) Paper Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) Source: SAA Wiring Rules (AS 3000)

110 150 200 200 90 80 90

0 0 0 0 – 5 70

18.2 Singapore Standards
18.2.1 SISIR Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial Research 1 Science Park Drive Singapore Science Park Singapore 0511 Contact: Mr. Liep Lin Yap Tel: 65-778-7777 Fax: 65-776-1568
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

SS358 SS299 Part 1

300/500 V and 450/750 V nonarmored, PVC insulated power cables 300/500 V and 450/750 V fire resistant power cables

The following British and international cable standards are also used in Singapore: BS6004, BS6346, BS6387, BS6500, IEC 331, and IEC 502.

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18.2.2 Supply Voltage and Plug Configurations
Table 18.4 –Singapore supply voltage
FREQUENCY (Hz) VOLTAGE

50

230/400

A grounding conductor is required in the electrical cord attached to appliances. Table 18.5 –Singapore plug configurations
Jack Plug Description

Ungrounded Eurocord CEE 7/16

British Standard BS 1363

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18.3 Japanese Standards
18.3.1 JIS Japanese Industrial Standards Available from: American National Standards Institute 1430 Broadway, New York NY 10018 Tel: 212-354-3300
DOCUMENT NO. TITLE

JIS C3613

Oil-Filled Type Paper Insulated Aluminum-Sheathed Power Cables

18.3.2 Plug Configuration
Table 18.6 –Japanese plug configuration
Jack Plug

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GLOSSARY
0 –10 V — A common analog process control signal voltage range. 4 – 20 mA — A common analog process control signal current range. AIR SPACED COAX — A coaxial cable in which air is basically the dielectric material. The conductor may be centered by means of a spirally wound synthetic filament, beads or braided filaments. This construction is also referred to as an air dielectric. AL — Aluminum ALLOY — A substance (usually metallic) composed of two or more individual substances. ALS — A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous, closely fitting aluminum tube. ALTERNATING CURRENT — Electric current that periodically reverses direction. Alternating current is generally abbreviated AC. AM — Amplitude modulation. A method of adding information to an electronic signal where the height (amplitude) of the wave is changed to convey the added information. AMBIENT — Conditions existing at a location prior to energizing of equipment (example: ambient temperature). AMPACITY — The rms current which a device can carry within specified temperature limitations in a specified environment: dependent upon, a) temperature rating, b) power loss, c) heat dissipation. AMPERE — A standard unit of current. Designated as the amount of current that flows when one volt of emf is applied across one ohm of resistance. An ampere of current is flowing when one coulomb of charge is passing a point every second. AMPERE-TURN — The product of amperes times the number of turns in a coil. AMPLIFIER — A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal. AMPLITUDE — The maximum value of a varying wave form. AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) — Transmission method in which variations in the voltage or current waveform of a signal carry encoded information. ANALOG — Not digital. A continuously varying waveform. ANNEAL — To soften and relieve strains in any solid material, such as metal or glass, by heating to just below its melting point and then slowly cooling it. This also generally lowers the tensile strength of the material, while improving its flex life. ANNEALED WIRE — See Soft Wire. ANNULAR CONDUCTOR — A number of wires stranded in reversed concentric layers around a core. ANNUNCIATOR WIRE — Usually single solid copper, sometimes twisted pair or triplexed for open wiring of bell circuits and other low voltage systems. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) — An organization that publishes nationally recognized standards. ANTENNA LEAD-IN WIRE — (Not coaxial) Parallel twin lead construction, plastic jacketed with fixed 300 ohm impedance for connecting a remote antenna to a receiver. ANTENNA ROTOR CABLE — Multiconductor flat or round cable used to supply power to a motorized antenna, and control wires for changing direction of rotation. ANTIOXIDANT — Retards or prevents degradation of materials exposed to oxygen (air). APPLIANCE WIRE AND CABLE — A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment.

A
A — Common abbreviation for Ampere (see ampere) AAR — American Association of Railroads. ABRASION RESISTANCE — Ability to resist surface wear. AB Switch — A coaxial cable switch capable of switching one cable to one of two branch cables, A or B. AC — (1) Alternating current, (2) A UL cable type with flexible metal tape armor. ACAR — Aluminum conductor, aluminum-reinforced cable. ACCELERATED LIFE TEST — A test in which a cable is subjected to extreme conditions to determine the life of a cable. ACSR (aluminum conductor, steel reinforced) — A bare composite of aluminum and steel wires, usually aluminum around steel. ACSR/AW — Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced, using aluminum clad steel wire. ACSR/AZ — Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced, using aluminum steel wire. ACSR/GA — Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced, using Class A zinc-coated steel wire. ACSR/GB — Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced, using Class B zinc-coated steel wire. ACSR/GC — Aluminum conductor, steel reinforced, using Class C zinc-coated steel wire. A/D — Analog/Digital. An integrated circuit device that converts analog signals to digital signals. ADDRESS — The location of a terminal, a peripheral device, a node, or any other unit or component in a network, or process control system. ADHESIVE-BONDED — Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components, then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. See Bonded Cables. ADMITTANCE — A measure of how easily alternating current flows in a curcuit. Admittance is the reciprocal of impedance. It is expressed in mhos. AEIC — Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. AERIAL CABLE — A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure. AF — Audio frequency. AGC — Automatic gain control. AGING — The irreversible change of material properties after exposure to an environment for an interval of time. AIA — Aluminum Interlocked Armor. A type of cable sheath. AIR CORE CABLE — A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled with a moisture barrier. AIRCRAFT WIRE — An electrical wire primarily designed for the extreme conditions (temperature, altitude, solvents, fuels, etc.) of airborne equipment.

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GLOSSARY
ARC RESISTANCE — The time required for an arc to establish a conductive path in a material. ARMATURE — (1) Rotating machine: the member in which alternating voltage is generated, (2) electromagnet: the member which is moved by magnetic force. ARMOR — Mechanical protector for cables; usually a helical winding of metal tape, formed so that each convolution locks mechanically upon the previous one (interlocked armor); may be a formed metal tube or a helical wrap of wires. ARRHENIUS PLOT — A statistical method used to predict time-to-failure, based on a device’s performance at different temperatures. One method is given in IEEE Standard 101. ASCII — American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. A seven bit plus parity code established by the American National Standards Institute to achieve compatibility among data services and consisting of 96 displayed upper and lower case characters and 32 nondisplayed control codes. ASKAREL — A synthetic insulating oil which is nonflammable but very toxic. It has been replaced by silicone oils. ASTM — American Society for Testing Materials. An organization that sets standards on various material tests for industry. ATTENUATION — The decrease in magnitude of a signal as it travels through any transmitting medium, such as a cable or circuitry. Attenuation is measured as a ratio or as the logarithm of a ratio (decibel). ATTENUATION CONSTANT — A rating for a cable or other transmitting medium, which is the relative rate of amplitude decrease of voltage or current in the direction of travel. It is measured in decibels per unit length of cable. AUDIO — A term used to describe sounds within the range of human hearing. Also used to describe devices which are designed to operate within this range. AUDIO FREQUENCY — The range of frequencies audible to the human ear. Usually 20 – 20,000 Hz. AUI — Attachment Unit Interface. The interface between the Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 controller and the baseband transceiver or broadband modem. AWG — American Wire Gauge. A wire diameter specification. The lower the AWG number the larger the wire diameter. AWM — Appliance wiring material. BARE CONDUCTOR — A conductor having no insulation or jacket. BARREL-PACKED — Method of coiling wire into a drum for shipment. BASEBAND — A signalling technique in which the signal is transmitted in its original form and not changed by modulation. BASEBAND LAN — A local area network employing baseband signalling. BELDFOIL® — Belden trademark for a highly effective electrostatic shield using reinforced metallic foil. BELT — Layers of insulation on a conductor, or layers of jacket on a cable. BELTED-TYPE CABLE — Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. BER — Bit Error Rate. The ratio of received bits that are in error, relative to a specific number of bits received; usually expressed as a number referenced to a power of 10. BIL — Basic Impulse Level. The crest value of a lightning impulse voltage of a specified wave shape which a high-voltage cable or termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. BIMETALLIC WIRE — A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). It can include wire with a steel core, plated, or coated wire. BINDER — A tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place. BINDING POST — A device for clamping or holding electrical conductors in a rigid position. BIRDCAGE — The undesired unwinding of a stranded cable. BIT — Abbreviation for binary digit. A unit of information equal to one binary decision or the designation of one of two possible and equally likely states (such as 1 and 0) of anything used to store or convey information. BITS PER SECOND (bps) — The number of bits of data transmitted through a digital process control cable in one second. BNC — Common connector for coax. BNC is said to be an abbreviation for Bayonet-Neill-Concelman. BONDED CABLE — Cable consisting of preinsulated conductors or multiconductor components laid in parallel and bonded into a flat cable. BONDED CONSTRUCTION — An insulation construction in which the glass braid and nylon jacket are bonded together. BONDING — The method used to produce good electrical contact between metallic parts of any device. Used extensively in automobiles and aircraft to prevent static buildup. Also refers to the connectors and straps used to ground equipment. BOOSTER — A device inserted into a line (or cable) to increase the voltage. Boosting generators are also used to raise the level of a DC line. Transformers are usually employed to boost AC voltages. The term booster is also applied to antenna preamplifiers. BOOT — (1) Protective coating over a cable, wire or connector in addition to the normal jacketing or insulation. (2) A form placed around the wire termination of a multicontact connector to contain the liquid potting compound before it hardens.

B
BACKFILL — The materials placed to fill an excavation, such as sand in a trench. BALANCED CIRCUIT — A circuit so arranged that the impressed voltages on each conductor of the pair are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity with respect to ground. BALANCED LINE — A cable having two identical conductors with the same electromagnetic characteristics in relation to other conductors and to ground. BALLAST — A device designed to stabilize current flow. BAND MARKING — A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at regular intervals for identification. BANDWIDTH — The width of a communication channel, measured as frequency (in cycles per second, or hertz). A channel’s bandwidth is a major factor in determining how much information it can carry.

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BORDER LIGHT CABLE — Same as stage cable but more than 2 conductors. Type SO cable is often used. BORE HOLE CABLE — Power and/or communication cable suspended down a vertically drilled hole to equipment undergound. BRAID — Textile or metallic filaments interwoven to form a tubular structure which may be applied over one or more wires or flattened to form a strap. BRAID ANGLE — The smaller of the angles formed by the shielding strand and the axis of the cable being shielded. BRAID CARRIER — A spool or bobbin on a braiding machine which holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. The carrier revolves during braiding operations. BRAID ENDS — The number of strands used to make up one carrier. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid. BRAIDING MACHINE — Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers. BRANCH JOINT — A cable joint used for connecting one or more cables to a main cable. BRAZING — The joining of ends of two wires, rods, or groups of wires with nonferrous filler metal at temperatures above 800°F (427°C). BREAKDOWN (PUNCTURE) — A disruptive discharge through the insulation. BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE — The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down. BREAKING STRENGTH — The maximum load that a conductor can withstand when tested in tension to rupture. BREAKOUT — The point at which a conductor or group of conductors breaks out from a multiconductor cable to complete circuits at various points along the main cable. BRIDGE — A circuit which measures by balancing four impedances through which the same current flows: Wheatstone measures resistance Kelvin measures low resistance Schering measures capacitance, dissipation factor, dielectric constant Wien measures capacitance, dissipation factor BRIDGED TAP — The multiple appearances of the same cable pair at several distribution points. BRITISH STANDARD WIRE GAUGE — A modification of the Birmingham Wire Gauge and the legal standard of Great Britain for all wires. Also known as Standard Wire Gauge (SWG), New British Standard (NBS), English Legal Standard, and Imperial Wire Guide. BROADBAND LAN — LAN which uses FDM (frequency division multiplexing) to divide a single physical channel into a number of smaller independent frequency channels. The different channels created by FDM can be used to transfer different forms of information — voice, data, and video. BROADCAST — The act of sending a signal from one station on a LAN to all other stations. B and S — Brown and Sharpe wire gauge — same as AWG. BSL (basic switching impulse insulation level) — The crest value of a switching impulse voltage of a specified wave shape which a high-voltage cable termination is required to withstand under specified conditions. BUFFER — A protective coating in intimate contact with an optical fiber. BUILDING WIRE — Commerical wires used in the building trades such as: Types RHH, RHW, THW, and THHN wire. BUNA — A synthetic rubber insulation of styrenebutadiene; was known as GR-S, now as SBR. BUNCH STRAND — A conductor in which all individual wires are twisted in the same direction without regard for geometrical arrangement. BUNCHER — A machine that twists wires together in a random arrangment. BUOYANT CABLE — Originally military type MIL-C-2401 with built-in floatation ability. Many applications have been developed using buoyancy to advantage — numerous types and sizes for power, communications, telecommunications have resulted. BURIED CABLE — A cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground conduit. Also called “direct burial cable.” BUS — A network topology which functions like a signal line which is shared by a number of nodes. BUS-BAR WIRE — Uninsulated tinned copper wire used as a common lead. BUSHING — A mechanical device used as a lining for an opening to prevent abrasion to wire and cable. BUTT SPLICE — A splice wherein two wires from opposite ends butt against each other, or against a stop, in the center of a splice. BUTT WRAP — Tape wrapped around an object or conductor in an edge-to-edge condition. BUTYL RUBBER — Synthetic rubber formerly used for electrical insulating purposes. BX — A common type of armored building wire rated at 600 volt. BYTE — Generally, an 8-bit quantity of information, used mainly in referring to parallel data transfer, semiconductor capacity, and data storage; also generally referred to in data communications as an octet or character.

C
C — Symbol for capacitance and centigrade. CABLE — A cable may be a small number of large conductors or a large number of small conductors, cabled together, usually color coded and with a protective jacket overall. CABLE ASSEMBLY — A cable assembly is a cable with plugs or connectors on each end for a specific purpose. It may be formed in various configurations. CABLE, BELTED — A multiconductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors. CABLE, BORE-HOLE — The term given vertical riser cables in mines. CABLE CLAMP — A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle.

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CABLE CLAMP ADAPTER — A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp. CABLE CORE — The portion of an insulated cable lying under a protective covering. CABLE CORE BINDER — A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a multiple-conductor cable used to hold them together. CABLE FILLER — The material used in multiple-conductor cables to occupy the interstices formed by the assembly of the insulated conductors, thus forming a cable core. CABLE JOINT — A complete insulated splice, or group of insulated splices, contained within a single protective covering or housing. In some designs, the insulating material may also serve as the protective covering. CABLE LOSS — The amount of RF (radio frequency) signal attenuated by coaxial cable transmission. The cable attenuation is a function of frequency, media type, and cable length. For coaxial cable, higher frequencies have greater loss than lower frequencies and follow a logarithmic function. Cable losses are usually calculated for the highest frequency carried on the cable. CABLE, PRESSURIZED — A cable having a pressurized fluid (gas or oil) as part of the insulation; nitrogen and oil are the most common fluids. CABLE SHEATH — The protective covering applied to cables. CABLE, SPACER — An aerial distribution cable made of covered conductors held in place by insulated spacers; designed for wooded areas. CABLE SUPPORT — A device to mount a cable on a supporting member. CABLE, TRAY — A multiconductor cable having a nonmetallic jacket, designed for use in cable trays per the National Electrical Code. CABLING — The method by which a group of insulated conductors is mechanically assembled (or twisted together). CAD — Computer-Aided Design. CAM — Computer-Aided Manufacture. CAPACITANCE — Capacitance is that property of a system of conductors and dielectrics which permits the storage of electricity when potential differences exist between the conductors. CAPACITANCE COUPLING — Electrical interaction between two conductors caused by the potential difference between them. CAPACITANCE, DIRECT — The capacitance measured from one conductor to another conductor through a single insulating layer. CAPACITANCE, MUTUAL — The capacitance between two conductors (typically of a pair) with all other conductors, including shield, short circuited to ground. CAPACITANCE, UNBALANCE — An inequality of capacitance between the wires of two or more pairs which result in a transfer of unwanted signal from one pair to others. CAPACITANCE, UNBALANCE-TO-GROUND — An inequality of capacitance between the ground capacitance of the conductors of a pair which results in a pickup of external noise energy, usually from power transmission lines. CAPACITIVE REACTANCE — The opposition to alternating current due to the capacitance of a capacitor, cable or circuit. It is measured in ohms and is equal to 1/(6.28 fC) where f is the frequency in Hz and C is the capacitance in farads. CAPACITOR — Two conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric material. The capacitance is determined by the area of the surface, type of dielectric, and spacing between the conducting surfaces. CAPILLARY ACTION — The travelling of liquid along a small interstice due to surface tension. CARRIER — (1) An AC electrical signal that is used to carry information, (2) The woven element of a braid consisting of one or more ends (strands) which creates the interlaced effect. Also, a spindle, spool, tube, or bobbin (on a braiding machine) containing yarn or wire, employed as a braid. CATHODE — (1) The negative electrode through which current leaves a nonmetallic conductor, such as an electrolytic cell, (2) the positive pole of a storage battery. CATHODIC PROTECTION — Reduction or prevention of corrosion by making the metal to be protected the cathode in a direct current circuit.
CATV — Community antenna television. Refers to the use of a coaxial or fiber cable to transmit television or other signals to subscribers from a single head-end location.

CATV CABLE — General term for all cables used for community antenna TV service and feeders, distribution and house drops. CAVASITE CORD — 2 conductors, stranded copper, rubber insulation and braid twisted together and finished with weather proof braid. CB — Citizens band. One type of two-way radio communication. C CONDITIONING — A type of line conditioning that controls attenuation, distortion, and delay distortion so they lie within specific limits. C CONNECTOR — A bayonet-locking connector for coax; C is named after Carl Concelman. CCTV — Closed-circuit television. One of the many services often found on broadband networks. CCW — Continuously corrugated and welded. A type of cable sheath. CD — Carrier Detect. An RS-232 control signal (on Pin 8) which indicates that the local modem is receiving a signal from the remote modem. Also called Received Line Signal Detector (RLSD) and Data Carrier Detect (DCD). CELLULAR POLYETHYLENE — Expanded or “foam” polyethylene, consisting of individual closed cells of inert gas suspended in a polyethylene medium, resulting in a desirable reduction of dielectric constant. CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE — A written statement; normally generated by a Quality Control Department, which states that the product being shipped meets customer’s specifications. CERTIFIED TEST REPORT (CTR) — A report reflecting actual test data on the cable shipped. Tests are normally conducted by the Quality Control Department, and shows that the product being shipped meets the required test specifications.

