RESTORATION OF THE BAGORE-KI-HAVELI

a Documentation Report

Edited by Kiran Keswani architect Bangalore INDIA kiranmkeswani@gmail.com

May 2001

Acknowledgements

The documentation work started with on-site observations of the restored Bagore-ki-haveli. The project report prepared in the initial stages of the project conceptualisation by the restoration architect Mr. Rajiv Khanna was extensively referred to and large portions of the recommendations and restoration methods outlined in this earlier report have been directly included in the documentation report. This report is based on the briefing by the Director, WZCC - Mr. Vishwas Mehta, IAS; an interview with Mr. Arvind Mathur - the Project Manager deputed for the implementation of restoration work by Awas Vikas Sansthan; project reports submitted by the Structural consultants - Mahendra Raj and Mr. Alam Singh. Reports submitted by the Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee were also referred to and included in the compilation of this report.

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Contents
Page nos. Chapter 1 : Introduction
About WZCC How WZCC came to be housed in Bagore-ki-haveli Bagore-ki-haveli as the WZCC Conceptualisation of Museum p. p. p. p. 3 3 3 4

Chapter 2 :

History of the Bagore-ki-haveli
A Haveli Its People Traditions The Haveli building p. p. p. p. 6 6 7 7

Chapter 3 :

The need for Restoration
Why the past needs to be relived What makes the Haveli a unique architectural monument p. 9 p. 9

Chapter 4 :

Restoration Process
The Beginning - Identifying the damages Recommendations by Mahendra Raj Consultants Observations by Consulting Engineers Group Pvt. Ltd. Recommendations by the Archaelogical Survey of India Chemical conservation Inspection by Restoration Architect Conservation techniques Structural strengthening Foundation Waterproofing Drainage Removal of lime wash Problem of bats Cracks Effect of non-standardised design Restoration methodology Aaraish work or lime plastering Glasswork for windows Frescoes Mirror inlay work Training imparted to local masons/artisans Phase-wise implementation Proposed Expenditure Specific works executed p. p. p. p. p. p. p. 10 10 11 12 13 14 16

p. 18 p. 19

p. p. p. p.

21 21 21 22

Chapter 5 :

Rehabilitation
Conserving the activities Conserving the building and the memories of haveli lifestyles p. 23 p. 23

Chapter 6 :

Contributors and Facilitators
Restoration Architect – Mr.Rajiv Khanna Awas Vikas Sansthan Steering Committee Governing body of WZCC Central level Art Purchase Committee The Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts p. 26

Chapter 7 :

The Future
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p. 28

Chapter 1 :
About WZCC

Introduction

The West Zone Cultural Centre (WZCC) with its headquarters at Udaipur is one of the seven Zonal Cultural Centres set up during 1986-87 under the direct initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India at the behest of the then Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi. The Cultural Centre is set up to provide facilities for the creative development of performing arts, visual arts, literary work, folk, traditional and tribal art forms in the Western region of India in the States of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa and the Union territories of Daman, Diu and Dadra Nagar Haveli. The rationale behind including a number of States in a particular Zonal Cultural Centre was to provide cultural interaction between these States. The headquarters are intentionally located away from the Metro cities and Capitals to ensure linkages with people of small towns and villages, where India's culture and rich heritage actually resides. The WZCC is a registered society with the Governor of Rajasthan as its Chairman. The Governing Body, Executive Board, Programme Committee and Finance Committee comprise of officials and non-official representatives of the Government of India and the Member states that fall within the zone. How WZCC came to be housed in Bagore-ki-haveli Bagore ki Haveli is situated on the banks of Lake Pichola overlooking the Hotel Lake Palace. This Haveli was built by Shri Amarchand Badwa, who was the Prime Minister of Mewar State of Rajasthan during the reign of Mewar kings, namely, Maharana Pratap Singh - II, Maharana Ari Singh, Maharana Hamir Singh, etc. during the period 1751 to 1778. The Haveli has 138 rooms and several balconies, terraces and courtyards. The lifestyle which created the haveli has vanished and the old family and its descendants moved away. After the integration of Mewar State into Rajasthan, the haveli came under the control of the Public Works Department of the Govt. of Rajasthan. It underwent a long period of neglect with people encroaching upon the rooms and adding alien building elements to it. In 1986, it was handed over to the West Zone Cultural Centre for housing its offices headquarters. The Haveli has a typical architectural style with exquisite glass inlay work and paintings. Bagore-ki-haveli as the WZCC The present office of the Director, WZCC occupies the darikhana (room with dhurries laid out to serve as a "baithak" or gathering room). The public was addressed from this darikhana which overlooks on one side the Gangaur Ghat and on the other, the entrance court of the haveli. In 1986, when the WZCC first moved into the Haveli, it was the darikhana that was renovated so that the Administrative staff

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could have a workplace. The flooring work was undertaken. It was white china mosaic flooring that was provided, although the entire haveli had a lime mortar flooring. Some amount of restoration work was carried out on the Peacock inlay work existing on the walls and also the coloured glass work on the window jalis. It has been a difficult task to restore the inlay work to its original standards and also the jali work since the coloured glass required for jali work is not manufactured locally.

Right from the beginning, the WZCC thought it appropriate to convert the Haveli into a museum. Originally the idea was to represent the culture of Maharashtra, Goa, Gujarat and Rajasthan, the West Zone States, in the proposed museum. On second thoughts it was felt that the Haveli had a very typical and charming architectural style and a unique character - it was a veritable architectural museum by itself- and therefore it would not be appropriate to bring into it features of Goan or Maharashtrian culture which would be ill-at-ease in an unrelated environment like the Haveli. After 5 years of strenuous restoration work and spending huge amount of money, a Museum has been set up in Bagoreki-Haveli to depict the royal life style, architecture and cultural ethos carefully conserved to its pristine glory. Conceptualisation of Museum It was decided to set up a Zonal Museum of Cultural heritage in the premises of 'Bagore-ki-haveli' and Dr. Jyotindra Jain, Director, Crafts Museum, New Delhi was requested to visit the Haveli and prepare a concept outline for the setting up of such a Museum. He submitted a proposal which was accepted by the Governing body of WZCC in March 1992. A Steering Committee was constituted by Governing Body for execution of renovation/restoration of Haveli and establishment of a museum. An art purchase committee was formed under the chairmanship of Prof. B.N. Goswami, renowned art historian and later Dr. Jyotindra Jain. Dr. Jyotindra Jain suggested that objects in the Haveli would not be placed in glass cases, but would be in various chambers as they would have occurred around the 18th century when the royal family lived there. Smt. Laxmi Kumari Chundawat visited the rooms proposed for museum and advised the portions, specifically for Shayan Kaksh (sleeping room), Baithak Kaksh (sitting room), Shringar kaksh (Dressing room), Snan Kaksh (Bath room), Amod Pramod Kaksh (Entertainment room), Gangaur & Puja Kaksh (Worship room), Majisa ka Kalash (Rajmata's room), Sangeet Kaksh (Music room) and Rasoda (kitchen). The portion on the Zanana Mahal depicts the life style of Rajput royal ladies and the entry of gents was prohibited in this area. In the present fresco portion and Rang Mahal men were allowed. "Museums are many, but few are lively, authentic and inviting. Most Museums display objects derived from life but unfortunately and ironically, they themselves are devoid of life. This happens mainly because the objects selected for collection and display are completely decontextualised from their culture and later on when they are displayed, they are recontextualised on the basis of ad hoc categories such as 'metal objects', 'textiles', 'jewellery', 'weaponry' etc. In real life, people do not face artefacts in such categories. People wear costumes in conjunction with ornaments, worship images at home or in temples, participate in festivals, think complex thoughts, listen to music, and experience emotions in relation to people, situations and objects. The Tulsi chowk was used for performance of Ghoomar & other dances on fairs and festivals, specifically for Royal ladies.

