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**Anand A.Trikolikar1*, Dr. Sanjay L. Nalbalwar2, Lt. Milind P. Bhagat3
**

M.Tech Student1, Assistant Professor2, Sr. Lecturer3 Institute of Petrochemical Engineering3 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engg. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological University, Lonere, Raigad.

**Abstract: Wireless energy transfer based on coupled magnetic resonance is a new technology, where
**

energy can be transferred via coupled magnetic resonance in the non-radiative near field. Wireless power transmission is the means to power devices without a built in a power source such as generator or battery. A theoretical and analytical review of such system is proposed in this paper. Finally experimental results by MIT team [8] are stated. Keywords: Wireless energy transfer, Resonance, Mutual inductance, Induction Coupling.

1. Introduction

The past decade has witnessed a dramatic surge in the use of autonomous electronics devices (laptop, cell phones, robots, PDAs, etc).The problem with these devices is that despite their portability and ability to communicate wirelessly, these devices still require regular charging, usually by plugging into a wall outlet. The ability to provide power for these and other electric devices wirelessly would greatly increase their portability and accessibility for the public. Previous schemes for wireless power transmission included attempts by the late scientist Nikola Tesla [1],[2], who demonstrated wireless power transfer using large copper elements in the early 1900s. Nikola Tesla devoted much effort to developing a system for transferring large amount of power over considerable distance. His main goal was to bypass the electrical-wire grid, but for a number of financial and technical difficulties, this project was never completed. His invention, however, required large scale construction of 200 ft tall masts. It also produced undesirably, and sometimes dangerously, high voltages that approached 100,000,000 V [3]. Later attempts at wireless power led to the development of microwave power transmission [4],[5] but its line-of-sight requirements meant that any practical power source needed to be high in the sky. Previous proposed projects included large power platforms as well as microwave-beaming satellites [3],[4]. Both Tesla's devices and the later microwave power were forms of radiative power transfer. Radiative transfer [6], which is used in wireless communication, is not particularly suitable for power transmission due to its low efficiency and radiative loss due to its omnidirectional nature (since the power captured is proportional to cross-section of receiving antenna, and most of power is radiated in other directions). More recently, a company by the name of Splashpower [7] developed magnetic charging pads on which to place electronic devices. The pad used magnetic induction to transfer energy to a specially designed receptor on the electronic device being charged. This device required contact between the pad and electric device, as well as a specialized addition on the electronic devices needing to be charged. This made implementation impractical on a large scale. Earlier attempts such as Tesla's inventions [1],[2], microwave transmission and the magnetic charging pads represented long range and close range wireless power transmission – however, implementation of those inventions has been slow or nonexistent, due to impracticalities in their design. An alternative approach which was pursued by MIT team [8] is to exploit some near field interaction between the source and device, and somehow tune this system so that efficient power transfer is possible. A recent theoretical paper [8] presented a detailed analysis of the feasibility of using resonant objects coupled through the ‘tails’ of their non radiative fields for midrange energy transfer. Intuitively, two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while dissipating relatively little energy in extraneous off resonant objects. In systems of coupled resonance (e.g. acoustic, electromagnetic, magnetic, nuclear), there is often a general “strongly coupled” regime of operation [9]. If one can operate in that regime in a given system, the energy transfer is expected to be very efficient. Midrange power transfer implemented in this way can be nearly omnidirectional and efficient, irrespective of the geometry of the surrounding space, with low interference and losses into environmental objects.

* Author for correspondence Published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Applications, Jan. 2010