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CHANNEL — (1) A path for electrical transmission. Also called a circuit facility, line, link, or path. (2) A specific and discrete bandwidth allocation in the radio frequency spectrum (for example, in a broadband LAN) utilized to transmit one information signal at a time. CHANNEL TRANSLATOR — Device used in broadband LANs to increase carrier frequency, converting upstream (toward the head-end) signals into downstream signals (away from the head-end). CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE — An electrical characteristic of transmission lines. When terminated in its characteristic impedance, reflections from the end of a line are minimized. CHEMICAL STRIPPING — Removal of insulation by chemical means. CHLOROSULFONATED POLYETHYLENE (CSP) — A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by E.I. DuPont under the trade name of Hypalon. CIGARETTE WRAP — Tape insulation wrapped longitudinally instead of spirally over a conductor. CIRCUIT SWITCHING — A switching technique in which an information path (i.e., circuit) between calling and called stations is established on demand for exclusive use by the connected parties until the connection is released. CIRCUIT TRACING — Locating or identifying a specific conductive path. CIRCULAR MIL (CM) — A term universally used to define cross-sectional areas of conductors. It is an area equal to the area of a circle 1/1000 of an inch in diameter. As the number of circular mils increase, the size of a wire increases. CLAD WIRE — Different from coated wire, is any metal covered with a relatively heavy coating of different metal, such as copperweld (copper over steel) or alum-o-weld (aluminum over steel). See Coated Wire. COATED WIRE — Any metal covered by a relatively thin coating of a different metal such as tin, zinc or other alloy by a dip bath and wipe process, often at high speeds in line with insulating equipment. COAXIAL CABLE — A cylindrical transmission line comprised of a conductor centered inside a metallic tube or shield, separated by a dielectric material, and usually covered by an insulating jacket. COHERENT SOURCE — A fiber optic light source which emits a very narrow, unidirectional beam of light of one wavelength (monochromatic). COIL EFFECT — The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral wrapped shield, especially above audio frequencies. COLD BEND — Generally refers to a test to determine cable or wire characteristics at low temperatures. The test specimen is cooled in a low temperature box to a specified temperature. The wire specimen is then wound around a mandrel after which it is examined for cracks or other defects caused by bending at low temperatures. COLD-DRAWING — Reducing the cross section by pulling through a die or dies, at a temperature lower than the recrystallization temperature. COLD FLOW — Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical pressure (not due to heat softening). COLOR CODE — A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors, tracers, braids, surface printing, etc. COMBINATION STRANDED CONDUCTOR — A conventional concentric conductor in which the wires in the outer layer are larger in diameter than the wires in the inner layer or layers and the diameters of all wires are within plus and minus 5% of the nominal wire diameter for the same size noncombination stranded conductor. COMMON AXIS CABLING — In multiconductor constructions, a twisting of all conductors about a “common axis” to result in smaller diameter constructions. Tends to result in greater susceptibility to electromagnetic and electrostatic interference. COMMON MODE NOISE — Noise caused by a difference in “ground potential.” By grounding at either end rather than both ends (usually grounded at source) one can reduce this interference. COMPACT STRANDED CONDUCTOR — A unidirectional or conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a specified diameter, approximately 8 to 10% below the nominal diameter of a noncompact conductor of the same cross-sectional area. COMPOSITE CABLE — A cable containing more than one gauge size or a variety of circuit types, e.g., pairs, triples, quads, coaxials, etc. COMPOSITE (CLAD) WIRE — A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer shell of a different metal. COMPOSITE CONDUCTOR — A conductor consisting of two or more types of wire, each type of wire being plain, clad, or coated-stranded together to operate mechanically and electrically as a single conductor. COMPRESSED STRANDED CONDUCTOR — A conventional concentric conductor manufactured to a diameter not more than 3% below the nominal diameter of a noncompressed conductor of the same cross-sectional area. COMPRESSION LUG OR SPLICE — A connection installed by compressing the connector onto the strand, hopefully into a cold weld. CONCENTRICITY — The measurement of the location of the center of the conductor with respect to the geometric center of the circular insulation. CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR — A layer of uninsulated wires twisted around a central wire with subsequent layers spirally wrapped around the inner layers to form a single conductor. CONDUCTANCE — The ability of a conductor to carry an electric charge. The ratio of the current flow to the potential difference causing the flow. The reciprocal of resistance. CONDUCTIVITY — Capacity of a material to carry electrical current — usually expressed as a percentage of copper conductivity (copper being 100%). CONDUCTOR — A material suitable for carrying an electric current. Several types are as follows: COMPACT ROUND CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more preshaped (nonround) helically laid wires and formed into final shape by rolling, drawing, or other means. CONCENTRIC-LAY CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. CONVENTIONAL CONCENTRIC CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by one or more layers of helically laid wires. The direction of lay is reversed in successive layers and generally with an increase in length of lay for successive layers.

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EQUILAY CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires, all layers having a common length of lay, direction of lay being reversed in successive layers. PARALLEL CORE CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central core of parallel-laid wires surrounded by one layer of helically laid wires. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed of a bunch-stranded or a concentric-stranded member or members, as a central wire, around which are laid one or more helical layers of such members. UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires, all layers having a common direction of lay, with increase in length of lay for each successive layer. UNILAY CONDUCTOR — a conductor constructed with a central wire surrounded by more than one layer of helically laid wires, all layers having a common length and direction of lay. CONDUCTOR CORE — The center strand or member about which one or more layers of wires or members are laid helically to form a concentric-lay or rope-lay conductor. CONDUCTOR SHIELD — A conducting layer applied to make the conductor a smooth surface in intimate contact with the insulation; sometimes called extruded strand shield (ESS). CONDUIT — A tube or trough for protecting electrical wires or cables. CONNECTION, DELTA — Interconnection of 3 electrical equipment windings in a delta (triangular) configuration. CONNECTION, WYE — Interconnection of 3 electrical equipment windings in wye (star) configuration. CONNECTOR — A metallic device of suitable electric conductance and mechanical strength, used to splice the ends of two or more cable conductors, or as a terminal connector on a single conductor. Connectors usually fall into one of the following types: — — — — solder welded mechanical compression or indent CONTROLLED IMPEDANCE CABLE — A package of two or more insulated conductors where impedance measurements between respective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length. COPOLYMER — A compound resulting from the polymerization of two different monomers. COPPER-CLAD STEEL — Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. Synonomous with Copperweld. COPPERWELD® — Trademark of Copperweld Steel Co. for copper-clad steel conductor. CORD — A flexible insulated cable. CORD SET — Portable cords fitted with a connector at one or both ends. CORE — (1) In cables, a component or assembly of components over which other materials are applied, such as additional components, shield, sheath, or armor. (2) In fiber optics, the transparent glass or plastic section with a high refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections. CORONA — A discharge due to ionization of the air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value. CORONA RESISTANCE — The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of ionization that does not result in the complete breakdown of the insulation. CORROSION — The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction. COULOMB — The derived SI unit for quantity of electricity or electrical charge: One coulomb equals one ampere-second. COUNTER EMF —The voltage opposing the applied voltage and the current in a coil; caused by a flow of current in the coil; also known as back emf. COUNTER-POISE WIRE — Bare copper wire used to offset the impact of lightning surges along high-voltage overhead lines and around the base of towers. Buried counter-poise wire is connected to overhead ground wires and towers. Numerous methods of application are used, dependent upon resistance of the soil at the tower base. COUPLING — The transfer of energy between two or more cables or components of a circuit. COUPLING LOSS — Signal losses in an optical fiber due to small differences in numerical aperture, core diameter, core concentricity and tolerances in connectors when two fibers are spliced together. Also known as Splicing loss and Transfer loss. COVERAGE — The calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. The higher percentage of coverage, the greater the protection against external interference. CPE — Dow Chemical trademark for chlorinated polyethylene. A jacketing compound. CROSS-LINKED — Inter-molecular bonds created between long chain thermoplastic polymers by chemical or electron bombardment means. The properties of the resulting thermosetting material are usually improved. CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENE — A dielectric material used for insulating and jacketing. Also referred to as “XLP” or “XLPE.”

Conductors are sometimes spliced without connectors, by soldering, brazing, or welding. CONTACT — The part of a connector which carries the electrical current. CONTACT SIZE — The largest size wire which can be used with the specific contact. Also, the diameter of the engagement end of the pin. CONTINUITY CHECK — A test performed on a length of finished wire or cable to determine if the electrical current flows continously throughout the length. CONTINUOUS VULCANIZATION — Simultaneous extrusion and vulcanization (cross-linking) of wire insulating and jacketing materials. CONTRAHELICAL — Cable spiralling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable. CONTROL CABLE — A cable used for remote control operation of any type of electrical power equipment.

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CROSS TALK — A type of interference caused by audio frequencies from one circuit being coupled into an adjacent circuit. The term is loosely used to also include coupling at higher frequencies. CRT — Cathode-Ray Tube. A television-like picture tube used in terminals; CRT is commonly used as a synonym for the CRT terminal. CRT WIRE — High-voltage lead wire for energizing cathode ray tubes. CSA (Canadian Standards Association) — Similar to UL in the United States. CSPE — A jacketing compound based on DuPont’s chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon). Sometimes abbreviated CSP. CT — Cable Tray, NEC Art. 318. A cable marking which indicates a cable is suitable for use in a cable tray. CURE — To change the properties of a polymeric material into a more stable, usable condition by the use of heat, radiation, or reaction with chemical additives. To cross-link. CURING CYCLE — The time, temperature, and pressure required for curing. CURL — The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. CURRENT — The rate of transfer of electricity. The unit of current is the ampere, a rate of one coulomb/second. CURRENT, ALTERNATING (AC) — An electric current that periodically reverses direction of electron flow. The number of cycles in a given unit of time (generally a second) is called the frequency of the current. CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY — The maximum current an insulated conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations. Same as ampacity. CURRENT, CHARGING — The current needed to bring the cable up to voltage; determined by the capacitance of the cable. The charging current will be 90° out of phase with the voltage. CURRENT DENSITY — The current per cross sectional area. Usually in units of amperes/square meter. CURRENT, DIRECT (DC) — Electrical current whose electrons flow in one direction only. It may be constant or pulsating as long as their movement is in the same direction. CUT-THROUGH RESISTANCE — The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure without damage. CV — Continuous Vulcanization. An insulation and jacketing curing process. CYCLE — The complete sequence including reversal of the flow of an alternating electric current. dB — Decibel. The standard unit used to express the relative strength of two signals. When referring to a single signal measured at two places in a transmission system, it expresses either a gain or loss in power between the input and output devices. dBmV — (decibel millivolt) The level at any point in a system expressed in dBs above or below a 1 millivolt/75 ohm standard is said to be the level in decibel-millivolts or dBmV. Zero dBmV is equal to 1 millivolt across an impedance of 75 ohms. DC — Direct current. (see Current, Direct.) DCE — Data Communications Equipment. In common usage, synonymous with modem; the equipment that provides the functions required to establish, maintain, and terminate a connection as well as the signal conversion required for communications between the DTE and the telephone line or data circuit. DCL — Data Carrier Level. DC RESISTANCE — See resistance. DEMAND — (1) The measure of the maximum load of a utility’s customer over a short period of time, (2) The load integrated over a specified time interval. DERATING FACTOR — A factor used to reduce the current carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established. DETECTOR — A fiber optic device that picks up light from the fiber and converts the information into an electrical signal. DIELECTRIC — An insulating (nonconducting) medium. DIELECTRIC BREAKDOWN — Any change in the properties of a dielectric that causes it to become conductive. Normally the failure of an insulation because of excessive voltage. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT — The property of an insulation which determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient. It is expressed as a ratio. “K” for air is 1.0, while that for polyethylene is 2.3. Therefore, the capacitance of polyethylene is 2.3 times that of air. It is also referred to as Specific Inductive Capacity or Permitivity. DIELECTRIC DISPERSION — The change in relative capacitance due to a change in frequency. DIELECTRIC HEATING — The heating of an insulating material when placed in a radio-frequency field, caused by internal losses during the rapid polarization reversal of molecules in the material. DIELECTRIC LOSS — The power dissipated in a dielectric as the result of the friction produced by molecular motion when an alternating electric field is applied. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH — The maximum voltage which an insulation can withstand without breaking down; usually expressed as a gradient in V/mil (volts per mil). Polyethylene for example has a dielectric strength of about 800 V/mil. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH TESTING — A common test performed on electrical products which is often called hi-pot testing. A voltage higher than normal operating voltage is applied across the insulation. This test can increase product reliability by detecting faulty workmanship. DIGITAL — Refers to communications procedures, techniques, and equipment by which information is encoded as either a binary “1” or “0”; the representation of information in discrete binary form, discontinuous in time, as opposed to the analog representation of information in variable, but continuous, waveforms.

D/A — Digital to Analog.

D

DAC — Digital to Analog Converter. A device that converts a digital input signal to an analog output signal carrying equivalent information. DATA — Digitally represented information, which includes voice, text, facsimile, and video.

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DIN — Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN). The German Standard for many products. DIP COATING — An insulating coating applied to the conductor by passing the conductor through an applicator containing liquid insulating medium. DIRECT BURIAL CABLE — A cable installed directly in the earth. DIRECT CAPACITANCE — The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer. DIRECTIONAL COUPLER — A passive device used in a cable system to divide or combine unidirectional RF power sources. DIRECTION OF LAY — The lateral direction, designated as left-hand or right-hand, in which the wires of a conductor run over the top of the conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor. DISPERSION — The variation of the refractive index of an optical fiber with wavelength, causing light of different wavelengths to travel at different velocities in the fiber. DISSIPATION FACTOR — Energy lost when voltage is applied across an insulation. The cotangent of the phase angle between voltage and current in a reactive component. Dissipation factor is quite sensitive to contamination and deterioration of insulation. Also known as power factor. DISTORTION FACTOR — An undesired change in waveform as the signal passes through a device. DISTRIBUTION CABLE — (1) In a CATV system, the transmission cable from the distribution amplifier to the drop cable, (2) In an electric power system, provides low voltage service to the customer. DISTURBED CONDUCTOR — A conductor that receives energy generated by the field of another conductor or an external source such as a transformer. DISTURBING CONDUCTOR — A conductor carrying energy whose field(s) create spurious energy in another conductor. DOWNLOAD — The process of loading software into the nodes of a network from one node or device over the network media. DRAIN WIRE — An uninsulated wire in contact with a shield throughout its length, used for terminating the shield. DRAWING — In wire manufacture, pulling the metal through a die or series of dies to reduce diameter to a specified size. DROP CABLE — In a CATV system, the transmission cable from the distribution cable to a dwelling. DSR — Data Set Ready. One of the control signals on a standard RS-232-C connector. It indicates whether the data communications equipment is connected and ready to start handshaking control signals so that transmission can start. DTR — Data Terminal Ready. An RS-232 modem interface control signal (sent from the DTE to the modem on pin 20) which indicates that the DTE is ready for data transmission and which requests that the modem be connected to the telephone circuit. DUAL CABLE — A two-cable system in broadband LANs in which coaxial cables provides two physical paths for transmission, one for transmit and one for receive, instead of dividing the capacity of a single cable. DUCT — An underground or overhead tube for carrying electrical conductors. DUOFOIL® — Belden trademark for a shield in which metallic foil is applied to both sides of a supporting plastic film. DUPLEX — Two way data transmission on a four-wire transmission cable. DUPLEX CABLE — A cable composed of two insulated single conductor cables twisted together.

E
E — (1) Symbol for voltage. Usually used to represent direct voltage or the effective (root-mean-square) value of an alternating voltage, (2) A UL cable type. Elevator lighting and control cable. EARTH — British terminology for zero-reference ground. ECCENTRICITY — Like concentricity, a measure of the center of a conductor’s location with respect to the circular cross section of the insulation. Expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other. ECTFE — Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene. Halar is an Ausimont Co. trademark for this material. Used as an insulation or jacketing material. EDDY CURRENT — Circulating currents induced in conducting materials by varying magnetic fields. EIA — Electronic Industries Association. The U.S. national organization of electronic manufacturers. It is responsible for the development and maintenance of industry standards for the interface between data processing machines and data communications equipment. ELASTOMER — Any material that will return to its original dimensions after being stretched or distorted. ELECTROMAGNET — A device consisting of a ferromagnetic core and a coil that produces appreciable magnetic effects only when an electric current exists in the coil. ELECTROMAGNETIC — Referring to the combined electric and magnetic fields caused by electron motion through conductors. ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING — The transfer of energy by means of a varying magnetic field. Inductive coupling. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL CABLES — Dual purpose composite cables made up of support strands capable of supporting predetermined loads together with communication, coaxial, or power as integral members of a finished cable. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (E.M.F.) — Pressure or voltage. The force which causes current to flow in a circuit. ELECTRON — An elementary particle containing the smallest negative electric charge; Charge 0.16 attocoulomb. Diameter 1 femtometer. ELECTRON VOLT — A measure of the energy gained by an electron passing through an electric field produced by one volt. ELECTRONIC WIRE AND CABLE — Wire or cable used in electronic applications. ELECTRO-OSMOSIS — The movement of fluids through dielectrics because of electric current. ELECTROSTATIC — Pertaining to static electricity, or electricity at rest. An electric charge, for example. ELECTROSTATIC COUPLING — The transfer of energy by means of a varying electrostatic field. Capacitive coupling.

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ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE — (ESD) An instantaneous flow of an electrical charge on a nonconductor through a conductor to ground. ELECTRO-TINNED — Electrolytic process of tinning wire using pure tin. ELEXAR — Shell trademark for a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). ELONGATION — The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension. EMA — (Electrical Moisture Absorption) A water tank test during which sample cables are subjected to voltage and water maintained at rated temperature; the immersion time is long, with the object being to accelerate failure due to moisture in the insulation; simulates buried cable. EMBOSSING — Identification by means of thermal indentation which leaves raised lettering on the sheath material of cable. EMERGENCY OVERLOAD — A situation in which larger than normal currents are carried through a cable or wire for a limited period of time. EMI — Electromagnetic Interference. External signals that disrupt the data being transmitted on the local area network or electronic device being operated. Typically, these external signals emanate from universal motors with brushes, fluorescent lights, personal computers, printers or other devices including copy machines, etc. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates this emission area. ENDOSMOSIS — The penetration of water into a cable by osmosis; aggravated and accelerated by DC voltage on the cable. ENDS — In braiding, the number of essentially parallel wires or threads on a carrier. ENERGIZE — To apply rated voltage to a circuit or device in order to activate it. EO — A UL cable type. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoset insulation. EOT — End of Transmission Character. A transmission control character used to indicate the end of transmission, which may include one or more texts and any associated message headings. EP, EPR, EPM, EPDM — Designations for a synthetic rubber based upon the hydrocarbon ethylene propylene. EPA — Environmental Protection Agency. The federal regulatory agency responsible for keeping and improving the quality of our living environment — mainly air and water. EPDM — Ethylene propylene diene monomer. EPRDM — Erasable Programable Read Only Memory. EPR — Ethylene propylene rubber. EQUILAY CONDUCTOR — See Concentric-lay Conductor. ET — A UL cable type. Elevator lighting and control cable with thermoplastic insulation, three braids, flame-retardant and moisture-retardant finish. May have steel supporting strand in the center, 300 V. ETCHED WIRE — A process applied to Teflon® wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond to the Teflon®. ETFE — Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene. Tefzel is DuPont’s trademark for this material. ETHERNET — A baseband local area network specification developed jointly by Xerox Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Digital Equipment Corporation to interconnect computer equipment using coaxial cable and “Transceivers.” ETL — Electrical Testing Laboratories, Inc. ETPC — Abbreviation for electrolytic tough pitch copper. It has a minimum conductivity of 99.9%. EXIT ANGLE — The angle between the output radiation vectors and the axis of the fiber or fiber bundle. EXPANDED DIAMETER — Diameter of shrink tubing as supplied. When heated the tubing will shrink to its extruded diameter. EXTERNAL WIRING — Electronic wiring which interconnects subsystems within the system. EXTRUDED CABLE — Cable with conductors which are uniformly insulated and formed by applying a homogeneous insulation material in a continuous extrusion process. EXTRUSION — A method of applying insulation to a conductor or jacketing to a cable. The process is continuous and utilizes rubber, neoprene or a variety of plastic compounds.

