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The Medicinal, Toilet, Culinary and other Uses of 130 of the most Commonly Used Herbs
By HAROLD WARD
L. N. Fowler & Co. Ltd. 15 New Bridge Street London, E.C.4
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FOREWORD PRACTISING medical herbalists have long recognized the need, evidenced in an increasing public demand, for a popular-priced manual containing an exposition of their attitude towards problems of health and disease, together with a comprehensive and descriptive cyclopaedia of the remedies they use, with such other information as is likely to be of use or interest to both general reader and more serious student. This purpose the present author has thought to achieve by a preliminary survey of the historical background of medical herbalism, followed by an explanation and discussion of the philosophy upon which the herbal practitioner of to-day bases his work. The greater part of the book is devoted to the cyclopaedic dictionary of medicinal and other herbs, with their natural order, botanical and common names and synonyms, their habitats, distinctive features, the parts employed and the therapeutic properties, with uses and dosage. The better-known herbs, and those which are more commonly seen in prescriptions, as well as those which, for any other reason, may be of unusual interest, have been dealt with, it will be noticed, in greater detail than the less frequently used and discussed plants. Quotations from the writings of herbalists, from Culpeper to the twentieth century, are freely inserted where these were thought to be especially apposite. It will be observed that to most of the herbs are ascribed double or multiple medicinal actions. Which particular virtue comes to the fore in actual application depends largely on the other agents with which it is combined. Thus, the alterative properties of a herb may be more pronounced in one combination, while in a different prescription its value as a diuretic might become more operative. In the effective allocation of his various medicinal agents to meet precise individual requirements lies an important department of the work of the skilled prescribing herbalist. The index of therapeutic action will be found helpful in locating suitable herbs in specific forms of ill-health, while the volume would not be complete without the information concerning the gathering of herbs, the glossary of botanical terms used and the very full index of the herbs
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themselves, under their common and botanical names and synonyms, with which the book ends. While it is considered that the work will not be without value to both practitioner and student, it is the general public to whom it is primarily addressed. An increasing number of people are turning to herbal healing, many of them for reasons which will be apparent in the following pages. HAROLD WARD. Scotts Hall, Westleton, Saxmundham Suffolk. August, 1936.
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"it is now well-known that the Surgeons admitted will do no Cure to any Person but where they shall know to be rewarded with a greater Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .. the Act referred to makes it fairly clear that the doctors of the period did not boggle at legal and other persecution of those who disagreed with their theories and who used. and the using and ministering of them to such as been pained with customable Diseases. as it is extremely unlikely that a Tudor monarch and his advisers would have deigned to notice officially a matter that oppressed only the poorer population. The abuses must have reached rather serious dimensions. approved and admitted" by the Bishop of London and others. as well Men as Women. troubled and vexed divers honest Persons. and is popularly known as "The Herbalists' Charter. a different method of healing to their own. Henrici VIII Regis. The enactment headed "Annis Tricesimo Quarto et Tricesimo Quinto. . and have affected even the high and mighty of the land. Cap. Roots and Waters.com . have sued.. whom God hath endued with the knowledge of the Nature. The text of the Act first draws attention to the fact that in the third year of the same king's reign it was enacted that no person within the City of London or within a seven-miles radius should practise as a physician and surgeon without first being "examined. and nothing the Profit or Ease of the Diseased or Patient.PART I I—HISTORY OF HERBALISM ALTHOUGH the use of plants in the alleviation and cure of bodily ills goes as far back as the history of the human race itself. Further." Further. probably the first official reference to herbalism as a definite art and the practice of a distinct group of persons. Kind and Operation of certain Herbs.swsbm. minding only their own Lucres. Since then.Page 4 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is contained in no less important a document than an Act of Parliament of the reign of King Henry VIII. the new Act tells us. apparently with some success. "the Company and Fellowship of Surgeons of London." It seems that in the early years of the sixteenth century there was considerable discontent concerning both the methods of practice of the official school of medicine and the fees charged by its practitioners for the conferring of dubious benefits. VIII" is still part of the Statute Law of England.
The first name to be associated with herbal practice and to be attached to writings on the subject is that of Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654).Sum or Reward than the Cure extendeth unto . the "father" of medical herbalism. or Statutes to the contrary heretofore made in anywise. Roots and Waters. This son of the Rev. Rector of Oakley. the foresaid Statute in the foresaid Third Year of the King's most gracious Reign. Ordinance. still part of the present law of the land. or Loss of their Goods. or any other Act.. Vexation. "for although the most Part of the Persons of the said Craft of Surgeons have small cunning yet they will take great Sums of Money. Although his system is regarded by the health philosopher of our day as "Culpeperism" rather than medical herbalism as we know it.." etc. Surrey. use and minister in and to any outward Sore. and by Reason thereof they do sometimes impair and hurt their Patients rather than do them good. any Herb or Herbs. or within any other the King's Dominions. M. That at all Time from henceforth it shall be lawful to every Person being the King's subject. was by no means the untutored hind he is alleged to be by uninformed or biased critics. Apostemations . and do little therefor. notwithstanding. Strangury or Agues. although it may be argued that this would be unnecessary if proper recognition of King Henry's Act.A. . by Speculation or Practice.com . within any part of the Realm of England. without Suit. Penalty." To this accusation of venality is added the charge of professional incompetence. to practice. "or drinks for the Stone.swsbm. Uncome Wound. could be enforced. the unofficial healer of to-day has not yet obtained his Charter from the Tudor king's successors." The happenings and subsequent outcry which must have preceded the introduction of this Bill have tempted modern herbal enthusiasts to apply the tag about history repeating itself to conditions hedging the treatment of disease in our own times! However this may be. the independently-minded Nicholas Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . for in case they would minister their cunning unto sore people unrewarded. having Knowledge and Experience of the Nature of Herbs. or of the Operation of the same. there should not so many rot and perish to Death for Lack or Help of Surgery as daily do." With a view to remedying this somewhat scandalous state of affairs it is then decreed "by Authority of this present Parliament.Page 5 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Trouble. Thomas Culpeper. .
Thomson (1769-1843). George Alexander Gordon. some such. The following are the concluding words. published in 1652. A preface addressed by Nicholas Culpeper to students of physic appears in the original edition of the Herbal. I hope. although almost entirely "self-taught. a comparatively progressive institution in the eighteenth century. It is slyly hinted in some quarters that Edinburgh University. although the art was widely practised during this period by many humble exponents. conferred a posthumous degree upon Culpeper. A piquant position arose as long after Culpeper's death as the year 1802. Doubtless the good ship Mayflower carried passengers who understood the medicinal virtues of plants.Page 6 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. this nation is worthy of.was probably the equal of his more orthodox contemporaries whether judged from the general cultural standpoint or by the results of his curative methods. and to all such I will be a friend during life. The story is transferred to what is now the United States of America. or whether Gordon's strange fervour for Culpeper caused the doctor to foist such a "quack" upon his alma mater has never been satisfactorily settled. in which he claimed a medical degree for its distinguished author ! That a fellow of Britain's foremost medical college should bestow such a dignity upon such a staunch medical libertarian is remarkable and even amusing. and do good yourselves first by increasing your knowledge. had published an edition of Culpeper's Herbal or English Physician.swsbm. In this year a Dr. for a descendant of these men bore the most honoured name in the practice of herbal healing— that of Samuel Thomson." was the man who. Whether this theory is correct. and to your neighbours afterwards by helping their infirmities. by his writings and untiring practical work became the prime mover in the formation of botanic societies and ultimately of Staterecognized medical colleges at which Physio-Medicalism (the name by Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . evidence of broad humanitarian sympathies and zeal in the search for truth: "What remains but that you labour to glorify God in your several places.com ." English herbalism produced few prominent personalities during the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. ready of my poor power to help.
While earning his living in London at his father's occupation. Manchester. approached Tilke and persuaded him to leave his baking and devote his future life entirely to the service of the sick. must have cured where the methods of allopathy failed. For some years before Coffin landed in England there had been a considerable revival in herbal teaching and practice in this country. I. All this. Some of his cures were so notable that they obtained more than local fame. An outstanding feature of the Thomsonian theory and practice is that poisonous plants are rigorously banned. in 1832 the former baker was practising non-poisonous herbal medicine at 8 Thayer Street. Here he was remarkably successful and. the Lords Howden and Seymour. He was persecuted for many years. Thus. Two philanthropic noblemen. but the latter's skill in amateur veterinary work led his son's thoughts in the direction of human healing. This movement was headed by Samuel Westcott Tilke. and on which the whole therapy was based. Tilke's father followed the trade of a baker. Devon. who built up large practices in Leeds. There would seem to be one main reason for the "uneducated" Thomson's success in breaking through the powerful American medical monopoly—the harmless herbal medicines alone contained in the physio-medical materia medica.com . however. Coffin (1798-1866). although large numbers of the poor received his attention free.Page 7 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. spreading wider the physiomedical theories by energetic lecturing and the writing of many books. who was born in 1794 at Sidmouth. he was also consulted by many wealthy people. A. and eventually in London. Thomson's system was brought to England in 1838 by another herbalist of high repute.swsbm. indeed. and actually imprisoned before his final triumph brought State recognition to his teachings. Their superiority could not.which Thomson's system became known) was taught. and a medical reform agitation was being energetically conducted. Manchester Square. in London's West End. have been other than overwhelming in order to have forced such a victory. was not achieved by Thomson without great personal sacrifice. Tilke's study. from whom he did not hesitate to exact payment in proportion to the size of their reputed fortunes! Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . observation and skill were turned to account after working hours in the gratuitous treatment of any sick people with whom he came in contact.
important items in the materia medica of the physiomedicals. Other great inventions were showering wealth upon the propertied classes. It need only be noted here that the Bath protest was conducted Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . In spite of the virtual cessation of legal hounding of natural healers at this time. Tilke has done to alleviate the sufferings of humanity under disease which usually defies all medical skill is entitled to honourable mention.com . a lecture was advertised to be given at the Assembly Rooms. Both of these agents were." It must be remembered. as Tilke avoided the treatment meted out to Thomson in America. Tilke's relations with the profession are referred to in the "Autobiography" itself: "At this time I frequently used to enter into debate with members of the Medical Profession upon the subject of Gout. being itself engaged in a bitter struggle on behalf of the rising class of industrialists against the landed proprietors of an era which was passing. For example. 1849. were included in the English herbal practice through the influence of Coffin. Indeed. The steam age had dawned. This was a period of great economic change. The properties and uses of lobelia and cayenne are discussed under their respective heads in the Cyclopaedia section of this volume. and are. however. contending that the acting or direct cause was the existence of an acrid and ill-conditioned humour in the system. and have been used by herbalists in this country to the present day. on 15th June. The Times reviewed his "Autobiography" very favourably.swsbm. which could only be thrown off through the pores of the skin. and originality of thought in many different fields was consequently encouraged rather than frowned upon.Orthodoxy appears to have been fairly tolerant at this time. "by a medical gentleman" (unnamed) concerning the "dangers" of lobelia and cayenne. he kept on quite good terms with both doctors and Press.Page 8 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www." This stressing of the importance of food in the causation of disease is in accord with the views of modern herbalists. Bath. not denying at the same time that the primary cause was connected with the alimentary canal. that The Times of 100 years ago was a journal of radical outlook. and is by no means confined to gout. a certain amount of general propaganda was conducted against them. and almost attained generosity in one of its comments : "Any man who makes such unceasing efforts as Mr.
by a school whose practice consisted largely of bleeding. and. together with his work as editor of the Botanic Record." resulted in a synthesis between the Thomsonian and English schools of herbalism. Coffin and Tilke. and especially of proper eating.Page 9 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and are discussed in the next section. The work of Coffin.swsbm. practising herbalist and lecturer. even more than has been done in the past. The tendency among herbalists of recent years is to stress. The reason for this becomes apparent when it is remembered that we are now living in an age of huge monopolies and that this phase in the development of the economic system has particularly harmful effects in the sphere of food supply. and Tilke. representing American physio-medicalism. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and Epitome of the Botanic Practice of Medicine.com . and author of Family Medical Adviser. blistering. entitle Skelton to a place in the line of Thomson. pupil of Coffin. These considerations bring us to the study of herbalism as it is taught and practised at the present time. Plea for the Botanic Practice of Medicine. whose ideas were founded upon the old English herbal medicines plus the "water cure. Those books are read throughout the English-speaking world. This has been developed throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century and to our own times by such men as John Skelton. and the administration of calomel and laudanum. the importance of healthy habits of living.
To suppress symptoms is not to touch causes.swsbm. and it is surely the removal of the causes of disease with which the true healer should be concerned. found to be connected with the type of commercial undertakings mentioned through directorships and staff appointments. and by way of the advertisements issued by the vendors of proprietary foods and medicines. Indeed. Herbal theory holds that treatment by these means succeeds. for this same reason that the word "poison" itself implies association with a living organism. as the theories upon which each is based are the same. indeed. as well as serums and vaccines extracted from the internal organs of diseased animals. Both press articles and publicity matter may be legitimately classed together for our purpose. and frequently poisonous drugs of both mineral and vegetable origin in the treatment of disease. and is suppressive in its action. in masking symptoms. a "scientifically" satisfactory explanation of a poison has not yet been formulated. when administered. fragmentary knowledge of the subject of health and disease acquired by the average person is. in the main. It is well known that orthodoxy uses mineral. People with medical qualifications are. In practice. that is. at best.Page 10 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.com ." The defenders of allopathy would argue that the quantities in which strychnine. suppressive of the attempts of nature to rid the body of that poisonous matter (frequently self-generated) which lies at the root of most forms of ill-health.—HERBALISM TO-DAY THE vague. those of orthodox medical practice. What is a poison? It must be understood that the rigid definitions of "exact" science cannot be properly applied to healing as an art.2. especially if we insert after "administered" the words "in conveniently taken quantities. is injurious to health or life" serves as a useful working statement. arsenical and mercurial preparations and so on are prescribed Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . picked up from medical articles in the popular newspapers and magazines. "a poison is defined as that which. the terse judicial dictum. or to health and disease as a philosophy. nor is it likely to be. It will consequently be convenient to explain the philosophy of modern medical herbalism or natural healing by a series of comparisons with the views of allopathy or orthodox medicine.
it is often necessary. which would then find lodgement in various parts of the system. Nevertheless." It must not. or some other acute disease which has been "cured" by suppressive methods. and harmful consequences can be cumulative over long periods. so laying the basis for chronic disease. to some degree. and even in the same person from day to day. and whether selfgenerated or administered as medicine. of course. Observation and enquiry show that most chronic diseases can be traced back to influenza.Page 11 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the percentage of cases which suffer from paralysis after diphtheria has definitely increased. and not as a mere conglomeration of parts or organs. They cannot assist the whole body to normal functioning. and diphtheritic paralysis after antitoxin treatment of diphtheria are examples. Again. write: "There is reason to believe that since the introduction of antitoxin. It may be asking too much of the organs of elimination to get rid of this additional harmful matter. all the effects of certain drugs are not by any means immediately observable. to allay symptoms when these extraordinary efforts of the body to expel poisons reach a point which brings too great a strain to bear on the organism. is competent to decide what constitutes an injurious dose in any individual case? An amount that could be tolerated in one person may be injurious to another who is in an apparently similar state of health. diphtheria. they are essential. however. herbalism contends. "orthodox" authors of Toxins." Who.are not large enough to be "injurious to health or life. This. Of the latter instance Bosanquet and Eyre. not necessarily the organs to which attention is directed in specific cases of ill-health. not promoters of health. Sleepy sickness following influenza. The whole Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . in whatever quantity they are present. should be done through harmless medicines and other means which co-operate with Nature's normal efforts." Poisonous substances.com . are themselves causes of disease. pneumonia.swsbm. On the contrary. and not by the administration of further poisons. in what is called acute disease. and the body must be looked upon as a whole. Serums and Vaccines. be concluded that various minerals are of no value in the treatment of disease. Herbal therapy holds that the introduction of these substances into the system cannot but injure. but parts of the body possibly far removed from the "seat of disease.
A very high proportion of the total food consumed by the majority of people to-day is the product of factories or the end-result of some form of refining or processing. and endeavour to direct and organise our own lives to run. He then formulates rules based on this view. the form in which iron. and the bodybuilding albumen of the germ. they cannot be assimilated and may consequently be definitely harmful. The commission of those acts. Taken in their crude. start from a fundamental observation of the laws of the life process itself. whether we call it food or medicine. unorganised (non-biological) state. sooner or later. or the formation of those habits which tend to oppose or break this harmony with nature must consequently be avoided. having themselves assimilated these necessary mineral substances from the earth.case against minerals lies solely in the 'form in which they are administered. expelled. that impairment of bodily functioning which we call disease. calcium. The flour which goes to make our bread rarely contains the whole of the wheat grain. in harmony with these laws. and in that case establish themselves and set up irritation resulting in pain. that is. or completely. Physiologically we are nothing but the foods which we ingest. secondly for the regaining of health where these rules have been disregarded. What is the herbalist's theory of health and the causes of disease? We should. which would be given a name in accordance with the part of the body affected (sciatica lumbago). and the air which we breathe. to which most of the diseases of to-day may be ascribed. phosphorus and so on are organically present in our tissues. and the lack of proper air. and the only form in which the cells are able properly to assimilate anything introduced into our bodies. can pass them on to us in organised form. they are not always. Herbal remedies. both of which nature Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . It is to faulty eating (on both quantitative and qualitative sides). sulphur. he holds. plus enervating habits of all kinds.com . The almost pure starch which remains thus lacks the important B vitamin contained in certain layers of the husk.Page 12 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the outer covering of the grain is removed together with the whole germ of the wheat.swsbm. including adequate exercise in it. To facilitate the operations of the milling combines. firstly for the purpose of maintaining existing health. Failure to do so will inevitably bring. or a more general description such as rheumatism. so far as is possible. As has been said of poisons.
fresh vegetables (conservatively cooked). when disregard of these factors. with fresh fish and meat in moderate quantities if liked. results in chronic disease? The herbalist's advice then is: (1) Give up the life of antagonism to nature which has brought about this position and return to one of co-operation with nature. rice and most of the other cereals in common use are highly milled to make commercial "handling" and profit-making easier. perhaps. frequent bathing. it will be asked.proposed for our benefit. The art of the herbalist (who is a "healer" only in the sense that he assists nature to heal) is directed solely to bringing about those bodily conditions in which nature can best do this work. should we eat? Let us remember the basic law of harmony with nature and eat only foods which are as near to nature as we can get them—fruit. salads. (2) assist that lifeurge to wholeness. But what. In the same way. is to be done to protect ourselves against the deadly germs of which we hear so much—surely these must first of all be attacked and destroyed? Here we have another issue on which herbalism and allopathy disagree. years of medicinal drug-taking in a futile attempt at counteraction. and. The latter school regards micro-organisms as a potent primary cause of disease. but man disposed. the white sugar of commerce is so treated that.com .Page 13 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Again. tuberculosis and so on. then. but only when hunger is present. What. and friction rubs. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Finally. those life-long strivings of the body to expel the noxious substances which are disease by the taking of suitable herbal medicines and the adoption of natural methods of elimination such as deep breathing. smallpox. one is "attacked" by influenza. however. what we eat under that name does little beyond titillate our spoiled palates and clog our systems. although sugar is one of the most urgent needs of the human organism. whole meal bread. none of which.swsbm. indulgence in enervating habits. He would further tell us to eat near-nature foods in proper proportions. and another germ or antitoxin must be discovered which will wage war upon and annihilate the bringers of these diseases. Thus. What. under our present system of society. raw milk and dairy products. reaches the great mass of the people in anything like adequate quantities. and never during phases of acute illness. diphtheria. it must never be forgotten that nature alone restores health.