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If the purpose of a Museum is to house objects of culture and to present them in a meaningful manner, to a sympathetic audience, it can be achieved in Bagore-ki-haveli more than anywhere else, provided we let the building itself tell us the story of a great cultural tradition that it housed once upon a time."1 The wings around the 'Tulsi Chowk' housed once upon a time, the women's quarters. This area was recreated in minute detail. A hand-operated panel fan in the ceiling, mirrors with carved wooden fixtures on the walls, rooms and balconies decked with traditional cabinets, swings, floor and ceiling coverings at their appropriate places. The museum thus displays the private chambers of royal ladies, their dressing rooms, bath rooms, living rooms, bed rooms, worship rooms and recreation rooms. Similarly, the wings around the Neem chowk which were used for dance and music performance have been converted into a Museum of performing arts of Rajasthan, housing dance traditions, puppetry traditions, phad traditions, musical instruments, etc. The areas related to men was brought back to the old lifestyles, with men's turbans and costumes; means of transportation; hukkas; paandans (betel leaf & nut boxes), etc. there. The main sources of information for reconstruction of the building and lifestyle is the Rajasthani Mewar miniature painting. These paintings have invariably captured all minute details of aristocratic life in the region. The only way this museum can be developed is by using the "period-room concept" It was decided to keep one of the rooms cleaned but without any repairs. This was so that the original form of Haveli distortion and unplanned repair is seen by the visitors and they can get an idea of the amount of the work and efforts undertaken by the West Zone Cultural Centre. This helps comparing the restored Museum building with the earlier dilapidated state of the Haveli. The Haveli Museum is situated inside the Bagore-ki-Haveli at "Gangaur Ghat" by the side of Lake Pichhola barely 100 meters from the City Palace & Jagdish Temple at Udaipur. The idea behind the museum is to symbolically invoke the spirit of the Mewar's aristocratic culture by displaying a few selected objects like jewellery boxes, dice-games,hukkas, pan boxes, nut crackers, hand fans, rose water sprinklers, copper vessels and other household objects of everyday life of the by-gone culture. Experts and members of Royal family were consulted to give each room a glimpse of the royal past. Several mural paintings(frescos) done in 18th & 19th century were uncoverd beneath many layers of whitewash during restoration. The doors, windows and perforated screens were repaired and restored to their original form.

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Dr. Jyotindra Jain; Concept outline for a Museum to be set up in the premises of 'Bagore-ki-haveli', 5

Chapter 2 :
A Haveli

History of the Bagore-ki-haveli

Rajasthan has a very distinctive architecture and this is reflected in its forts, palaces and havelis. The built-forms are a reflection of the social and cultural traditions, skills of the craftsmen, climatic influences and the skillful use of building materials and techniques. The architectural work in terms of setting, scale, proportions, colours and finishes shows a consistent pattern all over Rajasthan, whether it be the Patwas havelis at Jaisalmer, Bagore-ki-Haveli, Sethji ki Haveli, Purohitji ki Haveli & Mamaji ki Haveli at Udaipur, Havelis in Shekhawati region or the Umaid Bhawan in Jodhpur. Normally any big mansion can be called a Haveli. However, in Rajasthan, Haveli has a special connotation, born out of the feudal system of the Rajput kingdom. In Mewar State, Haveli Status to a building used to be given by Maharana only to the residences of Rao/Umrao's and other important dignitaries of the Royal court. The Haveli portion normally consists of following parts: (1) Durrie khana (2) Ganesh Duodi (3) Diwa-ne-Khas (4) Mardana area (5) Zanana area. The right of accession to the throne rested in the eldest son of the Maharana. Large jagirs were allotted to the rest of the sons, who enjoyed complete control of their territory as feudal lords. In return, they had to provide certain contractual services to the Rana at Udaipur for a certain period of time every year. The services included supply of cavalry and infantry and at times, even elephants. Their personal attendance was also expected in the Darbar. There were 16 of these feudal lords called "Umraos". The decline of the joint family system struck a blow at the roots of traditional haveli life. It broke up the havelis themselves, socially and later physically destroying their ability to adopt to changes. When the haveli is split amongst a family, immediately overall control of maintenance was gone and common areas such as the chowks fell into disrepair. In Udaipur, as in other towns in Rajasthan, many havelis have been converted into hotels to tap the tourist potential. However, not all families seek new uses for their havelis. For many, the haveli is still home, though it is increasingly difficult to maintain. The fundamental characteristics of a haveli are the traditional architectural forms, the open space of the courtyard, the peace inside the mansion in contrast with the bazaar outside. However, this was possible only as long as each haveli remained under a single control. Havelis were constructed so as to provide pleasant spaces for the different seasons and times of day. Semi-enclosed balconies or jharokhas provided sitting platforms ideally placed for views and allowed breezes. For the reception of important visitors and for large gatherings, there was always a grand room. Noblemen ran their estates from their havelis. So, many visitors came on business, and the havelis often contained other rooms for use
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solely as business offices besides the grand reception room used for both business and family occasions. The stables and servants’ quarters were generally in a separate chowk. Apart from prayer rooms, kitchens and bathrooms, few of the other rooms in the havelis had specific functions, each being used depending upon the season, need and moods. On hot nights, the favourite places to sleep were the terraces and courtyards. Its People The significance of Bagore in Udaipur or Mewar can be traced back to the mid-seventeenth century. The noblemen and ministers of Mewar were each granted a Thikana or Territory for the services rendered to the state or as a special mark of favour by the Maharana. These thikana or feudal houses sixteen in number were spread out in and around the capital of Mewar. Some of these were the Bansi thikana, the Bohda thikana, Kajrali, Devgarh, Bagore thikana and Shivrati, Kanod, Salumbar, Sadri, Gogunda so on. Bagore is actually a village in Bhilwara district of Rajasthan.