F
FACSIMILE — The remote reproduction of graphic material; an exact copy. FARAD — A unit of capacitance when a difference of potential of 1 volt produces a displacement of one coulomb in a capacitor. The farad is a very large unit and a much smaller unit, the microfarad (µf), is more commonly used. FATIGUE RESISTANCE — Resistance to metal crystallization which leads to conductors or wires breaking from flexing. FAULT, GROUND — A fault to ground. FCC — Federal Communications Commission. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) — An ANSI defined token-passing ring using fiber optic media to attain a 100 mbps transmission rate. FDX — Full Duplex. Transmission in two directions simultaneously, or, more technically, bidirectional simultaneous two-way communications. FEP — Fluorinated ethylene propylene. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material. FEPB — A UL cable type. Fluorinated ethylene propylene insulated wire with glass braid. FFH-2 — A UL type of fixture wire with a 600 V rating. FIBER DISPERSION — Pulse spreading in an optical fiber caused by differing transit times of various modes. FIBER OPTICS — Transmission of energy by light through glass fibers. A technology that uses light as an information carrier. Fiber optic cables (light guides) are a direct replacement for conventional cable and wire pairs. The glass-based transmission cable occupies far less physical volume for an equivalent transmission capacity; the fibers are immune to electrical interference. FIBER TUBING — A loose, crush-resistant cylinder applied over individual fibers to provide mechanical protection. Also called a buffer tube. FIELD COIL — A suitable insulated winding mounted on a field pole to magnetize it.

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GLOSSARY
FIELD MOLDED SPLICE — A joint in which the solid dielectric joint insulation is fused and cured thermally at the job site. FIELD TESTS — Tests which may be made on a cable system after installation as an acceptance or proof test. FIGURE 8 CABLE — An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strand which supports the cable are integrally jacketed. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure “eight”. FILLED CABLE — A cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable. FILLER — Fillers are used in multiconductor cables which occupy the interstices formed by the assembled conductors. This is done so that the finished cable will be round. FILLING COMPOUND — A dielectric material poured or injected into a splice housing or cable to prevent the entry of water. Filling compounds may require heating or mixing prior to filling. Some filling compounds may also serve as the insulation. FILM — A thin plastic sheet. FINE STRANDED WIRE — Stranded wire with component strands of 36 AWG or smaller. FLAME RESISTANCE — The ability of a material to not propagate flame once the heat source is removed. FLAMMABILITY — The measure of a material’s ability to support combustion. FLASHOVER — A disruptive discharge around or over the surface of a solid or liquid insulator. FLAT BRAID — A woven braid of tinned copper strands rolled flat at the time of manufacture to a specified width. FLAT CABLE — A cable with two essentially flat surfaces. FLAT CONDUCTOR — A wire having a rectangular cross section as opposed to a round or square conductor. FLEX-LIFE — The measurement of the ability of a conductor or cable to withstand repeated bending. FLEXIBILITY — The ease with which a cable may be bent. FLEXIBLE — That quality of a cable or cable component which allows for bending under the influence of an outside force, as opposed to limpness which is bending due to the cable’s own weight. FLOATING — Refers to a circuit which has no electrical connection to ground. FLUOROPOLYMER — A class of polymers used as insulating and jacketing materials. Common ones include Teflon, Tefzel, Kynar, and Halar. FLUX — (1) The lines of force which make up an electrostatic field. (2) The rate of flow of energy across or through a surface. (3) A substance used to promote or facilitate fusion. FM — Frequency Modulation. A modulation technique in which the carrier frequency is shifted by an amount proportional to the value of the modulating signal. The deviation of the carrier frequency determines the signal content of the message. FOAMED INSULATION — Insulations having a cellular structure. FOIL — A thin, continuous sheet of metal. FREQUENCY — The number of cycles per second at which an analog signal occurs, expressed in Hertz (Hz). One Hertz is one cycle per second. FREQUENCY ANALYZER — An instrument to measure the intensity of various component frequencies from a transmitting source. FREQUENCY COUNTER — An electronic measuring instrument that counts the number of cycles of a periodic electrical signal during a given time interval. FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) — Method of encoding a carrier wave by varying the frequency of the transmitted signal. FREQUENCY PLAN — Specification of how the various frequencies of a broadband cable system are allocated for use. “F” TYPE CONNECTOR — A low cost connector used by the TV industry to connect coaxial cable to equipment. FULL DUPLEX — Two-way communications in which each modem simultaneously sends and receives data at the same rate. FUSE WIRE — Wire made from an alloy that melts at a relatively low temperature. FUSED COATING — A metallic coating which has been melted and solidified, forming a metallurgical bond to the base material. FUSED CONDUCTORS — Individual strands of heavily tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating. FUSED SPIRAL TAPE — A PTFE insulation often used on hookup wire. The spiral wrapped tape is passed through a sintering oven where the overlaps are fused together.

G
G — A UL cable type. Rubber insulated, neoprene, Hypalon or CPE jacketed portable power cable with two to five #8 AWG or larger conductors with ground wires. GALVANIZED STEEL WIRE — Steel wire coated with zinc. GANG STRIP — Stripping all or several conductors simultaneously. GAS FILLED CABLE — A self-contained pressurized cable in which the pressure medium is an inert gas having access to the insulation. GAUGE — A term used to denote the physical size of a wire. GAUSS — A unit of magnetic induction (flux density) equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter. GENERAL PURPOSE INSTRUMENTATION BUS — (GPIB) A protocol standard defined by the IEEE. GFI — Ground Fault Interrupter. A protective device that detects abnormal current flowing to ground and then interrupts the circuit. G-GC — A UL cable type. A portable power cable similar to Type G, but also having a ground check conductor to monitor the continuity of the grounding circuit. GHz — Gigahertz; 1,000,000,000 cycles per second.
9 GIGA — A numerical prefix denoting one billion (10 ).

GND — Ground. GROUND — A voltage reference point that is the same as earth or chassis ground.

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GLOSSARY
GROUND CONDUCTOR — A conductor in a transmission cable or line that is grounded. GROUND FAULT — See Fault, Ground. GROUND LOOP — The generation of undersirable current flow within a ground conductor, owing to the circulation currents which originate from a second source of voltage. GROUND PLANE — Expanded copper mesh which is laminated into some flat cable constructions as a shield. GROUND POTENTIAL — Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth. GROUNDED NEUTRAL — The neutral wire that is metallically connected to ground. GTO — Gas tube sign and oil-burner ignition cable, 5 kV–15 kV. GUY — A tension wire connected to a tall structure and another fixed object to add strength to the structure. HERTZ (Hz) — Cycles per second. A cycle that occurs once every second has a frequency of 1 Hertz. The bandwidth of the average phone line is between 300 and 3,000 cycles per second. HF — High Frequency. HID — High Intensity Discharge as in mercury metal halide and sodium lamps. HIGH BOND INSULATION — Insulation exhibiting great bond strength to the conductors. HIGH-SPLIT — A broadband cable system in which the bandwidth utilized to send toward the head-end (reverse direction) is approximately 6 MHz to 180 MHz, and the bandwidth utilized to send from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 220 MHz to 400 MHz. The guard band between the forward and reverse directions (180 MHz to 220 MHz) provides isolation from interference. HIGH TEMPERATURE WIRE AND CABLE — Electrical wire and cables having thermal operating characteristics of 150°C and higher. HIGH TENSION CABLES — Generally the high voltage ignition wires for combustion engines, gas and oil ignitors, or neon signs, etc. (Unshielded.) Usually Type GTO. HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLE TERMINATION — A device used for terminating alternating current power cables having laminated or extruded insulation rated 2.5 kV and above. HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER (system voltage ratings) — A class of system voltages equal to or greater than 69,000 volts or less than 230,000 volts. HINGE CABLE — A cable connected between a hinged or swinging device and a stationary object. HIPOT — A DC high potential test used on medium and high voltage cables. See Dielectric Strength Testing. HMWPE — High molecular weight polyethylene. HOLDING STRENGTH — Ability of a connector to remain assembled to a cable when under tension. HOOKUP WIRE — Small wires used to hook up instruments or electrical parts, usually 12 AWG and smaller. HOT MODULUS — Stress at 100% elongation after 5 minutes of conditioning at a given temperature (normally 130°C). HOT STAMPING — Method of alphanumeric coding. Identification markings are made by pressing heated tape and marking foil into softened insulation surfaces. HOT STICK — A long insulated stick having a hook at one end which is used to open energized switches, etc. HOT TIN DIP — A process of passing bare wire through a bath of molten tin to provide a coating. HOUSING — A metallic or other enclosure for an insulated splice. HPD — A UL cable type. Two, three or four conductor heater cord with thermoset insulation and cotton or rayon outer covering. For use in dry locations. HPN — A UL cable type. Two or three conductor, thermosetting-insulated heater cord. Parallel construction. For use in damp locations. HSO — A UL cable type. Thermoset jacketed heater cord. HV — High Voltage.

H
HALAR — Ausimont Co. trademark for ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE). HALF DUPLEX — Two-way communications in which data is sent in only one direction at a time. HARD-DRAWN WIRE — As applied to aluminum and copper, wire that has been cold drawn to final size so as to approach the maximum strength attainable. HARNESS — An arrangement of wires and cables, usually with many breakouts, which have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath, used to interconnect an electric circuit. HASH MARK STRIPE — A noncontinuous helical stripe applied to a conductor for identification. HAZARDOUS LOCATION — Ignitable vapors, dust, or fibers that may cause fire or explosion as defined in Article 500 of the NEC. HDPE — High density polyethylene. HDTV — High definition television. HDX — Half-Duplex Transmission. Transmission in either direction but not in both directions simultaneously. Compare with full-duplex transmission. HEAD-END — A central point in broadband networks that receives signals on one set of frequency bands and retransmits them on another set of frequencies. HEAT DISTORTION — Distortion or flow of a material or configuration due to the application of heat. HEAT SEAL — Method of sealing a tape wrap jacket by means of thermal fusion. HEAT SHOCK — A test to determine stability of material by sudden exposure to a high temperature for a short period of time. HEAT SINK — A device that absorbs heat. HEATER CORD — A group of cable types defined in Article 400 of the NEC. Types HPD, HPN, HS, HSJ, HSJO and HSO. HELICAL STRIPE — A continuous, colored, spiral stripe applied to a conductor for circuit identification. HELIX — Spiral winding. HENRY — A unit of inductance equal to the inductance of a current changing at the rate of 1 ampere per second inducing a counter electromotive force of 1 volt.

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GLOSSARY
HYBRID CABLE — Multiconductor cable containing two or more types of components. HYDROSCOPIC — Readily absorbing and retaining moisture. HYGROSCOPIC — Readily asborbing and retaining moisture. HYPALON — DuPont’s trademark for chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSP). HYPOT — (see hipot) Registered trade name of Associated Research, Inc. for their high-voltage tester. HYSTERESIS — The time lag exhibited by a body in reacting to changes in forces affecting it; an internal friction. Hz — Hertz. A measure of frequency or bandwidth equal to one cycle per second. Named after experimenter Heinrich Hertz.
®

IMPEDANCE — The total opposition a circuit, cable, or component offers to alternating current. It includes both resistance and reactance and is generally expressed in ohms. IMPEDANCE, HIGH — Generally, the area of 25,000 ohms or higher. IMPEDANCE, LOW — Generally, the area of 1 through 600 ohms. IMPEDANCE MATCH — A condition whereby the impedance of a particular cable or component is the same as the impedance of the circuit, cable, or device to which it is connected. IMPEDANCE MATCHING STUB — A section of transmission line or a pair of conductors cut to match the impedance of a load. Also called matching stub. IMPEDANCE MATCHING TRANSFORMER — A transformer designed to match the impedance of one circuit to that of another. IMSA — International Municipal Signal Association. IN-BAND SIGNALING — The transmission of signalling information at some frequency or frequencies that lie within a carrier channel normally used for information transmission. INCOHERENT SOURCE — A fiber optic light source which emits wide, diffuse beams of light of many wave lengths. INDEX EDGE — Edge of flat (ribbon) cable from which measurements are made, normally indicated by the location of the printing which is near the index edge. Sometimes indicated by a thread or other identification stripe. INDOOR TERMINATION — A cable termination intended for use where it is protected from direct exposure to both solar radiation and precipitation. INDUCTANCE — A property of a conductor or circuit which resists a change in current. It causes current changes to lag behind voltage changes and is measured in henrys. INDUCTION — The phenomenon of a voltage, magnetic field, or electrostatic charge being produced in an object by lines of force from the souce of such fields. INDUCTION HEATING — Heating a conducting material by placing it in a rapidly changing magnetic field. The changing 2 field induces electric currents in the material and I R losses account for the resultant heat. INDUCTIVE COUPLING — Cross talk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other. INPUT — (1) A signal (or power) which is applied to a piece of electric apparatus, (2) The terminals on the apparatus to which a signal or power is applied. INSERTION LOSS — A measure of the attenuation of a device by determining the output of a system before and after the device is inserted into the system. INSERTION TOOL — A small, hand-held tool used to insert contacts into a connector. INSULATED RADIANT HEATING WIRE — Similar to blanket wire but heavier construction for applications such as in ceiling panels, buried in ground or driveway and concrete walks. INSULATED SPLICE — A splice with a dielectric medium applied over the connected conductors and adjacent cable insulation. INSULATING (ISOLATING) JOINT — A cable joint which mechanically couples and electrically separates the sheath, shield, and armor on contiguous lengths of cable.

I
I — Symbol used to designate current. IACS — International Annealed Copper Standard for copper used in electrical conductors. 100% conductivity at 20°C is 2 0.017241 ohm-mm /m. ICEA — Insulated Cable Engineers Association. The association of cable manufacturing engineers who make nationally recognized specifications for cables. Formerly IPCEA. IEC — International Electrotechnical Commission. IEEE — Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. An international professional society that issues its own standards and is a member of ANSI and ISO. IEEE 10BASE2 Network — A network conforming to the IEEE 802.3 local area network standard. The network is capable of carrying information at rates up to 10 Mbps over distances up to 2,800 meters (9,184 feet). IEEE 10BROAD36 — 10 million bits per second over broadband coaxial cable with node-to-node coverage of 3,600 meters. The IEEE 802.3 specification for running Ethernet on broadband. IEEE-488 — An IEEE standard for a parallel interface bus consisting of eight bidirectional data lines, eight control lines, and eight signal grounds, which provides for connection to an IEEE-488 device. IEEE-802 — Standards for the interconnection of local networking computer equipment. The IEEE-802 standard deals with the Physical Link Layers of the ISO Reference Model for OSL. IEEE 802.3 — An IEEE standard describing the physical and data link layers of a local area network based on bus topology and CSMA/CD. IEEE 802.4 — A physical layer standard specifying a LAN with a token-passing access method on a bus topology. Used with Manufacturing Automation Protocol LANs. IEEE 802.5 — A physical layer standard specifying a LAN with a token-passing access method on a ring topology. Used by IBM’s token ring hardware. IEEE 802.7 — A proposed physical layer standard specifying a LAN using both 802.3 and 802.4 standards. IF — Intermediate-frequency. IMPACT TESTS — Tests designed to reveal the behavior of material of a finished part if it were subjected to impact or shock loading.

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GLOSSARY
INSULATION — A material having good dielectric properties which is used to separate close electrical components, such as cable conductors and circuit components. INSULATION LEVEL — A thickness rating for power cable insulation. Circuits having fault detectors which interrupt fault currents within 1 minute are rated 100% level, within 1 hour are rated 133% level, and over 1 hour are rated 173% level. INSULATION TEMPERATURE RATING — A maximum temperature assigned to insulations based on laboratory tests. INSULATION RESISTANCE — The electrical resistance of an insulating material at a specific time and condition as measured between two conductors. INSULATION STRESS — The potential difference across an insulator. The stress on insulation is expressed in volts per mil (V/m) or kilovolts per meter (kV/m). INSULATION THICKNESS — The wall thickness of the applied insulation. INSULATION VOLTAGE RATING — The nominal phase-tophase operating voltage of a three-phase cable system. INTERAXIAL SPACING — Center-to-center conductor spacing in paired wire or center-to-center spacing between conductors in a flat cable. INTERCALATED TAPES — Two or more tapes helically wound and overlapping on a cable. INTERCONNECTING CABLE — The wiring between modules, between units, or the larger portions of a system. INTERCONNECTION — Mechanically joining devices together to complete an electrical circuit. INTERFACE — The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector which face each other when the connector is assembled. INTERFERENCE — Disturbances of an electrical or electromagnetic nature that introduce undesirable responses into other electronic equipment. INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY — A frequency to which a signal is converted for ease of handling. Receives its name from the fact that it is an intermediate step between the initial and final conversion or detection stages. INTERMEDIATE TEMPER — As applied to aluminum, any temper between soft and hard drawn. INTERNAL WIRING — Electronic wiring which interconnects components, usually within a sealed subsystem. INTERSTICE — The space or void between assembled conductors and within the overall circumference of the assembly. INTRINSICALLY SAFE — Incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal conditions to cause ignition of a specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most ignitable concentration. See Article 504 of the NEC. I/O — Input/Output. The process of transmitting data to and from the processor and its peripherals. IONIZATION — (1) The creation of ions when polar compounds are dissolved in a solvent, (2) when a liquid, gas or solid is caused to lose or gain electrons due to the passage of an electric current. IONIZATION FACTOR — This is the difference between percent dissipation factors at two specified values of electrical stress; the lower of the two stresses is usually so selected that the effect of the ionization on dissipation factor at this stress is negligible. IONIZATION VOLTAGE — The potential at which a material ionizes. The potential at which an atom gives up an electron. IR DROP — A method of designating a voltage drop in terms of both current and resistance. IRRADIATION — In insulations, the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure. ISDN — Integrated Services Digital Network. A standard which covers a wide range of data communication issues but primarily the total integration of voice and data. ISO — International Standards Organization. ISO 9000 — A set of quality standards widely used around the world. ISOLATION — The ability of a circuit or component to reject interference, usually expressed in dB.
2 current in I R — Formula for power in watts, where l amperes, R resistance in ohms. See Watt.