are not a primary cause. results in stunted growth. that they are contained in every breath we take and on each scrap of food we put into our mouths. If this were not the case. The natural philosophy of health and disease holds that a thing torn from its natural environment is no longer the same thing. Germs can only nourish and multiply in the body when conditions there are "ripe" for them. is mankind's responsibility and not the act of a God who sends these pests to plague and destroy us.com . Independent herbalism takes. holds that germs can only be a danger when suitable conditions obtain inside the body in the form of effete toxic matter on which they can thrive. in this matter.swsbm. and consequently that a vitamin in a bottle is a very different proposition from its fellow in a glass of undoctored milk or Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . skin diseases. the common-sense view that it is simpler and less costly to let people have their vitamins in the original state. And that mysterious and highly esoteric (in two senses!) department of study known as vitamin research? A continued shortage of those essential constituents of all natural. rickets. on the other hand. proposes to get over the difficulty by chemically extracting vitamins from their natural media and adding them to the dietary of all those who can afford to buy these vitamin preparations. various nervous derangements. Passive or active support is thus given to the food-fakers and to the manufacturing chemists who make and sell the vitamin extracts.Herbalism. affections of the eyes. "live" foods. therefore. of the unfortunate consumer." Human disease. and probably numerous other ailments which are not yet in the official list. but a secondary manifestation of disease. instead of insisting upon the necessity for the consumption of "whole" foods only. while recognising that the air is swarming with millions of these tiny specks of life. Germs. both in health and pocket. each one of those people would be in bed shortly after with a temperature. and working for the legal prohibition of this wholesale devitalizing of food in the interests of private profit. known as vitamins.Page 14 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. then. Even Pasteur unconsciously admitted the soundness of this argument when he said: "In a state of health the body is closed against the action of disease germs. then out of fifty people in a room containing a high' proportion (uncountable millions) of influenza germs. to the greater profit of both and the loss. It also accuses on health grounds. State medicine.
a teacher of these laws. The modern medical herbalist is.com . removal of the organ may then have to be considered. above all.swsbm. Here again we have drastic dealing with effects instead of natural removal of the causes of diseased conditions. although Herbert Barker and many others have proved in innumerable instances that what is known as manipulative surgery or osteopathy gives better results with less danger attached. as the resultant systemic disorganisation and the non-performance of functions for which these parts are responsible invariably brings more or less serious results in its train. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and conformity to. universal knowledge of which. must be the prerequisite of an A-1 community. and normal functioning cannot be restored. however. It further contends that this tampering with and "chemicalizing" nature's food will result in a further crop of those mysterious (?) "diseases of civilization" for which doctors and scientists are still' trying to find the causative germs. Herbalists are often asked their opinion on the desirability of surgical operations involving the use of the knife. The removal of glands such as the tonsils and other organs is frequently entirely unjustifiable. Such a stage. need seldom be reached if the laws of living are observed.Page 15 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and incidentally building up huge "research" interests with public money. They consider that in certain mechanical injury this form of surgical interference may be necessary.an uncanned pear. Where errors of living and the suppressive treatment of consequent illhealth have been permitted to persist for so long that actual tissue degeneration has followed.
as it gives tone to the whole Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . hairy stem reaching a height of two feet. Pheasant's Eye. divided pinnately into linear segments. Action: Cardiac. The many small. 1-2 drops of the fluid extract. N.O. and 5-6 inches long. Part used: Herb. Rosaceae. star-like. the erect. N. tonic. toothed leaflets. Action: Acts as a mild astringent. Synonym: Stickwort. round. The root is woody.Page 16 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Habitat: Hedgerows. the taste being astringent and slightly bitter.PART II MEDICINAL AND OTHER HERBS ADONIS. Dose. bright yellow flowers are arranged in long. Synonym: False Hellebore. field borders and dry waste places. Habitat: Cornfields and meadows. with intermediate smaller ones. Agrimony is an old remedy for debility. hairy on both sides.O. and the seeds form little burs.com . Features: Stem up to one foot high. Oval head of achenes succeeds flower. yellow. AGRIMONY. grow alternately.swsbm. heart strain and cardiac dropsy. these qualities being useful in loose coughs and relaxed bowels. tonic and diuretic. Highly esteemed in cases where stimulation of heart's action is necessary. and still smaller ones between these. Leaves alternate. The numerous pinnate leaves. Features: One of our prettiest wild plants. diuretic. Ranunculaceae. Part used : The whole herb. Agrimonia eupatoria. Adonis vernalis. having 3-5 pairs of lanceolate. Diuretic qualities of value in kidney affections. solitary at termination of stem. tapering spikes. Flowers large.
shiny. urinary disorders. Umbelliferae. terminal leaflet lobed. erect. Umbels globular. colds.O.Page 17 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Used in coughs. diaphoretic. aromatic. The root is short. striated. Features: This slender. Rosaceae. with light brown rootlets. Synonym : Garden Angelica.com . It is administered as a decoction of one ounce to 1 1/2 pints water. Angelica archangelica. Action: Carminative. Dose. erect flowers. appear between May and September. Infusion of 1 ounce herb to 1 pint boiling water. Synonym: Colewort. Root fleshy. diuretic. N. simmered down to 1 pint. herb. and may be sweetened with honey or black treacle if desired. in half teacupful or larger doses. sparsely branched plant reaches a height of one to two feet. The yellow. antiseptic and stomachic. N. Part used: Herb and root. Habitat: Marshes and watery places generally. Herb Bennet. with one margin-toothed terminal lobe. a wineglassful frequently. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Action: Astringent. Leaves lanceolate. stimulant. ANGELICA. The root leaves are on long stalks with two small leaflets at the base. expectorant. tonic. much branched below.swsbm. The herb has been recommended for dyspepsia.system. The sweetmeat known as candied angelica is made by preserving the dried leaf stalks with sugar.O. Geum urbanum. Habitat: Hedges. AVENS. hard and rough. The stem leaves have two leaflets. Part used: Root. Features: Stem up to five feet high . seed. with naked styles. but is probably only useful in this disorder when carefully combined with other more directly operating agents. woods and shady banks. serrate.
half-inch long. Very bitter taste. Chelone glabra. Turtle Head Habitat: Common in North America.swsbm. Roots long. smoothish. Sweet Balm.O. Melissa officinalis. Features : Short-stalked leaves. BALM. Part used: Herb. white or yellowish flowers. bunched on short spike. and children's worms. Scrophulariaceae. winged. tonic. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. and is. lanceolate. Synonym : Bitter Herb. broadly ovate. two-celled. N. creeping. Labiateae. Fruits ovate. Leaves stalked. Used in constipation. Sometimes added to alteratives. dyspepsia.Page 18 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. coarsely serrate. Turtle Bloom. N. used by country people in certain districts as a beverage in place of tea or coffee. Part used : Leaves. Features : Stem one to two feet high. Habitat: Borders of woods and in hedges. hairy. taken freely. Common in gardens. indeed. square. In influenza and feverish colds.The properties of Avens make for success in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. debility. In general debility continued use has had good results. The tonic effect upon the glands of the stomach and alimentary tract point to its helpfulness in dyspepsia. Snake Head.com . freely branched. tonic. BALMONY. Avens may be taken freely. Taste and odour of lemon. to induce perspiration. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint water in Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . opposite. diaphoretic. Aids digestion. Synonym : Lemon Balm.O. wrinkled. Action : Anthelmintic. oblong. Numerous small. particularly in south of England. dark-centred seeds. slender. in loose bunches from leaf axils. detergent. opposite. with roundish. Action : Carminative. The astringent qualities may also be utilized in cases of relaxed throat Although wineglass-ful doses three or four times daily of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion are usually prescribed.
swsbm. BAYBERRY. BARBERRY. antiseptic. three to eight feet high. Berries red. Stem bark thin. Berberidaceae. reddish-brown layer beneath. Action : Tonic. Synonym : Berberidis. yellowish-grey externally. Flowers bright yellow clusters. astringent and bitter. Berberis vulgaris. Habitat: Near the sea in pastures and on stony soils. It figures in many of the compound powders and is the base of the celebrated composition powder. Myricaceae. Part used : The bark is the only part of the Bayberry shrub now used as a medicine. Features : Shrub or bush. an infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered bark to 1 pint of water is taken warm. Leaves obovate. Gouan. Synonym : Candleberry. rootbark.com . Habitat : Woods and hedges. peeling epidermis covering a hard. short fracture. N.Page 19 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. especially when combined with Cayenne as in Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . separating in layers. Wax Myrtle. three or four times daily. Berbery. also gardens.wineglassful doses. Jaundice and other liver derangements. Root dark brown. The taste is pungent.O. chills and influenza. Regulates digestion. General debility. raceme. and the fracture is granular. a prescription of which will be found in the "Herbal Formulae" section of this volume. It is slightly fibrous on the inner surface. Features: The bark has a white. Part used : Bark. purgative. the odour faintly aromatic. This assists circulation and promotes perspiration. oblong. In cases of coldness of the extremities. Bayberry bark is one of the most widely used agents in the herbal practice. bristly serratures. Powdered herb.O. Action: A powerful stimulant. N. inner surface orange yellow. astringent and tonic to the alimentary tract. 5-10 grains. corrects constipation. pendulous. Very bitter taste. 1/4 teaspoonful of powdered bark. Myrica cerifera. Waxberry.
Habitat : Found growing in damp meadows in many parts of Britain.com . fistula. sores and wounds. perhaps. Even in these cases. and is also distributed throughout Northern Europe. and even cancer were said to yield to its influence. A dense. which is the chief therapeutic action of the root—indeed it is. however. As an antiseptic the powder is added to poultices for application to ulcers.the formula referred to above. their enthusiasm for this. the most powerful astringent in the botanic practice. It also makes an excellent snuff for nasal catarrh. Features : The oval leaves. and the taste is astringent. and is reddish-brown in colour. Part used : The root is the part in most demand. as for certain other remedies also extremely efficacious within proper limits. led them to ascribe properties to the bark which it does not possess. The decoction of 1 ounce of the crushed root to 1 pint (reduced) of water is used chiefly in hemorrhages and as a gargle and mouth-wash in cases of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . cylindrical spike of pale-hued flowers blossoms from the top of the stem between June and September. Indeed. Many affections of the uterine system. similar in appearance to those of the Dock. and spring from the roots. Snakeweed. Patient Dock. Polygonum bistorta.O. N. The leaf stalks and blades are six to eight inches long. grey and purplish underneath. reaching to a height of from one to two feet. Action : There is no odour. and an ingredient in tooth powders. Bayberry bark certainly did less harm than many of the methods employed by the more orthodox practitioners of that time ! BISTORT. Polygonaceae. The virtues of Bayberry bark were recognized and used beneficially by the herbalists of many generations ago. are blue-green above. the slender flower stems carrying fewer and smaller leaves.swsbm. for which a prescription is given in the section previously mentioned. Synonym : Adderwort. as well as Northern and Western Asia.Page 20 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.
Part used: Root bark (preferred). 2-5 grains thrice daily as a general tonic. Apocynum androsaemifolium. Large doses cause vomiting. Stagbush.sore throat or gums. Asclepiadaceae. Root bark cinnamon colour.Page 21 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.O. light brown. Features: Root is nearly three-quarters of an inch thick. Milkweed. ten to twenty feet high. leucorrhaea. dysmenorrhea. sweet and edible. emetic. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water—table-spoonful doses. Caprifoliaceae. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Synonym : Dogsbane. Habitat: Dry woods. Taste bitter. detergent. Young bark glossy purplish-brown. milky juice when wounded. bruises. Part used: Root. anti-spasmodic. tonic. Combined with Flag-root it has been known to give relief from intermittent fever and ague. woody centre . Fracture short. groups of stone cells in outer bark.O. useful in dyspepsia. nervine." BITTER ROOT. Synonym : American Sloe. transverselywrinkled bark. throughout Central and Southern States of North America. BLACK HAW. Fruit shiny black. diuretic. Prevention of miscarriage—given four or five weeks before. with scattered warts. N. Calamus or other carminative. Whole plant gives a gelatinous. Habitat: Indigenous to North America. The old-time herbalists enthused over the virtues of Bistort root in "burstings.com . astringent. easily parting from white. blows and jaundice. N. Old bark greyishbrown. Action : Uterine tonic. Has been recommended in the treatment of Bright's disease. Tendency to gripe can be eliminated by adding Peppermint.swsbm. Viburnum prunifolium. Action: Cathartic. also bark of stem and branches. falls. Features : A tree-like shrub. inner surface white. Uterine weaknesses. 5-15 grain doses in cardiac dropsy.
BLOOD ROOT. Sanguinaria canadensis. N.O. Papaveraceae.
Habitat: Widely distributed throughout North America. Features : Root reddish-brown, wrinkled lengthwise, about half-inch thick. Fracture short. Section whitish, with many small, red resin cells which sometimes suffuse the whole. Heavy odour, bitter and harsh to the taste. Part used : Root. Action: Stimulant, tonic, expectorant.
Pulmonary complaints and bronchitis. Should be administered in whooping-cough and croup until emesis occurs. The powdered root is used as a snuff in nasal catarrh, and externally in ringworm and other skin eruptions. The American Thomsonians use it in the treatment of adenoids. Dose, 10 to 20 grains of the powdered root. BLUE FLAG. Iris versicolor. N.O. Iridaceae.
Synonym : Flag Lily, Liver Lily, Snake Lily, Water Lily. Habitat: Marshy places in Central America. Features : Rhizome cylindrical, compressed towards larger end, where is cup-shaped stem scar. Breaks with sharp fracture, showing dark purple internally. Taste, acrid and pungent. Part used : Root. Action : Alterative, diuretic, cathartic.
Skin affections; stimulates liver and other glands. Dose of the powdered root, 20 grains as a cathartic. BLUE MALLOW. Malva sylvestyis. N.O. Malvaceae.
Synonym : Cheese Flower, Common Mallow, Mauls. Habitat : Around ledges and roadsides. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 22
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Features : Several erect, hairy stems, two to three feet high. Leaf and flower stalks also hairy. Roundish leaf has five to seven lobes, middle one longest. Numerous flowers (June-September), large reddish-purple, clustered four or five together on axillary stalk. Part used: Flowers, herb. Action: Demulcent, mucilaginous, pectoral.
1 ounce to 1 pint infusion makes a popular cough and cold remedy. BONESET. Eupatorium perfoliatum. N.O. Compositae.
Synonym : Indian Sage, Thoroughwort. Habitat : Damp places. Features: One or more erect stems, branched at top. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, four to six inches long, united at base, crenate edges, tiny, yellow resin dots beneath. Flowers August to October. Persistently bitter taste. Part used: Herb. Action : Diaphoretic, febrifuge, tonic, laxative, expectorant.
Influenza and feverish conditions generally, for which purpose it is very successfully used by the American negroes. Also used in catarrhs. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water may be given in wineglassful doses frequently, hot as a diaphoretic and febrifuge, cold as a tonic. F. H. England, of the College of Medicine and Surgery, Chicago (PhysioMedical) says : "It is a pure relaxant to the liver. It acts slowly and persistently. Its greatest power is manifested upon the stomach, liver, bowels and uterus." BROOM. Cytisus scoparius. N.O. Leguminosae.
Synonym : Irish Broom and Besom. Habitat: Dry, hilly wastes. Features: The stem is angular, five-sided, dark green, and branches at an acute angle. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 23
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Yellow pea-like flowers appear in May and June. The lower leaves are on short stalks and consist of three small obovate leaflets, the upper leaves being stalkless and frequently single. Part used : Tops. Action : Powerfully diuretic.
Broom tops are often used with Agrimony and Dandelion root for dropsy and liver disorders. For this purpose a decoction of 1 ounce each of Broom tops and Agrimony and 1/2 ounce Dandelion root to 3 pints of water simmered down to 1 quart is taken in wineglassful doses every four or five hours. Coffin recommends us to: "Take of broom-tops, juniper-berries and dandelion-roots, each half-an-ounce, water, a pint and a half, boil down to a pint, strain, and add half-a-teaspoonsful of cayenne pepper. Dose, halfa-wineglassful four times a day." BRYONY. Bryonia alba. N.O. Cucurbitaceae.
Synonym : Bryonia, English Mandrake, Mandragora, Wild Vine. Habitat : Hedges and thickets. Features : Stem rough, hairy, freely branched, climbs several feet by numerous curling tendrils. Leaves vine-like, five- or seven-lobed, coarse and rough. Flowers (May to September), white, green-veined, in axillar panicles. Berries scarlet when ripe. Branched root one to two feet long, white internally and externally. Not to be confused with American Mandrake (q.v.). Part used : Root. Action : Cathartic, hydragogue.
Cough, influenza, bronchitis. Cardiac disorders resulting from rheumatism and gout. Is also used in malarial and zymotic diseases. Dose of the fluid extract, 1/2 to 1 drachm. Large doses to be avoided. BUCHU. Barosma betulina. N.O. Rutaceae.
Habitat: South Africa, from where the leaves are imported. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 24
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Frequent wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion.swsbm. Habitat: Shady and damp places in the northern regions of U. etc. Of special use as a bitter tonic. named from its distinctive. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. Features: Stem smooth.Page 25 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. in axillary clusters. Lycopus virginicus. BUGLEWEED.. serrate-edged leaf and truncate apex. recurved apex. Small white flowers. Bitter taste" Part used : Herb. serrate above. Features : Stem and stalk soft and pithy. diaphoretic. marshy lands. Infusion of 1 ounce leaves to 1 pint water three or four times daily in wineglass doses. deobstruent.S. Action : Tonic. especially gravel and inflammation or catarrh of the bladder. in rheumatism and skin diseases. the apex of which leaf is not recurved. Menyanthes trifoliata. Thin. entire lower down.com . BUCKBEAN. Leaves opposite. up to eighteen inches high. N. Labiateae. Part used : Leaves.Features : Three varieties of Buchu leaves are used therapeutic-ally : (1) Barosma betulina or Round Buchu are rhomboid-obovate in form with blunt. Habitat: Low-lying. Gentianaceae. Synonym: Sweet Bugle. or (3) Barosma serratifolia or long Buchu. elliptic-lanceolate. entire edges. Very bitter taste.A. Marsh or Water Trefoil. Synonym : Bogbean. shortstalked. with suitable alteratives. and are preferred to either (2) Barosma crenulata or oval Buchu. square. brittle. Part used: Herb. dark green leaves with long stalks and three obovate leaflets. Coffin recommends for dyspepsia. about two inches long by one inch broad.O.O. Action : Diuretic. stimulant: Complaints of the urinary system. Water Bugle.