Traditions Maharaj Bhim Singh was the successor of Maharaj Nath Singh. He built the Gangaur Ghat on Lake Pichola next to Tripolia (the three Gates opening to Gangaur Ghat on the banks of Lake Pichola). Thereafter, Gangaur Ghat became the venue of the annual Gangaur Mata festival and the procession through the city of Udaipur culminated here. On the festive occasion of Gangaur in Chaitra (April) every year, the Maharana and the public celebrated the festival with great enthusiasm. The Maharana used to arrive in the royal barge with people looking out through all the windows, balconies and terraces along the streets. From Tripolia to the steps of the Ghat, women stood in large numbers amidst the fragrance of roses and jasmines. The Haveli building The Haveli was built during 1751 to 1778. At the end of the 19th century, the haveli passed onto the descendants of Bagore. As many as five Maharanas of Mewar had spent their childhood and youth playing in the chowks of this Haveli. The haveli was designed to accommodate the large, extended family of the Raos of Bagore. There were distinct areas within the Haveli for the different members of the family. The Darikhanas and the Kach Mahal were basically the men's area. The Maharaja and his guests used this area for living, sleeping and working. The administrative work was carried out in one part of the Darikhana. Tulsi chowk supported the aristocratic lifestyle of Royal women. The Zanana quarters were centred around the Chowk with each Rani having her own special room. The Moti chowk was the centre of

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cultural activities like concerts, dance performances, display of crafts, etc. There were little shrines and family deities around the Kamal chowk. All activities of the household staff were performed in the chowks on the ground floor, in the Chandi and Manek chowk. The stores, the oil mills and the stables were located here. The servants lived in separate quarters across the Lake Pichola on the western ghat. Thus, each area of the haveli had its own significance and atmosphere. The architectural character and detailing also varied according to the usage and the nature of the chowk. Maharaja Shakti Singh was the one who constructed the wonderous Kach Mahal over Tripolia in 1878 A.D. After his death, the Thikana of Bagore was resumed by the Mewar State. The Bagore haveli was declared 'Khalsa' by the next Maharaja, Fateh Singh (1884-1930 AD). His successor, Bhupal Singh (1930-1955 AD) renovated the haveli into a III grade Guest house, where royal guests were accommodated.

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Chapter 3 :

The need for Restoration

Why the past needs to be relived The Bagore-ki-haveli is a two and a half century old palatial building situated on the banks of Lake Pichola. This thikana is extremely rich in architectural details and ornamentation work. The various areas within the haveli are interspersed with courtyards or chowks each having a distinct function e.g. Kamal chowk, Moti chowk, Tulsi chowk etc. The frequent change in ownership and usage led to a lot of alterations and additions totally destroying the character of the haveli. The haveli therefore lost its architectural splendour and heritage. Hence, there was felt an urgent need to conserve it. The eminent conservationist Bernard Fieldien in the handbook 'Conservation Guidelines' recommends that the longevity of a property is best ensured by restoring it to its original use i.e. rehabilitating it to the uses for which the property for designed. In case of Bagore-ki-haveli, this meant restoring it and recreating the diverse environments of the 18th and 19th century. It is hoped that the experience of a visitor would transport him back in time. It was proposed that the Museum complex would include the main living and activity areas of the royal family. The Museum complex therefore envelops the Tulsi chowk, the Moti chowk, Kamal chowk, the Parvati vilas, the Dari khana, the Kach Mahal, the Gangaur ghat and the Tripolia gate. The other part of the haveli (Chandi and Manak chowk) that bound the staff areas incorporate the administrative activities of the WZCC. What makes the Haveli a unique architectural monument The unique architectural of the State of Rajasthans shows well-proportioned architectural elements such as arches, chhatries and jharokhas, intricately carved columns, jalis, brackets and balconies in addition to other architectural work like railings, chhajjas, kangooras, etc. In the finishing work, aaraish, stucco and khamira were used. Ornamentation work in mirror, coloured glass, frescoes, panni, meena, dakmeena and mandana works are found in many havelis, so are wood inlay works. The Bagore-ki-haveli was used as a Guest-house for the guests to the City Palace and there used to be a tunnel and a series of steps that lead directly from the City Palace to the Haveli. When the Haveli was handed over to the WZCC the unearthing of this tunnel was organised which had been out of use for several years. The uncovering of the tunnel had to be abandoned when it was found that the foundations of two new buildings had been constructed into the tunnel blocking the passageway completely.

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Chapter 4 :

Restoration Process

The Beginning : Identifying the damages The haveli had undergone a lot of neglect and misuse due to the frequent change in ownership and the usage pattern. Several additions and alterations had been made to the original fabric of the haveli. The environment surrounding the haveli had changed over the years. These changes include the change in population of the city and the neighbourhood; change in the lifestyles of the local populace, the built character along the Lake Pichola and also the level of the water in the lake. Before undertaking renovations to the Bagore-ki-haveli, it was decided to get an assessment on the existing condition of the Haveli structure, its anticipated future life, and a verification that it will be able to withstand heavier loads of a Museum. The Director, WZCC had requested Archaelogical Survey of India (ASI) and Central Building & Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee to inspect the Haveli and make this assessment. Officers of ASI inspected the Haveli in September 1993 and submitted a report. This report dealt with Restoration and Conservation of various parts of the Haveli.

A team of Engineers from CBRI inspected the Haveli in December 1993 and also sent a report. These inspecting teams recommended an extensive programme of investigation and testing before making an assessment on the structural aspects of the Haveli - investigations that would cost about Rs. 3 lakhs and take about 9 to 12 months to complete. At this time, Mahendra Raj Consultants from Delhi were requested to make a study of the structural aspects.

Recommendations by Mahendra Raj Consultants Mr. Mahendra Raj inspected the Haveli in August 1994 and opined that the basic structure of the Haveli on visual examination (to the extent possible) is in a fairly good condition. This was despite the fact that it is over 200 years old, has foundations of the western long wall constantly subjected to the lake water and eastern and southern walls subjected to the storm and sullage water of the old Udaipur city. Mr. Raj did not eliminate the necessity of further testing and investigation and suggested the following tasks to be undertaken : • • • • • • To completely study the old drainage system of the Haveli; Prepare built-in drawings; Draw cross-sections; Establish cross-sections of floors and terraces; Collect fresh samples of the materials used for construction of the Haveli from the local quarries and get them tested for structural properties; Collect some old samples of the same materials from that part of the existing Haveli which was intended to be converted into a museum, as well as from the neighbouring Netawal haveli, which was almost crumbling down and get these tested for similar structural properties; Based on these tests and calculations, an assessment of structural aspects could be made; If considered necessary, a controlled load test be carried out on a small part of the Haveli.

• •

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Observations by Consulting Engineers Group Pvt. Ltd. West Zone Cultural Centre hired Avas Vikas Sansthan to carry out the restoration work. Avas Vikas Sansthan engaged Consulting Engineers Group Pvt.Ltd., Jaipur to assess the structural soundness of the Haveli. Their inspection was carried out in October 1994. Their observations stated that : • • • • The stone used in the Haveli was from Sajjangarh mine; The building was constructed with load-bearing masonry walls and stone patti roofing; Surkhi or mud mortar has been used in the walls which are plastered with lime mortar; The stones in the masonry walls have been placed with horizontal bedding planes, breaking the vertical joints and providing good area of contact with each other. Therefore, substantial portion of the vertical load is being transmitted directly from stone to stone and thus the quality of the mortar does not play any appreciable role in the transmission of the load; The entrance of the Haveli from Kamal chowk has dressed stone masonry with stones placed one above the other by breaking the joints. The facing stones have sculptured carvings on them; Part of the building has been provided with a basement; The building consists of two to three floors; The circulation of the building comprises of different chowks connected with each other; All the chowks have covered verandahs at the periphery with sculptured pillars over which stone patti roofing has been supported; Water was impounded in Kamal chowk, due to artificial raising of water level in the lake. Due to this, improper hydraulic gradient in sewer lines situated in Kamal chowk was observed.