J
JACK — A plug-in type terminal widely used in electronic apparatus for temporary connections. JACKET — Pertaining to wire and cable, the outer sheath which protects against the environment and may also provide additional insulation. JAN SPECIFICATION — Joint Army-Navy specification (replaced by current Military Specifications). JET STARTER CABLE — Single conductor 600 V cable used for external aircraft power. JITTER — The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization in high-speed synchronous communications. JOINT — That portion of the conductor where the ends of two wires, rods, or groups of wires are joined by brazing, soldering, welding or by mechanical means. JOULE’S LAW — When electricity flows through a material the rate of heating in watts will equal the resistance of the material 2 in ohms times the square of the current in amperes. W I R. JUMPER CABLE — Extra flexible cables with high-voltage insulation for use as temporary connections. Usually has red jacket.

K
KAPTON — DuPont’s trademark for polyimide. kB — K-byte. 1,024 bytes. Usually describes bits or bytes, as in transmission speeds measured in kB/sec or kilobits per second. kbps — Thousands of bits per second (bps). kcmil — One thousand circular mils, replaced “MCM” in the 1990 NEC. KEVLAR — A high strength DuPont polymer used as a cable messenger or strength member.

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GLOSSARY
K-FIBER — Asbestos free substitute for heat resistant high temperature applications. K-Fiber jacketed high temperature cable equals or exceeds the abrasion resistance of a comparable asbestos jacketed cable. KILO — Prefix meaning thousand. kV — Kilovolt (1,000 volts). kVA — Kilovolt ampere. kW — Kilowatt. 1,000 watts of power. KYNAR — Atochem trademark for polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). LEVEL — A measure of the difference between a quantity or value and an established reference. LF — Low frequency. A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum, designated by the Federal Communications Commission. LIFE CYCLE TESTING — A test to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled, usually accelerated environment. LIGHTNING GROUND CABLE — A specially stranded single conductor cable used to connect lightning rods (air terminals) to grounding rods. LIGHT SOURCE — An object capable of emitting light. In fiber optics, the light source is normally a LED or a laser. LIMITS OF ERROR — The maximum deviation (in degrees or percent) of the indicated temperature of a thermocouple from the actual temperature. LIMPNESS — The ability of a cable to lay flat or conform to a surface. LINE BALANCE — The degree to which the conductors of a cable are alike in their electrical characteristics with respect to each other, to other conductors, and to ground. LINE DROP — A voltage loss occurring between any two points in a power transmission line. Such loss, or drop, is due to the resistance, or leakage of the line. LINE EQUALIZER — A reactance (inductance and/or capacitance) connected in series with a transmission line to alter the frequency-response characteristics of the line. LINE FAULT — A fault such as an open circuit, short circuit or ground in an electrical line or circuit. LINE LEVEL — The level of a signal at a certain point on a transmission line. Usually expressed in decibels. LINE LOSS — A total of the various energy losses occuring in a transmission line. LINE VOLTAGE — The value of the potential existing on a supply or power line. LITZ WIRE — Very fine, usually #44 bare copper, each strand is enamel insulated and nylon wrapped (formerly silk). Used for low inductance coil windings. LOAD — A device that consumes or converts the power delivered by another device. LOAD CELL CABLE — Small multiconductor shielded cables for connecting load cells with instruments in electronic strain gauges. Also used for weighing and force measurement applications. LOADED LINE — A transmission line that has lumped elements (inductance or capacitance) added at uniformly spaced intervals. Loading is used to provide a given set of characteristics to a transmission line. LOC TRAC — Alpha’s registered trademark for a zipper tubing closure track which does not require any sealants to keep it closed, even during extreme flexing. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) — A network that is located in a localized geographical area (e.g., an office, building, complex of buildings, or campus), and whose communications technology provides a high-bandwidth, low-cost medium to which many nodes can be connected.

L
L — Symbol for inductance. LACING AND HARNESSING — A method of grouping wires by securing them in bundles of designated patterns. LACQUER — A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying, moisture absorption, etc. LAMINATED TAPE — A tape consisting of two or more layers of different materials bonded together. LAN — Local Area Network. A user-owned, user-operated, high-volume data transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices within a single building or campus of buildings. LASER DIODE — A semiconductor diode that, when pulsed, emits coherent light. LAUNCH ANGLE — The angle between the radiation vector and the axis of an optical fiber. LAY — Pertaining to wire and cable, the axial distance required for one cabled conductor or conductor strand to complete one revolution about the axis around which it is cabled. LAY DIRECTION — The twist in the cable as indicated by the top strands while looking along the axis of the cable away from the observer. Described as “right hand” or “left hand.” LAYER — Consecutive turns of a coil lying in a single plane. L Band — The band of frequencies between 390 and 1,550 megahertz. LEACHING AND NONLEACHING — In a leaching wire the plasticizer will migrate when exposed to heat. A nonleaching wire will retain its plasticizer under extreme temperature conditions and remain flexible after baking. LEAD — A wire, with or without terminals, that connects two points in a circuit. LEAD CURED — A cable that is cured or vulcanized in a metallic lead mold. LEAD-IN — The conductor or conductors that connect the antenna proper to electronic equipment. LEAKAGE CURRENT — An undesirable flow of current through or over the surface of an insulating material. LEAKAGE DISTANCE — The shortest distance along an insulation surface between conductors. LED — Light-Emiting Diode; device that accepts electrical signals and converts the energy to a light signal; with lasers, the main light source for optical-fiber transmission, used mainly with multimode fiber. LENGTH OF LAY — The axial length of one turn of the helix of a wire or member. See Lay.
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LOGGING CABLE — Usually FEP/Tefzel self-supporting instrumentation cable. Generally dropped through borings in subsurface mining or well applications. LONGITUDINAL SHIELD — A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the cable. LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE — A term generally applied to shrink products denoting the axial length lost through heating in order to obtain the recovered diameter. LONGITUDINAL WRAP — Tape applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being covered. LONGWALL MACHINE — A mining machine used to undercut coal. LOOP RESISTANCE — The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry. LOOP TEST — A long line test where a good line is connected to a faulty line to form a loop in which measurements will locate the fault. LOSS — The portion of energy applied to a system that is dissipated and performs no useful work. LOSS FACTOR — The power factor times the dielectric constant. LOW BOND INSULATION — An insulation that exhibits a small bond strength to the conductors. LOW FREQUENCY — A band of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 kHz in the radio spectrum, designated by the Federal Communications Commission. LOW LOSS DIELECTRIC — An insulating material that has a relatively low dielectric loss, such as polyethylene or Teflon. LOW NOISE CABLE — A cable specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated noise induced by either physical movement or adjacent circuitry. LOW TENSION — Low voltage, as applied to ignition cable. LOW VOLTAGE — (1) As defined in the National Electrical Code, a system rated nominal 24 volts or less, supplied from a transformer, converter, or battery, (2) A power system voltage rating of 1,000 Volts or less. LPF — Low Pass Filter. A filter which greatly attenuates signals of higher than a specified frequency, but passes with minimal attenuation all signals lower in frequency. LUMEN — A unit of measurement for light output. LV — Low Voltage. MARKER THREAD — A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strand in an insulated conductor which identifies the manufacturer and sometimes the specification to which the wire is made. MASTIC — A meltable coating used on the inside of some shrink products which when heated flows to help create a waterproof seal. MATV — Master Antenna Television System. A combination of components providing multiple television receiver operations from one antenna or group of antennas. MAXIMUM CABLE DIAMETER — The largest cable diameter that a high-voltage cable termination is designed to accommodate. MINIMUM CABLE DIAMETER — The smallest cable diameter that a high-voltage cable termination is designed to accommodate. MAXIMUM DESIGN VOLTAGE — The maximum voltage at which a high-voltage cable termination is designed to operate continuously under normal conditions. MC — (1) Main cross-connect, (2) A UL cable type (metal clad). MECHANICAL WATER ABSORPTION — A check of how much water will be absorbed by material in warm water for seven days (mg/sq. in. surface). MEDIUM FREQUENCY — The band of frequencies between 300 and 3,000 kilohertz. MEDIUM-HARD DRAWN WIRE — As applied to copper wire, having tensile strength less than the minimum for hard-drawn wire, but greater than the maximum for soft wire. MEDIUM VOLTAGE — A class of nominal power system voltage ratings from 2 kV up to 69 kV. MEGA — Prefix meaning million. MEGAHERTZ (MHz) — One million cycles per second. MEGGER — A special ohmmeter for measuring very high resistance. Primarily used for checking the insulation resistance of cables, however, it is also useful for equipment leakage tests. MELT INDEX — The extrusion rate of a material through a specified orifice under specified conditions. MEMBER — A group of wires stranded together which is in turn stranded into a multiple-membered conductor. MESSENGER WIRE — A metallic supporting member either solid or stranded which may also perform the function of a conductor. MFD — Microfarad (one-millionth of a farad). Obsolete abbreviation. MFT — Abbreviation for 1,000 feet. MG — Glass reinforced mica tape insulated cable with an overall sheath of woven glass yarn impregnated with a flame, heat and moisture resistant finish. 450°C, 600 V appliance wire. MHO — The unit of conductivity. The reciprocal of an ohm. MHz — Megahertz (one million cycles per second). MI — A UL cable type. One or more conductors insulated with highly compressed refractory minerals and enclosed in a liquidtight and gas-tight metallic tube sheathing. MICA — A transparent silicate which separates into layers and has high insulation resistance, high dielectric strength, and high heat resistance.

M
mA — Milliampere (one-thousandth of an ampere). MAGNET WIRE — Insulated wire used in the windings of motors, transformers, and other electromagnetic devices. MAGNETIC FIELD — The field created when current flows through a conductor, especially a coiled conductor. MAP — Manufacturing Automation Protocol. The OSI profile championed by General Motors Corporation to provide interconnectivity between plant hosts, area managers and cell controllers over a broadband token-passing bus network. MARKER TAPE — A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the sheath in a cable, imprinted with the manufacturer’s name and the specification to which the cable is made.
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MICRO — Prefix meaning one-millionth. MICROBENDING LOSS — A signal loss due to small geometrical irregularities along the core-cladding interface of optical fibers. MICROFARAD — One-millionth of a farad (abbreviated µf). MICROMICROFARAD — One-millionth of a microfarad (abbreviated µµf). Also, a picofarad (pf). MICROPHONE CABLE — A very flexible, usually shielded cable used for audio signals. MICROPHONICS — Noise caused by mechanical movement of a system component. In a single conductor microphone cable, for example, microphonics can be caused by the shield rubbing against the dielectric as the cable is flexed. MICROWAVE — A short (usually less than 30 cm.) electrical wave. MID-SPLIT — A broadband cable system in which the cable bandwidth is divided between transmit and receive frequencies. The bandwidth utilized to send toward the head-end (reverse direction) is approximately 5 MHz to 100 MHz, and the bandwidth utilized to send away from the head-end (forward direction) is approximately 160 MHz to 300 Mhz. The guard band between the forward and reverse directions (100 MHz to 160 MHz) provides isolation from interference. mil — A unit of length equal to one-thousandth of an inch. MIL — Military specification. MIL-C-17 — A military specification covering many coaxial cables. MIL-W-16878 — A military specification covering various wires intended for internal wiring of electric and electronic equipment. MIL-W-22759 — A military specification for fluorocarbon insulated copper and copper alloy wire. milli — Prefix meaning one-thousandth. MIPS — Millions of Instructions Per Second. One measure of processing power. MODULATION — Systematic changing of properties, e.g., amplification, frequency, phase of an analog signal to encode and convey (typically digital) information. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY — The ratio of stress (force) to strain (deformation) in a material that is elastically deformed. MOISTURE ABSORPTION — The amount of moisture, in percentage, that a material will absorb under specified conditions. MOISTURE RESISTANCE — The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water. MOLDED PLUG — A connector molded on either end of a cord or cable. MONO FILAMENT — A single strand filament as opposed to a braided or twisted filament. MONOMER — The basic chemical unit used in building a polymer. MOTOR LEAD WIRE — Wire which connects to the fragile magnet wire found in coils, transformers, and stator or field windings. MPF — Mine power feeder cables. Usually rated 5, 8, or 15 kV. MSHA — Mine Safety and Health Administration. The Federal enforcement agency for employee safety in mines and mills. Formerly known as MESA, Bureau of mines. MSHA regulations appear in CFR Title 30, Chapter 1. MTW — Machine tool wire. Thermoplastic insulated, 90°C to 105°C, 600 V. A UL cable type. MULTICAST — The ability to broadcast messages to one node or a select group of nodes. MULTIDROP — See Multipoint Circuit. MULTIMODE — Optical fiber which allows more than one mode of light to propagate. MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CABLE — A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used. MULTIPLE-CONDUCTOR CONCENTRIC CABLE — An insulated central conductor with one or more tubular stranded conductors laid over it concentrically and insulated from one another. MULTIPLEX — The use of a common physical channel in order to make two or more logical channels, either by splitting of the frequency band (frequency-division multiplex), or by utilizing this common channel at different points in time (time-division multiplex). MULTIPLEXER — Equipment that permits simultaneous transmission of multiple signals over one physical circuit. MULTIPOINT CIRCUIT — A single line connecting three or more stations. MURRAY LOOP TEST — A method used to localize cable faults. MUTUAL CAPACITANCE — Capacitance between two conductors in a cable. MUX — Multiplex. To transmit two or more signals over a single channel. mV — Millivolt (one-thousandth of a volt). MV — Medium voltage cables. Usually rated 5 – 35 kV. mW — Milliwatt (one-thousandth of a watt). MYLAR — DuPont’s trademark for polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) film.

N
NBR — Butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, a material with good oil and chemical resistance. NBR/PVC — A blend of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Used for jacketing. NBS — National Bureau of Standards. Now called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). N CONNECTOR — A threaded connector for coax; N is named after Paul Neill. NEC — National Electrical Code. NEMA — National Electrical Manufacturers Association. NEOPRENE — A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil, chemicals, and flame. Also called polychloroprene. NETWORK — A series of nodes connected by communications channels.

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NEWTON — The derived SI unit for force; the force which will give one kilogram mass an acceleration of one meter per second. Equals 0.2248 pounds force. NFPA — National Fire Protection Association. NICKEL CLAD COPPER WIRE — A wire with a layer of nickel on a copper core where the area of the nickel is approximately 30% of the conductor area. NM — A UL cable type. Nonmetallic sheathed cable, braid or plastic covered. For dry use, 90°C conductor rating. NM-B — A UL cable type. NMC — Nonmetallic sheathed cable, plastic or neoprene covered. Wet or dry use, 90°C conductor rating. NODE — A station. NOISE — In a cable or circuit any extraneous sounds or signal which tends to interfere with the sound or signal normally present in or passing through the system. NOMEX — DuPont’s trademark for a heat resistant, flame retardant nylon. NOMINAL — Name or identifying value of a measurable property by which a conductor or component or property of a conductor is identified, and to which tolerances are applied. NOMINAL VOLTAGE (NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE) — A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (as 120/240, 480Y/277, 600 etc.). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment. NOMOGRAPH — A chart or diagram with which equations can be solved graphically by placing a straight edge on two known values and reading the answer where the straight edge crosses the scale of the unknown value. NONCONTAMINATING — A type of PVC jacket material whose plasticizer will not migrate into the dielectric of a coaxial cable and thus avoid contaminating and destroying the dielectric. NONCONTAMINATING PVC — A polyvinyl chloride formulation, which does not produce electrical contamination through plasticizer migration. NONFLAMMABLE — The property of a material that is not capable of being easily ignited. NONMIGRATING PVC — Polyvinyl chloride compound formulated to inhibit plasticizer migration. NRZI — Non-Return to Zero Inverted. A binary encoding technique in which a change in state represents a binary 0 and no change in state represents a binary 1. N-SERIES CONNECTOR — A coaxial connector (RG-8/U) used in standard Ethernet networks. NTSC — National Television Standard Committee. The U.S. color TV standard. NUMERICAL APERTURE — The acceptance angle of an optical fiber which determines the angle at which light can enter the fiber; expressed as a number which is equivalent to the sine of the angle. NYLON — An abrasion-resistant thermoplastic with good chemical resistance. Polyamide.

O
OD — Outside diameter. OEM — Original equipment manufacturer. OFHC — Oxygen-free high-conductivity copper. OHM — The electrical unit of resistance. The value of resistance through which a potential difference of one volt will maintain a current of one ampere. OHM’S LAW — Stated V IR, I V/R, or R voltage, I is current and R is resistance. V/I where V is

OIL AGING — Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a preset temperature for a stated time. OPEN CELL — Foamed or cellular material with cells which are generally interconnected. OPEN CIRCUIT — A break in an electrical circuit so that there can be no current flow. OPTICAL CONDUCTOR — Materials which offer a low optical attenuation to transmission of light energy. OPTICAL CROSS-CONNECT — A cross-connect unit used for circuit administration. It provides for the connection of individual optical fibers with optical fiber patch cords. OPTICAL ENCODER — A device whose position is determined by a photoelectric device and converted to an electrical data output. OPTICAL FIBER — Any filament or fiber, made of dielectric materials, that is used to transmit light signals; optical fiber usually consists of a core, which carries the signal, and cladding, a substance with a slightly higher refractive index than the core, which surrounds the core and serves to reflect the light signal. See also Fiber Optics. OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE — A fiber used for optical communications. Analogous to a waveguide used for microwave communications. OSCILLATORY SURGE — A surge which includes both positive and negative polarity values. OSCILLOSCOPE — Test instrument for showing visually the changes in a varying voltage by means of the wavy line made on a fluorescent screen by the deflection of a beam of cathode rays. OSHA — Abbreviation for Occupational Safety and Health Act. Specifically the Williams-Steiger laws passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment. OSMOSIS — The diffusion of fluids through membranes. OUTDOOR TERMINATION — A cable termination intended for use where it is not protected from direct exposure to either solar radiation or precipitation. OUTGASSING — Dissipation of gas from a material. OUTPUT — The useful power or signal delivered by a circuit or device. OVERALL DIAMETER — Finished diameter over wire or cable. OVERCOAT CONDUCTOR — A stranded conductor made from individual strands of tin-coated wire stranded together, and then given an overall tin coat. OVERLAP — The amount the trailing edge laps over the leading edge of a spiral tape wrap.