Boraginaceae. brownish-grey externally. irregularly tubular. Action : Demulcent. Echium vulgare. rapidly changing to deep blue. Roots and seeds have a sweetish. wherever we see nettles. and the bristly burs or bracts adhere lightly to the clothes and coats of animals. slimy taste. The purple flowers bloom luxuriously in July and August. Dose. heart-shaped leaves. bright red. Lappa. "Lycopus and Capsicum is the remedy for hemorrhage from the lungs. both narrow and tapering. N.O. Action: Possesses alterative. Part used : Herb. Synonym : Hill. Arctium lappa. the root and herb Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . seeds and the herb itself are used.Action: Sedative. Part used: Root. Compositae. Root leaves stalked. Viper's Bugloss.swsbm. funnel-shaped. Flowers. particularly in chalky districts. Synonym : Blueweed. diaphoretic. five-petalled. which grows to a height of five feet.O. clustered on short curved spikes growing from side of stem. The root is thick. stem leaves sessile. Habitat. expectorant. there also will be found Burdock. stamens reaching beyond mouth of flower. frequent wineglasses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. prickly and hairy. Features : Stout stems with wide spreading branches carrying alternately fleshy. Two to four tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion are given for the reduction of feverish colds and in inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract." BUGLOSS. whitish inside. Coughs. England says. diuretic and diaphoretic qualities. Thorny Burr. pulmonary hemorrhage. Habitat: Rubbish heaps and waste land.com . the leaves and stems being bitter.Page 26 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. is very commonly met along roadsides and in all waste places—indeed. Features : Many stems grow from root to a height of two feet. This large plant. N. astringent. BURDOCK.
O.being predominantly alterative. stalked. Ginger is usually added to this herb. Root tapering. gout and bleeding of the urinary and respiratory organs. brown-spotted stem. N. small. carbuncles and similar eruptions.O. smooth. Dropsy. noticeably boils. by waterways. Obstinate cases of eczema and even psoriasis have been known to yield to these decoctions of Burdock root. two to three feet high. Synonym: Water Agrimony. 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. in wineglass doses. three or four times daily. is taken four times daily in wineglass doses for many forms of skin trouble. given in the above quantity five times daily. Features: Erect. Leaves opposite. many-fibred. serrate. Tussilago petasites. Action: Astringent. either alone or combined with other remedies. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Hool recommends 2 ounces Burr Marigold to 1 of crushed Ginger in 3 pints of water simmered down to 1 quart.Page 27 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Flowers (July to September) in terminal heads. An excellent lotion may be made by infusing the leaves in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water. as well as uterine hemorrhage. and in wet places generally. diuretic. Compositae. also cultivated in gardens. N. four-cornered. BURR MARIGOLD. diaphoretic. Part used: Whole plant. angular. Numerous seeds.com . Compositae. usually in three or five segments. smooth. Synonym: Common Butterbur. Habitat: Low-lying meadows and damp waysides. while the seeds affect more specifically the kidneys. reflexed prickles. tawny.swsbm. The liquid from 1 ounce of the root boiled in 1^ pints of water simmered down to 1 pint. Habitat: Ditches. or oftener if necessary. BUTTER-BUR. Bidens tripartite.
downy underneath.com . very large. Was formerly valued in feverish colds and urinary complaints. furrowed longitudinally. For bowel flatulence. Pink flowers on short stalks bloom in early spring in thick spikes. Jateorhiza calumba. Dispensatory gives: 1/2 ounce each powdered Calumba and Ginger. Habitat: Cultivated chiefly in Ceylon.Features : Stem thick. Action : Stimulant. about half-inch long. As a bitter tonic without astringency. greyish-brown outside. 1 drachm Senna. appearing after the flowers. Synonym : Cocculus palmatus. febrifuge. N. in weakness of stomach function and indigestion generally. cordate. Features : Root bark thick. pithy. Colombo.O. Leaves. Malabar Cardamoms. Rhizome quarter-inch thick. Part used : Rhizome. Synonym : Mysore Cardamoms. CALUMBA. infused in 1 pint boiling water. Features: Fruits ovoid or oblong. diuretic. longitudinally furrowed.swsbm. Zingiberaceae. Very bitter and mucilaginous in taste. The infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered root to 1 pint of cold water is taken in two tablespoonful doses three or four times daily.Page 28 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Fruits yield approximately 75 per cent seeds. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . nearly one foot high. Action : Tonic. CARDAMOMS. transverse section yellowish. Now little used except locally. Fracture short and mealy. U. wineglassful three times daily.O. vascular bundles in radiating lines. Elettaria cardamomum. Menispermaceae. Dose. N. Part used : Root.S. purplishbrown. Habitat: Ceylon.
crimson dots. dense spikes. Inner surface longitudinally striated. cordate-ovate. N. firstly 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful at bedtime. and for digestive disorders generally. in short. Chittem Bark. Catnip. anti-spasmodic. tonic. N. hairy stem. Action : Carminative. younger sometimes griping. Habitat : Features : Bark in quills about three-quarter inch wide by one-sixteenth inch thick. grey. Flowers white. serrate. Characteristic mint-like scent. Rhamnus purshiana.Page 29 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. two-lipped. leaves. For diaphoretic Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Persistently bitter taste. Action : Tonic laxative. Part used : Bark.com . As a warm. of the fluid extract.swsbm. whitish down beneath. Synonym : Sacred Bark. afterwards 5-10 drops before each meal. and an infusion of 2 ounces to 1 pint of water taken in wineglassful doses. purplish-brown in colour. Older bark is preferred. Features : Square. Synonym: Catmint. grateful aromatic in flatulence. stomachic.O. In habitual constipation due to sluggishness and atony of the lower bowel. California and British Columbia. Part used: Herbs. CASCARA SAGRADA. furrowed-longitudinally.O.Part used : Seeds. The seeds should be crushed. and for production of perspiration in both children and adults. CATNEP. Doses for chronic constipation. Rhamnaceae. leather-like odour. Nepeta cataria. Especially used for flatulence and digestive pains in children. Labiateae. Fracture pale brown. transversely wrinkled. Leaves stalked. or dark brown when older. up to two feet high. Action: Carminative. Habitat: Hedgerows. diaphoretic.
Habitat: There are many varieties of the shrub. As a diaphoretic it may be used whenever it is desired to open the pores and bring about increased perspiration. colour and strength. which has a similar effect on the palate.com . Africa and South America. Solanaceae.O. Capsicum minimum. however. including the well-known composition powders. it is not a narcotic. 2-tablespoonful doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion thrice daily. with a cupful at bedtime. in addition. and fed to canaries in order to improve the appearance of the plumage. and in dyspepsia and flatulence the carminative effect is especially noticeable. Thomson's formula for which will be found in the appropriate section of this book. differs widely in size.swsbm. bowel As a pure stimulant. Features : The oblong-conical shaped pods are fiery to the taste. Known as "tasteless Cayenne. N. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Action: Cayenne is acknowledged as the finest stimulant in the herbal materia medica. Coffin is a champion of the virtues of Capsicum. The fruit itself. Capsicum is a constituent of many of the herbal compounds. the administration of Cayenne produces a natural warmth and uniform circulation. one of his reasons being that." this is quite free from pungency.) Part used: Dried. and is.Page 30 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Synonym: African Pepper. Guinea Pepper and Chillies. Bird Pepper. diaphoretic and rubifacient. and the numerous seeds contain a large amount of oil. The yellowish-red product of Sierra Leone is the most pungent. American physio-medical practice recommends blood-warm injections of the infusion for babies with intestinal flatulence. CAYENNE. ripe fruit. tonic. Used for medicinal and culinary purposes. which is indigenous to India. proportionate doses in children's complaints. the long. The dose of the powdered fruit is 5-20 grains.purposes in adults. unlike most of the stimulants of allopathy. bright red type from Japan being much milder. (Capsicum annum is cultivated in Hungary. carminative.
a few Aniseeds being boiled therewith. The root tapers. with five paler ribs. and the fresh juice makes a useful application for corns and warts. Main flower stalk very short. N. Papaveraceae. Habitat: Moist ground near the sea. This apparent confusion probably arose from some imagined superficial resemblance. ovate. smaller flower stalks springing therefrom. is not related either medicinally or botanically to Pilewort. as part of the treatment for jaundice. Flavour and smell like garden celery. openeth obstructions of the liver and gall. The taste is bitter and caustic. helpeth the yellow jaundice. The pinnate leaves are also slightly hairy. eczema.com . well-branched plant. Synonym : Smallage. Culpeper knew of the virtues of Celandine in jaundice. Synonym: Garden Celandine. one to two feet high.Page 31 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and refers to it thus : "The herb or roots boiled in white wine and drunk. Features: This straggling. Greater Celandine. and are six to twelve inches long by two to three inches wide.O. Chelidonium majus. the smell disagreeable. and scrofulous diseases. Seeds tiny. and exudes a saffron-yellow juice when fresh. and close to old walls." CELERY.O. Umbelliferae. whitish flowers. which belongs to the poppy family. and the yellowflowers appear in May and June singly at the end of three or four smaller stalks given off from the end of a main flower stalk. The infusion is also helpful when applied directly to abrasions and bruises. which latter is commonly known as the Small or Lesser Celandine. The hairy stem of our present subject reaches a height of two feet. Part used : Herb. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .CELANDINE. N. green above and greyish underneath.swsbm. diuretic and cathartic. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses three times daily. Habitat : Uncultivated places. Features : Stem smooth. Apium graveolens. Action : Alterative. brown.
Compositae. The taste is very bitter. In dyspepsia. Widely used as a uric acid solvent and in many forms of rheumatism in combination with suitable alteratives— see formula in this volume. The leaves are pinnately divided into short. Also jaundice. the flowers grow singly on leafless flower stalks. carminative. and cultivated in Belgium. tonic. entire at margins. Part used : Herb. CENTAURY. Habitat: Dry pastures. bitter tonic.com . aromatic smell has to that of the apple. meaning Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . lanceolate-ovate. R. Features: Stem up to one foot high. He considers that Centaury "acts particularly upon the heart as a general strengthener. Gentianaceae. Also as a tonic with Damiana.O. it is interesting to note that the name "Chamomile" is derived from the Greek.Part used : Seeds. Anthemis nobilis. Feverwort. Features : The creeping stem throws up short. N. Hool recommends equal parts of Centaury and Raspberry leaves in a similar infusion and dosage to above as a tonic for delicate and elderly people. Germany and France. Erythraea centaurium. Three or four wineglass doses daily of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. N. Roman Chamomile. Whole plant bitter to the taste. Yellow centred." Coffin stresses its value in jaundice. the familiar double flowers are produced under cultivation. CHAMOMILE. Action : Diuretic. hairy leaflets.Page 32 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. with a fringe of white petals. together with Bayberry bark.swsbm. Indigenous to Britain. and. leafy. Action : Stomachic. Leaves opposite. three to five longitudinal ribs. smooth. Habitat: Gravelly heaths. Flowers (July and August) pink. in view of the resemblance which the strong. The dose is 5-30 drops of the fluid extract. flowering branches. twisted anthers. Synonym : Century. Synonym : Double Chamomile. L.O.
CHICKWEED. Flowers white. N. singly on axils of upper leaves. boils. the flower-heads make a first-rate poultice and fomentation for bruises and deep-seated inflammation. Taste slightly salty. straggling.Page 33 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. CHICORY. projecting lobes . burns and skin eruptions. In the pulverized form they may be made up with Soap-wort into a shampoo. but the flowers are the more commonly used part. Compositae. anti-spasmodic and tonic. field borders. small. and for hysterical tendencies in women. One ounce of herb in 1 1/2 pints of water simmered down to 1 pint. earache and neuralgia.O. Action : Stomachic. margins coarsely notched. Caryophyllaceae. Star duckweed. upper. Stellaria media." Part used : Flowers and herb. upstanding. Synonym : Star-weed. Used externally as a poultice for inflamed surfaces. sessile above.O. ovate. line of white hairs along one side only. flat stalks lower. Synonym: Succory. N. as an aid to digestion. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . rigid. The famous "chamomile tea" is taken for nervous and bilious headache."ground apple. very small. Leaves small. emollient. freely branched. Externally. waste land. Habitat: Waysides. Lower leaves large. Action : Demulcent. Cichorium intybus. Features: Stem grows to three feet. changing direction at each pair of leaves. especially for fair hair. many branches at obtuse angles. and are also used as a lotion for toothache. Inflammation of the respiratory organs and internal membranes generally. roadsides. pectoral. Part used : Herb. Dose. Features : Stem weak.com . Habitat: Waste places. wineglassful every two or three hours. tough. petals deeply cleft. The dose is up to 4 tablespoonfuls of the infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water.swsbm.
cylindrical below. as the strawberry. to the benefit of drinkers of that beverage. N. three to seven longitudinal ribs. Griseb. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. two valved. two or three together between leaves and stem. on long stalks from stem as the leaves. entire.O.swsbm. Part used: Root. two to four tablespoonfuls of 1/2 ounce to 1 pint infusion. sometimes forms part of prescriptions for liver complaints.Page 34 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rosaceae. becoming quadrangular higher up. Synonym : Brown Chirata. pithy. nearly quarter-inch thick. Flowers (June-September) bright yellow. scattered hairs. Action: Hepatic. N. CHIRETTA. diuretic. delicate greyish-blue. gout and rheumatism. Chirayta. Dose. Part used : Whole plant. CINQUEFOIL. Swertia chirata. Leaves opposite.com . dyspepsia and constipation. rooting at joints. when roasted and ground. woody column. reticulated white layers surround radiate. stalkless. five petals. Gentianaceae. Fivefinger. laxative. serrate. less divided. Features : Stem purplish-brown. Flowers. With suitable hepatics and laxatives. Habitat: Northern India. Potentilla reptans. In all cases where a tonic is indicated. Root brownish . Extremely bitter taste. Leaf stalks one to two inches long with five obovate leaflets. Features: Stem long and creeping. solitary. pastures. veins prominent below.sessile. Habitat: Meadows. Jaundice and other liver disorders. Fruit (capsule) one-celled. waysides. Action : Bitter tonic. This root. Synonym: Five-leaf-grass. is mixed with coffee. many strap-like petals.
N. tonic. as an astringent skin lotion. Action: Stimulant. Obstructions of urinary organs. the former causing a more copious watery flow. Goosebill. lanceolate. bristly hairs at margins. creeping up the hedges by little prickly hooks.com . Externally. Action : Diuretic. in rings of six to nine round stem. Hayriffe. Habitat: Indigenous to the Molucca Island. always in pairs. rough. Leaves small.Page 35 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rubiaceae. also covered with hooked bristles. very small. Features: Quadrangular stem. Penang. Clivers is similar in action to Gravelroot. Action: Astringent. Features: Flower buds brown . Habitat: Among hedges and bushes. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Part used: Flower buds. alterative. Synonym: Cleavers. The two herbs are frequently used together. few together on stalk rising from leaf ring. the latter a larger proportion of solid matter. Fruit nearly globular. Catchweed. Hot or cold infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint in wineglass doses frequently. Goosegrass. Galium aparine. Also as a gargle for relaxed throat.O. with backward. Eugenia caryophyllata. N.Part used : Herb. Myrtaceae. Part used : Herb. cultivated in Zanzibar. aromatic. Synonym : Clavos. nail-shaped. one-eighth inch diameter. carminative. CLOVES. Flowers white.swsbm. calyx tube encloses ovary containing tiny ovules. Madagascar. CLIVERS. Saline taste. petals arranged like Maltese Cross . four calyx teeth surrounded by unopened corolla consisting of four petals. Many side branches. Java. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water in wineglass doses for diarrhoea.O. weak but very lengthy.
Combined with more specific remedies in flatulence and other affections of the alimentary tract. Is an excellent carminative to reduce griping action of purgatives. Dose, 1 to 2 tablespoonfuls of the infusion. Coffin holds that Cloves are the most powerful of all the carminatives. COHOSH, BLACK. Cimicifuga racemosa. N.O. Ranunculaceae.
Synonym : Known also as Black Snakeroot. Habitat : The dried rhizome and roots are imported from the U.S.A., to which country and Canada the plant is indigenous. Features : Thick, hard and knotty, the root is bitter and acrid in taste, and gives off a rather nauseating smell. Part used : Rhizome and roots. Action: Astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue and alterative.
The decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water, is administered in wineglassful doses. Its chief importance lies in the treatment of rheumatism, and the root figures frequently in herbal prescriptions for this complaint. In small doses it is useful in children's diarrhoea, and is reputed to be a remedy for St. Vitus' Dance (chorea), although its efficacy here is dubious. Cimicifuga should be taken with care, as overdoses produce nausea and vomiting. COLTSFOOT. Tussilago farfara. N.O. Compositae.
Synonym : Also recognised as Coughwort and Horsehoof, the name Coltsfoot is from the shape of the leaf, which is supposed to resemble a colt's foot. Habitat : It prefers moist, clayey soil, and is usually found growing near streams and ditches. Features : Springing erect from the stem is entirely covered with small angular, long-stalked, toothed leaves white hairs underneath. Large, daisy Herbal Manual ground to a height of about eight inches, the brown scales and a loose cottony down. The are about four inches, green above with long type, bright yellow flowers appear, one to each by Harold Ward - Page 36
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stalk, from February to April, long before the leaf growth. and rather astringent, the odour scarcely noticeable. Part used : Leaves. Action: Expectorant and demulcent.
The taste is mucilaginous
Coltsfoot leaves are used in a decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints of water, simmered down to 1 pint, which is taken in teacupful doses. Its expectorant and demulcent action is of great help in cough remedies when in conjunction with pectorals such as Horehound. The leaves also form a useful constituent of asthma and whooping-cough medicines, and are smoked as a relief against asthma, bronchitis and catarrh. These same uses were known centuries ago, as witness Culpeper : "The dry leaves are best for those that have thin rheums, and distillations upon the lungs, causing a cough, for which also the dried leaves taken as tobacco, or the root, is very good." COMFREY. Symphytum officinale. N.O. Boraginaceae.
Synonym : Knitbone, Nipbone. Habitat : Damp fields and waste places ; ditch and river sides. Features : The hairy stem is two to three feet high, freely branched, rough and angular. Egg-shaped to lance-shaped leaves, with wavy edges, hug the stem above, the lower ones having long stalks ; they are all large and hairy. The plant produces yellowish, bluish, or purplish-white flowers in May and June, all on the same side of the stem. The root is brownish-black, deeply wrinkled, greyish and horny internally. The taste is mucilaginous and sweetish, and the dried herb has an odour resembling that of tea. Part used : Root and leaves. Action: The roots, and to some extent the leaves, are demulcent and astringent.