• • • • • •

Three stone patties were taken out from the stone roof of Bagore-ki-haveli for testing purposes to arrive at the quality and strength of the stone and to ascertain the residual life of the building. The stones were subjected to Uniformly distributed load and to Concentrated load. There was no appreciable deflection/cracking. The stone patti roof was structurally stable for carrying the live load of 500 kg/sq.m. Deflection under impact loading was excessive and it was recommended not to install any impact/vibration causing loads / machinery. The stone samples were also subjected to geological tests and it was observed that : • • • • The stone used in the Haveli is Phyllite; Phyllite is argillaceous metamorphic rock comprising mainly of Silicate minerals; Foliation planes are present in all the stone samples. ; Phyllite stone slabs have a long life if contact of water with the stone roof is minimised. In continuous contact with water, it has the tendency to swell and shrink. Presence of Pyrite in contact with water produces sulphuric acid which removes cementing material from the rock. Removal of cementing material causes a weathering effect on the stone.

A few stone pattis had cracked and needed replacement. A few structural members showed some weathering effect and had lost their original shape and size. These needed replacement. Nimbhahera stone was recommended. To enhance the life of the building, it was recommended that waterproofing over roof and walls be provided. It was suggested that the floor of Kamal chowk be raised where sewer lines are passing and choking occurs. This would provide adequate hydraulic gradient to the sewer lines in this area. For the periodic maintenance of the Haveli, it was recommended that there be an adequate maintenance grant and evaluation of structural soundness be carried out once in ten years.

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Foundations are placed on hard strata having good bearing capacity. There has been no settlement. It was observed that sewerage and waste from the adjoining colony was being discharged in close proximity of the structure and this needs to be checked. For vertical cracks observed in a few stone columns, clamping in steel was recommended. Recommendations by the Archaelogical Survey of India The report prepared by the Archaelogical Survey of India had made the following recommendations :
STRUCTURAL CO SERVATIO :

• • •

• • •

• •

• •

At the main entrance of the Haveli there are large size wooden doors. The wood at the back of the door shutters has decayed and needs to be replaced. There is loose electrical wiring running in a haphazard manner. It needs to be concealed. In the Kuan chowk or Open courtyard with the well, a major portion of the stone slab flooring is undulated and the stone slabs have broken at some places. A bed of cement concrete needs to be provided and flooring relaid with new stones and wherever possible, the old stone slabs may be reused. The outer surface of the stone columns in the courtyard are fully moisturised and stone has disintegrated. This needs to be replaced with new stones. The windows on the lake side remain closed. Due to this, there is no entry of sun or air inside resulting in rising of dampness in the walls and in the floor due to lack of evaporation. In the Favara chowk, there are two jharokhas at the upper level on either side of the fountain. The lower support of the eastern side is missing. This needs to be restored as per the original design still seen on the western side. Chajja stones that are found missing on the fountain need to be provided At the junction of the courtyard floor and dasa stone of the verandahs in Tulsi chowk, the joints are open throughout. Water seeps into this open space and causes dampness underneath in the ceiling of the Kala vithi or galleries. This needs to be water-tightened by making a necessary change in the floor and filling the same with rich mortar mixed with water proofing compound. During recent renovations, the entrance to Kala Vithi was provided with doors. Because of this, there is no circulation of natural air and the gallery too is mostly closed. Evaporation has totally stopped. In view of this, proper arrangement for ventilation should be made. A part of the Kotah stone flooring has swollen near the mango tree in the Tulsi chowk. This has taken place due to the upward pressure of the roots of the tree spread inside the floor. The tree be removed and the roots under the floor taken out completely. The affected portion of the floor must then be re-laid. Temporary structures need to be removed to reduce the extra burden on the structure below and to restore the originality of the building. Stone slab flooring done recently on the northern and eastern side terrace has not been properly laid and needs to be redone. The old lime concrete was not removed fully before laying the stone slab flooring.

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CHEMICAL CO SERVATIO

Kuan chowk/Chandi Chowk On its southern side, the lotus fountain structure is made up of light green, soft sandstone. This has beautiful designs and profuse carvings. There is a hard deposition of lime wash on the flowery design, lotus petals and the undercut portion. To give a magnificent look, it is necessary to remove the lime wash by chemical treatment and preserve it with a coat of Polymethyl Metha acrylate solution. The growth of biological accreations also noticed on a considerable area, specially below Gokhra, should be eradicated. The lower portion of the fountain is flaking and pulverising in the form of powder, layer by layer. Either this should be replaced structurally or consolidated with a suitable adhesive to prevent further deterioration.

Favvara chowk/Kamal Chowk This courtyard, on the first floor of the Haveli has a Shiva temple on the north side. At the entrance of the temple, the ceiling of the portico has very good religious paintings, depicting the four dhams i.e. Dwarka dham, Rameshwaram, Badrinarayan and Jagannath Puri. This painting work has a deposit of dirt, soot and smoke. These should be removed with suitable organic solvents and finally preserved with solution of Polyvinyl acetate. Further, the flaking of the pigment layer should be consolidated.

Tulsi chowk On the south wall, the porch has niches with beautiful paintings of the Darbari scene. One of the paintings has been scraped in a very haphazard manner. The other niche is partially exposed and further paintings can be discovered by careful removal of repeated lime coatings and be treated with a preservative solution. Throughout the Haveli, a periodic spray of insecticides may be carried out to arrest the insect activity. For eradication of bats, fumigation may be done periodically and the rooms be provided with wire mesh doors for stopping the entry of bats. At several
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places in the Haveli, small and big plants of Peepal, Neem and Banyan etc. are growing. It is one of the major causes of degradation of the building, apart from the moisture. Inspection by Restoration architect The restoration architect, Mr. Rajiv Khanna outlined the various categories under which the work could be undertaken. These included : Prevention, Preservation, Consolidation, Restoration, Rehabilitation, Reproduction and Reconstruction. Prevention : This category involved measures to stop decay and deterioration from becoming more active. • It was found that dampness had been caused by external moisture, seepage from lake and clogging of drainage outlets. Occurrence of dampness had to be controlled by cleaning the drainage outlets, controlling the area of contact between the lake and the haveli. The traditional water proofing system had weakened considerably. Termites and insects had been eating into the wood and the plaster, thus destroying them. Measures had to be taken to stop this. All this material was to be treated to prevent future attacks by these pests. Some chambers had been found to be dark and dingy since they had been shut for long periods of time. These had become a heaven for bats. The bats need to be removed and the cleaning of rooms done. Several rooms had inadequate ventilation. Proper ventilation needed to be restored. The people who had encroached upon some of the rooms of the haveli had to be evacuated.

• •

Prevention was also to include regular maintenance, cleaning and proper management. This meant : • Removal of modern additions and alterations and other incongruous elements like extra rooms on the top floor constructed with tin sheet roofing, brick walls on the ground floor, cement pedestals around trees, etc. Cleaning of crevices and cracks to remove plant and algae growth. Vegetative growth will result in dampness to continue, hence to be avoided.