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OXYGEN INDEX — A test to rate flammability of materials in a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. More formally referred to as Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI). OZONE — An extremely reactive form of oxygen, normally occuring around electrical discharges and present in the atmosphere in small but active quantities. In sufficient concentrations it can break down certain insulations. PHASE — The location of a position on a waveform of an alternating current, in relation to the start of a cycle. Measured in degrees, with 360 corresponding to one complete cycle. PHASE SEQUENCE — The order in which successive members of a periodic wave set reach their positive maximum values: a) zero phase sequence — no phase shift, b) plus/minus phase sequence — normal phase shift. PHASE SHIFT — A change in the phase relationship between two alternating quantities. The phase angle between the input and output signals of a system. PICK — Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage. PICO — Prefix meaning one-millionth of one-millionth (10
-12

P
PAIR — Two insulated wires of a single circuit associated together; also known as a “balanced” transmission line. PARALLEL CIRCUIT — A circuit in which identical voltage is presented to all components, and the current divides among the components according to the resistances or the impedances of the components. PARALLEL STRIPE — A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor. PARALLEL TRANSMISSION — A type of data transfer in which all bits of a character, or multiple-bit data blocks, are sent simultaneously, either over separate communications lines or circuits, over a single channel using multiple frequencies, or over a multiple-conductor cable. PARTIAL DISCHARGE (CORONA) EXTINCTION VOLTAGE — The voltage at which partial discharge (corona) is no longer detectable on instrumentation adjusted to a specific sensitivity, following the application of a specified higher voltage. PATCH CABLE — A cable with plugs or terminals on each end of the conductors to temporarily connect circuits of equipment together. PAYOFF — The process of feeding a cable or wire from a bobbin, reel, or other package. PCB — Printed Circuit Board. PCP — Polychloroprene (Neoprene). PDN — Public Data Network. A packet switched or circuit switched network available for use by many customers. PDNs may offer value-added services at a reduced cost because of communications resource sharing, and usually provide increased reliability due to built-in redundancy. PE — Polyethylene. A widely used thermoplastic insulation and jacket compound. PEAK — The maximum instantaneous value of a varying current or voltage. Also called crest. PEEK — Poly ether ether ketone. PEEL STRENGTH — The force necessary to peel a flexible member from another member which may be either flexible or rigid. PERCENT CONDUCTIVITY — The ratio of the resistivity of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) at 20°C to the resistivity of a material at 20°C, expressed in percent. Results are calculated on a weight basis or volume basis and so specified. PERCENT PLATING — Quantity of plating on a conductor expressed as a percentage by weight. PERCENTAGE CONDUCTIVITY — Conductivity of a material expressed as a percentage of that of copper. PFA — Perfluoroalkoxy. Teflon is DuPont’s trademark for this material.

).

PICOFARAD — One-millionth of one-millionth of a farad. A micromicrofarad, or picofarad (abbreviation pf). PIGTAIL WIRE — Fine stranded, extra flexible, rope lay lead wire attached to a shield for terminating purposes. PILC CABLE — Paper insulated, lead covered. PIN ASSIGNMENT — A predetermined relationship between the terminals in a connector and the conductors in a cable that specifies the terminals to which each conductor is to be terminated. PITCH — In flat cable, the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors. PITCH DIAMETER — Diameter of a circle passing through the center of the conductors in any layer of a multiconductor cable. PLANETARY TWISTER — A cabling machine whose payoff spools are mounted in rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved so the wire will not kink as it is twisted. PLASTICIZER — A chemical added to plastics to make them softer and more flexible. PLATED HOLE — A hole with walls that have been plated with conductive material to provide an electrical connection between the conductive patterns on both sides of a printed circuit or an anchor for soldering an inserted wire. PLENUM — The air return path of a central air handling system, either ductwork or open space over a suspended ceiling. PLENUM CABLE — Cable approved by a recognized agency such as UL for installation in plenums without the need for conduit. PLTC — Power Limited Tray Cable, rated 300 volts. PLUG — The part of the two mating halves of a connector which is movable when not fastened to the other mating half. PLY — The number of individual strands or filaments twisted together to form a single thread. POINT-TO-POINT WIRING — An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points. POLARIZATION — The orientation of a flat cable or a rectangular connector. POLISHING — Act of smoothing ends of optical fibers to an “optically smooth” finish, generally using abrasives.

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POLYAMIDE — The chemical name for Nylon. POLYBUTADIENE — A type of synthetic rubber often blended with other synthetic rubbers to improve their properties. POLYESTER — Polyethylene terephthalate, used extensively as a moisture resistant cable core wrap. Mylar is DuPont’s trademark for polyester. POLYETHYLENE — A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties. POLYHALOCARBON — A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. The halogens are flourine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. POLYIMIDE — A relatively high temperature plastic developed for use as a dielectric or jacketing material. Kapton is DuPont’s trademark for polyimide. POLYMER — A substance made of many repeating chemical units or molecules. The term polymer is often used in place of plastic, rubber, or elastomer. POLYMER OPTICAL FIBER — One of the media projected to become the heart of an automotive LAN. The POF media would become the communications backbone of the vehicle. POLYOLEFINS — A family of plastics including cross-linked polyethylene and various ethylene copolymers. POLYPROPYLENE — A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having a higher temperature softening point. POLYURETHANE — Broad class of polymers noted for good abrasion and solvent resistance. Can be in solid or cellular form. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) — A general purpose thermoplastic used for wire and cable insulations and jackets. POROSITY — Multiple voids in an insulation crosssection. PORT — A point of access into a computer, a network, or other electronic device; the physical or electrical interface through which one gains access; the interface between a process and a communications or transmission facility. P.O.S. — Abbreviation for point-of-sale. POSITION CODING — Identification of conductors by their location, possible only when conductors are located in assigned positions with relation to each other throughout the entire length of a cable. POSJ — All rubber, parallel, light duty ripcord for use on lamps and small appliances, 300 V, 60°C. POTTING — Sealing by filling with a substance to exclude moisture. POWER — The amount or work per unit of time. Usually 2 expressed in watts, and equal to I R. POWER CABLES — Cables of various sizes, constructions, and insulations, single or multiconductor, designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment. POWER FACTOR — The cosine of the phase difference between current and applied voltage. POWER LOSS — The difference between the total power delivered to a circuit, cable, or device, and power delivered by that device to a load. POWER RATIO — The ratio of the power appearing at the load to the input power. Expressed in db, it is equal to 10 log10 (P2/P1) where P1 is input power and P2 is the power at the load. PPE — Polypropylene ethylene. PREBOND — Stranded wire which has been fused, topcoat tinned, or overcoat tinned. PREMOLDED SPLICE — A joint made of premolded components assembled in the field. PRIMARY — The transformer winding which receives the energy from a supply current. PRIMARY INSULATION — The first layer of nonconductive material applied over a conductor, whose prime function is to act as electrical insulation. PRINTING WIRING — A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point electrical connections. PRODUCTION TESTS — Tests made on components or subassemblies during production for the purpose of quality control. PROPAGATION DELAY — The time it takes a signal, composed of electromagnetic energy to travel from one point to another over a transmisssion channel; usually most noticeable in communicating with satellites; normally, the speed-of-light delay. PROPAGATION TIME — Time required for a wave to travel between two points on a transmission line. PROPAGATION VELOCITY — The velocity of the propagation of a wave along a transmission path. PROTECTIVE COVERING — A field-applied material to provide environmental protection over a splice or housing, or both. PROXIMITY EFFECT — Nonuniform current distribution over the crosssection of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor. PT — Thermostat cable with solid conductor, individual insulation, twisted together. PTFE — Polytetrafluoroethylene. One type of Teflon. Sometimes abbreviated TFE. PTT — Post Telephone and Telegraph Authority. The government agency that functions as the communications common carrier and administrator in many areas of the world. PULLING EYE — A device used to pull cable into or from a duct. PULSE — A current or voltage which changes abruptly from one value to another and back to the original value in a finite length of time. PULSE CABLE — A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated high-voltage pulses without degradation. PVC — Polyvinyl chloride. A common insulating and jacketing material used on cables. PVC-I — A MIL-C-17 coax jacket type. A black polyvinyl chloride with excellent weathering and abrasion properties, but is a contaminating type and will cause cable attenuation to increase with age. Can be used for direct burial. PVC-II — A MIL-C-17 coax jacket type. A grey polyvinyl chloride material which is semi-noncontaminating. PVC-IIA — A MIL-C-17 coax jacket type. A black or grey polyvinyl chloride material which is noncontaminating. It has good weathering and abrasion-resistant properties and can be used for direct burial. PVDF — Polyvinylidene fluoride. Atochem’s trademark for this material is Kynar. PYROMETER — See Thermocouple.

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Q
Q BAND — The band of frequencies between 36 and 46 gigahertz. QPL — A Qualified Products List issued by the U.S. Government. QUAD — A series of four separately insulated conductors, generally twisted together in pairs. RESIN — A solid or semisolid organic substance, originally of plant origin but largely synthesized now. Resins are broadly classified as thermoplastic or thermosetting according to whether they soften or harden with the application of heat. RESISTANCE — In DC circuits, the opposition a material offers to current, measured in ohms. In AC circuits, resistance is the real component of impedance, and may be higher than the value measured at DC. RESISTIVE CONDUCTOR — A conductor with high electrical resistance. RESISTIVITY — A material characteristic which opposes the flow of electrical energy through the material. It is affected by temper, temperature, contamination, alloying, etc. The unit of volume resistivity is the ohm-cm. The unit of surface resistivity is ohms/m2. RESISTOR — An electronic component designed to have a specific value of resistance. RESISTOR COLOR CODE — A method of indicating resistance value and tolerance. The first color represents the first significant figure of the value. A second color represents the second significant figure, and the third is the multiplier or the number of zeros that follow two significant figures. When there is a fourth color band, it indicates the tolerance. RESONANCE — An AC circuit condition in which inductive and capacitive reactances interact to cause a minimum or maximum circuit impedance. RETRACTILE CORD — A cord having specially treated insulation or jacket so that it will retract like a spring. Retractability may be added to all or part of a cord’s length. RETURN WIRE — A ground wire or the negative wire in a direct-current circuit. RFI — Radio Frequency Interference. The disruption of radio signal reception caused by any source which generates radio waves at the same frequency and along the same path as the desired wave.
RF MODEM — Radio frequency modem. A device used to

R
R — Symbol for electrical resistance. RADIO FREQUENCY — The frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum that are used for radio communications. A band of frequencies between 10 kilohertz and 100 gigahertz. RANDOM WINDING — A winding in rotating equipment wherein wires do not lie in an even pattern. REA (RURAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION) — A federally supported program to provide electrical service to rural areas. REACTANCE — The opposition offered an alternating electron flow by a capacitance or inductance. The amount of such opposition varies with the frequency of the current. The reactance of a capacitor decreases with an increase in frequency; the opposite occurs with an inductance. RECOVERED DIAMETER — Diameter of shrinkable products after heating has caused it to return to its extruded diameter. RED PLAGUE — A powdery, brown-red growth sometimes found on silver-coated copper conductors and shield braids. REDRAW — The consecutive drawing of wire through a series of dies to reach a desired wire size. REEL — A revolving flanged device made of wood or metal, used for winding flexible cable. REFERENCE EDGE — See preferred term Index Edge. REFERENCE JUNCTION — The junction of a thermocouple which is at a known reference temperature. Also known as the “cold” junction, it is usually located at the emf measuring device. REFLECTION — (1) The change in direction (or return) of waves striking a surface. For example, electromagnetic energy reflections can occur at an impedance mismatch in a transmission line, causing standing waves, (2) Change in direction of a light wave or ray in an optical fiber. REFLECTION LOSS — The part of a signal which is lost to reflection of power at a line discontinuity. REFLOW SOLDERING — The process of connecting two solder-coated conductive surfaces by remelting of the solder to cause fusion. REFRACTION — The bending of lightwaves or rays as they go from one material to another due to the difference in velocities in the materials. REINFORCED SHEATH — The outer covering of a cable which has a reinforcing material, usually a braided fiber, molded in place between layers. RELIABILITY — The probability that a device will function without failure over a specified time period or amount of usage.

convert digital data signals to analog signals ( and from analog to digital), then modulate/demodulate them to/from their assigned frequencies. RG/U — “RG” is the military designation for coaxial cable, and “U” stands for “general utility.” RHH — Rubber-insulated, heat-resistant building wire, 90°C. A UL cable type. RHW — Rubber-insulated building wire, heat and moistureresistant, 75°C dry or wet. A UL cable type. RHW-2 — Rubber-insulated building wire, heat and moistureresistant, 90°C dry or wet. A UL cable type. RIBBON CABLE — A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or woven textile yarn. RIDGE MARKER — One or more ridges running laterally along the outer surface of a plastic insulated wire for purposes of identification. RIGID COAXIAL CABLE — Nonflexible coaxial cable, usually a metal tube armored coaxial cable. Sometimes called “hardline.”

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RINGING OUT — Locating or identifying specific conductive paths by passing current through selected conductors. RING TONGUE — A solderless terminal that connects wire to a stud. RIP CORD — Two or more insulated conductors in a parallel configuration which may be separated to leave the insulation of each conductor intact. RISE TIME — The time it takes the voltage to rise from 0.1 to 0.9 of its final value. RIV — Radio influence voltage. The radio noise appearing on conductors of electric equipment or circuits. RMS — See Root-Mean-Square. ROCKWELL HARDNESS — A measure of hardness determined by resistance to indention by a small diamond or steel ball under pressure. ROMEX — A type of nonmetallic sheathed cable. ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS) — The effective value of an alternating current or voltages. ROPE CONCENTRIC — A group of stranded conductors assembled in a concentric manner. ROPE-LAY CONDUCTOR — See Concentric-lay Conductor. ROPE STRAND — A conductor composed of a center group of twisted strands surrounded by layers of twisted strands. ROPE UNILAY — A group of stranded conductors assembled in a unilay manner. ROTATING CABLE — A coil of cable whose inner end is attached to a member that rotates in relation to a member to which the outer end of the cable is fastened. ROUND CONDUCTOR FLAT CABLE — A cable made with parallel round conductors in the same plane. ROUND WIRE SHIELDS — Shields constructed from bare, tinned, or silver-plated copper wire that include braided, spiral, and reverse spiral. ROUTINE TESTS — Tests made on each high-voltage cable or upon a representative number of devices, or parts, during production for the purposes of quality control. RS-232 — An EIA recommended standard (RS); a common standard for connecting data processing devices. RS-232 defines the electrical characteristics of the signals in the cable that connect DTE with DCE; it specifies a 25-pin connector (the DB-25 connector is almost universally used in RS-232 applications); and it is functionally identical to CCITT V.24/V.28. RS-232-C — A technical specification published by the EIA that specifies the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the interface for connecting DTE and DCE. It defines interface circuit functions and their corresponding connector pin assignments. The standard applies to both asynchronous and synchronous serial, binary data transmission at speeds up to 20 Kbps in fullor half-duplex mode. RS-232-C defines 20 specific functions. The physical connection between DTE and DCE is made through plug-in, 25-pin connectors. RS-232-C is functionally compatible with the CCITT Recommendation V.24. RS-232-C SERIAL I/O PORT — A standard connection interface for computer peripheral equipment. RS-422 — A standard operating in conjuction with RS-449 that specifies electrical characteristics for balanced circuits. An EIA recommended standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-449, RS-422 is most frequently implemented on unused pins of DB-25 (RS-232) connectors. Electrically compatible with CCITT recommendation V.11. RS-423 — A standard operating in conjunction with RS-449 that specifies electrical characteristics for unbalanced circuits. An EIA recommended standard for cable lengths that exceed the RS-232 50-foot limit. Although introduced as a companion standard with RS-422, RS-423 is not widely used. Electrically compatible with CCITT recommendation V.10. RS-432-A — Electrical characteristics of unbalanced-voltage digital interface circuits (EIA). RS-449 — Another EIA standard for DTE/DCE connection which specifies interface requirements for expanded transmission speeds (up to 2 Mbps), longer cable lengths, and 10 additional functions. RS-449 applies to binary, serial, synchronous or asynchronous communications. Half- and fullduplex modes are accommodated and transmission can be over 2- or 4-wire facilities such as point-to-point multipoint lines. The physical connection between DTE and DCE is made through a 37-contact connector; a separate 9-connector is specified to service secondary channel interchange circuits, when used. RTS — Request-To-Send. An RS-232 modem interface signal (sent from the DTE to the modem on pin 4) which indicates that the DTE has data to transmit. RUBBER, ETHYLENE PROPYLENE (EPR) — A synthetic rubber insulation having excellent electrical properties. RUBBER INSULATION — A general term used to describe wire insulations made of elastomers such as natural or synthetic rubbers, neoprene, Hypalon, EPR, CPE, and others. RULAN — DuPont’s trade name for their flame-retardant polyethylene insulating material.

S
S — A UL cable type. Hard service flexible cord with thermoset insulation and jacket. SAE — Society of Automotive Engineers. S BAND — A band of frequencies between 1,550 and 5,200 megahertz. SBR — A copolymer of styrene and butadiene. Also GRS or Buna-S. SCHERING BRIDGE — See Bridge. SDN — A small diameter multiconductor control cable with neoprene jacket and nylon sheath over polyethylene insulation. SECONDARY INSULATION — A nonconductive material that protects the conductor against abrasion and provides a second barrier. SEGMENTAL CONDUCTOR — A stranded conductor consisting of three or more stranded conducting elements, each element having approximately the shape of the sector of a circle, assembled to give a substantially circular cross section. SELF-EXTINGUISHING — Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed.

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GLOSSARY
SEMICONDUCTOR — In wire industry terminology, a material possessing electrical conduction properties that fall somewhere between conductors and insulators. Usually made by adding carbon particles to an insulator. Not the same as semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, etc., used for making transistors and diodes. SEMICONDUCTING JACKET — A jacket having a sufficiently low resistance so that its outer surface can be kept at substantially ground potential. SEMIRIGID CABLE — Generally refers to Type MI or Type ALS which can be bent or shaped into a required configuration from coils or reels. SEMIRIGID PVC — A hard semiflexible polyvinylchoride compound with low plasticizer content. SEMISOLID — An insulation crosssection having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter. SENSITIVE CONDUCTOR — A conductor terminated to a circuit that is adversely affected by spurious signals. SEPARABLE INSULATED CONNECTOR — An insulated device to facilitate cable connections and separations. SEPARATOR — Pertaining to wire and cable, a layer of insulating material such as textile, paper, Mylar, etc., which is placed between a conductor and its dielectric, between a cable jacket and the components it covers, or between various components of a multiple conductor cable. It can be utilized to improve stripping qualities and/or flexibility, or can offer additional mechanical or electrical protection to the components it separates. SERIAL INTERFACE — An interface which requires serial transmission, or the transfer of information in which the bits composing a character are sent sequentially. Implies only a single transmission channel. SERIES CIRCUIT — A circuit in which the components are arranged end to end to form a single path for current. SERVE — A filament or group of filaments such as fibers or wires, wound around a central core. SERVED WIRE ARMOR –— Spiral wrap of soft galvanized steel wires wrapped around a cable to afford mechanical protection and increase the cable-pulling tension characteristic. SERVING — A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire. SEU — A UL cable type. Service Entrance Underground Cable, 600 volts. SEW, SEWF — A CSA cable type. Silicone rubber-insulated equipment wire. SF — A CSA cable type. Silicone rubber insulated fixture wire, solid or 7 strand conductor, 200°C. SFF — A CSA cable type. Same as SF, except flexible stranding 150°C. SG — A CSA cable type. Same as SW except with ground wires. SGO — A CSA cable type. Same as SWO except with ground wires. SHD — Portable mine power cable, three or four individually shielded conductors, with grounding conductors, 5 through 25 kV. SHEATH — The outer covering or jacket over the insulated conductors to provide mechanical protection for the conductors. SHIELD — A sheet, screen, or braid of metal, usually copper, aluminum, or other conducting material placed around or between electric circuits or cables or their components, to contain any unwanted radiation, or to keep out any unwanted interference. SHIELD COVERAGE — See Shield Percentage. SHIELDED INSULATED SPLICE — An insulated splice in which a conducting material is employed over the full length of the insulation for electric stress control. SHIELDED LINE — A transmission line whose elements confine radio waves to an essentially finite space inside a tubular conducting surface called the sheath, thus preventing the line from radiating radio waves. SHIELD EFFECTIVENESS — The relative ability of a shield to screen out undesirable radiation. Frequently confused with the term shield percentage, which it is not. SHIELDING, POWER CABLE — A conducting layer, applied to control the dielectric stresses within tolerable limits and minimize voids. SHIELD PERCENTAGE — The physical area of a circuit or cable actually covered by shielding material, expressed in percent. SHORT — A low resistance path that results in excessive current flow and often in damage. SHOVEL CABLE — Normally an SHD-GC type which supplies high-voltage (2 to 25 kV) power to mobile equipment. SHRINKING RATIO — The ratio between the expanded diameter and recovered diameter of shrinkable products. SHRINK TEMPERATURE — That temperature which effects complete recovery of a heat shrinkable product from the expanded state. SHRINK TUBING — Tubing which has been extruded, crosslinked, and mechanically expanded which when reheated or released will return to its original diameter. SHUNT — A very low resistance component used to divert a portion of the current. SHUNT WIRE — A conductor joining two parts of an electric circuit to divert part of the current. SI — An international system of standardized units of measurement. SIC (SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITANCE) — See Dielectric Constant. SIGNAL — Any visible or audio indication which can convey information. Also, the information conveyed through a communication system. SIGNAL CABLE — A cable designed to carry current of usually less than one ampere per conductor. SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO — A ratio of the amplitude in a desired signal to the amplitude of noise, usually expressed in db. SILICONE — A material made from silicon and oxygen. Can be in thermosetting elastomer or liquid form. The thermosetting elastomer form is noted for high heat resistance. SINGLE CABLE — A one-cable system in broadband LANs in which a portion of the bandwidth is allocated for send signals, and a portion for receive signals, with a guard band in between to provide isolation from interference.