The action of Comfrey is similar to that of Marsh Mallow, and consequently it is a popular cough remedy. It is also used as a fomentation in strained and inflammatory conditions of the muscles, and will promote suppuration of boils and other skin eruptions. A decoction is made by boiling 1/2 to 1 ounce of the crushed root in 1 quart of water,
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reducing to 1 1/2 pints, and is taken in wineglass doses. Coffin tells us the root of the plant is also "a good tonic medicine, and acts friendly on the stomach; very useful in cases where, from maltreatment, the mouth, the throat and stomach have become sore." COWSLIP. Primula veris. N.O. Primulaceae.
Synonym : Herb Peter, Paigles, Palsywort. Habitat: Moist pastures and open places. Features: Round, downy stem rising well above the leaves, which lie, rosette-like, on the ground. Leaves grow from the root, stalkless, undivided, velvety appearance similar to primrose leaves, but shorter and rounder. Yellow, tubular flowers bunch together on one stalk, each flower emerging from the same point, outer blossoms drooping. Part used: Corolla. Action: Antispasmodic, sedative.
In the reduction of involuntary spasmodic movements, restlessness and similar symptoms. Used also in insomnia. The usual herbal infusion is taken in tablespoonfuls as required. Both cowslip and primrose were at one time prescribed for rheumatism, gout and paralysis, but their value in these diseases has long since been disproved. CRAMP BARK. Viburnum opulus. N.O. Caprifoliaceae.
Synonym: Guelder Rose, High Cranberry, Snowball Tree. Habitat: Cultivated in shrubberies, etc., for decorative purposes. Features : Very thin bark, greyish-brown outside with corky growths (lenticels), slight longitudinal crackings, laminate, light brown internally. Fracture forms flat splinters. Part used : Bark. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward - Page 38
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com . sandy places. about an inch long by one-fifth of an inch wide. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Decoction of equal quantities of Cranesbill and Bistort makes a good twice-daily injection against leucorrhea. Compositae. sharp-pointed. An infusion of 1 ounce Cranesbill herb to 1 pint of water may be given frequently in wineglass doses. or American Cranesbill. Features: Stem usually under five inches. Synonym: Meadow Cranesbill. yellowish-brown scales. N. in cramp and other involuntary spasmodic muscular contractions. Geranium pratense. Habitat: Moist pasture land. Geranium maculatum. pendulous—and might be said by the imaginative to resemble a "crane's bill. The root of the former is used to some extent medicinally.Page 39 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. with cottony down. oppressed hairs underneath. Proportionate doses give good results in infantile diarrhoea. Flowerheads small. Habitat: Wet. N.O. nervine. coarsely notched at edges.O. CRANESBILL. Gnaphalium uliginosum. swollen at the joints. much branched. Leaves smooth above. CUDWEED. diuretic. Seed-pod is distinctive— long. Action: Astringent. Geraniaceae. Marsh Cudweed.swsbm. Dark green leaves. freely branched. and exerts tonic and astringent effect on the kidneys. Features: Stem up to three feet high. As the name indicates. Synonym: Cotton Weed. in corymb form. particularly in East England. Arrests internal and external bleeding." Part used: Herb. almost circular in form. with five to seven much-divided leaflets. possesses similar properties to the above. The decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water (simmered from 1 1/2 pints) is administered in 1-2 tablespoon doses. tonic.Action : Antispasmodic.
N.O. Action: Diuretic. The root is a constituent of many prescriptions for dropsical and urinary complaints. the properties of the herb are better utilised in combination with other agents. Contrary to widely-held belief. which are broader towards the top than at the base. Part used: Roots and leaves. Each of the petals. tonic. Turnera aphrodisiaca. Action: Astringent. Turneraceae. Used for its aphrodisiac qualities and general tonic effect on the nervous system. hairy. rather fig-like taste.Page 40 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. While a Dandelion decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) may be taken alone and drunk freely with benefit. wedge-shaped. DAMIANA. Of great value as a gargle for inflammation of the salivary glands of the mouth and throat generally.O. Compositae. Taraxacum officinale. of which only the central portion of the yellow. The long thin leaves. Features: The stem is slender. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Aromatic. shortly stalked. Action: Aphrodisiac. and refers to the coarse teeth edging the leaf. and bitter to the taste.Part used: Herb.swsbm. Features: Leaves alternate. DANDELION. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. are strap-like in form. The name of this almost ubiquitous plant is a corruption of the French "dents de lion" (lion's teeth). daisy-like flower is wholly composed. are tooth-edged in a slightly backward direction. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken in wineglass doses thrice daily. The roots are long. although not unpleasantly so. tonic. and slightly aperient. and in atonic dyspepsia and rheumatism. dark brown. N. revolute. in addition to being used for gargling should be taken internally in wineglassful doses.com . Habitat: Central America. and contains the familiar milk-like juice. hollow. serrate. Part used: Leaves.
Fruits very small. Action: Demulcent. Flowers dark purple. nearly sessile . but using only about half the quantity.O. Compositae. to which beverage it bears a remarkable resemblance. channeled. oval-lanceolate. Part used: Herb. which appears to have been bitten off at the end. well-branched.O. smooth. hairy. but recalls caraway. covered with exuded glaucous matter. Eneldo. without any of the disadvantages which attend coffee drinking. N. diaphoretic.Page 41 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. twice pinnate. The most popular use for Dandelion root. Habitat: Heaths and pastures. Synonym : Ofbit. Flowers in June. ovoid. Scabiosa succisa. A 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken warm in wineglassful doses frequently.swsbm. Prepared like coffee. it acts as a mild laxative in habitual constipation. Juice of either flower stalk or leaf. with which vandalism "the devil" is credited. after roasting and grinding. also seen growing wild in gardens. slightly serrate. on long stalk. The fresh leaf is best taken in salads. freshly gathered. Taste is distinctive. terminal umbels. florets bunched together. DILL. compressed oval. Features : Stem up to eighteen inches. Features: Stem erect. Habitat: Waste places . marked on back in three ridges.Dandelion root would seem to have little or no action on the liver. Leaves alternate. with three dark lines (oil cells) between. Leaves opposite. smooth at margins. The common name is derived from the root. DEVIL'S BIT. Peucedanum graveolens. Dill Seed.com . root leaves stalked. is of help in removing warts. and drunk regularly. Synonym: Dill Fruit. N. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . is as a substitute for coffee. slender. Included in formulae for coughs and feverish conditions generally. Compositae.
diuretic. N. The leaves are opposite.The Indian Dill differs from our European variety in the essential oil contained in the seeds. The well-known and widely used Dillwater is a sound remedy for children's digestive disorders. stomachic. chiefly for the reduction of feverish colds. Action: Diaphoretic. Creamy-white. has young branches containing light. Caprifoliaceae. Sambucus nigra. alterative. Habitat: Woods and hedges throughout Europe. to be followed by the decorative. often in conjunction with Peppermint and Yarrow.O. and ends when the berries are ripe! Part used: Flowers. emollient. twelve to twenty feet high. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Part used : Dried ripe fruits.O. Although the medicinal qualities are weaker in the berries than in the flowers. It is used. juicy berries.com . Country folk aptly limit our English summer when they say that it does not arrive until the Elder is in full blossom. ELDER. These properties of the flowers are obtained from infusions of 1 ounce to 1 pint of water in wineglass doses. the popular Elder berry wine is widely used as part of the treatment for colds and influenza. Action : Carminative. diaphoretic. Synonym: Black Elder. N. ELECAMPANE. drooping bunches of purplish-black. Features : This familiar small tree. flat-topped masses of flowers bloom in July. The oil is also given in 1 to 5 drop doses. European Elder.Page 42 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. An ointment made from the leaves has been of help to sufferers from chilblains. Inula helenium. Dose. deep green and smooth. spongy pith.swsbm. 1 to 8 drachms. particularly wind in stomach or bowels. but inflamed conditions of the eyes are also found to yield to bathing with the warm Elder flower infusion. Compositae. with a bark that is light grey and corky externally.
and the odour reminiscent of camphor. Blooming from July to September. the root "warms a cold and windy stomach or the pricking therein. spots and blemishes. smooth stem. as also of putrid and pestilential fevers. expectorant and diuretic. but those from the stem are sessile. Scabwort. we realize in what esteem Elecampane was held in the seventeenth century! But here again germs of truth are hidden among manifold exaggerations. Habitat: Moist meadows and pasture land. Wineglass doses are taken of a 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) decoction. which grows to nearly one foot. growing up to three feet. and the plague itself. ." When we are also told by the same author that it kills and expels worms. serrate leaves embrace the stem. pale blue flowers form a dense. . The whole plant is similar in appearance to the horseradish. Habitat: The plant is seen only on the sand dunes of the sea shore. wavy. Root leaves have stalks. Action: Diaphoretic. and the flowers. Synonym: Commonly known as Sea Holly and Sea Eryngo.swsbm. horny and cylindrical. slight alterative and tonic qualities are noticed. N. . Skillfully compounded. and stitches in the side caused by the spleen. fastens loose teeth. shortness of the breath. . Features: The stem. furrowed. broad lobes. hard. The calyx is also egg-shaped and leafy. round head at the end of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . These modest present-day claims for Elecampane are far exceeded by Culpeper's exuberance. and wheezing of the lungs. arrests dental decay. cleanses the skin from morphew. Eryngium maritimum. and downy above. helps the cough. Profitable for those that have their urine stopped. brilliantly yellow in colour. blooming in July and August. In his view. the bright. ERYNGO. roundish leaves are roughly divided into three short. egg-shaped.Page 43 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Umbelliferae. Part used: Root. its taste is bitter and acrid. and can be of service in pulmonary disorders generally.O. . The root is light grey. are large. Resisteth poison. Stiff. and stayeth the venom of serpents. In combination with other remedies it is made up into cough medicines.Synonym: Aunee. is branched. solitary and terminal. with beautiful veins and sharp teeth at the margins. .com . Features: A pale greenish-blue bloom is characteristic of the erect.
and take a wineglassful four times a day. Scrophulariaceae. long. and alternate higher up the stem. strain. and also forms part of the treatment for uterine irritation. Euphrasia." He adds: "Most obstinate cases have been known to yield to this remedy in from 7-to 14 days. thin arid cylindrical. diuretic and expectorant. Habitat: Plentiful on commons. while some are delicately variegated with yellow. officinalis. It is mostly prescribed for bladder disorders. and range in hue between white and purple. and under suitable soil conditions. advises it in "sluggishness of the liver with uric acid accumulations. as well as on sea cliffs. lanceolate or nearly rhomboid above. deeply cut. salty and slightly astringent. Action : Astringent and tonic. The blackish-brown roots. such as difficult and painful micturation. Part used: The root is the only part of the plant recognised in herbalism. Action: Eryngo root is a diaphoretic." prepared as follows: "Sea Holly 1 ounce Wild Carrot 1 ounce. The lower leaves are opposite each other. N." EYEBRIGHT. small. The flowers are small. and in meadows. of the British and American Physio-Medical Association. proceeding directly from the stem. Richard Lawrence Hool. and take two wineglassfuls every three hours.com . branched below. but varies considerably in growth and development with the richness of the soil. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Features: The stems are four to six inches long. mucilaginous taste. In cases of jaundice take : "Sea Holly 1 ounce Barberry bark 1/2 ounce "Boil in 1 quart of new milk for 10 minutes. Strain. "Boil in 1 1/2 pints of water down to 1 pint. heaths. dark green.branches.O. axillary. Brighteye. and have a sweetish.Page 44 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. are topped with the bristly remnants of the leaf stalks.swsbm. Synonym : Birdeye. The taste is bitter.
Synonym: Hinojo. Foeniculum dulce. and is frequently combined with Golden Seal to make an excellent lotion for this purpose. Habitat: Waste places. Euphrasia is also employed externally to arrest hemorrhages. yellow disc. terminal umbels. slightly curved. A large pinch of the herb should be infused with sufficient boiling water for each application. three to four feet. each on stalk.O. bipinnatifid. about four and a half by two and a half inches. Umbelliferae. as its name indicates. striated.This herb. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The eyebath should be freshly filled for each eye. in broad. care being taken to strain thoroughly before using the tepid lotion. Part used: Herb.com . Leaves alternate. awl-shaped leaflets. Flowers (July and August) golden yellow.swsbm. leaf stalk flat above. Features: Stem one and a half feet high. Habitat: Chalk cliffs and downs. half-inch long by one-tenth inch broad. N. branches towards top. hedges. cylindrical. sweetish and aromatic. Features: Stem erect. finely furrowed. very unpleasant. Featherfoil. These seeds appear in the formula for the well-known Compound Liquorice Powder. Part used: Seeds.Page 45 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Action: Carminative. In prescriptions where the above-mentioned properties are needed in mild form. stimulant. white petals. May be taken in the usual infusion. stomachic. FEVERFEW. smooth. Numerous flowers (June and July). Taste.O. erect. diaphoretic. hairy. Compositae. Chrysanthemum parthenium. is valued mainly as an application in inflammation and weakness of the eyes. freely branched. N. Taste and smell. very short hairs. Synonym: Featherfew. FENNEL. convex below. Pyrethrum parthenium. Fruit oblong. serrate edges. Leaves thrice pinnate.
Habitat: Roadsides. Part used: Herb.swsbm.S. Features: Stem weak. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. Snowdrop Tree. For stomach and liver disorders and minor skin blemishes. Fracture short. Infusion of 1 Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Part used: Root bark. carminative. Leaves alternate. Flowers (May to November) reddish-rose. Fumariaceae. Action: Alterative. Fumaria officinalis. several on stalk. Root about one-eighth inch thick. hepatic. brittle.Action: Aperient. tonic.O. fields. six to twelve inches long. diuretic. diuretic. inner layer shows projecting bundles of stone cells. Features: A small tree with snow-white flowers which hang down like fringe—hence the common name and synonyms. Assists in promotion of the menses and in the expulsion of worms.O. twice pinnate. N.Page 46 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. FRINGE-TREE. Also given in hysterical conditions. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken internally in 1-4 tablespoonful doses. Synonym: Earth Smoke. sometimes trailing. and poor digestive functioning generally. yellowish-brown. Very bitter taste. Chionanthus virginica. bluish-green. Oleaceae. aperient. inside smooth. in which latter Pulsatilla is another frequent constituent. sometimes erect. Action: Slightly tonic.A.com . and is applied as lotion and injection. Also finds a place in gall-stone prescriptions and those for certain female disorders. Habitat: U. gardens. In stomach and liver disorders. wineglassful doses. dull brown with irregular concave scars on outer surface. N. Synonym: Old Man's Beard. FUMITORY.
the lower being longitudinally wrinkled. entire margins. although here also the root contains the more active principles. Spain. that Gentian root. WILD. It is flexible and tough. As a simple bitter it may be given in all cases when a tonic is needed. The taste is extremely bitter. is the most popular of all herbal tonics and stomachics—and deservedly so. thus increasing the flow of gastric juice. or general debility of the digestive organs. of whichever kind. N. however. internally spongy and nearly white when fresh. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Flowers are bluish-purple.O. Part used: Large quantities of Gentiana lutea root are imported into this country as it is preferred to the English variety (Gentiana campestris—see below) for no very apparent therapeutic reason. Habitat: Woods and shady places in North America. rootlets whitish. One of the effects of the medicine is to stimulate the nerve-endings of taste. It is certain. an orange-brown tint and strong distinctive odour developing during drying. Gentiana lutea. Habitat: Grows abundantly throughout France. N. and large areas of Central Europe. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water. Pungent. fracture short.Page 47 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Asarum canadense. slender. GINGER. ovatelanceolate above and ovate-spatulate below. about four inches long by one-eighth inch thick. bitter taste. given in wineglass doses. GENTIAN. and ringed in the upper portion. Features: Imported rhizome. Leaves opposite. quadrangular.ounce to 1 pint may be taken freely. will be found very helpful in dyspepsia and loss of tone.com .O. Gentianaceae. wrinkled . half to one inch thick. Synonym: Canadian Snake Root. Features: Gentiana lutea root is cylindrical in form.swsbm. Part used: Rhizome. The English Gentian (also known locally as Baldmoney and Felwort) grows to six inches high and is branched above. The whole herb may be used for the same purposes as the foreign root. Aristolochiaceae. greyish to purplish brown.