Preservation : This included maintenance of certain areas in their existing state since they could not be restored or consolidated because that would have caused interference in the authenticity of the fabric of the haveli. This work would involve carrying out repairs, stopping the use of harmful chemical agents in preservative treatments etc. • Some paintings on the walls and the ceilings of the haveli were found to be rare works of art. Restoration of these paintings would mean

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diminishing their importance. These were to be treated carefully with preservatives to maintain them in their existing state. Increase in moisture had lead to the weakening of the mortar within the Stone masonry. In some areas, the stone had become brittle and had to be replaced. The increase in moisture had to be controlled and the mortar strengthened. Cracks and crevices in the walls would have to be repaired.

Consolidation : The strength of the structure be assessed and its load bearing capacity determined. Areas found to be weak and unable to withstand future loads ( like that of visitors, materials, furniture etc. after the museum becomes functional) would have to be consolidated. This would be done by – • • • • Introducing supporting materials to the structure like reinforcement, new pillars or beams etc. Binding material could be added to the mortar The consolidation would not be only for the main structural system but also for load bearing elements like jharokhas and balconies or brackets and lintels. Columns or pillars identified as weak need to be restructured. Consolidation work would also include the revamping of the entire waterproofing system. Consolidation work should be carried out with traditional methods and materials as per the original design and technique. In case of waterproofing, it was decided to use modern techniques.

Restoration : This involves all techniques used for transforming the elements to their original condition, based on accurate historical and architectural information gathered under the research work. All chowks and their activities had to be revived along with rooms. This includes – • • • • Reviving the phawara in Chandi chowk based on the original design and working system Glass and mirror inlay work to be relaid according to the original patterns and geometry Redoing the wall plaster according to traditional specifications and recreating the destroyed lime stucco work. Replacing damaged floors according to original patterns and materials. Some of the typical floor finishes of the haveli are of Chittaur stone and Aaraish. Stone mouldings in dasa stone in the flooring had decayed. These had to be removed and new mouldings inserted. Undulating floors need to be corrected. Restoring the rooms by replastering and finishing Concealing the exposed electrical wires and making the essential modern services unobtrusive Redoing the frescoes on the walls and ceilings. These had faded due to exposure to the weather and with the passage of time. Missing elements of gokhras and traditional railing need to be restored.

• • • •

Reproduction : This would involve the reproduction of lost or decayed parts (often decorative elements) of the haveli which were considered essential to the authenticity of the haveli. It included : • Reproduction of brass ornaments, handles for doors, locking system etc.
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• •

Brackets of jharokhas had been found to be missing. These had to be reproduced in exact detail in stone. Broken stone chajjas had to be replaced

Reconstruction : Parts which were entirely destroyed need to be rebuilt as per the original design • • • Rebuilding some of the arches spanning the pillars that were completely broken Reconstructing parts of walls that had collapsed Reconstructing the balcony in the phawara or chandi chowk which had completely collapsed.

Conservation Techniques Structural strengthening The chhattris or pavilions on the terraces of the haveli were repaired as they were severely damaged and deteriorated. This included the Badi burj facing the Lake Picchola. The aaraish work was undertaken, and stainless steel wiremesh was embedded in the plastering to strengthen the plaster and avoid any cracks in the future. Whilst carrying out the plastering work, the alignment of the walls was rectified. At some places, 3 to 4 inches of plaster was used to correct the wall alignment. In such areas, it became extremely important to use the S.S. wiremesh to hold the plaster. In the aaraish work that was done in olden times, temperature shrinkage cracks occurred rarely because the slaking of lime continued for almost two years and all possibility of cracking was eliminated. Foundation It was noted by the restoration architect that the depth and size of the foundations would need to be checked. Seasonal water table fluctuations of the lake and the depth of the water in the well of Chandni Chowk had to be recorded. Soil testing was required.

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Waterproofing The waterproofing of roofs was undertaken using the following methods : 1. Lime dar 2. Araldite treatment for terraces - Wherever leakage had been occurring due to gaps in the stone joints in the floor, instead of relaying the floor, the joints were filled with araldite. 3. Waterproofing compound was sprayed on the roof areas. These were wax-based polymers. This was done mostly in areas where the movement was limited. Drainage Since the Bagore-ki-haveli had been in a state of neglect for 100 years, the drainage system was found to be in bad shape. Most of the drains were choked. It was difficult to trace out the connections between drains. There were internal damages and rainwater continued to collect in the drains under the building floors. The building walls had been damaged by the dampness as a result of the blocked drains. In order to combat this problem, drain-checking tests were carried out. Colour water flow was used to identify the location of outlets for particular drains and the connections between the drains. With the help of these methods, it was possible to identify 90% of the drains and most of these could be made functional. Additional rainwater spouts were added on roofs. Most of these spouts were carved in stone using the traditional motif used in other parts of the Haveli. New toilets had been randomly constructed by the tenants who had occupied the Haveli over the years. The drainage pipes that serviced these toilets ran along the facade of the haveli. These unwanted pipes had to be removed and the facade given a facelift. Many of these drain pipes were leading to septic tanks. The new toilets and the septic tanks were removed and the drain pipes of the old, existing toilets of the Haveli were connected to the new sewer lines that were laid outside the Haveli by the Municipality. Wherever new drains were required, cast iron or asbestos cement pipes were used and these were mostly concealed to avoid ruining the appearance of the facade of the Haveli. In the seventies, the Municipality had laid sewer lines on the lake side. The drainage system of the Lake Palace was serviced through these sewer pipes. Since these pipes ran along the bagore-ki-haveli, connections could be made to these for drainage outlets for the haveli. Removal of lime wash Tenants had lived in the Haveli for many years. During this time, lime wash had been applied repeatedly every year on the stone work. This resulted in a thick layer of lime wash on the stone elements. The decorative features of the stone work had been completely camouflaged. In order to expose the sculptural stone work, the lime wash had to be removed. Caustic soda, ammonia liquid, toluene or a weak solution of nitric acid with different concentrations as desired were applied to the surface. This weakened the layers of lime wash and made it easier to remove the lime with soft and hard iron brushes. Intermittently, the surface was washed with water. Soaps and detergents were also used whenever needed. Scraping of the lime layers was done with great care and under strict supervision.

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Problem of bats The ceilings and tibaris (niches) were found to be infested with bats. In order to solve this problem, the following measures were taken : • • Sulphur fumigation was carried out in each room of the Haveli Ventilation was improved i.e. windows which were closed for years were opened to allow sunlight. The doors and windows which got blocked during the construction of neighbouring buildings were opened up wherever possible. Flood lights were installed in all areas for three to four days to drive the bats away.

