IPAChart96

THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 1993, updated 1996

)
CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) Bilabial Labiodental Dental Plosive Nasal Trill Tap or Flap Fricative Lateral fricative Approximant Lateral approximant Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular © 1996 IPA Pharyngeal Glottal

t d µ n r | F B f v T D s Êz S Z ñ L Ã ¨ l

p b m õ

æ ¶ c ï k g q G / = N Ð R Ç § ½ • J x V X å © ? h H Õ ð
VOWELS

j ´

÷ K

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC) Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives

Front Close

Central

Back

> ù ! ø ²

Bilabial Dental (Post)alveolar Palatoalveolar Alveolar lateral

º ë ú Ä ì

Bilabial Dental/alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular

’ p’ t’ k’ s’

Examples: Bilabial Dental/alveolar Velar Alveolar fricative

i

y

Close-mid

IY e P

é è

U

¬ u ¯ o ¿ O A •

Open-mid

OTHER SYMBOLS

· Voiceless labial-velar fricative ‚ ó Alveolo-palatal fricatives w Ê Voiced labial-velar approximant È Voiced alveolar lateral flap ç Voiced labial-palatal approximant ê Simultaneous S and x í Voiceless epiglottal fricative Affricates and double articulations ÊÀ ÊVoiced epiglottal fricative can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary. ÊÖ Ê Epiglottal plosive
DIACRITICS

Open

e ¸ « E { ä Œ Ï a Ó

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. SUPRASEGMENTALS

(

kp ts N(

®

"
*

Primary stress Secondary stress Long Half-long Extra-short

Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.

É ò

®foUn«"tIS«n

˜

(

9 3 î 7 ¦ ª 2 Ê á + ` 8 ±
Ê

eÊ_ e! e@ e~ eÑ Í ›

‰ • ” ™ ž

High Mid Low Extra low

Downstep Upstep

e e$ e% eÞ e& ‹ Ì

¡ 

n9 d9 Voiced s3 tÊ3 Aspirated tî dî More rounded O7 Less rounded O¦ Advanced uª Retracted e2 Centralized eá Mid-centralized e+ Syllabic n` Non-syllabic e8 Rhoticity «± a±
Voiceless

» 0 £ W Æ × ³ • 6 ¤ 5 °

b» a» 1 Dental tÊ1 d1 Creaky voiced b0 a0 Á Apical tÊÁ dÁ Linguolabial tÊ£ Êd£ 4 Laminal tÊ4 d4 Labialized tW dW ) Nasalized e) Palatalized tÆ dÆ ö Nasal release dö Velarized t× Êd× Â Lateral release d Pharyngealized t³ Ê d³ } No audible release d} Velarized or pharyngealized : Raised e6 Ê( ¨6 = voiced alveolar fricative) Lowered e¤ ( B¤ = voiced bilabial approximant) Advanced Tongue Root e5 Retracted Tongue Root e°
Breathy voiced

eÉ eò e*

ù ² . Å

Minor (foot) group Major (intonation) group Syllable break

¨i.Ïkt

Linking (absence of a break)

TONES AND WORD ACCENTS CONTOUR LEVEL Extra Rising or or high

Š ‘ Ÿ • –$

Falling High rising Low rising Risingfalling

Global rise Global fall

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