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GLOSSARY
SINGLE MODE — Optical fiber in which only one mode of light can propagate. SINTERING — Fusion of a spirally applied tape wrap insulation or jacket by the use of high heat to a homogenous continuum. Usually employed for fluorocarbon, nonextrudable materials. SIS — Switchboard wiring made with cross-linked polyethylene insulation. SJ — A UL cable type. Junior hard service, rubber-insulated pendant or portable cord. Same construction as type S, but 300 V. SJO — Same as SJ, but with oil-resistant jacket. SJOO — Same as SJO but with oil-resistant insulation as well as an oil-resistant jacket. SJT — A UL cable type. Junior hard service thermoplastic or rubber insulated conductors with overall thermoplastic jacket. 300 V. SJTO — Same as SJT but oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. SJTOO — Same as SJTO but with oil-resistant insulation. SKIN EFFECT — The tendency of alternating current, as its frequency increases, to travel only on the surface of a conductor. S METER — An instrument to measure signal strength. S/N — See Signal-to-Noise Ratio. SNM — Shielded nonmetallic sheathed cable. SO — A UL cable type. Hard service cord, same construction as type S except oil-resistant thermoset jacket, 600 V. SOFT WIRE — Wire that has been drawn or rolled to final size and then heated (annealed) to remove the effects of cold working. SOLID CONDUCTOR — A conductor consisting of a single wire. SOO — Same as SO but with oil-resistant insulation. SOOW-A — A UL cable type. Portable cord and control cable. 600 V. Same as SOO but UL Listed for outdoor use. SOURCE COUPLING LOSS — Loss of light intensity as the light from a source passes into an optical fiber. SOW — A CSA cable type. A water-resistant thermosetjacketed portable cord approved for outdoor use. SPACER CABLE — A type of overhead power distribution cable. Spacing is accomplished by ceramic or plastic hangers suspended from a support messenger. SPAN — In flat conductors, distance between the reference edge of the first and the last conductor. In round conductors, distance between centers of the first and last conductors. SPC — Statistical Process Control. SPECIFIC INDUCTIVE CAPACITY (SIC) — Dielectric constant of insulating material. SPIRAL SHIELD — A metallic shield of fine stranded wires applied spirally rather than braided. SPIRAL STRIPE — A color coding stripe applied helically to the surface of an insulated wire or cable. SPIRAL WRAP — The helical wrap of a tape or thread over a core. SPLICE — A connection of two or more conductors or cables to provide good mechanical strength as well as good electrical conductivity.
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SPLITTER — A passive device used in a cable system to divide the power of a single input into two or more outputs of lesser power. Can also be used as a combiner when two or more inputs are combined into a single output. SP-1 — A UL cable type. All thermoset, parallel-jacketed, twoconductor light duty cord for pendant or portable use in damp locations, 300 V. SP-2 — Same as SP-1, but heavier construction, with or without third conductor for gounding purposes, 300 V. SP-3 — Same as SP-2, but heavier construction for refrigerators or room air-conditioners, 300 V. SPT — A UL type of thermoplastic-insulated, 2 or 3 conductor parallel cord. Frequently called “Zip cord” or “Lamp cord.” SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR — An induction motor having the primary winding (usually the stator) connected to the power and a current is induced in the secondary cage winding (usually the rotor). SR — Silicone rubber cable 600 V, 125°C. SR-AW — A cable with flexible, nickel-plated copper conductor, silicone rubber insulation, glass braid, 600 V, 200°C. SR-C — A cable with solid copper conductor, silicone rubber insulation, glass braid, 600 V, 125°C. SRG — A cable with ozone resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided glass yarn impregnated with flame, heat and moisture resistant finish. 150/200°C 600 V appliance and motor lead wire. SRGK — A cable with ozone resistant silicone rubber insulation with braided glass yarn conductor jacket. Cable core of insulated conductors shielded or unshielded, and an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame, heat and moisture resistant finish. 150/200°C 600 V multiconductor cable. SRK — A cable with ozone resistant silicone rubber insulation with an overall jacket of braided K-fiber impregnated with flame, heat and moisture resistant finish. 200°C 600 V fixture wire and power cable. ST — A UL cable type. Hard service cord, jacketed, same as type S except thermoplastic construction. 600 V, 60°C to 105°C. STABILITY FACTOR — The difference between the percentage power factor at 80 volts/mil and at 40 volts/mil measured on wire immersed in water at 75°C for a specified time. STANDARD — A set of rules or protocols that describe how a device should be manufactured so it will be reliable and interoperability (compatibility) with others of the same type from different manufacturers will be maintained. STANDING WAVE — The stationary pattern of waves produced by two waves of the same frequency traveling in opposite directions on the same transmission line. The existence of voltage and current maxima and minima along a transmission line is a result of reflected energy from an impedance mismatch. STANDING WAVE RATIO — In a transmission line, waveguide, or analogous system, a figure of merit used to express the efficiency of the system in transmitting power. STANDING WAVE RATIO (SWR) — A ratio of the maximum amplitude of a standing wave stated in current or voltage amplitudes. STATIC CHARGE — An electrical charge that is bound to an object. An unmoving electrical charge.

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GLOSSARY
STAY CORD — A component of a cable, usually a high-tensile textile, used to anchor the cable ends at their points of termination and to keep any pull on the cable from being transferred to the electrical connections. STEP INDEX FIBER — A multimode optical fiber consisting of a core of uniform refractive index, surrounded by cladding of slightly lower refractive index. STIFFNESS — As applied to copper, the property of a conductor that causes it to resist permanent deformation by bending. STO — Same as ST but with oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket, 600 V, 60°C. STOO — Same as STO but with oil-resistant insulation. STOP JOINT — A splice which is designed to prevent any transfer of dielectric fluid between the cables being joined. STP — Shielded Twisted Pair. Two wires, wound around each other to help cancel out any induced noise in balanced circuits. Multiple pairs of wires are contained in one sheath, and each wire pair is shielded. STRAIGHT JOINT — A cable splice used for connecting two lengths of cable, each of which consists of one or more conductors. STRAIN GAUGE — A device for determining the amount of strain (change in dimension) when a stress is applied. STRAIN HARDENING — An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range. STRAND — One of the wires of any stranded conductor. STRANDED CONDUCTOR — A conductor composed of a group of wires, usually twisted, or of any combination of such groups of wires. STRAND LAY — The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally stranded conductor, in one turn, measured longitudinaly. STRESS-RELIEF CABLE — Cable used to relieve stresses in the process of welding pipe joints by inducing heat in pipe sections to be welded, flexible copper strand. STRESS-RELIEF CONE (TERMINATION) — A device used to relieve the electrical stress at a shielded cable termination; generally used at 5 kV and above. STRIP — To remove insulation from a wire or cable. STRUCTURAL RETURN LOSS — Backward reflected energies from uneven parts of the cable structure. SUBCHANNEL — A frequency subdivision created from the capacity of one physical channel by broadband LAN technology. Bands of frequencies of the same or different sizes are assigned to transmission of voice, data, or video signals. Actual transmission paths are created when each assigned band is divided, using FDM, into a number of subchannels. SUBSPLIT — The most common form of transmission in the CATV industry. In the sub-split scheme, the bandwidth utilized to send toward the head-end (reverse direction) is much smaller, from approximately 5 MHz to 30 MHz, and the bandwidth utilized to transmit from the head-end (forward direction) is very large from approximately 55 MHz to 300 HMz. The guard band between forward and reverse directions (30 MHz to 55 MHz) provides isolation from interference. SUBSTRATE — Insulating material of a printed circuit. SUGGESTED WORKING VOLTAGE — AC voltage that can be applied between adjacent conductors.
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SUPERCONDUCTORS — Materials whose resistance and magnetic permeability are virtually zero at very low temperatures. SUPPRESSOR — A device used to reduce or eliminate unwanted voltages in electric or electronic circuits. For example, a resistance conductor in, or a resistor in series with, a sparkplug cable, to suppress interference which would otherwise affect radio reception in and near the vehicle. SURFACE RESISTIVITY — The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface. It is usually expressed in ohms. SURGE — A temporary and relatively large increase in the voltage or current in an electric circuit or cable. Also called transient. SV — A UL cable type. Vacuum cleaner cord, two or three conductor, rubber insulated. Overall rubber jacket. For light duty in damp locations, 300 V 60°C. SVO — A UL cable type. Same as SV except oil-resistant thermoset jacket, 300 V 60°C or 90°C. SVT — A UL cable type. Same as SV except thermoplastic jacket. 300 V, 60°C or 90°C. SVTO — A UL cable type. Same as SVT, except with oilresistant thermoplastic jacket, 60°C. SW — A CSA cable type. Rubber jacketed power supply cable (8 AWG to 2 AWG) 600 V. SWEEP TEST — A test given to check attenuation by an oscilloscope, as in coaxial cable. SWO — Same as SW except neoprene jacketed. SWT — A CSA cable type. Plastic-jacketed power supply cable (8 AWG to 2 AWG) 600 V.

T
T — Thermoplastic vinyl, building wire, 60°C. TAKE-UP — The process of accumulating wire or cable onto a reel, bobbin, or some other type of pack. Also, the device for pulling wire or cable through a piece of equipment or machine. TANK TEST — A dielectric strength test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and water as ground. TAP — (1) Baseband — The component of a connector that attaches a transceiver to a cable, (2) Broadband — (Also called a directional tap or multitap) a passive device used to remove a portion of the signal power from the distribution line and deliver it onto the drop line. TAPED INSULATION — Insulation of helically wound tapes applied over a conductor or over an assembled group of insulated conductors. TAPED SPLICE — A joint with hand-applied tape insulation. TAPE WRAP — A spirally applied tape over an insulated or uninsulated wire. TC — A UL cable type. See Tray Cable, NEC Art. 340. TCLP — Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. A test created by the EPA to determine whether an item can be safely discarded in an ordinary (nonhazardous) landfill. T CONNECTOR — A cable adapter that attaches a PC with a network interface module to the network. TEAR STRENGTH — The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions.

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GLOSSARY
TECHNICAL AND OFFICE PROTOCOLS (TOP) — A Boeing version of the MAP protocol aimed at office and engineering applications. TEFLON — Trademark of the DuPont Co. for FEP, PTFE, and PFA polymers. TELEMETRY CABLE — Cable used for transmission of information from instruments to the peripheral recording equipment. TEMPERATURE RATING — The maximum temperature at which an insulating material may be used in continuous operation without loss of its basic properties. TENSILE STRENGTH — The maximum load per unit of original cross-sectional area that a conductor attains when tested in tension to rupture. TERMINALS — Metal wire termination devices designed to handle one or more conductors, and to be attached to a board, bus or block with mechanical fasteners or clipped on. TERMINATOR — A resistive device used to terminate the end of cable or an unused tap into its characteristic impedence. The terminator prevents interference-causing signal reflections. TEST LEAD — A flexible, insulated lead wire used for making tests, connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily, or for making temporary electrical connections. TEW — Canadian Standards Association type appliance wires. Solid or stranded single conductor, plastic insulated, 105°C, 600 V. TEXTILE BRAID — Any braid made from threads of cotton, silk, or synthetic fibers. TF — A UL cable type. Fixture wire, thermoplastic-covered solid or 7 strands, 60°C. TFE — One of three types of Teflon. Also known as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). TFF — Same as TF but flexible stranding, 60°C. TFFN — Same as TFF but with nylon outer jacket. TFN — Same as TF but with nylon outer jacket. TG — Flexible nickel or nickel-clad copper conductor, Teflon tape, glass braid, 200°C. TGGT — PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulation covering of wrapped glass yarn and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture, heat, flame and fraying resistant compound. 600 V, 250°C appliance wire. TGS — Solid or flexible copper, nickel-clad iron or copper, or nickel conductor. Teflon tape, silicone glass braid, 600 V 250°C. THERMAL AGING — Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for predescribed periods of time. THERMOCOUPLE — A device consisting of two dissimilar metals in physical contact, which when heated will develop an emf output. THERMOCOUPLE ELEMENT — A thermocouple designed to be used as part of an assembly, but without associated parts such as terminal block, connecting head, or protecting tube. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION CABLE — A cable comprised of one or more twisted thermocouple extension wires under a common sheath. THERMOCOUPLE EXTENSION WIRE — A pair of wires of dissimilar alloys having emf temperature characteristics complementing the thermocouple with which it is intended to be used, such that when properly connected allows the emf to be faithfully transmitted to the reference junction. THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE — An insulated pair of wires used from the thermocouple to a junction box. THERMOPLASTIC — A material which softens when heated and becomes firm on cooling. THERMOSET — A material which has been hardened or set by the application of heat or radiation, and which, once set, cannot be resoftened by heating. The application of heat or radiation is called “curing.” THHN — A UL cable type. 600 V, 90°C nylon-jacketed building wire. THREE-PHASE CURRENT — Current delivered through three wires, with each wire serving as a return for the other two. THREE-PHASE THREE-WIRE SYSTEM — An alternating current supply system comprising three conductors over which three-phase power is sent. THREE-QUARTER-HARD WIRE — As applied to aluminum, wire that has been processed to produce a strength approximately midway between that of half-hard wire and that of hard-drawn wire. THREE-WIRE SYSTEM — A DC or single-phase AC system comprising three conductors, one of which is maintained at a potential midway between the potential of the other two. THW — A UL cable type. Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. Flame-retardant, moisture and heat resistant. 75°C Dry and wet locations. THWN — A UL cable type. Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall. Rated 75°C wet and 90°C dry. TIA — Telecommunication Industries Association. TINNED WIRE — See Coated Wire. TIN OVERCOAT (TOC) — Tinned copper wire, stranded, then coated with pure tin. TINSEL WIRE — A low voltage stranded wire, with each strand a very thin conductor ribbon spirally wrapped around a textile yarn. TKGT — PTFE Teflon tape insulation with an insulating covering of felted K-fiber yarn and an overall sheath of braided glass yarn impregnated with a moisture, heat, flame and fraying resistant compound. 250°C 600 V apparatus and Motor Lead wire. TNC — A threaded connector for miniature coax; TNC is said to be an abbreviation for threaded-Neill-Concelman. Contrast with BNC. TOP — Technical Office Protocol. An OSI profile designed for the technical and office LAN environment. TOPCOAT — Bare (untinned) copper wire, stranded then coated with pure tin. TPE — Thermoplastic Elastomer. TRACER — A means of identifying polarity. TRANSCEIVER — A device required in baseband networks which takes the digital signal from a computer or terminal and imposes it on the baseband medium.

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GLOSSARY
TRANSCEIVER CABLE — Cable connecting the transceiver to the network interface controller allowing nodes to be placed away from the baseband medium. TRANSITION SPLICE — A cable splice which connects two different types of cable. TRANSMISSION — The dispatching of a signal, message, or other form of intelligence by wire, radio, telegraphy, telephony, facsimile, or other means (ISO); a series of characters, messages, or blocks, including control information and use data; the signaling of data over communications channels. TRANSMISSION CABLE — Two or more transmission lines. See Transmission Line. TRANSMISSION LINE — A signal-carrying circuit with controlled electrical characteristics used to transmit highfrequency or narrow-pulse signals. TRANSMISSION LOSS — The decrease or loss in power during transmission of energy from one point to another. Usually expressed in decibels. TRANSPOSITION — Interchanging the relative positions of wires to neutralize the effects of induction to or from other circuits or, to minimize interference pickup by the lead-in during reception. TROLLEY WIRE — A round or shaped solid, bare, hard conductor ordinarily used to supply current to motors through traveling current collectors. TRAY — A cable tray system is an assembly of units or sections, and ancillary fittings, made of noncombustible materials used to support cables. Cable tray systems include ladders, troughs, channels, solid bottom trays, and similar structures. TRAY CABLE — A factory-assembled multiconductor or multipair control cable approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays. TREEING — Microscopic tree-like channels in medium voltage, e.g., 15 kV, cable insulation that can lead to cable failure. TRIAXIAL — A three conductor cable with one conductor in the center, a second circular conductor concentric with and insulated from the first, and a third circular conductor insulated from and concentric with the second, and an impervious sheath overall. TRIBOELECTRIC NOISE — Noise generated in a shielded cable due to variations in capacitance between shielding and conductor as the cable is flexed. TRUNK CABLE — A main cable used for distribution of signals over long distances throughout a cable system. TRUE CONCENTRIC — A cable conductor in which each successive layer has a reversed direction of lay from the preceding layer. TR-XLP — Water tree retardant cross-linked polyethylene. TUBING — A tube of extruded nonsupported plastic material. TURNKEY SYSTEM — Any system that is completely assembled and tested and that will be completely operational by turning it “on.” TV CAMERA CABLE — Multiconductor (often composite) to carry power for camera, lights, maneuvering motors, intercom signals to operators, video, etc. Usually heavy duty jacketed. TW — A UL cable type. Thermoplastic vinyl-jacketed building wire, moisture resistant 60°C. TWINAXIAL CABLE — A shielded coaxial cable with two central insulated conductors. TWIN CABLE — A pair of insulated conductors twisted, sheathed, or held together mechanically and not identifiable from each other in a common covering. TWIN COAXIAL — A configuration containing two separate, complete coaxial cables laid parallel or twisted around each other in one unit. TWIN-LEAD — A transmission line having two parallel conductors separated by insulating material. Line impedance is determined by the diameter and spacing of the conductors and the insulating material and is usually 300 ohms for television receiving antennas. Also called balanced transmission line and twin-line. TWINNER — A device for twisting together two conductors. TWINNING — Synonymous with pairing. TWISTED PAIR — A pair of insulated copper conductors that are twisted around each other, mainly to cancel the effects of electrical noise; typical of telephone and LAN wiring.