Cracks Cracks were found in Columns, in floor slabs, in jharokhas, in brackets, in lintels and in the walls. A vertical crack was found in the column in Tulsi chowk, just as cracks were found at the apex of the arch of 'Badi Burg'. Cream of lime or rich lime mortar was used as grouting material to fill cracks. Chemical hardeners were added to the cream of lime. Before filling the cracks or fissures, whether in roofs or in walls, the surface was well cleaned and watered and the filling material worked deep into the cracks and not merely plastered onto the outside. Horizontal chittor stone bracing was used at some places. In some areas, where the crack was deep and the structure had become very unsafe, insertion of iron angles and channel sections strengthened the joints, especially for roofs. These sections were later hidden by covering them completely with the Aaraish ceiling. The slab roofing was replaced completely wherever it had been severely damaged and where the insertion of the angles and channel sections was not sufficient. For walls, stone bed plates were used. Vertical cracks in the walls were arrested with the embedding of horizontal stone plates. Lime concrete grouting was used for the walls which consisted of a mix of crushed brickbats with cream of lime. Refilling of vertical cracks in columns was done with silicon based hardeners. Edges and decorative features of the columns which were damaged, were restored. Sometimes, large portions of the stone columns had fallen off. In such cases, a paste was prepared using stone dust, iron powder, chemical hardener and cream of lime. This was applied to the column to replace the broken portions. This paste on hardening, attained the strength of stone. This was carved as per the original designs prevalent earlier on the column. The knowledge of the old techniques were often brought to the project through old master craftsmen who had many years of experience in haveli construction in Rajasthan. Effect of non-standardised design During the study of the Haveli when it was being taken up for restoration, it was found that unlike other Havelis and the City palace, the Bagore-ki-haveli construction didnot follow uniform design principles. For instance, details had not been standardised. In the construction of columns or floors, stone from different quarries had been used. This made the task of restoration more difficult since the same materials had to be sourced as had been used in a particular location of the haveli and the work had to be carried out following the same detailing that had been used for a particular structural or architectural element.

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Restoration methodology
Aaraish work or Lime Plastering

Even though stone was, by and large, used in construction work in Udaipur, the inner walls of the living quarters within havelis were covered with a very smooth plaster coating that had a marble finish. The technique is known as aaraish, ghutai or sandala. The process of preparing this lime plaster is elaborate and cumbersome. It originally consisted of treating the lime over a period of two years. Since this is now not so practical, the slaking of lime is done in a shorter time period to meet the project deadlines. During the restoration of the Bagoreki-haveli, other measures (such as embeddment of wire mesh in the plaster) were adopted to ensure a good plastered wall. Each consignment of quick lime was examined and tested and any defects in quality reported were dealt with immediately. The lime was thoroughly screened to remove refractory lumps, if any. The wall is completely stripped of the earlier plaster. The lime is slaked. The cream or neat lime putty is extracted. The rest of the material is thrown out. This softened lime is then churned in a hand-operated ghatti or hand-grinder and made fine. The cream of lime is added to marble powder or jhinki in the ratio 1:2 and left for a couple of days to soak. The mortar for application of the aaraish work is now ready. The application is in three coats. The first coat is completed and left for one month to allow for temperature shrinkages. The time for setting of lime is usually 21 days. The second coat is then applied and then left for one month. Then third coat a neat cream of lime finish as a thin polishing layer is applied to give a glossy appearance. This is allowed to dry for 21 days. After this, it is rubbed with a hareek stone. This is a hard stone. Its availability is rare, but for the Bagore-ki-haveli work, the stone was available with the master craftsmen who were working on this project. After the rubbing with the stone, a cloth dipped in coconut oil is applied to the surface which acts as a preservative. The final surface obtained is glossy and does not stain easily. For some of the external surfaces on the facade of the haveli, coloured finishes had been used in the past, using stone pigments in the plaster mix to obtain the required yellow or grey finish. These stone pigments are pure crushed stone of that colour that do not fade with sunlight.

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A highly skilled craftsman is able to complete one square foot of aaraish work after working laboriously for the entire day, since the work is carried out over sculptured stone columns, brackets and jharokhas. Seven to eight skilled masons were deployed to carry out the aaraish work for the haveli. Each of the masons had about seven workers learning on-the-job. Glasswork for windows At the time when the haveli was in use as the royal residence and when new havelis were being built in Udaipur, one of the kings owned a glass factory in Belgium. All the coloured glass for construction of building elements such as jaliwork, etc. was obtained from this factory for the City Palace and all the havelis in Udaipur. The glass factory was subsequently closed down and the supply of coloured glass stopped abruptly. For the Restoration work at Bagore-ki-haveli, the original Belgian coloured glass was obtained from "Raddiwalas" or junk markets or from other Havelis which were either being demolished or were in a severely damaged condition. The glasswork for jalis in the Haveli, which were 1 1/2" to 2" in depth usually consisted of a plain, clear glass at one end and a coloured glass at the other end, so that if at all there is any damage from the exterior of the building, the outer plain glass would be damaged first.

Frescoes It was found that many of the frescoes had been damaged, especially those in the Rang mahal. These had to be restored. The work of frescoes was carried out by a team of skilled craftsmen from the National Museum in Delhi. Fresco paintings are done using powders of various coloured stones mixed with gum. The juices and extracts from various trees and specific leaves are used in the mix. These are applied on fresh aaraish work. Mirror inlay work This work had existed in the Rang Mahal, in Badi burz and in the Mor Darikhana. It was possible during the restoration work to carry out this mirror inlay work in the Mor Darikhana. It is an intricate process that uses specific micro tools. The karni is used for applying the paste, naila for finishing the surface, different types of kalam for scratching the lime paste and for cutting the mirrors. A chimti is used for gripping the mirror firmly. The base on which the mirrors are placed is of lime plaster that has been watered for a few days and made rough to prevent cracks. A special finish loi is then applied. This is a paste formed by mixing kali (baked lime) and surkhi (crushed burnt brick bats) in a 3:10 ratio with water. This imparts a reddish brown look to the surface now ready to receive the relief work. A 20 to 23 cm long kalam is
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used to carve out the design. The relief work is then followed in gajmitti after which the finer details are worked out in a paste. The paste is prepared by baking a mixture of gum and baked clay in a 1:5 ratio with water. Finally, the mirrors are cut into the desired shape and their edges softened with a 15 cm long kalam. With the help of a 10 cm long chimti, they are then painstakingly placed piece by piece to form the floral patterns as per the design and geometry. The coloured mirrors are often obtained from Ahmedabad or Faizabad in circular shapes of 30 cm diameter and 2-4 mm thickness. Training imparted to local masons/artisans The working team included local masons and artisans, some of whom had received training at the 'Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts' at Amber near Jaipur.

Phase-wise implementation The Restoration work was carried out in phases; Phase I Phase II Phase III : : : Tulsi chowk and Rang Mahal Moti chowk and Chandi chowk Gangaur Ghat and Darikhana

In the meeting of the Steering Committee held in March 1996 at Udaipur, the following time schedule was fixed : S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. Work All the three units of the first floor of the Tulsi chowk Rang Mahal Tulsi Chowk unit Draft installation inside the rooms Time of completion End of April, 1996 Mid-June, 1996 End of July, 1996 September, 1996