177

m≠n ∑ ik nm . The basic principle behind this system is that. In case of Magnetic resonance interaction between the object occurs predominantly through the magnetic field they generates. if two resonant circuits tuned at same frequency then their near fields (consisting of evanescent waves coupled by means of evanescent wave coupling ) then due to this evanescent wave coupling standing wave developed between inductors. Operating on resonance is necessary condition for such system. Operation in strong coupling regime.The above considerations apply irrespective of the physical nature of the resonance. here k is related to transfer of energy between two oscillator. The diagram which shows two objects. CMT said that when two resonators have equal frequencies then. which can be many meter long flicker over surfaces. Electromagnetic evanescent waves have been used to exert optical radiation pressure on small particle in order to tap them. 2. For CMT the needful condition is that k << ω1. one is denoted by Source (S) and Device (D) is as shown in figure. is what makes the power transfer efficient. Magnetic resonances are particularly suitable for everyday application [12] because most of the common materials do not interact with magnetic fields. we focus on one particular physical embodiment: magnetic resonance [11]. Coupled Mode Theory (CMT) [14]. The second is overall field profile can be described as superposition of modes due to each objects.1 [12]. in case of non-radiative objects when energy is applied then it remains bound to them. and after time t= π/2k all of excitation will be transferred to other resonator.a n (t ) + F m (t ) The first assumption of coupled mode theory is that range of frequencies of interest is sufficiently narrow that the parameter in above equation can be treated as constants and coupled differential equation can be treated as linear. Here in this case ‘tails’ of energy. 2 are individual Eigen frequencies. Block diagram of magnetic wave based wireless power transmission system.1. Here. This condition implies that interaction between resonators must not be strong enough so as to significantly distort the individual Eigen modes. so interactions with environmental objects are suppressed even further. a m (t ) = − (iw m − Γ m ). rather than escaping to space. Here ω1. The reason behind use of non-radiative transfer scheme for this system is. then phases of two solutions evolve at different rate. Published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Applications. which can allow energy to transfer from one object to other within time. Theory of strongly coupled systems.e. We use k = kSD = kDS. 2010 177 . The coupling coefficient [10] kSD and kDS are dependent on each other.a m (t ) − . for which resonance is precondition. Evanescent wave coupling is a process by which electromagnetic waves are transmitted from one medium to other by means of evanescent exponentially decaying electromagnetic field.[15] provides a simple and accurate way of modeling the system and gives a more understanding of what makes power transfer efficient in a strongly coupled rejoin. 2. CMT gives following set of differential equation by analyzing system as. Fig. If you bring another resonant object with same frequency close enough to this ‘tails’ then energy can tunnel from one to other object. but not sufficient to achieve good efficiency at mid range distances. Jan. a2 = 0. A numerical solution of above coupled magnetic resonance equation is also given [16]. Another experimental paper [13] presented a simulation of back electromotive force (back-EMF) in the receiving coil related with different transfer distance and with driving frequency. when resonator 1 is excited at t = 0 and a1 = 1 and resonator 2 is unexcited i. In order to achieve Efficient Power transfer there are some ways used for tuning parameter of given system so that it is operated in strongly coupled rejoin.

Here J(r) is spatial current density and ρ (r) is spatial charge density and Io is current flowing through coil at initial condition and Qo is total charge at I = 0.[10] for efficient energy transfer above system can be design such that the rate of energy transfer between source and device is greater than rate of energy dissipation that is. The experimental power transfer efficiency of the coupled coils decayed with distance. Analytical Model of Self Resonating Coil The experimental realization [8].More generally the load has effect of contributing an additional term with unloaded device’s object decay rate ( ΓD ) . f0= 1 2Π LC . Once device is excited by source which in turn driven at constant frequency. J(r' ) r . D = −iwMISID .where Γs × ΓD is rate at which source and device dissipating energy. one is Ohmic (Resistive) loss and other is Radiation loss [8] [10]. Thus total decay rate at device is. The efficiency of power transfer depends only on ‘Γ’. We can define effective inductance ‘L’ and effective capacitance ‘C’ for each coil is. Q= ω0 2Π In one period of oscillation the resonant object loses 1/Q of its energy. we can extract energy and convert it in to useful work by adding a load (denoted by subscript w).r' . ΓD ' = ΓD + Γw . Both к and Γ are functions of distance between resonating objects and resonance frequency. having radius ‘r’ and height ‘h’. 2010 177 . Jan.[10] of power transfer scheme done by MIT team consist of 2 identical self resonating coils made up of an electrically conducting wires of total length ‘l’ and crossectional radius of ‘a’ wound in to helix of ‘n’ turns. where M is effective mutual inductance. If above condition is satisfied then energy travels from source to device before too much get wasted. The parameters к for the transfer path and Γ for the two coils were experimentally adjusted to achieve strong coupling. k >> Γs × ΓD . 2 Published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Applications.ρ (r' ) = dr dr' C 4Π ε 0 Q 0 2 ∫∫ r . as expected from the theory. Given this relation and equation of continuity the resulting resonance frequency is. The energy contained in coil is given as. and ‘к’. PDS = Γ L IS. the coupling coefficient that describes the strength of resonance between the two resonating coils.r' 1 1 ρ (r) . 3. The power transferred from source to device coil is given as. U= 1 1 2 2 L Io = Qo 2 2C In this model the coil dissipating energy through two mechanisms. L= μ0 4Π I 0 2 ∫∫ dr dr' J(r) . the intrinsic decay rate of magnetic transfer (due to radiated losses and absorption by other objects). In case of efficiency of system [8].The Q factor which is used to determine the rate at which energy loses for above system is Q = 2Π × energy stored Power dissipated per cycle.