U
U-BEND TEST — A cable test in which the insulation is tested for resistance to corona and ozone. UF — A UL cable type. Thermoplastic underground feeder or branch circuit cable. UHF — Ultrahigh frequency, the band extending from 300 to 3,000 mHz as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. UL — Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc. UL LISTED — A product that has been tested and found to comply with Underwriters Laboratories’ standards. ULTRASONIC CLEANING — Immersion cleaning aided by ultrasonic waves which cause microagitation. ULTRASONIC DETECTOR — A device that detects ultrasonic noise such as that produced by corona or leaking gas. ULTRAVIOLET — Radiant energy within the wavelength range 10 to 380 nanometers. It is invisible, filtered out by glass, and causes suntan. UNBALANCED LINE — A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are unequal with respect to ground, e.g., coaxial cable. UNBALANCED-TO-GROUND — Describing a two-wire circuit, where the impedance-to-ground on one wire is measurably different from that on the other, compare with balanced-toground. UNIDIRECTIONAL CONDUCTOR — See Concentric-lay Conductor. UNIDIRECTIONAL STRANDING — A term denoting that in a stranded conductor all layers have the same direction of lay. UNILAY — More than one layer of helically laid wires with the direction of lay and length of lay the same for all layers. See Concentric-lay Conductor. USE — A UL cable type. Underground service entrance cable, XLP or rubber-insulated, Hypalon or XLP jacketed. UTP — Unshielded Twisted Pair. Two wires, usually twisted around each other to help cancel out any induced noise in balanced circuits. An unshielded twisted pair cable usually contains four pairs of wire in a single cable jacket.

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GLOSSARY
V
V — Volts. The SI unit of electrical potential difference. One volt is the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire carrying a constant current of one ampere when the power dissipated between these two points is equal to one watt. VA — Volt-ampere. A designation of power in terms of volts and amperes. VAR — A unit of reactive power that means volt-amperes, reactive. VARMETER — An instrument used by power companies to measure the kvar consumption. V BAND — A band of frequencies between 46 and 56 gigaHertz. VC — Varnished-cambric insulation. VDE — Association of German Electrical Engineers. VELOCITY OF PROPAGATION — The transmission speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to it’s speed in free space. Usually expressed as a percentage. VG — Varnished-glass or nylon braid, 600 V or 3,000 V, 130°C. VHF — Very high frequency, the band extending from 30 to 300 MHz (television channels 2 to 13 and most FM radio) as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. VIDEO PAIR CABLE — A transmission cable containing lowloss pairs with an impedance of 125 ohms. Used for TV pick ups, closed-circuit TV, telephone carrier circuits, etc. VISCOSITY — Internal friction or resistance to flow of a liquid: the constant ratio of shearing stress to rate of shear. VLF — Very low frequencies, the band extending from 10 to 30 kHz, as designated by the Federal Communications Commission. VOICE FREQUENCY (VF) — Describes an analog signal within the range of transmitted speech, typically supported by an analog telecommunications circuit. VOICE PAIR CABLE — A transmission cable containing lowloss pairs with an impedance of 125 ohms. Used for TV pick ups, closed-circuit TV, telephone carrier circuits, etc. VOLT — A unit of electrical “pressure.” One volt is the amount of pressure that will cause one ampere of current to flow through one ohm of resistance. VOLTAGE — Electrical potential or electromotive force expressed in volts. VOLTAGE BREAKDOWN — A test to determine the maximum voltage insulated wire can withstand before failure. VOLTAGE, CORONA EXTINCTION — The minimum voltage that sustains corona, determined by applying a corona producing voltage, then decreasing the voltage until corona is extinct. VOLTAGE DIVIDER — A network consisting of impedance elements connected in series to which a voltage is applied and from which one or more voltages can be obtained across any portion of the network. VOLTAGE DROP — The voltage developed across a conductor by the current and the resistance or impedance of the conductor. VOLTAGE, INDUCED — A voltage produced in a conductor by a change in magnetic flux linking that path. VOLTAGE RATING — The highest voltage that may be continously applied to a wire in conformance with standards or specifications. VOLTAGE STANDING WAVE RATIO (VSWR) — The ratio of the maximum effective voltage to the minimum effective voltage measured along the length of a mismatched radio frequency transmission line. VOLTAGE TO GROUND — The voltage between an energized conductor and earth. VOLUME RESISTIVITY — The resistance in ohms of a body of unit length and unit cross-sectional area. VULCANIZATION — A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of a polymer are changed by reacting it with crosslinking agents. VW-1 — Vertical wire flame test. Formerly designated as FR1. A UL fire rating for single conductor cables. The test is described in UL Standard 1581.

W
W — (1) Symbol for watt or wattage, (2) A UL cable type. Heavy duty portable power cable, one to six conductors. 600 V, without grounds. WALL THICKNESS — The thickness of the applied insulation or jacket. WATER ABSORPTION — A test to determine the water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period. WATER BLOCKED CABLE — A multiconductor cable having interstices filled with a water-blocking compound to prevent water flow or wicking. WATER COOLED LEADS — Furnace Cables. High Energy Cables. Usually welding cable strands cabled with a hose core for carrying coolant — used in heavy duty welding equipment, electric furnace applications, plating and various chemical processes. WATER TREES — A type of insulation deterioration that can occur after long term immersion in water with an electrical stress applied. WATT — A unit of electrical power. One watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current under a pressure of one volt in a DC circuit. WAVEFORM — A graphical representation of a varying quantity. Usually, time is represented on the horizontal axis, and the current or voltage value is represented on the vertical axis. WAVE FRONT — (1) That portion of an impulse (in time or distance) between the 10% point and the point at which the impulse reaches 90% of crest value, (2) the rising part of an impulse wave. WAVELENGTH — The distance between the nodes of a wave. The ratio of the velocity of the wave to the frequency of the wave. WAVESHAPE REPRESENTATION — The designation of current or voltage by a combination of two numbers. For other than rectangular impulses: (a) virtual duration of the wave front in microseconds, (b) time in microseconds from virtual zero to the instant at which one-half of the crest value is reached on the tail. For rectangular impulses: (a) minimum value of current or voltage, (b) duration in microseconds.

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323

GLOSSARY
WEIGHT RESISTIVITY — The resistance in ohms at a specified temperature of a body of uniform cross section and of unit weight and unit length. WELDING — Joining the ends of two wires, rods, or groups of wires (a) by fusing, using the application of heat or pressure or both, by means of a flame torch, electric arc, or electric current or (b) by cold pressure. WHEATSTONE BRIDGE — A device used to measure DC resistance. See Bridge. WICKING — The longitudinal flow of a liquid in a wire or cable due to capillary action. WIRE — A rod or filament of drawn or rolled metal whose length is great in comparison with the major axis of its cross section. WIRE BRAID — Flexible wire constructed of small size strands in tubular form. Used for shielding or connections where constant flexing is required. WIRE GAUGE (AWG) — The American Wire Gauge, originally called Brown & Sharpe Gauge. A system of numerical wire sizes starting with the lowest numbers for the largest sizes. Gauge sizes are each 20.6% apart based on the crosssectional area. WIRE NUT — A closed-end splice that is screwed on instead of crimped. WIRE-WRAPPED CONNECTION — A solderless connection made by wrapping bare wire around a square or rectangular terminal with a power or hand tool. WIRE WRAPPING TOOLS — Portable electric tools and automatic stationary machines used to make solderless wrapped connections of wires to terminals. WITHSTAND TEST VOLTAGE — The voltage that the device must withstand without flashover, disruptive discharge, puncture, or other electric failure when voltage is applied under specified conditions. WP — Weatherproof construction for overhead wires. WORKSTATION — (1) Input/Output equipment at which an operator works; (2) a station at which a user can send data to, or receive data from, a computer or other workstation for the purpose of performing a job. WRAPPER — An insulating barrier applied as a sheet of tape wrapped around a coil periphery.

Z
Z — Symbol for impedence. ZETABON — Dow’s trade name for an acrylic acid copolymer coated aluminum tape. ZIPPER TUBING — Alpha’s trade name for harnessing/ jacketing material containing a zipper-track type closure. The zipper arrangement allows installation with no need to disconnect previously wired schemes for its installation. See Loc-Trac. ZYTEL — DuPont’s trade name for nylon resins.

X
X — Symbol for reactance. X BAND — A band of frequencies between 5,200 and 10,000 megahertz. XHHW — A UL cable type. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 75°C wet and 90°C dry. XHHW-2 — A UL cable type. Cross-linked polyethylene insulated small diameter building wire rated 90°C wet and dry. XLP — Cross-linked polyethylene. Also written XLPE. XPLE — Cross-linked polyethylene.

Y
YIELD STRENGTH — The point at which a substance changes from elastic to viscous.

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INDEX OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2.9 Table 2.10 Table 2.11 Table 2.12 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Table 3.10 Table 3.11 Table 3.12 Table 3.13 Table 3.14 Table 3.15 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 5.1 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Relative electrical and thermal conductivities of common conductor materials . . . . . . . . 6 –7 Diameters for copper and aluminum conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 –10 Tensile strength of copper wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Strand classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 –13 Standard nominal diameters and cross-sectional areas of solid copper wire . . . . . . . . 14 –15 Class B concentric-lay-stranded copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 –17 Class H rope-lay-stranded copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17–18 Class K rope-lay-stranded copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Class M rope-lay-stranded copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Aluminum 1350 solid round wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21– 22 Class B concentric-lay-stranded aluminum 1350 conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 – 23 Concentric-lay-stranded aluminum conductors—coated-steel reinforced (ACSR) . . . . 24 – 25 K-1 color sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 K-2 color sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 K-3 color sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 K-4 color sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 K-5 color sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37– 38 Common multiconductor color code (Belden standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Common multipair color code (Belden standard) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Telecommunication cable color code (solid colors) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Telecommunication cable color code (band marked) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Properties of thermoplastic insulation & jacket materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41– 43 Properties of thermoset insulation & jacket materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 – 45 Properties of EPR compared with those of XLPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Halogen content in typical insulation and jacket materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 LOI of common wire and cable materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Dielectric constant of common wire and cable materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Power cable shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Foil shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Copper braid shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Spiral shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 ICEA recommended thickness of interlocked armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Flexible cord type designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61– 62 Color code for thermocouple wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Color code for thermocouple extension wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 High temperature cable ratings chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 – 67

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INDEX OF TABLES
Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 7.6 Table 7.7 Table 7.8 Table 7.9 Table 7.10 Table 7.11 Table 7.12 Table 7.13 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 Table 8.5 Table 8.6 Table 8.7 Table 8.8 Table 8.9 Table 8.10 Table 8.11 Table 8.12 Table 8.13 Table 9.1 Table 9.2 Table 9.3 Table 10.1
©Anixter Inc. 1996

Twisted pair cable performance categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 IBM cable types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 A comparison of loose tube and tight buffer optical fiber cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Tray cable listings and markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 DC resistance of plated copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87– 90 DC and AC resistance of class B copper conductors, ohms per 1000 feet . . . . . . . . . 90 – 91 Temperature correction factors for Table 7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 DC and AC resistance of class B aluminum conductors, ohms per 1000 feet . . . . . . . . . . 92 Temperature correction factors for Table 7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Reactance and impedance at 60 Hz for single copper conductor cables installed in air, buried or in separate nonmetallic conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 – 94 AC/DC resistance ratio at 60 hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 – 96 Temperature correction factors for the resistance of copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Phase-to-phase voltage drop per amp per 100 ft of circuit for a 3-phase, 60 Hz system operating at 60°C with copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Phase-to-phase voltage drop per amp per 100 ft of circuit for a 3-phase, 60 Hz system operating at 60°C with aluminum conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Maximum short circuit current for copper shielding tape (amperes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 400 & 800 Hz ampacity factors for 600 volt cables with class B strand, installed with minimum triangular spacing in air or in nonmetallic conduit . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Basic impulse level (BIL) ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Maximum number of conductors in electrical metallic tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 –111 Maximum cable diameters for permissible conduit fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Dimensions and maximum allowable percent fill of electrical metallic tubing (EMT) . . . . . 112 Bend multipliers for pulling tension calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Maximum sidewall pressure (SWP) for power cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117–118 Minimum bending radii for cables without metallic shielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Messenger breaking strength in lbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Messenger weight in lbs./1000 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Maximum core weight in lbs./ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Galvanized steel strand/physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Spacings for conductor supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Maximum DC test voltages for shielded power cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 AEIC hipot test voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Connections for the first four pairs of UTP cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3M Scotchlok connector dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 3M Scotchlok lug dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 –144 Minimum drum diameter for wire and cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 –153 326

INDEX OF TABLES
Table 10.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4 Table 11.1 Table 11.2 Table 11.3 Table 11.4 Table 11.5 Table 12.1 Table 12.2 Table 12.3 Table 12.4 Table 12.5 Table 13.1 Table 13.2 Table 13.3 Table 13.4 Table 13.5 Table 13.6 Table 13.7 Table 13.8 Table 14.1 Table 14.2 Table 14.3 Table 14.4 Table 14.5 Table 14.6 Table 14.7 Table 14.8 Table 14.9 Table 14.10 Table 14.11 Table 14.12 Table 14.13 Table 14.14 Table 14.15 Capacities and dimensions of standard shipping reels 22"– 66" in diameter . . . . . . 154 –155 Capacities and dimensions of standard shipping reels 78"–108" in diameter . . . . . 156 –157 Typical small reel dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Fire safety test methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 NEC fire test summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Comparison of vertical cable tray tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 –196 NEC Article 725 –Summary of remote control, signaling and power-limited circuit types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Symbols of international organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 – 204 Conductor size conversion: metric to English and English to metric . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 – 209 Circular measurements–diameter, circumference, area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 – 214 Conversion factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 – 217 Degrees centigrade (Celsius) vs. degrees Fahrenheit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 KVA to amperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 – 220 Electrical properties of circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Resistance, inductance, and capacitance in AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Series and parallel connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Engineering notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Engineering notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Diameter of multiconductor cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Determination of largest possible conductor in cable interstices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Concentric stranded conductor diameter from wire diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 CENELEC harmonized approvals in the European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 DC resistance of Class 1 (solid) copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 DC resistance and stranding of Class 2 copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237– 238 DC resistance and stranding of Class 5 (flexible) copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . 238 – 239 DC resistance and stranding of Class 6 (highly flexible) copper conductors . . . . . . 239 – 240 EU supply voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 EU power plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Austrian supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Austrian plug configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Belgian supply voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Belgian plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Danish supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Danish plug configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 French supply voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 French plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 327
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INDEX OF TABLES
Table 14.16 Table 14.17 Table 14.18 Table 14.19 Table 14.20 Table 14.21 Table 14.22 Table 14.23 Table 14.24 Table 14.25 Table 14.26 Table 14.27 Table 14.28 Table 14.29 Table 14.30 Table 14.31 Table 14.32 Table 14.33 Table 14.34 Table 14.35 Table 15.1 Table 15.2 Table 16.1 Table 16.2 Table 17.1 Table 17.2 Table 17.3 Table 18.1 Table 18.2 Table 18.3 Table 18.4 Table 18.5 Table 18.6 DIN 47100 color code for single conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 DIN 47100 color code for paired conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 German supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 German plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Irish supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Irish plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Italian supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Italian plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Dutch supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Dutch plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Norwegian supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Norwegian plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Portuguese supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Portuguese plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Spanish supply voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Spanish plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Swedish supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Swedish plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Swiss supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Swiss plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 United Kingdom supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 United Kingdom plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Mexican supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Mexican plug configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Some Canadian cable types, conditions of use and maximum conductor temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 – 286 Canadian supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Canadian plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Australian supply voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Australian plug configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Limiting temperatures for Australian insulated cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 – 293 Singapore supply voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Singapore plug configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Japanese plug configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

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INDEX OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 3.1 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 5.1 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 Three phase wye (star) Three wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Three phrase delta Three wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Three phase star Four wire, grounded neutral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Three phase wye (star) Three wire, grounded neutral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Three phase delta Four wire, grounded midpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Concentric strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Rope strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Sector conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Segmental conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Annular conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Compact concentric strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparative sizes and shapes of 1000 kcmil conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Nominal temperature range of cable polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Typical copper tape shielded power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Foil shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 “Z” fold foil shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Dual braid shield construction on a multipair cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Copper braid construction on a coaxial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Spiral or serve shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Continuously corrugated and welded (CCW) armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 A typical 600 volt control cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Control cable with overall shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Control cable with individually shielded pairs and an overall shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 A typical thermocouple circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Typical tape shielded 15 kV power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Typical wire shielded 15 kV power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Typical coaxial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Flexible coax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Semirigid coax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Figure 6.10 Triaxial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Figure 6.11 Dual coaxial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Figure 6.12 A typical twinaxial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Figure 6.13 Optical fiber types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Figure 6.14 Optical fiber attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Figure 6.15 Optical fiber cable designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 7.1 Maximum conductor short circuit current for copper cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

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INDEX OF FIGURES
Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure 8.5 Figure 8.6 Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 9.3 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 9.6 Figure 9.7 Figure 9.8 Figure 9.9 Maximum conductor short circuit current for aluminum cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Current ratings for electronic cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 How to calculate clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Calculating minimum bending radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Cable feed-in setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 –122 Connections for testing insulation resistance between one wire and ground . . . . . . . . . . 130 Connections for testing insulation resistance between one wire and all other wires . . . . . 131 Moisture removal equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 BNC connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 SMA series coax connectors for semirigid cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 SMA series coax connectors for flexible cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 UHF series coax connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 N series coax connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 F series coax connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 RJ-45 (8 pin) modular plug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Wiring methods A and B on an RJ-45 modular jack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 3M Scotchlok connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Figure 9.10 3M Scotchlok lugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Figure 9.11 Terminal stud size chart in English and metric units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Figure 9.12 ST type connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Figure 9.13 FDDI connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Figure 9.14 SMA connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Figure 9.15 Biconic connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Figure 10.1 Figure 10.2 Figure 10.3 Figure 10.4 Figure 10.5 Figure 10.6 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.2 Figure 11.3 Figure 11.4 Figure 11.5 Figure 14.1 Figure 14.2 Reel terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Winding cables smaller than 1/2" in diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Winding cables larger than 1/2" in diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Fastening the trailing end of the cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Rewinding of interlocked armor cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Proper handling of cable reels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 UL 910 Steiner tunnel test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 UL 1666 Riser flame test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 UL 1581 Vertical tray flame test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 UL 1581 VW-1 flame test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Typical UL marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 CENELEC cable identification code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Example of a CENELEC cable identification code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