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The Committee decided that every effort should be made to complete the work on the first phase of the Museum and throw it open to the public by October, 1996 Specific Works executed • • • • • Entrance at Tripolia gate enhanced by removing all the alien elements added to it. All the ornamental carvings and paintings were retouched. Central gokhra projecting out into Chandi chowk with stables on the ground floor. Undulating floor at the entrance to the haveli was relaid and the facade repainted with Khamira. Ban Nathji mandir was recreated and the walls and ceilings treated with a water-proofing compound. Tulsi chowk recreated with its traditional activities. Tulsi Than was reproduced with the original design. Tibaris around Tulsi chowk were restored; the columns consolidated and painted with Khamira Missing todas were reproduced as per original design and material Entrance door to Chatturbhuj temple was in wood. It was cleaned and treated against termite attack. Folk art and silver work on the entrance portico of Ban Nathji mandir was preserved Railing of the staircase leading to Farash Khana, east of Chandi chowk was replaced with a traditional design Railing on the terrace was transformed to give it a traditional look Rehabilitating the Naggar khana with traditional Naggar and Shahnai The lotus shaped pedestal of the fountain in Kamal chowk was restored The coloured glass work in Rang mahal were relaid. The soft greenish stone was treated to prevent further deterioration. Aaraish kara was provided on curved decorative stone, pillars, Mehrabs and on ceiling. Belgian glasswork in Stone jali Stucco plaster work

• • • • • • • •

• • •

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Chapter 5 :

Rehabilitation

Conserving the activities It had been proposed by the planners that the activities around the Tulsi chowk be recreated. At the centre of the chowk, the Tulsi than was to be reproduced. The rooms of the royal ladies around the chowk i.e. the Bahuji Jhaliji, Sirohi Bahuji, Bahu Bikaneri, Bahu Paswan, Maji Medthari and Dadi sa Chaupad were to be recreated. The verandah was the hub of activity during the day with women playing chaupar on a cotton mattress on the floor. Silver paandaan with spittoons were placed along the corridor. Pairs of joothiyaan could also be placed at the corner. It would be good to portray a child in rich costume playing with horses and elephants. Along the corridor, a portrayal also of ladies playing dholak and others putting henna on their hands could be created. Dadisa could be shown near Chatturbhuj temple reading the Ramayana placed on a carved wooden pedestal with a maid brushing the flies away with a fan using horse tail hair fibres. Diyas at aalas in the corners would enhance the ambience of the haveli in the night. The Mardana chowk was used by the men and it had to reflect the lifestyle of the men of the haveli. It would display items like the hukka, paandaan, walking sticks, weapons, etc. Conserving the building and the memories of haveli lifestyles Rehabilitating the haveli meant reusing it in a manner similar to its original use. All new uses proposed had to comply to the character of the haveli. It was recommended that the neighbouring Netawal haveli be reconstructed and the WZCC offices shifted there. It was proposed that the interiors of the haveli be designed with elements similar to the ones in use inside the haveli by the royal family in the past. Smt. Laxmi Kumari Chundawat, a member of the Steering Committee had a close association with the Bagore family and knew the intricate details of a haveli lifestyle. She was requested to assist in the acquisition of artefacts for the recreation of the interiors. Colourful printed curtains, Chandewa's false ceiling, decorated cradle with exquisite mirror work, fan hung from the ceiling had been some of the luxurious living symbols reminiscent of that era. The Kothari would have wooden storage trunks with silver work on it. Clothing apparel like ghaghara, dupatta, odhini etc. hung from mornis would give a typical look of a Kothar. All items of shingar like perfumes, ivory combs, jewellery boxes, hand mirrors were to be placed in the aalas. A few rooms would have full size decorated mirrors with a group of mannequins that would represent the adornment of the Rani. Plate containing boxes with perfume jars, bottles, ointments, cosmetics, kajal, ribbons, jewellery etc. would be placed nearby. To rehabilitate the Rasoda with the same environment of the 18th and 19th cent., silver plates, bowls, glasses covered with a beaded silk or satin cloth would be displayed. Water pitchers would be kept covered with cloth and with an ornamental spout and lid. A lot of planning went into refurbishing the interior spaces. Today, as one walks through the corridors of the Bagore-ki-haveli, there are rooms that depict the old lifestyles - the Sitting room, the Pooja room, the dressing room and so on. Each of these reflect the pattern of living that was followed during the time when the Bagore family lived here.

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Entertainment Room Entertainment has an important role in human life. Every segment of human socity created its own sources of entertainment. Havelies & Royal Houses of Mewar had Chess, Chaupad, Snakes and Ladders mainly as the games of indoor entertainment. This not only improved their skill of ruling and war planning but also enhanced the player's power to think. Depicting this tradition, this room exhibits Chess, Chaupad, Snakes and Ladders and Ganjifa the popular indoor games. The women of the Royal household played here during leisure hours with their intimate friends and relatives. Shayan kaksh (Bed-Room) The bedroom was arranged in such a fashion that the ladies could be comfortable in all seasons. In summers, the cloth ceiling fans were pulled by the maids (Dawadi) to fan the residents. In winters the room was heated by placing Sigdies ( metal hearths) in it. The decor of the room was according to the taste of the Queen. The room had a Dholia (bed) with mattress, quilt, pillows, handfans etc. It also had drinking water arrangement, wooden trunks for clothes and footwear etc. Gangaur Kaksh (Room of Gangaur) In Mewar, the festival of Gangaur and Teej are celebrated with a grand ceremony . This is a festival of 'Gan' (Lord Shiva) and ' Gaur' (his wife Parvati). Lord Shiva is worshipped in form of ' Issar' and Goddess Parvati is worshipped as 'Gangaur'. Tripolia (Three gates), the front part of this Haveli leads to Gangaur Ghat where citizens of Udaipur congregate to celebrate and witness the Gangaur Festival. Shringar Kaksh (Dressing Room) Shringar Kaksh, the dressing room consisted of the Manjush (Wooden trunks) with fineries which the ladies wore. The women residents of Mewar Havelies and Royal Household wore colourful and designs in different seasons . They wore phagniya in the month fagun (February- March) and Lahariya in the month of Shrawan (July-August). The room had jewellery box and various metal boxes consisting of valuable and rare ornaments. After dressing-up the ladies applied perfumes from the itra-daan exhibited in the room. Perfumes were mainly the extract of roses,, jasmines, sandalwood etc. Snanagar (Bath Room) The bathroom arrangements of Raniwas (Queen's Suit) was changed with the change of seasons. Bathroom had tubs (kundi) and pitchers (Gola) made of brass, copper and metal alloys. The lady would be seated on the wooden seat and bathed after applying pithi ( a paste of turmeric, gram flour and fresh cream) then given a wash with milk and sandalwood mixed water by maids. The bathing material mainly consisted of Pithi, Multani Clay, Avamla, Ritha. To clean the dirt from heels and feet Jhawar (Metal or clay scrub) was used. Majisa ka Quamra ( Room of Maharaja's Mother) The room of Ma-Ji-Sa, as she was a widow, had white setting as white is a symbol of purity. The room had her personal pooja (temple) the portraits of her husband and paintings depicting episodes from scriptures etc.
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Pooja Kaksh (Room for Worship) The queens of the Royal household worshipped their Isht-Dev ( Deity in whom they reposed faith) at their own residence. A room for worship was made in the haveli premises to make their easy access possible. Baithak (Sitting Room) A room where the queen sat with her friend and relatives to discuss issues pertaining to politics, social life and to chitchat. This place was called Queens Darikhana. This room exhibits the peculiar sitting arrangements of the Queens Darikhana. Kitchen (Rasoda) Each royal house had a separate kitchen where delicious food was prepared for the members and the guests of royal families. Kitchen were equipped with large size metal and wooden utensils. Separate stores existed to store food grains and allied materials. Parenda In the Havelies and Royal households a Parenda (Drinking water storage) was near the kitchen. The maids of queens filled water for their mistresses from here. Parenda consisted of neat terracotta and copper pitchers. From the parenda, water was taken to different apartments of queens in small pitchers. Music and Study Room The residents of Havelies and Royal households were the greatest patrons of art and were passionately involved in it. In consonance with this tradition, every Haveli had a music and study room. This indicated the inclinations of the occupants towards music and literature. This room was an institution in itself where ladies of the Haveli learnt music, studied literature and scriptures. These rooms were equipped with musical instruments like sarangi, nagada, shehnai, dholak, flute, chang etc.