Part used: Golden Seal was so named by the followers of Thomson. since when it has figured prominently in herbal practice. and have from three to seven acute lobes. Both are unequally toothed. the upper one sessile. expectorant. and blood warm as a carminative. 20 to 30 grains. Action: Tonic. and covered with many rootlets. who first used the root about 1845.Action: Stimulant. Golden Seal has proved itself to be a very valuable remedy in digestive disorders and in debilitated conditions of mucous membranes. The leaves are alternate. the lower one stalked.swsbm. Yellow Root. Hydrastis canadensis.Page 48 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Its use is indicated in various gastric complaints. alterative. and prescribe it as a parturient when nervous fatigue is observed. according to Coffin. carminative. and laxative. knotty with the bases of stems. Dose of the dry powder. GOLDEN SEAL. Ranunculaceae. and it may be taken with advantage by most dyspeptics in doses of 10 grains of the powdered root. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and the scent strong and unpleasant. An infusion of 1/2 ounce of the powdered rhizome to 1 pint boiling water is taken hot for stimulative purposes. White and red single terminal flowers bloom in April. and as a stimulant in colds and amenorrhea resulting therefrom. Synonym : Orange Root.O. moist and shady soils. Habitat: This valuable plant appears. N. diaphoretic. to have been first discovered and used by the aborigines of North America. As a carminative in digestive and intestinal pains. Features: Golden Seal is found growing to a height of one to two feet in rich.com . Hydrastis is also given in conjunction with Lime flowers and Valerian to reduce blood pressure. The root is short. It is indigenous to that part of the world. Practitioners of the American Physio-Medical School hold that this root exerts a direct influence upon the uterus. The taste is very bitter.
com . Gum. has said that Gravel Root "induces very little stimulation. approximately three inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. Gravel root is much prescribed for cases of stone in the bladder and certain other troubles of the kidneys and urinary apparatus. up to an inch thick. England. robusta.D. It expends nearly all its influence on the kidneys. and taken in wineglass doses. tough root several inches long. Compositae. and must not be confused with the English Queen of the Meadow or Meadowsweet (Spiraea ulmaria). Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Synonym : G. bladder and uterus. brittle. Action: Diuretic and stimulant. A decoction of 1 ounce of the root to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) of water is made. G. smooth. N. Compositae. serrate. Plant. The American physio-medical or "Thomsonite" M. Gravel root is also met with in nervine formulae. from which the medicinal "Gravel Root" is obtained." GRINDELIA. N. It is peculiar for a purple band about an inch broad round the leaf joint.GRAVEL ROOT.O. lateral branches give off thin. florets yellow. is hard and tough. and imported from California. Pale purple to white flowers bloom in August and September. squarrosa. with a nearly white wood and thin grey-brown bark. Part used : Root. Features: Leaves broad. Short. Synonym: Eupatorium purpureum is also called Gravel Weed and Queen of the Meadow. Hardy or Scaly Grindelia. scales of involucre reflexed. H. Habitat: Indigenous to western regions of North America. as the medicinal "root" should more properly be termed. Bitterish taste. It probably influences the whole sympathetic nervous system.O. Its use promotes the flow of urine as scarcely anything else will.Page 49 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Eupatorium purpureum. The rhizome. in which its tonic properties are recognised. F.. Grindelia camporum. Habitat: Gravel Root is a native of the United States.swsbm. Flower heads globular. Features: Our present subject is a member of the Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) family. and sometimes reaches six feet in height at full growth. narrowing at base.
unbranched stem is six inches or so long. the upper leaves purplish in colour and paler underneath. Figures prominently in the American herbal materia medica. this property is now rarely considered. near old walls and under hedges. tonic. angular. toothed lobes. branched stem as high as nine inches. In conjunction with Yarrow or Chamomile flowers an excellent poultice may be made for application to abscesses and gatherings. diuretic. Action: Astringent. Features: This ivy. Gill-go-over-the-Ground. The infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses. short. The quadrangular. The paroxysms are quickly reduced both in sharpness and frequency. and often combined with Euphorbia and Yerba Santa for the former complaint. N. It is applicable to kidney disorders and dyspepsia. Glechoma hederacea. Leaves sessile. Habitat: Woods and shady places. oblong . Compositae.Part used: Herb.O. yellow. Synonym: Alehoof.O. GROUND IVY. Common name originates from the Anglo-Saxon. diuretic. creeps along the ground. black-tipped Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Widely prescribed for asthma and bronchitis. Haymaids." a reference to the speed at which the plant spreads. Action: Anti-asthmatic.Page 50 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Part used: The whole herb. Senecio vulgaris. Flowers small.swsbm. Features : Erect. They are deeply crenate. Two kidneyshaped leaves appear opposite each other at every joint. the odour strong and aromatic. but with advances in food distribution. It was formerly valued as an antiscorbutic. and the two-lipped. GROUNDSEL. purplish flowers bloom three or four together in the axils of the upper leaves. tonic. The taste is bitter and acrid. Habitat: A garden weed. Runaway Jack. N. Labiateae. with slender. meaning "ground glutton.com . as its common name and second synonym convey. The roots issue at the corners of the jointed stalks.
The claim may have originated with Culpeper. florets tubular. It has been said that the medicine will ward off asthmatic and epileptic convulsions. Violaceae. do lie flat on the ground . Part used: Herb. Three carpel fruit. Carbenia benedicta. Flowers in June.com . who writes.involucral scales. and a gallant remedy for the inflammations of the lungs and breast. pleurisy. the leaves are jagged round about and full of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. Viola tricolor. HEARTSEASE. square. hepatic. crenate. Habitat: Cultivated fields. Action : Diaphoretic. smooth. N. as also for falling sickness. but there would appear to be no reliable confirmation of this. Action: Diuretic. rough and pliable. gives us the following description of this member of the familiar thistle family : "The stalks of Carduus benedictus are round. Features : Stem short. Synonym : Wild Pansy. Relief of biliary pains in 2 ounce doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. N. for which the ounce to pint infusion is given in doses according to age. Part used : Herb. and being parted into diverse branches." HOLY THISTLE.O. violet-like flower to each flower stalk. Compositae. A stronger infusion acts as a purgative and emetic. single. Synonym: Carduus benedictus.Page 51 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. petals of differing sizes. scabs. Salty taste. diuretic. itch. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Features: Thomas Johnson. concerning Heartsease : "The spirit of it is excellently good for the convulsions in children. usually wholly yellow but occasionally purple upper petals with dark stripes on lower. etc.swsbm. published in 1636. in his edition of Gerard's Herbal. branched. Blessed Thistle. The mildness of action makes it applicable in infantile skin eruptions.
Humulus lupulus. will twist round any adjacent support. or what is commonly called the meagrims." HOPS. nearly half-inch long. and general atony. Flowers or catkins (more correctly called strobiles) consist of membranous scales.com . As it is held to stimulate the mammary glands. the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. Holy Thistle is still valued for its tonic. agrees with Tilke that the herb is "very good for the headache and the megram. in his Herbal published 1568. it would be a perfect cure for the headache. Urticaceae. Leaves in pairs. leaves and stalks. Domestic Physician to the Lord Protector Somerset in the reign of King Edward VI. the infusion has been given with the object of promoting the secretion of milk. the whole herb. yellowish-green. stimulant and diaphoretic properties. N. These are the fertile flowers which are used medicinally and industrially. and is found growing wild in hedges and open woods. sweeted with honey. the heads on the top of the stalks are set with and environed with sharp prickling leaves. roundish. very long. nervous dyspepsia. Although usually given in combination with other herbs. rough. Features: Stem rough. William Turner. curving over each other. Tilke is enthusiastic in his praise of the herb: "I have found it such a clarifier of the blood. diuretic.O. the root is white and parted into strings. or even Johnson. that by drinking an infusion once or twice a day. the ounce Herbal Manual by Harold Ward ." Action: Although more popular among the old herbalists than among those of to-day. is also found capable of breaking up obstinate colds. As a tonic in prescriptions for debility. stalked. out of which standeth a yellow flower. Habitat: Extensively farmed for the brewing industry. the seed is long and set with hairs at the top like a beard. and also the heads." The same writer recommends it as a salad "instead of watercresses. Mainly used in digestive troubles.swsbm.harmless prickles in the edges.Page 52 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Action: Tonic. instead of tea. three.or five-lobed. cordate." The medicinal use of Holy Thistle goes back far beyond the days of Tilke. serrate. reticulate-veined. are covered with a thin down. given warm in wineglass doses several times daily.
Marrubium vulgare.to pint infusion of hops taken thrice daily makes quite a good tonic medicine for those feeling "run-down. up to four feet high. those above sessile. HOREHOUND.O.O.Page 53 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The leaves. The refreshing and healthy Horehound Beer or Ale is brewed from this herb. as Culpeper tells us that "it helpeth to expectorate tough phlegm from the chest. waste ground. Ballota nigra. N. Labiateae. Features: Stem stiff. when properly prepared. Habitat: Hedgerows. Synonym: Hoarhound. white flowers appear during July in thick rings just above the upper leaves. freely branched. is one of the best of "cough sweets. The whole herb is infused in 1 ounce quantities to 1 pint of water. N. The bluntly four-cornered stem sends out spreading branches covered with white. Labiateae. and a Horehound candy is made which.com ." Coffin speaks highly of the tonic and expectorant qualities of Horehound. Synonym: Crantz. Marrubium nigrum." HOREHOUND. erect. and its latter virtue has certainly been known for nearly three hundred years. Action: Aromatic and bitter. BLACK." Lying on a pillow stuffed with hops is an old-fashioned way of dealing with insomnia. and is undoubtedly effective in coughs. Habitat: Horehound flourishes in dry. Leaves greyishHerbal Manual by Harold Ward . woolly hair. Horehound is probably the best known of all herbal pectoral remedies. colds and pulmonary complaints. also spread with the soft hair. having expectorant and slight diuretic action. Part used: The whole plant. The small. and taken frequently in wineglass doses. the lower ones stalked. are egg-shaped and deeply toothed. Features: It grows to a height of one and a half to two feet. and particularly chalky waste ground.swsbm.
Features : Root whitish." he tells us. Useful in dropsies.Page 54 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Hool prefers this herb to the white Horehound (Marrubium vulgare). mustard-like. diaphoretic. accompanied by spitting of blood. Disagreeable odour. Its stimulant and diuretic properties are said to be of value in the treatment of dropsy.com . Coffin recommends : "Fresh Horseradish root. Action: Stimulant. diaphoretic.swsbm. "In chronic coughs. especially those occurring after scarlet fevers and Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . 1/2 oz. Flowers (July and August) purplish. each pair pointing in opposite direction to next pair. various menstrual troubles. bruised Boiling water 1 oz. Part used: Root.green. cylindrical. Part used : Herb. about one foot long by three-quarters of an inch through. antispasmodic. Diuretic and stimulant. labiate. Hyssop. irritant. Coughs. then strain. Habitat: Indigenous to England and Eastern Europe. but it is rarely prescribed by modern herbalists. etc. Action : Stimulant. "it will be found most excellent. Taste and odour pungent. expectorant. emetic.O. crenate. upper ovate. stalked. Cruciferae. in rings just above leaves. Cochlearia armoracia. and parturition—in the last-named instance combined with Motherwort. He recommends it in the treatment of consumption. diuretic. Marshmallow." HORSERADISH. Used as a digestive. 1 pint "Let it stand in a covered vessel for four hours. three tablespoonfuls three times a day. lower cordate. hairy. and makes wide claims on its behalf. colds and bronchial complaints generally. Dose. sliced Mustard seeds. either of itself or combined with other reliable remedies such as Lobelia. N. in pairs.
N. Features: Stem woody. Habitat: Among other moss and grass in Sweden. Features: Thallus about three inches high. Action: Stimulant. Action: Demulcent. diaphoretic. ICELAND MOSS. channeled.O. to a height of about two feet. pulmonary complaints. Flowers bluish-purple. hairy at margins.Page 55 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Iceland Lichen. Chronic bronchial catarrh. fringed with small papillae. Juniperus communis. leafy. In cough and cold prescriptions. Synonym: Cetraria. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .intermittents. Dose. branched. Part used: Lichen. febrifuge. The moss should be carefully washed before preparing the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints of water simmered to 1 pint. Habitat: This freely-branched. N. pectoral. smell resembles seaweed. and in other troubles of infancy. carminative. tiny white spots on under surface. Leaves opposite. When wet. Coniferae. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is given in wineglass doses. nearly sessile. Relieves obstinate coughs. evergreen shrub may be seen growing on dry heaths and mountain slopes to a height of from two to five feet. Hyssopus officinalis. JUNIPER. grey or light brown. Part used : Herb. Cetraria islandica. lanceolate. in small axillary clusters on one side.O. Labiateae. wineglassful. Nutrient properties of considerable value. Lichenes. tonic." HYSSOP.O.com . particularly for whooping cough.swsbm. small. nutritive. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens. Camphor-like odour. or according to age. N. terminates in flattened lobes.
are noticeable. An acrid taste. angular. Taste. and make a tea of the berries"! The same writer tells us that if Juniper boughs are burnt to ashes and the ashes put into water. the medicine is much appreciated in kidney and bladder disorders. reddish-purple. upper sessile. very much branched on downy underneath.. ripe fruit or berries only are used in modern practice." KNAPWEED.com tough. but the dried. As a reliable tonic diuretic. Although frequently successful when taken alone. whether acute or chronic.swsbm. . and a quarter to half-inch in diameter. Centaurea nigra. The berries are blue-black. it is more usually prescribed with other agents such as Parsley Piert. alternate sides. Hard-hack. Compositae. Black Ray Thistle.O. keeled underneath. "a medicine will be obtained that has cured the dropsy in an advanced stage. Uva Ursi. slightly salty. The berries are sometimes included with suitable alteratives in formula for rheumatic complaints. Part used: Herb. considers that "the better plan . Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Coffin. irregularly thistle-shaped . An infusion of 1 ounce of the berries to 1 pint of water may be taken freely in wineglassful doses.Features : The leaves open in whorls of three. Ironweed (these due to its resistance to the mower's scythe). notched edges. Habitat: Pastures and meadows. Leaves dull green. is to eschew the gin. lower stalked. Star Thistle. hard appearance. It is on account of the Juniper Berries used in its manufacture that gin is so frequently recommended when a diuretic is needed. stimulant and carminative. However. globular. Flowers hair-like petals grow from nearly black. Synonym: Hard-head. and a characteristic odour resembling that of turpentine. are glaucous and concave above. Part used: Every part of the shrub is medicinal. N. knob. and Buchu.. scaly surrounded by bristles. one authority at least. Dr.Page 56 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Features: Stem grows from one to two feet. Fruit without pappus. Action: Diuretic.
bloom in small clusters from forked stem. tonic. Habitat: Hedgerows and waysides. Orchidaceae. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is used as an injection in the menstrual disorders. N.swsbm. about two inches across. antispasmodic. but the latter is much more frequently prescribed. as well as spasmodic nervous complaints. Astringent. Mocassin flower. The ounce to pint infusion is taken in wineglass doses. saliva-drying taste. As a general tonic for most of the purposes for which Gentian is used. diaphoretic. Habitat: United States of America. Action: Astringent. many cupshaped scars on top surface. Features: Whole plant covered with silky hairs. Leaves rounded.Action: Tonic. Knapweed is held in some quarters to equal Gentian in all-round efficacy. and to allay pain Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Part used: Rhizome. on long stalks. Noah's Ark. LADIES' MANTLE. without petals.O.Page 57 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Rosaceae. Combined with other tonics in the relief of neuralgia. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be taken internally in teacupful doses as required. Part used: Herb.com . nine blunt. Nerveroot. Greenish flowers. Features: Flower supposed to resemble a lady's shoe in form. diuretic. Synonym : Lion's Foot. Synonym: American Valerian. nervine. Fracture short and white. Cypripedium pubescens. wavy. thickly-matted roots underneath.O. nervine. In excessive menstruation and flooding. LADIES' SLIPPER. serrate lobes. Action: Antispasmodic. N. Rhizome about quarterinch diameter. Alchemilla vulgaris.
goes even further than would Thomson and his successors when he announces that "all the species are equally remedial. They have long been known to the Indians. 1 drachm of the powdered rhizome.Page 58 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. pendulous. and were used by the empyrics of New England. quieting the nerves and promoting sleep. Of use in hysteria and other nervous disorders. of Albany. Rhizome slender. pale brown. Convallaria majalis. broadly lanceolate. it is of little use unless the cause of the nervous excitement is traced and removed. dark green. internodes about two inches long. having no baneful or narcotic effect. on distinct (eight to twelve-stalked) flower stem. The remarks of Rafinesque. particularly Samuel Thomson. Habitat: Grows wild in shady places in some of the English counties. Hales. then Professor of Medical Botany in the University of Transylvania. sweet-scented. Commonly cultivated in gardens. entire at edges. They are preferable to opium in many cases. Liliaceae. . of Troy. diuretic. Part used: Whole plant. N. white. Their properties. etc. branched rootlets at each joint. for the first time. Action: Cardiac tonic." Professor Rafinesque. May Lily.com . all the species are equally remedial. but is rarely found in many others. Synonym: Convallaria. and is consequently Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .swsbm. Like other medicines of a similar nature. with eight to ten long. this beautiful genus into our materia medica . with parallel veins. Features: Leaves approximately five inches by two inches. They produce beneficial effects in all nervous diseases and hysterical affections by allaying pain." LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY. Enhances muscular functioning of heart and arteries.generally. bellshaped.O. Dr. scarcely ever seen wild in Scotland and Ireland. have been tested and confirmed by Dr. Flowers small. are interesting in view of the "orthodox" attitude towards remedies of the herbalists : "I am enabled to introduce. . cylindrical. Dose. however. . Tully. however. who called them moccasin flower.
Synonym: Licorice.O. A popular remedy for chronic catarrhal conditions following colds. LIME FLOWERS. with few branches. and is also given for nervous headaches and hysterical tendencies. but it must be taken only in the prescribed doses. Action: Nervine. Liliaceae. pea-like. veined. Part used: Flowers. transverse section shows radiate structure. Action: Demulcent. Leguminosae. stimulant. This herb is one of the substitutes for the digitalis of the allopaths. The infusion is 1 drachm in 1 pint of boiling water. and bed-time baths in equivalent strength will sometimes help those suffering from insomnia. N. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Features: Stem erect. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens and fields. Features: Leaves cordate. emollient. Synonym : Linden Flowers. Dose. the two anther cells are separated on short divergent stalks at the tip of the many stamens. N. 1 tablespoonful of the 1/2 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion. Root greyish-brown externally. and are slightly bitter and acrid Part used: Root. doubly serrate. as larger quantities may result in purging and emesis. Spanish and Russian roots contain large amounts of rhizome. Russian and Persian varieties have a red-brown scaly exterior. which is decidedly less sweet than the root proper and can be recognised by a central pith. yellowish and fibrous inside . LIQUORICE.used in cardiac debility. striated. Flowers (August) purple.swsbm.O.Page 59 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Has been recommended in dropsy. Tilia europaea. ovate.com . Three to six yellowishwhite flowers on each flower stalk . Taste sweetish. Habitat: The large tree is seen frequently as a decorative bordering to avenues and drives in town and country. Leaves alternate. pectoral. hairy underneath. expectorant. Glycyrrhiza glabra.
and the plant bears a small blue. and. and is at the same time safe in its operations. Action: Emetic. zinc. with small. sessile. with a tea-spoonful of linseed and lemon juice as desired. the stem is angular and slightly hairy. may be drunk freely. as its administration brings about the prompt removal of accumulations of mucus. Features: A biennial herb. pitted surface. with a reticulated. They use it chiefly as an emetic. Lobelia inflata. Coffin's comments in this connection are enthusiastic: "Lobelia is decidedly the most certain and efficient emetic known. and the sulphate of copper. pointed flower. Emetic Weed.com . Synonym: Indian Tobacco. antispasmodic. and diaphoretic. Campanulaceae. While many herbalists contend that it is the most valuable of all botanic remedies. The fruit is in the form of a flat. which contains ovate-oblong seeds about one eighth of an inch long. Habitat: North America . Herbalists who use Lobelia insist that it is most certainly not a poison. official medicine in England classifies it as a poison. the leaves are alternate. One to three inches long. in height from twelve to eighteen inches. oval capsule. expectorant.Well-known remedy for coughs and chest complaints. and that it can be administered by them in large doses with perfect safety.swsbm. brown in colour. the action in bronchial complaints is speedy and beneficial. Unlike most emetics from the mineral kingdom. Pukeweed. and ovate-lanceolate. LOBELIA. N. The taste is burning and acrid like tobacco. Lobelia may emphatically be said to 'operate in unison with the laws of life'. it produces its specific effect without corroding the stomach or producing morbid irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane of this organ. the odour slight. A decoction of 1 ounce of the root to 1^ pints of water reduced to 1 pint. the history of Lobelia is interesting. cultivated in Salt Lake City.O." In view of the controversy surrounding its use. which are so common in the use of antimony. North American Indians had apparently long been acquainted Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The root is fibrous. stimulant. whitish glands on the edge. Part used : Herb and seeds are used. frequently with linseed. Lobelia inflata has for many years been one of the most widely discussed and hotly debated articles used in medicine.Page 60 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.