MIT team compare theoretical and experimental values. 5.3. Whereas in Fig. In Fig. In Fig. and we find that it is possible to transfer energy over distance up to 8 times the radius of coils with nearly 40% efficiency. Transfer Efficiency over Distance Fig. Fig.experimental and theoretical values of coupling coefficient over distance and ratio of k/Г over distance are compared respectively [8].2.4. Received Power over Distance. To test the accuracy of there theoretical derivations. Two identical helical copper coils. Conclusion We have reviewed the possibility of wireless power transfer by using strongly coupled magnetic resonance in a theoretical and analytical way. Fig.5. The receiving magnetic coil was inductively coupled to a copper wire loop attached to a 60 W bulb. Coupling Coefficient over Distance. By fine tuning the height of coils. Ratio of k/Г over Distance.and Fig. they were able to cause strong magnetic resonance coupling between two coils at a midrange distance. were constructed by the MIT team [8] for magnetic coupling.4. Implementation of System and Results. 2010 177 . Published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Applications.experimental and theoretical values of received power with distance are compared [12].2.4. one for the source and one for load. Jan. [12] experimental and theoretical values of efficiency with distance are compared.5. received power and coupling coefficient are decreases with increase in distance between two resonators. The source coil was in turn inductively coupled to a single copper wire loop which is attached to Colpitts oscillator.3. We also find that efficiency. Fig.

Massachusetts Institute Of Technology. Page No-1505-1518.Shearer and J.` [12] Nigel P.S. (2008).S.vol-317.G.References [1] Aleksandar Marinicic. Page No-34-48. [9] Aristeidis karalis. (2008). [7] Popular Science. “The History of Power Transmission by Radio Wave”. “Solar Power Transmission: From Space to Earth”. [14] H. W.Gueldner. “Splashpower Splashpad”. thesis.Schieible.Yu. “A Note on omputer Solution of Wireless Energy Transmit via Magnetic Resonance”. [15] H. M.C. “Annals of Physics”.Huang. Peter Fisher. U.Sc. “Tesla’s Contribution to Radiowave Propagation”.D.“Science”. Marin Soljacic. IEEE TELSIKS (2001).Brown. Djuradj Budimir. Rui Ma. The 29th Annual Conference of IEEE1. [4] Saurab Sood. Kai Liu.Joannopoulos. 2010 177 . IEEE Trans. Marin Soljacic.Vanderelli. Vol-1. [11] K. “Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics”. “Efficient Wireless non-radiative mid range energy transfer”. Prentice Hall Edition. [10] Andre Kurs.S Patent 102292 (2009) and 72629 (2009). Robert Moffatt. U. “Progress in Physics”. Joannopoulos.Patent 7027311 (2006). U. Research Article.R. [13] Chunbo Zhu. IEEE Trans. Published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Applications. Best of What’s new. “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances”. J.vol-32. [3] W. “Simulation and Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy Transfer Based on Magnetic Resonances”. “Energy for the Global Village”.Smarandache. Aristeidis karalis. (2005). C.Haus. Page no-1230-1248. H. IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. Page No327-331.Patent 1119732 (1914). [16] Vic Christianto and F. vol-79. [2] Nikola Tesla. (1984).Kullanthasamy. M. (2003).Shahidehpour. [5] Peter E. H. Jan.Shearer.O’brian.A. Glaser. Page no-83 to 85. S.Haus. S. J. [8] Andre kurs. “Power Transfer Through Strongly Coupled Resonances”.Cook.Widmen.Dominiak and H. G. 367 (2006).Cheng.D. (1995) [6] T. (2007). “Coupled Mode Theory” IEEE Proceedings. IEEE Trans. J.

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