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Chapter 6 :

Contributors and Facilitators

The entire restoration work was conceptualised and planned by the Restoration architect Mr. Rajiv Khanna. The implementing agency was Awas Vikas Sansthan. All the work was executed under the guidance of the Steering committee. This committee had been formed for review, monitoring and policy decisions. It comprised of the following members : 1. Shri Sallauddin Ahmed, Chairman, Rajasthan Housing Board 2. Dr. B.N. Goswami, Head, Dept. of History of Art, Punjab University, Chandigarh 3. Shri Zilu Harmalkar, Goa 4. Shri Naranbhai Mistry, Bombay 5. Shri Ratanchand Agrawal, Retd. Director, Archaelogy & Museum dept., Jaipur 6. Dr. M.C. Joshi, Director, ASI, New Delhi 7. Director, NID, Ahmedabad 8. Mrs. Usha Malik, Secretary, Sangeet Natak Academy, Delhi 9. Shri Girish Karnad, Chairman, Sangeet Natak Academy, Delhi 10. District Collector, Udaipur 11. Dr. Jyotindra Jain, Sr. Director, Crafts Museum, Delhi 12. Director, WZCC Padamshri Laxmi Kumari Chundawat was advisor to the Committee. Central level Art Purchase Committee This committee was formed in order to select the artefacts that would be purchased by the WZCC for the Museum. It comprised of : 1. Dr. Jyotindra Jain, Sr. Director, Crafts Museum, Delhi 2. Shri Madhav Pitre, Director of Archives, Goa 3. Mrs. Mira Mehrishi, MD, Rajasthan Small Scale Industries Corporation, Jaipur 4. Shri Sadashiv Gorakshkar, Director, Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay 5. Superintendent, Dept. of Archaeology, Govt. of Rajasthan, Jaipur 6. Superintendent, Dept. of Archaeology, Govt. of Gujarat, Gandhinagar 7. Superintendent, Dept. of Archaeology, Govt. of Maharashtra, Bombay 8. Superintendent, Dept. of Archaeology, Govt. of Goa, Panaji 9. Shri Ram Singh Rathod, Kutch Sanskruti Darshan, Bhuj, Gujarat 10. Shri Haku Shah, Ahmedabad 11. Ms. Krishna Lal, National Museum, Delhi 12. Shri Swaroop Singh, Art Collector, Jodhpur 13. Director, WZCC, Udaipur The Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts This institute had been established on the Jaipur-Amber road by Avas Vikas Sansthan through the assistance of Housing and Urban Development Corporation, Government of India. In order that Restoration and Conservation projects can be undertaken and sucessfully completed in any State, it is important that more institutes such as this one are established. They also provide the training required for the execution of Restoration projects.

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The objectives of the Institute were : • • • • • • • • • • To document old cultural and historical monuments of the State in need of Restoration and Conservation To document details of existing Master Craftsmen of different building trades To act as a reference Centre for providing consultancy for Restoration projects To run specialised courses for identification and Restoration of old monuments To collect data of construction materials required for the Restoration work To develop special machines/equipments for use in the traditional art work for speeding up Restoration works To impart on-the-job training to artisans under the close supervision of Master Craftsmen To organise orientation programmes for training and upgradation of skills of professionals in the field of Conservation and Restoration. To prepare visual aids/films/videos and literature for training and promotional purposes. To prepare a schedule of rate incorporating the items required for Conservation and Restoration of such old monuments.

Training was being imparted by the Institute in the following : a) Construction and special architectural features b) Finishes and special treatments c) Ornamentation, Carving and Inlay works The Avas Vikas Sansthan (AVS) and the Institute for Revival of Traditional Building Arts (IRTBA) has now been wound up.

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Chapter 7 :The Future
Future Restoration work The restoration work for the entire Bagore-ki-haveli could not be completed due to financial constraints. If the entire master plan prepared initially and improvised by the experts were to be executed with additional funding, there are more beautiful features of the haveli that could be unearthed. Amongst these would be : 1. External facade of the Darikhana, which originally had mirror work inlaid on its walls. 2. Flooring of the Darikhana 3. Cascade in the Chandi chowk/Kuan Chowk The main feature in Chandi chowk is the magnificent central phawara or the fountain. This twostoreyed fountain from where water cascaded down in monsoon and in the dry summer when it was fed by the overhead Paneri or water tank. It was to be restored to working condition. 4. Parvati ghat entrance The lost splendour of the Parvati ghat was to be revived for the visitors coming from the lake side by recreating the boat ride and the arrival of Maharajas of Jodhpur and Bikaner when they arrived at Bagore-ki-haveli. The visitors would alight at Parvati ghat and enter Parvati Vilas where the idol of Gangaur Mata would be relocated. The worshipping of Gangaur's idol was to be revived. It had been ceremoniously been brought down from Tulsi chowk and kept in Parvati Vilas for darshan by royal visitors. The tourist would then enter Chandi chowk. 5. Panni work Panni work was an integral part of the Mor Darikhana. This work was scheduled to be executed in the third phase of the project. When the restoration of the work is restarted at the haveli, this can be undertaken to uncover further beauty within the haveli environment. Panni is an ancient technique similar to mirror work. Panni is a thin foil made out of metal ranga available in different colours (green, yellow, red, white, blue). The process involves outlining floral designs in paint on a glass surface 2 mm thick. The panni is cut by scissors and then rubbed by a thick stone known as harrik ka pathar to get a concave surface. The panni is placed on the outlined design with the help of a paste made from baked clay, gum and water. The glass is framed in lime plaster with a slight gap between it and the wall. The overall effect is not only three dimensional, but also catches the sun's rays and reflects them with great clarity. This work can be carried out only by skilled craftsmen. 6. Illumination of the Haveli To light up the façade facing the lake, Mr. Rajiv Khanna had recommended lights at three selected locations. The fixtures were to be fitted at a height of 6.0M, utilising the single or double combinations as desired of sodium lamps. All fixtures available with WZCC were to be first utilised. The side gate where the Rath or Chariot was placed would be lit with two dractional lights fixed on the walls and concealed towards the inside northern wall. To illuminate the Tripolia gate, light would be fixed on the pillar iron gate and the existing municipality poles towards the other end. In addition to the restoration efforts of individual owners, the value of the haveli requires the inner-city environment to be improved. This needs the backing of legislation and of local authorities. Planning laws must be used to prevent the over-development of the city centers; commercialization of residential areas; encroachment on open spaces; overloading of services; choking traffic and pollution. Environmental improvements are to be accompanied by conservation laws to prevent the havelis from being demolished and deteriorated further.

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