The fracture shows whitish and mealy. Wild Lemon." to quote Coffin himself. and a thorough but slow-acting purgative. and has knotty joints at distances of about two inches. As American Mandrake is so powerful in certain of its actions. it should not be used by the public without the advice of one experienced in prescribing it to Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . His disciple. Preparations of the rhizome of the American Mandrake are found in practice to be much more effective than those of the resin.Page 61 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. This is one of the many confirmations of one of the basic postulates of herbal medicine—the nearer we can get to natural conditions the better the results. Although apparently unrecognised in Coffin's day. and needs such skillful combination with other herbs. the root is imported into this country in large quantities for medicinal purposes. Features: The rhizome (as the part used should more strictly be termed) is reddishbrown in colour. Samuel Thomson. apparently with great success "in almost every form of disease. AMERICAN. In both America and Britain herbalists have been tried on charges of causing death by administering Lobelia. the glands in particular being helped to normal functioning. fairly smooth. Podophyllum peltatum. but its first introduction to general use was due to the efforts of the famous American. Berberidaceae. MANDRAKE. Synonym : May Apple.with its properties. and from the tender infant to the aged. brought the herb to this country and used it extensively in his practice for over forty years. Racoonberry. Podophyllum is a very valuable hepatic. the modern natural healer highly appreciates the virtues of this medicine and has many uses for it. N.com .O. Coffin.swsbm. Habitat: A common plant in the United States and Canada. American Mandrake is an entirely different plant from White Bryony or English Mandrake. and has a salutary influence on other parts of the system. but in no instance has a verdict been obtained against them. Therapeutic principles are never the same when taken from their proper environment. Dr. dealt with elsewhere. Correctly compounded with other herbs it is wonderfully effective in congested conditions of the liver.
and externally as a lotion for chronic ulcers and varicose veins. Habitat: Common in English gardens. upper sessile. Features : This erect plant grows to a height of three feet. Mallards. hairy up to one foot high.individual needs. The pinkishblue flowers appear in luxuriant axillar panicles between July and September. white and fibrous internally.O. angular. Taste bitter. N. MARIGOLD. Schloss Tea. The infusion is also given to children (in doses according to age) suffering from measles and other feverish and eruptive complaints.com . the tubular florets sterile. and is distinguishable from the Common Mallow by the velvety down covering the stem and leaves. smell unpleasantly strong. flowers. Features : Stem angular. Fruit semicircular. Synonym: Calendula. Malvaceae. Compositae. no pappus. The taste is mucilaginous and unpleasant. stimulant. and greyish-white outside. resembling those of the parsnip. antispasmodic. diuretic and expectorant properties are present here in greater strength. spatulate. Caltha officinalis. Stems are round.swsbm. as the demulcent. Part used : Root and leaves. The infusion of 1 ounce of the flowers or herb to 1 pint boiling water is prescribed both for internal use in 1-2 tablespoonful doses. Action: Diaphoretic. Habitat: Marshes near the sea. the soft leaves being five-lobed below and three-lobed above. or a yellowish matter of disagreeable smell will form.O. N.Page 62 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The roots should be stored in a very dry place. native of South America. Marygold. rough. Flower-heads yellow. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Calendula officinalis. MARSHMALLOW. Sprained muscles gain relief from the hot fomentation. Marigold is frequently combined with Witch Hazel when a lotion is required. emollient. Althea officinalis. Lower leaves stalked. Part used: Herb. with only a very slight odour. Roots are thick and fleshy. Synonym: Guimauve. Action: The root is preferred. all hairy.
" MEADOWSWEET. Features : Stem strong. serrate . was sent for . woody. Culpeper relates a personal story about this herb : "You may remember that not long since there was a raging disease called the bloody flux . and the two remedies are frequently made up into an ointment for skin diseases. the only thing I gave him was Mallow bruised and boiled both in milk and drink . creamy white. boils and ulcers. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . white and downy underneath.Marshmallow. called it The Plague in the Guts. Dolloft. Rosaceae. in wineglass doses. reddish hue. leaving it to posterity. is taken internally for coughs. N. The leaves are taken as an infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water frequently. Spiraea ulmaria. Part used : Herb. Habitat : Low-lying meadows. and the leaves also are used as a fomentation in inflammation. colds and bronchitis. and I have here to shew my thankfulness to God in communicating it to his creatures. My son was taken with the same disease . myself being in the country. end leaf has three leaflets with longer one in middle .com . there appears to be some relaxing effect) it is particularly suitable in the treatment of nephritis. three or four feet high. cystitis and gravel. alternate. dense cymes. usually in combination with other remedies. Its diuretic and emollient qualities adapt it to urinary complaints and. sides of ditches. tonic. The addition of Slippery Elm powder improves the poultice. diuretic. aromatic.O. clustered in large. Leaves in large and small pairs. as there is no astringent action (indeed. The powdered or crushed fresh roots make a first-rate poultice. for their wits were at ne plus ultra about it.Page 63 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. dark green on top surface. Action : Astringent. in two days it cured him. Queen-of-the-Meadow. Synonym : Bridewort. Flowers small. the College of Physicians not knowing what to make of it.swsbm.
The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion in wineglass doses as needed. Viscum album. serrate.O. Loranthaceae. MISTLETOE. Habitat: Parasitic on the Oak. It is especially useful in infantile diarrhea. Leguminosae. Hawthorn. emollient. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy. MELILOT. N. Leaves in threes.The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in wineglassful doses for strangury and dropsy. chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. yellow. to relieve flatulence. Part used: Leaves. Part used: Herb. Features: Stem erect. tonic and diuretic qualities making it particularly suitable for this purpose. in one-sided clusters. broader towards the end. Birdlime Mistletoe. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . its pleasantly aromatic. The plant is tasteless and without odour. ovate-truncate. receiving no nourishment from the soil. Features: This familiar evergreen is a true parasite. Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria. Sometimes used in fomentations and poultices. two or three feet high. Synonym: European Mistletoe. The flower-heads are yellowish and the berries white. Melilotus officinalis. Habitat: Waste places.Page 64 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Synonym: King's Clover. Action: Carminative. sessile. N. Meadowsweet is included in recipes for many herb beers.com . Apple and many other trees. Action: Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic. two horns at base of leaf stalk. Flowers small. epilepsy. Hay-like taste and scent.swsbm. and grow from a smooth-jointed stem about a foot high. nor even from the decaying bark.O. The leaves are obtuse lance-shaped.
Dose. up to eight inches high. wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion. it is feared that the modern herbal consultant would encounter serious difficulties if he attempted to follow the Culpeperian procedure too literally—although certain people still believe. Being mixed with Sandarack and Orpiment.swsbm. bitter and acrid. MOUNTAIN FLAX. makes a first-rate family medicine. action similar to Senna. occasionally meadows and pastures. pointed petals. doth mollify the hardness of the spleen. Linum cartharticum. Flowers small. digesting and separating them. and healeth old ulcers and sores.com . Combined with tonics and stomachics such as Gentian and Calumba root." While some truth may be hidden behind all this quaint terminology. white (June to September). rarely gripes. and are of subtle parts. and sometimes preferred to the latter. higher lanceolate. five-parted with serrate sepals. Leaves opposite. etc. as witness: "The birdlime doth mollify hard knots. In constipation. Habitat: Heaths. from the Latin viscum. moorlands. for gravel and dropsy. Features: Stem simple. Linaceae Synonym: Purging Flax. N. entire. Action: Laxative. it helpeth to draw off foul nails. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . and if quicklime and wine lees be added thereunto it worketh the stronger. Part used: Herb. small. Both the leaves and berries of Mistletoe do heat and dry. or affect to believe. that he does so! The birdlime mentioned in the quotation and also in the synonyms is the resin viscin. birdlime.O.Culpeper is at his most "Culpeperish" in discussing this plant. tumours and imposthumes.Page 65 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and draweth thick as well as thin humours from remote parts of the body. Taste. ripeneth and discuteth them. And being mixed with equal parts of resin and wax. lower obovate.. Occasionally prescribed with diuretics. cathartic.
Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. N. diaphoretic. usually with Pennyroyal and Southernwood. outer petals tinted red underneath. Synonym: Hawkweed. Verbascum thapsus. elongate-lanceolate. Habitat: Flourishes in sandy and gravelly waste ground. Features: Stem 6-8 inches.O. Pilosella. Action: Emmenagogue. in clusters. Synonym: Great Mullein. makes quite a useful medicine for whooping and other coughs. In menstrual obstruction. Synonym : Felon Herb. N.swsbm.Page 66 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. creeping. The ounce to pint infusion. angular. MUGWORT. Compositae. Leaves alternate. Blanket Herb. leaves slightly bitter. Flowers lemon-coloured. purplish. or Candle Flower. Part used: Leaves. hairy.O. nearly smooth above. Scrophulariaceae. taken in wineglass doses. silvery-white down beneath.MOUSEEAR. Habitat: Banks and dry pastures. Hieracium pilosella. five to seven lobes. and is sometimes noticed under garden cultivation. un-branched stem is Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . expectorant. Flowers (July and August) ovoid.O. Compositae. Habitat : Hedgerows and about walls. Artemisia vulgaris. N. Features : Reaching a height of four feet. erect. longitudinal channels. wineglass doses. Part used: Herb. Features : Stem up to four feet. Action: Astringent. slightly hairy. diuretic. MULLEIN. Odour aromatic. the thick.com . given common name owing to imagined resemblance to a mouse's ear in form. Leaves form small rosettes around stem.
and advised it to be taken in wine. rounded petals. tonic. the usual dose being a wineglassful.com . The crushed or coarsely powdered oats is known as groats. Graminaceae. Habitat: Under field cultivation. Mullein has been considered a pile cure for several hundred years. flannel-like leaves are lanceolate-oblong below. Synonym: Groats. and are densely packed on a woolly spike some foot or more in length. Iris florentina. Curative properties of oats may be utilized through the medium of the fluid extract. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Culpeper preferred the root to the leaves and flowers. taken frequently.Page 67 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. leaves narrow at the base into two wings which pass down the stem. and the powder. Part used: Seeds. This is recommended mainly for chest coughs and certain other pulmonary complaints. Part used: Leaves and flowers. Action: Demulcent. which bloom in July and August. pectoral and astringent." OATS. As a restorative in nervous exhaustion. Avena sativa. ORRIS. antispasmodic. the upper ones becoming decurrent. N. He tells us that this "is commended by Dioscorides against lasks and fluxes of the belly.heavily coated with hairs. Action: Nervine. and more ovate in shape. and of particular value in correcting spasmodic conditions of bladder and ureter. N. smaller. either fine or coarse. A medicine is made by infusing 1 ounce in 1 pint of boiling water. The large.O. stimulant.O.swsbm. and is still used for this purpose both internally and as a fomentation. this feature enabling the medicinal Mullein to be distinguished from Verbascum nigrum and various other Mulleins. 10-30 drops. are built of five golden-yellow. Features: Oats of commerce and general use are the seeds of Avena sativa with the husk removed. as oatmeal. The flowers. Characteristic of the plant. Iridaceae. Dose.
Orris is not used for purely medicinal purposes. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. Large internal doses induce vomiting. N. Marguerite. and as an injection in leucorrhea. Toilet recipes are given in another section of this book.swsbm. and appears more compressed.Page 68 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.com . The tonic effect is similar to that of Chamomile. serrate . Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . dentifrices and cachous. Features: The white Florentine root. hard. daisy-like. Compositae. Verona Orris root tapers more gradually than that from Florence. Orris gives off a violet-like scent. tonic. oblong. especially near the sea. which is preferred to other varieties. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced from 1 1/2 pints) is taken in wineglass doses. Action: Antispasmodic. Features: Stem from one to two feet. angular. but the greater popularity of the latter is probably justified. and may also be used externally for wounds and ulcers.O. Synonym: Field Daisy. is irregular in shape and shows marks where the rootlets branched before preparation for export. Great Ox-Eye. slightly branched. Part used : Root. Habitat: Cultivated in Northern Italy and Morocco. Large quantities of the finely pulverised root are used in the preparation of toilet and dusting powders. Leaves from lower part stalked. OX-EYE DAISY. remainder sessile. for which purposes the acceptable fragrancy and other appropriate qualities make Orris root eminently suitable. Habitat: Fields. white. The Moroccan root is noticeable for the dirty white cortex which remains on the root. serrate. spatulate. Flowers large. Moon Daisy.Synonym: Florentine Orris. Horsegowan. smooth. each on its own long flower stalk. To some extent in whooping cough and asthma. Part used: Herb.
swsbm.PARSLEY PIERT. in better soils. Leaves alternate. lanceolate. trifid higher up the stem. PENNYROYAL. Part used: Herb. the stem Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . A widely-used diuretic acting directly on the parts. one to two inches long by half an inch to one inch broad. Wineglass doses of the infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water. Action: Diuretic.O. except on damp heaths and commons. N. Leaves small. Part used : Herb. the whole plant rather hairy. small.O. N. Rosaceae. Parietaria officinalis. stem reddish. edges smooth. N. axillar. rather hairy. Habitat: Not common as a wild plant. Frequently seen in cottage gardens. angular. Synonym : Parsley Breakstone. Gravel. and other bladder and kidney disorders.O. Habitat: Old walls. Habitat: Hedgerows. Numerous pink flowers (June and July). Frequently prescribed in combination with Wild Carrot and Parsley Piert. suppression of urine. Axillary tufts of small. Features : Up to six inches in height.Page 69 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.com . Features: This member of the mint family grows up to twelve inches high. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion may be given in teacupful doses thrice daily in all kidney and bladder irregularities. Indigenous to Britain and Europe. PELLITORY-OF-THE-WALL. laxative. Synonym : European Pennyroyal. Urticaceae. Alchemilla arvensis. stalked. Features: Up to two feet high. greenish flowers. Mentha pulegium. palmate lower down. Action: Diuretic. Labiateae. brittle. demulcent.
Convulsive and spasmodic nervous troubles as chorea and epilepsy. egg-shaped leaves are opposite. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. Features : Stem two feet high. Piney.being bluntly quadrangular. The one to one and a half inch long. they are slightly serrate and nearly smooth. medullary rays tinged purple. Its diaphoretic and stimulant action recommends it for chills and incipient fevers. and the infusion works as an emmenagogue when such ailments retard and obstruct menstruation. smooth. terminal. disordered stomach and measles. gnats. Flowers (May) large. red.O. Infusion of 1 ounce powdered root to 1 pint boiling water in wineglass Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Taste sweet. Action: Carminative. Part used: Root.com . Paeonia officinalis. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens. This plant. becoming bitter. Synonym: Common Peony. PEONY. The odour is rather pungent.swsbm. Part used : The whole herb.Page 70 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Pennyroyal infusion may be given in appropriate doses with confidence. Purple flowers appear in August. taken warm in teacupful doses frequently repeated. Ranunculaceae. Although not so popular as other herbs for this purpose. emmenagogue. although quite different in appearance from the European Pennyroyal. flatulence and sickness. pinnate or lobed. on short stalks . antispasmodic. the mint-like flavour and carminative virtues of Pennyroyal should recommend it to cooks as adding to both palatability and digestibility of various dishes. is helpful in hysteria. For children's ailments such as feverish colds. has similar medicinal values. branched leaves. The herb is used to some extent as a flavouring. N. diaphoretic and stimulant. The oil of Pennyroyal is a first-rate protection against the bites of mosquitoes. and similar winged pests. Action: Tonic. Transverse section of root is starchy. thick. American or Mock Pennyroyal are the names given to the dried leaves and flowering tops of Hedeoma pulegioides. mint-like but characteristic. single.
com .doses three or four times daily. and as an injection for menorrhagia and leucorrhea. The taste is slightly bitter and acrid. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint is useful in internal hemorrhages and diarrhea. blue-purple. In flatulence. as a gargle for inflammatory conditions of the throat. purplish. Part used: The herb. Features : Stem quadrangular. Features: About a foot high. colic and nausea. Usually combined with other remedies when a complete stomachic is needed. Periwinkle has been employed for many years in the treatment of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . the stem is smooth and cylindrical. Apocynaceae. N.Page 71 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Characteristic taste and smell. stomachic. especially in the U. which is probably the most used of all the volatile oils.A. Synonym: Greater Periwinkle. Labiateae. rotate flowers bloom as large as a florin. PERIWINKLE. Action: Carminative. Synonym: Balm Mint. with the shiny eggto-lance-shaped leaves growing opposite at intervals of two to three inches . Habitat: Woods and shady banks. Largely cultivated. Habitat: Damp places by water courses. wineglassful of ounce to pint infusion.O.swsbm. very slightly hairy. Action: Astringent and tonic. Vinca major. PEPPERMINT. reaching three or four feet high.. The bright. serrate. Leaves stalked. Dose. N. stimulant. Part used: Herb. Brandy Mint. and there is no smell.O. about two and a half inches by one inch.S. Mentha piperita. all being entire at the edges. the larger lower leave's are one and a half to three inches long by one to two inches broad. for its oil. Particularly suitable for children.
heart-shaped. N. and an ointment is made by macerating the herb in boiling lard for twenty-four hours. PILEWORT. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. notched margins. corolla rotate. Little Celandine (not to be confused with Chelidonium majus. can be of benefit to diabetics. Anagallis arvensis. PIMPERNEL. Numerous leaves from the root on long stalks. Shepherd's Barometer (these names because the flowers close some hours before rain). Red Pimpernel. There appears to be some ground for belief that the administration of Vinca major. entire at edges. The ounce to pint boiling water infusion is taken consistently in wineglass doses. black dots underneath. Habitat: Cornfields.com . much branched. between six inches and one foot long. buttercup-like flower. SCARLET. stating that a registration officer in Durban was declared cured of this disease after two months treatment with the herb. Used almost entirely (as the common name denotes) in the treatment of piles. ovoid. Action: Astringent.diabetes. q. Habitat: Moist places. club-shaped or oblong-rounded knots.O. Ranunculus ficaria. slender.Page 72 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.v. Synonym: Poor Man's Weatherglass. A report from South Africa. aroused much attention and considerable notice in the South African and British Press. and ending in a single bright yellow. Ranunculaceae. on long. of course. the combination with Witch Hazel is found to be particularly effective. Synonym: Lesser Celandine. combined. sessile. with proper dietetic and other treatment. whitish-green blotches. opposite. Flowers scarlet. fleshy. Root characteristically bunched into white. Features : Flower stem grows up to six inches (slightly longer than leaf stalk) with two or three leaves. Leaves small.). of usually eight petals and three sepals. both open and shady. trailing with tendency to ascend. axillary stalk. glossy. Primulaceae. N. Part used: Herb. weak. Features: Stem square. Probably the best of all known remedies for this complaint. waste places and in gardens.swsbm.
O. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint is given night and morning.swsbm. It has been successful in the treatment of liver irregularities. Widely used throughout the United States. and in the hedgerows.S. Action: Anthelmintic. PINKROOT. Plantago major. PLANTAIN. hepatic. N. in doses varying with the patient's age up to one teacupful for adults. Plantaginaceae. Habitat: Southern states of U. and care should be exercised in using it. are not yet fully known. Indian Pink. The properties of this herb. many rootlets underneath. along the borders of fields. Features: Imported root is rather less than a quarter of an inch thick." and in America and New Zealand as "Englishman's Foot"—Plantain being supposed always to follow in his footsteps. and is given to both children and adults suffering from the pests.Page 73 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. where it is considered the best of the vermifuges. Habitat: Spreads in meadows. Action: Diuretic. although very active. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. In this country such remedies as Tansy and Wormwood are more commonly prescribed in the treatment of worms. N. diaphoretic. Maryland Pink. Worm-grass. the herb is known in Scotland as "Soldiers. as it is said to cause the Spigelia to act more quickly and effectively. Spigelia marilandica. The pulverised leaves are administered in doses of from 15 to 60 grains. Part used: Root.Part used: Leaves.com . A purgative such as Senna is usually added. Synonym: Carolina Pink. Synonym : Also called Ripple Grass and Way bread.A. cup-shaped scars on upper surface. forms of rheumatism and dropsy. Loganiaceae.
Infusion of 1 ounce of the powdered root with 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses. The very small. POKE ROOT. Rootstock knotty. The plant is astringent to the taste. John Skelton writes that Plantain "makes one of the best ointments for piles I know of. Chest complaints. Indigenous to U.S.Features: Springing from the root. Wind Root. Tuber Root. the large leaves are ovate. and stimulates sweat glands.A. Pigeon Berry. acts directly on the lungs.swsbm. Synonym: Butterfly Weed. Phytolaccaceae." PLEURISY ROOT. light brown outer surface. contains milky juice. Phytolacca decandra. whitish internally . wrinkled longitudinally. loamy soil. and odourless. Synonym: Garget. faintly ringed. N. Part used: The leaves are used medicinally. Relaxes capillaries. Asclepiadaceae. brownish-purple flowers grow close together on a spike about five inches long. Root.Page 74 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Part used: Root. antispasmodic. expectorant. When. Action: Alterative and diuretic. the plant is found in open fields the leaves tend to grow upwards on channelled stalks. however. to which a teaspoonful of composition powder (Myrica compound) may be added with advantage.com .O. blunt. Features: Stem two to three feet high. Acrid taste. The fresh juice will give relief from insect and nettle stings. and contract abruptly at the base. they are of some value in piles and diarrhea.O. fracture tough. Habitat: Moist. relieving strain on heart and lungs. Action: Diaphoretic. Reduces pain and assists breathing in pleurisy. irregular. Combined with other agents. N. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Asclepias tuberosa.
Action: Alterative.A. the berries being considered the more effective. Cultivated on a sm.ill scale in England for medicinal purposes.swsbm.com . Action of root stronger than berries. Xanthoxylum americanum. Of some use in dyspepsia. conical spines nearly one inch in height. the dose being one tablespoonful four times daily. Part used: Root. N. Small. Ringed. Features: A shrub varying between ten and fifteen feet in height with alternate branches covered with strong. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . These herbalists use the fresh root largely in hardening of the liver and reduced biliary flow. blue-black berries enclosed in a grey shell grow in clusters on the top of the branches. Hammer and other physio-medical practitioners recommend that only the green root should be used. Preparation and dosage vary considerably with the condition of the root. or the crushed or powdered bark. from which country the medicinal berries and bark are imported. and has corky. rapid deterioration. ten carpels. The taste is very pungent. Berries purplish-black. Part used: Berries and bark. nearly globular. Thurston. berries. with lanceolate leaflets. Fractures show green in the outer part and yellow in the inner. alterative. each containing one lens-shaped seed. owing to. The bark is about onetwelfth of an inch thick. causing salivation.Habitat: U.Page 75 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. cathartic. Action: Stimulant. fibrous fracture. brownish-grey externally. The infusion should be allowed to stand in a covered vessel for two hours before use.S.O. the flowers green and white. An infusion of the berries. Synonym: Toothache Bush or Suterberry. Rutaceae. Habitat: Flourishes in moist places throughout the United States. and there is little odour. PRICKLY ASH. hard and whitish inside. the leaves are pinnate. is made in the proportion of 1/2 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. sharp prickles. nervine and diaphoretic. Chronic rheumatism and skin diseases. For rheumatism the root is often compounded with Black Cohosh and Wintergreen. Features: The root is obtainable in longitudinally split pieces or in transverse slices.
Ranunculaceae. is indigenous to many parts of Southern Europe and Northern Africa. Passe Flower. Seeds are boatshaped.com . although they do not contain so much mucilage as the Ispaghula. These seeds are the most highly esteemed for therapeutic purposes. and grey-brown in colour.swsbm. and it is also widely used wherever a general stimulant is needed. Plantagineae. Synonym: Flea Seed. Plantago ispaghula. P. The powdered bark is applied directly to indolent ulcers. which yields the so-called Dark Brilliant Indian Psyllium seeds. with one end sharper than the other.Page 76 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and their action is certain. children proportionately with their age. As an external application for rheumatism. Wind Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Fleawort. Probably nothing better than Psyllium seeds can be given to most people for constipation. jelly-like mass. or Light Indian Psyllium. N. and is largely cultivated in France and Spain. Synonym: Easter Flower. and their peculiar action on the intestines renders them of particular value in sluggishness and atony of this organ. PULSATILLA. the part to be well rubbed with this liniment night and morning. Meadow Anemone. N. psyllium. Plantago ovata or P. The seeds of two of these are used in herbal medicine. and is used mainly for feeding birds. the seeds do not gripe. ispaghula. The "English Golden" variety is even less mucilaginous. Plantago psyllium. PSYLLIUM. Anemone pulsatilla. heated.O. A small brown spot is a feature of the convex side. Psyllium seeds are tasteless and odourless. Pasque Flower. In tropical countries the seeds are helpful in the treatment of dysentery. Transparent mucilage surrounds the seeds when kept in water.O. Features: Over one hundred species of this genus of stemless. which gently lubricates and stimulates the bowels. The adult dose varies between two and four teaspoonfuls after meals. is cultivated in India.In the treatment of chronic rheumatic trouble this medicine is given a prominent place. and they are eminently suited to children. Swelling into a demulcent. herbaceous plants are known to botanists. Coffin recommends 1 ounce of the pulverised bark to 4 ounces of Olive oil.
three to five inches long by two to three inches broad. Part used: Herb. antispasmodic. stalked below. alterative. QUASSIA. Used alone. Flowers (April and May) large. Features: Stalk up to six inches high. Root woody. Dose. Sometimes as an astringent in diarrhea. margins entire. two to five inches long. Has a stimulating action on all mucous surfaces. N. Synonym : Bitter Wood or Bitter Ash. particularly when resulting from menstrual causes. six to eight in rings round the stalk. alterative. threes or fours. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Habitat: By waterways. Lythraceae. reddish-purple. 1-2 tablespoonfuls of the 1/2 ounce to 1 pint infusion. Part used: Herb. up to four feet high. Habitat: High pastures. simmer 1 ounce in 1 1/2 pints water for ten minutes. astringent. Lythrum salicaria.O. wineglassful as required. luxuriantly on river islands and banks. Leaves hairy. yellow chips. lanceolate. Nervous exhaustion in women. Dose. Simarubaceae. Synonym: Purple Grass. N. Action: Nervine. Action: Febrifuge. Habitat: A West Indian and South American tree.(sometimes six-) sided. bi-pinnate. and the wood is obtainable in small. single.com . is imported from Jamaica. Picraena excelsa. Quassia wood is very commonly used as a bitter tonic and anthelmintic. leaflets opposite.Flower. Leaves in pairs.swsbm.O. nearly sessile. PURPLE LOOSE-STRIFE. Chiefly in feverish conditions with other herbs. Willow Strife.Page 77 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Features: Stem four. Flowers (July to September) large. Taste pungent when fresh. six dull violet petals.
Ragwort ointment is prepared from the fresh herb and used for inflammation of the eyes. This water. two to three feet high. The curative properties of the wood were first brought to general notice through a negro slave named Quassy. gnats. Stinking Nanny. Compositae. N. Senecio jacobaea. detergent. used it as a remedy for the various fevers to which they were subject. St. N. catarrhs. stalked. Staggerwort. Rosaceae. and water standing in them soon acquires the medicinal properties of the wood. especially near the sea-coast.Page 78 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. of the disc hairy. wineglass doses of the ounce to pint decoction are taken as needed.O. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The history of Quassia wood as an agent in non-poisonous herbal medicine is interesting. influenza. Midges. Habitat: Pastures and waysides. and is applied externally to ulcers and wounds. RASPBERRY. thick fibres. Features: Stem erect. colds. who brought specimens to Europe in 1755. Synonym: Dog Standard. Ragweed.Small cups known as "Bitter Cups" are sometimes made of the wood. In coughs. or an infusion of 1 ounce of the chips in 1 pint of cold water is taken in wineglass doses as a remedy for indigestion and general debility of the digestive system. Leaves alternate. Rubus idaeus. Fireweed. Quassia infusion is also given to children suffering from worms. RAGWORT. tough. Action: Diaphoretic. sessile. lower lyrate-pinnatifid. whose people in his native country of Surinam. a Swede. and for the relief of sciatica and rheumatic pains. striate.com . and other insect pests may be kept away by damping the hands and face with the liquid. James's Wort. Part used: Herb. upper bi-pinnatifid. antiseptic. Root consists of many long.swsbm. Quassy communicated his knowledge of the tree's virtues to Daniel Rolander. Makes a good gargle. Yellow flowers (July and August) florets of the ray smooth.O. in appropriate doses according to age.
rounded base. Small white. With a little Ginger and Pennyroyal it is recommended for the stomach and bowel disorders of children. which may be drunk freely) makes a reliable medicine for bronchial and spasmodic coughs. Frequently combined with Slippery Elm as a poultice. N. Leguminosae. and the red (or. Trefoil. and is found growing to a height of one foot or more. Trifolium pratense.O. gravelly or stony ground. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The infusion (1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. The leaves. oval. Part used: Leaves. dry. grow on alternate sides of the stem. long cultivated by the farmer. Astringent to the taste. The leaflets themselves are broad. grey-white down beneath.Page 79 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. The alterative character is best brought out in combination with such agents as Burdock and Blue Flag. Leaves stalked. freely branched. Features: This is the common clover of the field. and it is still much in demand for this purpose. Also cultivated in gardens. American Raspberry. three or four feet high. composed of three leaflets. pinnate. and for the cleansing of wounds and ulcers.com . Action: Alterative and sedative. doubly serrate. Action: Astringent. pointed. The stem is hairy and erect. pendulous flowers (May or June) in simple clusters. Both taste and odour are agreeable. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is widely used as a mouth-wash and gargle. slender prickles. with two pairs of ovate leaflets and larger terminal leaflet. Features: Stem erect. purplish-pink) flower-heads (the part of the plant employed in herbal practice) are formed by a large number of separate blossoms at the end of a flower stalk. Habitat: Fields and roadsides.swsbm. stimulant.Synonym: Rubus strigosus. covered with small. about three inches long by two inches broad. pale green above. RED CLOVER. perhaps. Habitat: Woods and heaths . Synonym: Purple Clover. and frequently show a white spot. straight. Thomson and his immediate successors strongly advised the free drinking of the Raspberry leaves infusion for several months before confinement as an aid to parturition.
rounded at ends.Page 80 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. tonic. Rheum palmatum was once transported from China through Persia to Turkey and was consequently known as "Turkey Rhubarb" . reddish-purple." RED SAGE. Salvia officinalis. when conveyed via India it was called "East Indian Rhubarb. Part used: Leaves. In the treatment of laryngitis. powerfully aromatic.O. and other earthy salts. astringent.O. Both Red Sage and the green-leaved variety are extensively used in the kitchen as a flavouring and digestive. slightly hairy. Flowers labiate. and ulceration of mouth and throat. Habitat: China. adding 1/2 pint of cold water. inflammation of throat and tonsils. Rheum palmatum. Stem quadrangular.swsbm. crenulate at margins. silica.Fernic writes of Red Clover: "The likelihood is that whatever virtue the Red Clover can boast for counteracting a scrofulous disposition. Habitat: Cultivated in gardens. Polygonaceae. reticulated both sides. N. the gargle and mouth wash being made as follows: Pour 1 pint of hot malt vinegar on to 1 ounce of the Red Sage leaves. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Synonym: Garden Sage." RHUBARB. oblong-lanceolate.com . Leaves stalked." This Chinese root is the popular medicinal Turkey Rhubarb of to-day. N. the best kind being that from the Shansi province of China. and as antidotal to cancer. TURKEY. Taste. stomachic. Labiateae. Action: Aromatic. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion in frequent wineglass doses is given as an internal medicine. resides in its highly-elaborated lime. grows up to about twelve inches. Features: Stem and leaves reddish. Red Sage will also tend to darken grey hair—see "Toilet Recipes.
It is identifiable by the dark brown spots and a reticulation of white lines. tonic. grow in pairs on opposite sides of the stem and branches and. Discussing American wheat which has grown among quantities of St. Internally. Action : Expectorant. John's Wort flourish in England. John's Wort. N. which should show bright. by Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The quality of these roots is judged by the fracture. ST. to make the "Oil of St." is still used as an application to wounds. in June and July. Action : Aperient. attains a height of between one and two feet." Indeed. The leaves are stalkless and elliptical in shape.Page 81 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. and ulcers. the infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses. but Hypericum perforatum is the only one included in the herbal materia medica. Hypericaceae. that this flour improves the quality of the bread. John's Wort grows freely in the cornfields. swellings. and may be distinguished from the others by the small hole-like dots on the leaf. 3 to 30 grains. unspotted. in addition to the transparent dots noticed above.Features: The root is smooth and heavy.swsbm. at the ends of side branches and stem. dotted and streaked with dark purple. cluster. A bitter. branching from the upper part only. Indicated in coughs.O. an infusion of the fresh flowers in Olive oil. Hypericum perforatum. Dose of powdered root. the inferior kinds being a dull brown. larger quantities acting as a thorough yet gentle purgative. and was noticed as far back as Culpeper for "wounds. by almost every baker who works in his business. JOHN'S WORT. which proximity was held by Tilke to operate beneficially upon both herb and grain. stomachic. Features: The upright. In America St. are sometimes marked with black spots on the under side. John's Wort he tells us: "It is well known.com . Numerous bright yellow flowers. woody but slender stem. Small doses of the powdered root are used in diarrhea. and arrives in this country peeled. hurts and bruises. astringent. and the white network is less prominent than that from Shansi. about half an inch long. The Canton rhubarb is more fibrous. and disorders of the urinary system. diuretic and astringent. It was prescribed more often by the English herbal school of a hundred years ago than it is to-day. astringent taste is remarked. colds. Habitat: Hedges and woods. Some thirteen different varieties of St.
' " Tilke was himself a baker in his early days. palmate. nearly three inches across. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . reddish. These cases are not now considered to have been proved. and Skelton has given publicity to alleged cures. Liliaceae. JAMAICA. which is the only part used medicinally. is deeply furrowed longitudinally. Wood Sanicle. As an astringent in diarrhea and leucorrhea. long-stalked. particularly in seasons when the English flour is of inferior quality. SANICLE. alterative. Habitat: Woods and shady places. hard bark with a porous central portion. up to two feet high.swsbm. is of a rustybrown colour and cylindrical in shape. Synonym : Pool Root. Synonym : Smilax medica. sessile flowers. furrowed. Features: The root. Claims have been made for this herb in the treatment of consumption. Action: Astringent. A clever author informs us that it contains one-fourth more gluten than our famous wheats grown in Gloucestershire. With more powerful alteratives in blood impurities. The taste is rather acrid. Smilax ornata. Leaves radical. N. Wineglass doses of the ounce to pint (boiling water) infusion are taken. SARSAPARILLA. glossy green above.com . and the transverse section shows a brown. Part used: Herb.Page 82 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Smilax officinalis. blooming in June and July. has many slender rootlets. N. becoming acrid. known by the name of 'rivets. Sanicula europea. White.O. Features: Stem nearly simple. paler underneath.O. serrate. Umbelliferae. It is a quarter of an inch to half an inch in diameter. Taste astringent. Habitat: Sarsaparilla is imported from the West Indies and Mexico. and there is no smell.having a small quantity of it in every batch.
O. with many oil cells.A. rusty brown. and locally known as Madweed.O. Compound decoctions of Sarsaparilla are very popular as a springtime medicine. diaphoretic (according to Coffin mildly antiseptic and detergent also). although the root undoubtedly possesses active alterative principles. under the name of salap or saloop. thin bundles with a few rootlets attached. Scutellaria lateriflora. Powdered Sassafras root was formerly (and in some places still is) sold as a substitute for tea or coffee. and further supplies are imported from Mexico. Short. It is consequently now held in high regard as a blood purifier. Synonym: Kuntze. N. and is usually administered with other alteratives.com .The "Brown" Jamaica Sarsaparilla comes from Costa Rica. SASSAFRAS. Part used: Root. notably Burdock. The Honduras variety reaches us in long. showing concentric rings and slender medullary rays. Combined with alteratives for the treatment of skin eruptions and uric and other acid complaints. corky. N. bark of root. The decoction is sometimes used externally for ophthalmia. A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) is taken in frequent wineglass doses. and Coffin's prescription will be found in the Herbal Formulas section of this volume. Features: Rootbark is a bright. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Habitat: West Indies—imported from U. Sassafras officinale.S. soft and brittle. Lauraceae. layered fracture. Chips of the woody root are commonly used—they are brownish-white in colour.Page 83 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm. this claim has long been disproved. SCULLCAP. Labiateae. Action: Stimulant. Synonym: Sometimes named Skullcap. First introduced by the Spaniards in 1563 as a specific for syphilis.
A decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) is taken in frequent wineglass doses. Part used: Root. and Coffin's prescription will be found in the Herbal Formulae section of this volume. Scutellaria lateriflora. Labiateae. diaphoretic (according to Coffin mildly antiseptic and detergent also). SCULLCAP. It is consequently now held in high regard as a blood purifier. Lauraceae. and is usually administered with other alteratives. Features: Rootbark is a bright. Combined with alteratives for the treatment of skin eruptions and uric and other acid complaints. with many oil cells. N. Chips of the woody root are commonly used—they are brownish-white in colour. Short.A.S. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .O. N. showing concentric rings and slender medullary rays. Habitat : West Indies—imported from U.O. Synonym: Sometimes named Skullcap. although the root undoubtedly possesses active alterative principles. bark of root. and locally known as Madweed. Synonym : Kuntze. under the name of salap or saloop. corky.Habitat: Indigenous to the United States. Compound decoctions of Sarsaparilla are very popular as a springtime medicine. the plant is also found in England on the banks of streams and in wet ditches.Page 84 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. soft and brittle. Powdered Sassafras root was formerly (and in some places still is) sold as a substitute for tea or coffee. Sassafras officinale. First introduced by the Spaniards in 1563 as a specific for syphilis.com . this claim has long been disproved. SASSAFRAS. notably Burdock. layered fracture.swsbm. Action: Stimulant. rusty brown. The decoction is sometimes used externally for ophthalmia.