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A
ABNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Acceptance testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 AC circuits, resistance, inductance, and capacitance in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 AC/DC resistance ratio, at 60 Hertz . . . . . . . . 95 ACSR. See Aluminum strand properties AEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 AENC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Aerospace wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 AFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Agencies. See Regulatory and approval agencies; Standards and specifications Aircore cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Alternating Current (AC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Aluminum conductors, DC and AC resistance of Class B . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 – 93 Aluminum strand properties . . . . . . . . . . 21– 25 ACSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 – 25 Class B Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 – 23 solid aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21– 22 Ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Ampacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 68 at 400 and 800 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 of power cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Ampere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Annular conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 – 57 basket weave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 continuously corrugated and welded (CCW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 interlocked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 lead sheath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 wire serve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Asia and Pacific Rim, standards and specifications in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 – 295 ASTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 –171 Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Austel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Australia, standards in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 – 293 Austrian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Bending radii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 –119 Bend multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Bends, in duct and conduit runs . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Biconic connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 BIL. See Basic Impulse Level ratings BNC connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 BNFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Braid shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Brazil, standards and specifications in . . . . . . 274 BRB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Britain. See United Kingdom British Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 British Telecom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Broken fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 BSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 – 264 Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 83 Bunch strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

C
Cable. See Cable types; Wire and cable packaging Cable interstices, largest possible conductor in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Cable types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 – 84 armored power and control . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 – 286 coaxial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 –72 construction and building wire . . . . . . . . . . 62 control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 current ratings for electronic . . . . . . . . . . . 103 electronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 – 54, 70 –75 fiber optic connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 flexible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 62 high temperature wire and cable . . . . . 66 – 67 IBM Cabling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 interlocked armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 large pair count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 lead-sheathed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 –79 mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 multiconductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 nonmetallic sheathed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 optical fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 – 83 portable power and control . . . . . . . . . . 61– 62 power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 – 51, 67– 69, 104 shipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 – 80 telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 –77 thermocouple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 – 65 tray cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 twinax cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 UTP and STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 –74 Canada cable types in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 – 286 fire ratings in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 331
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B
Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 BASEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Basic Impulse Level (BIL) ratings . . . . . . . . 104 Basket weave armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Basket weave pulling grip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 BBC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Belden electronic color code . . . . . . . . . . 38 – 39 Belgian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 – 243 Bellcore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 173

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standards and specifications in . . . . 276 – 278 supply voltage and plug configurations in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 CANENA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Capacitance, in AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Categories, of twisted pair cable performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73, 74 CATV systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 CCW armor. See Continuously corrugated and welded armor CEBEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203, 242 CEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 CEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 CENELEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203, 232 – 240 cable identification code . . . . . . . . . 234 – 235 color codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237– 240 harmonized approvals in European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 CESI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 CIGRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Circuits AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 electrical properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Cladding layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Clearance in duct and conduit . . . . . . . . . . . 114 CMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 CNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Coatings nickel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 silver plated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 tin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Coaxial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 –72 capacitance of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Coaxial connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 –138 Colombia, standards and specifications in . . . 274 Color coding of insulation and jacket materials . . . . . 33 – 40 for telecommunication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 for thermocouple wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Compact strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Compressed strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Concentric strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Conductive shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Conductor diameter, from wire diameter . . . . 226 Conductors See also Aluminum conductors; Coatings; Copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . 6 aluminum strand properties . . . . . . . . . 21– 25 in cable interstices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 coatings for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 copper strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 – 20 copper wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 resistance and weight of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
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strand types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–10 “tip” and “ring” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Conductor shield (strand shield) . . . . . . . . . . 50 Conductor size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Conduit fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 –112 Connections, series and parallel . . . . . . . . . . 224 Connectors biconic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 BNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 coaxial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 –138 FC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 FDDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 fiber optic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 –149 F series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 mini BNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 N series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141–146 SC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146, 147 SHV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 SMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137, 148 ST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146, 147 telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 –140 3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141–144 TNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 UHF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Constants. See Formulas and constants Construction and building wire . . . . . . . . . . . 62 RHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 RHW-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 SER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 SE-U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 TFFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 TFN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 THHN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 THW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 THW-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 THWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 THWN-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 USE-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 XHHW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 XHHW-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Continuously corrugated and welded (CCW) armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Control cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Conversion tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 – 220 circular measurements—diameter, circumference, area . . . . . . . . . . . 210 – 215 KVA to amperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 – 220 length, weight, area, power . . . . . . . 215 – 217 metric to English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 – 209 temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Copper braid shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 332

GENERAL INDEX
Copper conductors. See also Conductors DC and AC resistance of Class B . . . . 90 – 91 DC resistance of plated . . . . . . . . . . . . 87– 90 Copper strand properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 – 20 Class B Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 –17 Class H Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17–18 Class K Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Class M Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 solid copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 –15 Copper tape shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Copper wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Core of optical fibers diameter of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 COTNNIE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Coulomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COVENIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Crosslinked polyethylene (XLP, XLPE) . . . . . . 31 properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 CSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 198, 203, 276 – 278 CSA standards. See Standards and specifications CSP. See Hypalon Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 short circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Current-carrying capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 DC/AC resistance of class B copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 – 91 DC resistance of plated copper conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87– 90 electronic cable ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 power cable ampacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 reactance and impedance at 60 Hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 – 94 resistance and ampacity at 400 and 800 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 shield short-circuit current . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 temperature correction factors . . . . . . . . . . 96 voltage drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97, 98 Electrical Inspectorate (Finland) . . . . . . . . . . 203 Electrical metallic tubing (EMT) . . . . . . . . . . 108 See also Installation and testing Electrical properties, of circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Electrical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Electricity Trust of South Australia . . . . . . . 203 Electromotive force (EMF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Electronic cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 –75 coaxial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 –72 ratings for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 twinax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Electronic cable shields . . . . . . . . . . . 50, 52 – 54 copper braid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 foil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 spiral (serve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Emission shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 EMT. See Electrical metallic tubing End seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Engineering notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 – 225 England. See United Kingdom EPR. See Ethylene propylene rubber ERA Technology Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 ESI. See EA ETFE. See Tefzel Ethylene propylene rubber (EP, EPR, or EPDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ETSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 – 259 Austrian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Belgian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 – 243 Danish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Dutch standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 – 253 EU standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 – 240 French standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 – 246 German standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247– 249 Irish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 Italian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251– 252 Norwegian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 333
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Danish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 DC and AC resistance of Class B aluminum conductors . . . . . 92 – 93 of Class B copper conductors . . . . . . . 90 – 91 DC maintenance testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 DC resistance, of plated copper conductors 87– 90 DEMKO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203, 244 Department of the Environment (UK) . . . . . . 266 Department of Transport (UK) . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Dielectric constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 of common wire and cable materials . . . . . 48 DIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 DKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Drain wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Drum diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 –153 Dual coaxial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Dutch standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 – 253

E
EA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 ECTFE. See Halar EIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 –177 Electrical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 –104 AC/DC resistance ratio at 60 Hertz . . . 95 – 96 basic impulse level (BIL) ratings . . . . . . . . 104 conductor short circuit current . . . . 98, 99, 100 DC/AC resistance of class B aluminum conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 – 93

GENERAL INDEX
Portuguese standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Spanish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Swedish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257– 258 Swiss standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 – 259 United Kingdom standards . . . . . . . . 262 – 270 European Union (EU) standards . . . . . 232 – 240 CEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 CENELEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 – 240 supply voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Exchange cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Extension grade wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

H
Halar (ECTFE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Halogen content, in insulation and jacket materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Handling. See Receiving, handling and storage HAR approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 High temperature wire and cable . . . . . . . 66 – 67 Hipot testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 –129 Hypalon (CSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

I
IBM Cabling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 IBN/NBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 ICEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 178 –179, 198 ICONTEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 IEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 –181 IEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 IEEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 –183, 198 IEEE 802.5 networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 at 60 Hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93, 94 IMQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Indoor cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 –77 Inductance, in AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Installation and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 –133 conduit fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 –112 fault locating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 hipot testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 –129 installation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 –122 LAN cable testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 megger testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 –131 moisture removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131–132 overhead messengers . . . . . . . . . . . 123 –124 pulling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 –119 receiving, handling and storage . . . . . . . . 107 vertical suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Installation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 –122 Instrumentation cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) 3 Insulation and jacket materials . . . . . 27– 48, 77 color coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 – 40 fibrous coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 telecommunication color coding . . . . . . 39, 40 thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 – 30 thermosets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 – 32 types and applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 – 32 Insulation level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Insulation Resistance (IR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Insulation shield. See Outer shield Interlocked armor cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56, 113 rewinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 International organizations . . . . . . . 203 – 204, 229 – 295 Interstices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

F
FAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Fault locating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129, 133 FC connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Fiberglass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Fiber optic connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 –149 Fiber optic testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Fiber selection, for optical fiber cables . . . . . . . 81 Filled cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Fire ratings, in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Fire safety tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 193 –199 Flame retardant EP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Flexible coax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Flexible cords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61, 62 Fluoropolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Foil shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Formulas and constants . . . . . . . . . . . . 221– 227 coaxial capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 conductor diameter from wire diameter . . . 226 electrical properties of circuits . . . . . . . . . 222 engineering notation . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 – 225 maximum size conductor in interstices . . . 226 multiconductor cable diameter . . . . . . . . . 225 resistance, inductance, and capacitance in AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 resistance and weight of conductors . . . . . 223 series and parallel connections . . . . . . . . 224 French standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 – 246 FREP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Frequency range of coaxial connectors . . . 136 F series connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

G
Galvanized steel strand/physical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 German standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247– 249 Glass core of optical fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Ground check (GC) conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Grounded systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

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GENERAL INDEX
IPQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Irish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 IR tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 ISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 ISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184, 203 Istituto Italiano del Marchio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Italian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251– 252 ITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 ITU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 MSHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Multiconductor cable, diameter of . . . . . . . . . 225 Multipair color code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

N
NCB. See British Coal NEC (National Electrical Code) . . . . . . . . . 3, 33, 108, 194, 201– 202 NEC (Netherlands Electro-Technical Committee) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 NEMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 –186 NEMKO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203, 254 Neoprene (CP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 NFPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 NIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 NOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Nonmetallic-sheathed cables . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Norwegian standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Notation, engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 – 225 NSAI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 N series connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 NTRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

J
Jacket materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 See Insulation and jacket materials Jacks, modular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Jamming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Japan, standards in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 JIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

K
Kema, N.V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203, 252 K-fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Kynar (PVDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

L
LANs. See Local area networks Latin and South America, standards in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 – 274 Lead sheath armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Lead-sheathed cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Leakage current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127, 128 Limiting oxygen index (LOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Local area networks (LANs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 cable testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 LOI. See Limiting oxygen index London Underground Limited . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Loose buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Low voltage systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lugs and connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141–145

O
Ohm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Operating temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Optical fiber cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 – 83 fiber selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 selecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 – 83 Optical power meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Optical Time Domain Reflectometers (OTDRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Organizations. See also Standards and specifications domestic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 –193 international . . . . . . . . . . 203 – 204, 229 – 295 OTDRs. See Optical Time Domain Reflectometers Outer shield (insulation shield) . . . . . . . . 50 – 51 Outside cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 ÖVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203, 241 Overhead messengers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 –124

M
Megger testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 –131 Messengers. See Overhead messengers Mexico, standards and specifications in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 – 273 Microbending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 MIL-C-24640 cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 – 80 MIL-C-24643 cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 – 80 MIL-C-915 cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 – 80 Military wire and cable types . . . . . . . . . . 78 –79 Mini BNC connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Minimum bending radius . . . . . . . . . . . 118 –119 Mining cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Ministry of Defense (UK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Modular plugs and jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Moisture removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131–132 MPF (mine power feeder) cables . . . . . . . . . . 62 335

P
Pacific Rim. See Asia and Pacific Rim Packaging, of wire and cable . . . . . . . . . 151–162 Parallel connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 PE. See Polyethylene PFA. See Teflon Plastic cladding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Plenum cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Plugs, modular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Polyethylene (PE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Polyolefins (PO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Polypropylene (PP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Polyurethane (PUR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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GENERAL INDEX
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Portable cords SJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SJO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SJOW-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SJTO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOOW-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SOW-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 STO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Portuguese standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67– 69 ampacity of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 conductor size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 short circuit current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 special considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 voltage drop considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 voltage rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Power cable shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 conductor (strand) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 outer (insulation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 – 51 Power connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141–146 Preassembled aerial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Proof testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 PTFE. See Teflon PTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Pulling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 –119 Pulling eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Pulling lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Pulling swivel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Pulling tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 calculation of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 –116 PUR. See Polyurethane PVC. See Polyvinyl chloride PVDF. See Kynar Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 in AC circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 AC/DC ratio at 60 Hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 of conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 at 400 and 800 Hz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 temperature correction factors for . . . . . . . . 96 RJ-11 modular plugs and jacks . . . . . . . . . . 140 RJ-45 modular plugs and jacks . . . . . . . . . . 140 Rope strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

S
SAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 – 291 SAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 SCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 SC (subscriber connector) connectors . . . . 147 Scotland. See United Kingdom Sector conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Segmental conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Semi-conductive shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Semirigid coax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 SEMKO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204, 257 Series connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Serve shields. See Spiral (serve) shields SEV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Shielded twisted pair (STP) cable . . . . . . 73, 74 Shields conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 electronic cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 – 54 outer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 – 51 power cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 – 51 Shipboard cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 79 – 80 Shipping reels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 –157 Short circuit current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 maximum conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 –100 maximum shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Shovel (SHD) cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 SHV connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Sidewall pressure (SWP) . . . . . . . . 114, 117–118 Signal leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Silicone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Singapore, standards in . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 – 294 SISIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 SMA connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137, 148 SNV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 South America. See Latin and South America Spanish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Specifications. See Standards and specifications Spiral (serve) shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Standards and specifications . . . . . . . 163 – 204 ASTM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 –171 Belden electronic color code . . . . . . . . 38 – 39 Bellcore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172, 173 Brazilian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 CANENA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Colombian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 336

R
Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Ratio, jam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 REA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Reactance, at 60 Hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93, 94 Receiving, handling and storage . . . . . . . . . 107 Reels handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 –162 moving and lifting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 –158 Reflectometers optical time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Refractive index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Regulatory and approval agencies . . . 200 – 204 National Electrical Code (NEC) . . . . 201– 202 UL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
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GENERAL INDEX
continental European . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 – 259 CSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 198 EIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 –177 European Union (EU) . . . . . . . . . . . 232 – 240 FAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 fire safety tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 –199 galvanized steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 ICEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 178 –179, 198 IEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 –181 IEEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 –183, 198 ISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 ISO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 ITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 ITU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Mexican . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 – 273 MSHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 NEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 194 NEMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 –186 NFPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 NIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 –193 ÖVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 REA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 regulatory and approval agencies . . 200 – 204 SAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 UL . . . . 83, 84, 189 –190, 196 –197, 198, 199 in United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 – 270 U.S. government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190, 191 U.S. military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191–193 Venezuelan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 vertical cable tray tests . . . . . . . . . . . 195 –196 Standing-wave ratio (VSWR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Station wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 ST connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Steel wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Storage. See Receiving, handling and storage STP. See Shielded twisted pair cable Stranding annular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 bunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 compact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 compressed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 concentric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 copper strand properties . . . . . . . . . . . 12 – 20 rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 segmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 types of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–10 Strand shield. See Conductor shield Stress control layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Stud sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Submarine cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Supply voltage and plug configurations, in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 337

See also Standards and specifications Suspension, vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Swedish standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257– 258 Swiss standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 – 259 SWP. See Sidewall pressure

T
TDR. See Time Domain Reflectometer Technische Prüfanstalten des SEV’s . . . . . . 204 Teflon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 – 29 Tefzel (ETFE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Telecommunication color coding . . . . . . . 39, 40 Telecommunications connectors . . . . . 139 –140 Telephone cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 –77 Temperature ambient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 operating range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Temperature correction factors, for resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Tension limitations of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 –114 pulling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113, 115 –116 Testing. See Installation and testing TFE. See Teflon Thermal properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Thermocouple junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Thermocouple wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Type E (chromel vs. constantan) . . . . . . . . 64 Type J (iron vs. constantan) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Type K (chromel vs. alumel) . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Type N (nicrosil vs. nisil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Type T (copper vs. constantan) . . . . . . . . . 64 Thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Thermoplastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 – 30 fluoropolymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Halar (ECTFE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Kynar (PVDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 polyethylene (PE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 polyolefins (PO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 polypropylene (PP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 polyurethane (PUR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41– 43 Teflon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 – 29 Teflon TFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Tefzel (ETFE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) . . . . . . . . . . 30 Thermosets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 – 32 chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) . . . . . . . . . 30 crosslinked polyethylene (XLP, XLPE) . . . . 31 ethylene propylene rubber (EP, EPR, or EPDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Hypalon (CSP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 neoprene (CP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
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GENERAL INDEX
properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 – 45 silicone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3M power connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141–146 Three phase delta Three wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Three phase star Four wire, grounded neutral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Three phase wye (star) Three wire . . . . . . . . . . 3 3-sheave pulleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Tight buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) . . . . 129, 133 “Tip” and “ring” conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 TNC connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136, 137 TPE. See Thermoplastic elastomer TPR. See Thermoplastic elastomer Tray cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 – 84 Treeing in insulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Triaxial cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Twinax cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Type CM cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Type CMR cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 TZV VS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

V
VDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232, 248 VDE-Prüfstelle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Velocity of propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Venezuela, standards and specifications in . . . 273 Vertical cable tray tests . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 –196 Vertical suspension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Vertical tray flame test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Vinyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Volt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Voltage, test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 –129 Voltage drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 97, 98 Voltage rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 71 VSWR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

W
Water. See Moisture removal Weight, of conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Wire. See Cable types; Construction and building wire; Wire and cable packaging Wire and cable packaging . . . . . . . . . . . 151–162 reel handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 –162 reel size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 –158 Wire diameter, from conductor diameter . . . . 226 Wire serve armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Wire shields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Wire wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

U
UHF connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 UL (Underwriters Laboratories) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83, 84, 189 –190, 196 –197, 204 See also Standards and specifications UL 1581 Vertical tray flame test . . . . 198, 199 UNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Ungrounded systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Union Technique de L’Electricite . . . . . . . . . 204 United Kingdom, standards and specifications in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 – 270 Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73, 74, 139 U.S. government, standards and specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190, 191 U.S. military . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191–193 UTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 UTP. See Unshielded twisted pair cable

X
XLP, XLPE. See Crosslinked polyethylene

Z
“Z” fold shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

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