Page 85 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Action : One of the finest nervines known to herbalism. given a place here both for its historic interest and for the striking way in which it exemplifies the curative potency of non-poisonous herbs. The properties of Scullcap are said to have been first appreciated by Vandesveer in 1772 for use against hydrophobia. shiny stem is angular and much branched. Cochlearia officinalis. Habitat: Grows freely along the sea shore. but.swsbm. square stem reaches eighteen inches in height. is now prevented and cured by purely dietetic methods. The taste is pungent and cress-like.Habitat: Indigenous to the United States. tooth-edged leaves grow opposite each other on a short stalk. Features: A strong. N. and is reputed to be effective in the treatment of epilepsy. and heart. the plant is also found in England on the banks of streams and in wet ditches. in its publication Vitamins: A Survey of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . stalked leaves grow from the roots. cruciform flowers bloom in May. straight. The pale blue flowers. Clusters of white. often with Valerian. further roundish. the whole herb is also antispasmodic and tonic in action. with ovate leaves which become sessile upwards. the herb is but rarely used. The Medical Research Council. bloom in pairs just above the leaves. Half a teacupful of the boiling water infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint may be taken three or four times daily. and it should be kept in airtight containers. with a helmet-shaped upper lip. SCURVYGRASS. as scurvy. It is. and infusion. his dose of the powder being from one-half to a teaspoonful. kidney-shaped. Scullcap is now employed. in hysteria and insomnia. Features: The smooth.or lance-shaped.O. Both taste and odour are feeble. decoction.com . however. like other "deficiency" diseases. Part used : The whole herb. This herb deteriorates rapidly from age and heat. Scurvygrass is a powerful antiscorbutic. Coffin prescribed Scullcap in powder. Synonym: Known in some parts as Spoonwort. Cruciferae.
Leaves broadly oblong. Synonym: Marsh Rosemary. and upon his returning home it was found to be the herb scurvy grass. Root purplish-brown. Habitat: Marshes near the sea. No scent.swsbm. N. clustering on branched stalks. continually grazing like a beast of the field. The poor wretch had quite lost the use of his limbs . spindle-shaped. Makes an excellent gargle and mouth-wash for inflammatory conditions.Present Knowledge.' (Rendering given by Lind [1757. says: "Scurvygrass (Cochlearia officinalis) .com . Decoction of the powdered root (1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints of water simmered to 1 pint) administered in wineglass doses wherever an astringent tonic is indicated. uterine and vaginal discharges. leaving him there to perish without the least expectation of recovery. grow from the root round the flower stalk. In a short time he was by this means perfectly recovered. p. Action : Astringent. tapering to a peculiar tip. nine or ten inches in height. and is used in certain urinary. Flowers blue. he could only crawl about the ground. Part used : Root. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward ." SEA LAVENDER. . 395].O.Page 86 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Statice limonium. rough. five delicate petals. .). Thus Bachstron in 1734 tells the following story : 'A sailor in the Greenland ships was so over-run and disabled with scurvy that his companions put him into a boat and sent him on shore. figures largely in old records of scurvy cures among mariners. in spite of name. Features: Angular stem. This he found covered with a plant which he." When a well-authenticated case such as this is quoted by such a body as the Medical Research Council it should not be difficult to believe that other agents used in the herbal practice may be equally effective in illnesses not at present included in the official list of "deficiency diseases. Plumbaginaceae. plucked up with his teeth.
unequal and varying at the base. SENNA. cathartic. N.SELF-HEAL. about two inches by a quarter-inch . purplish-blue. East Indian Senna. Part used : Herb. entire at edges. Leguminosae. N. Cassia acutifolia. up to a foot high. The commercial "Mecca Senna" is usually badly picked. East Indian narrower and darker coloured. and disordered stomach. used blood-warm as an injection in leucorrhea. dyspepsia. Synonym : Heal All. bloom in dense terminal bunch at end of stem. upper lip upright. pods. between half an inch and one and a half inches long. smooth. lower lip jagged. For occasional and chronic constipation. Action: Astringent.O. Flowers small. sickly sweet. Synonym: Alexandrian Senna. Any possibility of griping will be avoided if 1 drachm of Ginger is added to the Senna leaves before infusing. and the Near East. Tinnevelly Senna leaves are broader near the middle and proportionately longer than the Alexandrian leaves. East Indies. Habitat: Pastures and wastes. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .swsbm. Tinnevelly Senna. Action: Laxative. Features : Leaves. about one inch long by half-inch across. short-stalked. one pair one side of stem. Taste. Labiateae. lanceolate. and about a third of an inch across. Part used: Leaves. grey-green.O. Leaves in pairs. slightly hairy on top side. Two ounces of the leaves may be infused in 1 pint of boiling water and allowed to stand for an hour before use in wineglass doses. broad based tapering to point. and may be used to gargle sore and relaxed throats. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in wineglass doses for internal bleeding. Features: Stem square. and of poor quality generally.com . next pair opposite side . Cassia. Prunella vulgaris. Habitat: Imported from Alexandria. Pods (Alexandrian) green.Page 87 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.
with most people. has a strong characteristic odour. thought to resemble in shape the purses of olden days. Synonym : Moose Elm.The Alexandrian leaves and pods are considered superior to the East Indian kind as. waysides. Part used: Herb. N. flowers very small. white. becoming soft and mucilaginous when moistened. Often combined with Pellitory-of-the-Wall and Juniper berries. stimulant.swsbm. particularly Canada. Synonym: Mother's Heart. Features: Stem erect. is faintly striated longitudinally. Action: Diuretic. SLIPPERY ELM. prepared as an ordinary gruel. they act more mildly. Red Elm. Identifiable by the triangular seed vessels. Odour unpleasant.com . The finely powdered bark. Habitat: Hedgerows. meadows. Habitat. Capsella bursa-pastoris. short-stalked. Cruciferae. Ulmus fulva. but with equal certainty. Features : The dried inner bark of Ulmus fulva is one of the most valued articles in herbal medicine.O. and the distinctive "slimy" taste. varies from a few inches to over a foot in height with the richness of the soil. Both bronchitis and gastritis yield to its soothing Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. The inner bark has a slight pinkish or rusty tint. It is this mucilaginous quality which originated the popular name of Slippery Elm.O. pectoral. and in all diseases involving inflammation of the mucous membranes. demulcent.Page 88 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. It is tough and fibrous. waste places. Urticaceae. slightly branched. Leaves irregular-lanceolate. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint is administered in wineglass doses for kidney complaints and dropsy. North America. Shepherd's Sprout. has shown remarkable results as a demulcent in catarrhal affections of the whole digestive and urinary tracts. Blossoms during most of the year . Action: Emollient. also differing largely in size and shape with the plant's environment. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Pickpocket.
Pronounced "soapy" properties will remove grease. about half an inch diameter. usually solitary. detergent. with alternate sessile leaves. N. sweet then acrid.and healing properties.O. Liliaceae. five cordate petals. Taste mucilaginous. waxy. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . smooth. two to three inches long. Part used: Leaves. slightly flattened above.Page 89 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. disperses inflammation. circular stem scars at intervals. and skin eruptions generally. Features: Stem from twelve to eighteen inches high. SOLOMON'S SEAL.swsbm. Saponaria officinalis. Synonym: Bouncing Bet. Skin diseases generally. Flowers (August) flesh-coloured to white. It soothes the part. chilblains. and as a nutrient in general debility it is probably unrivalled. transverse ridges. N. carbuncles. SOAPWORT. Fracture short. Features: Stem two feet high. Slippery Elm bark coarsely powdered makes one of the best possible poultices for boils. A teaspoonful of the powder to 1 pint of boiling water makes the food or gruel. ovoid. and heals rapidly. White flowers in May and June.com . Fuller's Herb. draws out impurities. Caryophyllaceae. Habitat: Roadsides and waste places near habitations. mixing each time until a smooth result is obtained. Soaproot. yellowish.O. root. Bruisewort. thick. clustered towards end of stem. Action: Alterative. The powder should be first thoroughly mixed with an equal quantity of brown sugar and the boiling water added in small quantities. round. Decoction of 1 ounce to 1 1/2 pints water simmered to 1 pint is taken in wineglass doses three or four times daily. Polygonatum officinalis. Rhizome cylindrical. Habitat: Rocky woods in high situations. Leaves stalked. say four to the pint. stalks axillary . black berries.
stimulant. pink turning blue. N. odour when dry rather tea-like. Scrophulariaceae. but such agents as Tansy and Wormwood are perhaps more effective as anthelmintics. antiseptic and detergent. covered with short hairs. Compositae.O. Synonym: Old Man. but become erect after producing. Veronica officinalis. Artemisia abrotanum. when combined with other remedies. Leaves opposite. Lung complaints. Lad's Love. serrate. oval. short-stalked. Habitat: Dry banks and sandy commons. SPEEDWELL. creeping. The greyish-green. It also grows wild on sandy heaths. Synonym: Bird's Eye. Common Speedwell. graceful appearance and pleasant. Action : Emmenagogue. Fluellin (in Wales). Part used: Herb. about half an inch long by a quarter of an inch broad. Wineglass doses are taken of the infusion of 1 ounce of the herb to 1 pint of boiling water.com . Features: Stem slender. where it is cultivated for its delicate. Southernwood is mainly employed in menstrual obstruction. Action: Astringent. Habitat: The plant is frequently seen in gardens. Also in leucorrhea. frequently in combination with Mugwort and Pennyroyal. Powdered root used as poultice for inflammations. in axillary spikes.Part used: Rhizome. hairy. Astringent to the taste. characteristic scent. Flowers small.O. are divided into many linear segments. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .swsbm. demulcent. Features : Two feet stems are at first prostrate. SOUTHERNWOOD. Cat's Eye. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water—wineglass doses. very slender leaves. The powdered herb is sometimes given in teaspoonful or smaller doses to children suffering from worms. N.Page 90 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. small yellow flowers in terminal leafy clusters. in August.
with concave stem scars. Liliaceae. The strong alterative properties are made considerable use of in rheumatic and general uric acid disorders. and approximate two inches long by a quarter-inch wide. and has similar properties to the above. which are tough. both in taste and aroma.A. Urginea scilla. Fracture short and whitish.S. Synonym: Scilla. Made as tea. as well as various skin diseases.Page 91 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Habitat: U. The fracture is short. dirty white in colour. Pettymorrel. Helpful in minor skin blemishes. Decoction of 1/2 ounce to 1 1/2 pints (reduced to 1 pint) is taken in tablespoonful doses four times daily. Root is a similar thickness at the base. wrinkled. oblique. Spignet. in addition to their positive virtues. it resembles certain varieties of China tea. Action: Alterative. expectorant. N. Araliaceae. SPIKENARD.Action: Mildly alterative. Features : Rhizome is about one inch in diameter. Aralia racemosa. coughs and catarrhs. light brown. The powdered bulb is very hydroscopic.com . SQUILL. they produce none of the bad effects of the last-named beverage.O. Taste and odour aromatic. Synonym: Indian Spikenard. Habitat: Grown near the sea coast in Sicily and Malta. An Indian variety is used throughout the East. diaphoretic. Part used: Root. bulbous root.swsbm. and should consequently be kept airtight. Scilla is imported in the form of dried. curved segments of the white. Features: A large bulbous plant. diuretic.O. N. taste acrid. Part used: Bulb. rhizome. Tilke recommends the substitution of Speedwell and Wood Betony for tea as. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .
deeply cut pinnately. as if all the petals had been pulled off. indeed. Flytrap. Leaf stalks grow on alternate sides of the stem. the leaves themselves being six to eight inches long by about four inches broad. Synonym: Dewplant. with glands exuding a sticky juice which is not dried by the sun's heat—hence the plant's common name. tickling coughs. leafless flower-stalk. and a dose according to age should be given night and morning fasting. The 1/2 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion is given in tablespoonful doses as required. Habitat: Bogs and marshy ground. 2 to 10 grains of the powdered bulb. white. Habitat: This common English wild plant was formerly cultivated in gardens.O. SUNDEW. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Of definite value in whooping-cough. Drosera rotundifolia. flat. Part used: Herb. terminating in the peculiar bunch of yellow. Tanacetum vulgare.swsbm. Droseraceae. on one side of the flower-stalk.Page 92 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. button-like flowers by which the plant may be easily recognised in July and August. Action: Expectorant.O. Particularly in dry.com . spherical. N. antispasmodic. TANSY. Tansy herb is probably the best of all the media for getting rid of worms in children. but is now rarely seen away from the borders of fields and waysides. demulcent. Round-leaved Sundew. and have a bitter taste. on which the herb seems to have almost a specific action. wiry. As an expectorant for coughs and all bronchial affections. leaving only the central florets. The infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is used. Is used generally to allay irritation of mucous surfaces. The crushed leaves and flowers give a pronounced aromatic smell. Compositae. Features : The tough. slightly ribbed stems reach a height of two or three feet. N. Dose. Flowers small. emetic. pectoral. the flowers look. Leaves radical. Features: Stem is the slender. Large doses produce emesis. about four inches high.Action: Expectorant. reddish.
tapering to a point. To some extent in prescriptions for jaundice. only slightly branched.swsbm. TOAD FLAX. N. the leaflets oblong in form. pale yellow. Habitat: Dry pasture and moorland. but to-day herbal compounds of greater efficacy are prescribed for dyspepsia. Leaves numerous. and. with a large pith.O. Linaria vulgaris. Features: Stem one to two feet higli. hard and cylindrical. Scrophulariaceae. The old-time herbalists used Tansy as a stimulating tonic for a poor digestive apparatus. detergent. The fracture shows light brownish-red. hepatic torpor and skin diseases. with roundish swellings and tiny. Upper leaves derive directly from the stem and seem to circle round it. grass-like. with a pale bluish hue. The name "Toad Flax" because of a supposed similarity between the mouth of the flower and that of the toad. Part used: Root and herb. Flaxweed. Synonym: Butter and Eggs.The medicine is also esteemed in some quarters for the treatment of hysteria and certain other of the nervous disorders of women. The ternate. Stem and leaves are smooth. alterative. Rosaceae. The 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion is taken in doses of 2 fl. Synonym: Septfoil (seven leaf). The root is brown. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . TORMENTIL. Action: Hepatic. Flowers shaped like the snapdragon (antirrhinum). Is also sometimes included in pile ointments. Potentilla tormentilla. clustered together at top of stem. seen from above. For this purpose a wineglassful of the infusion should be taken frequently.O. the bright yellow petals are distinctly separate. Pennywort. N. Tormentilla. Part used : Herb. jagged-toothed leaves are rather long and narrow. ounces. mouth closed by projecting orange-coloured lower lip . Features: The height of this freely-forked plant varies between six and twelve inches. Flowering in June and July. upright. astringent.com . thread-like rootlets.Page 93 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the lower ones being frequently stalked. Habitat: Hedgerows and cornfields. form an almost perfect Maltese cross.
It may also be used with benefit as a lotion for application to ulcers. thick. disagreeable taste and unpleasant characteristic odour are given from the short. particularly near buildings. neuralgia and nervous debility.O. The root is regarded as one of the best and most powerful of all the herbal astringents.Action: Tonic and astringent. Features : A handsome plant. Action: Nervine and antispasmodic. Features: The tough. whose stalks are round. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglass doses three or four times daily. growing from two to four feet and more high. and in marshy. VALERIAN. N. quadrangular. and of a pale greenish colour. many-branched stem averages eighteen Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . growing opposite each other from the stem. about the banks of rivers and lakes. Habitat: Found in many damp places such as low-lying meadows and woods. Great Wild Valerian. N. which is the part used medicinally. Habitat: Waste places and on roadsides. Tormentil was appreciated as a medicine far back in the days of Culpeper. especially when combined with Scullcap. many-fibred rootstock.O. Valerianaceae. Verbena officinalis. VERVAIN. thick.Page 94 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Valerian promotes sleep and is much valued in hysteria.com . Larger doses should not be taken. wiry. Mistletoe and Vervain. Valeriana officinalis. The pink-white flowers (June to August) blossom in large tufts at the stalk head.swsbm. swampy ground generally. greyish. A sweetish. who made his usual picturesquely extravagant claims for the herb. Verbenaceae. The leaves are pinnate with lance-shaped leaflets. Synonym: Capon's Tail. furrowed. Synonym: Verbena hastata. The decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint (reduced) of water in wineglass doses is consequently used in diarrhea and as a gargle for relaxed throats.
This lady. writing ninety years ago. Part used: Leaves and flowers. but it operates without any of the dangerous consequences that ever attend the use of antimonial preparations. Remarkable claims have been made for violet leaves in the treatment of malignant tumours. wiry spikes. and cramps. Coffin. and even death have been known to follow their use. to both of which it is superior. while the lower ones are stalked. 1901. Vervain will relieve and cure those complaints in children which generally accompany teething. . Administered as a tea. perhaps. along thin. it powerfully assists the pains of labour . suffering from cancer of the throat. emetic and sudorific. Very bitter in taste. Features: This is. Habitat: Damp woods and other shady places. Violaceae. Small. N. it likewise destroys worms. the upper ones clasp the stem. The herb was held in high repute by those who brought the Thomsonian system to this country." The ounce to pint infusion is now used.inches high. heartshaped leaves. and delicate. characteristically-scented and coloured flowers. says : "As an emetic it ranks next to lobelia . it is also one of the strongest sweating medicines in nature. . . with its long-stalked. was reported in the Daily Mail for November 14th. The case of Lady Margaret Marsham. as a diuretic it increases the urinary discharge.swsbm. light lilac-coloured flowers bloom in May. a slightly aromatic odour is given off when rubbed. used an infusion.Page 95 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. of a handful of fresh violet leaves to a pint of Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . As an emetic it supersedes the use of antimony and ipecacuanha. pinnately-lobed. serrate leaves grow distantly and opposite in pairs . VIOLET. and some years ago was highly esteemed as a remedy for consumption. and taken in wineglass doses. tonic.O. which was left to stand for twelve hours. of Maidstone. Action: Antiseptic and expectorant. Action: Nervine. Roughish. since it not only produces all the good effects ascribed to the others. Scullcap and Valerian are usually added.com . best known of all wild plants. Viola odorata. coughs and pain in the head. As a nervine. It is good for colds.
reaching up to six or seven feet. Red Dock. ditches. pale green turning to reddish-brown. Umbelliferae. Rumex aquaticus. although interesting. Such accounts as these. lakes. Polygonaceae.boiling water. and says: "It operates kindly and without excitement. William Gordon. branched. Part used: Root.swsbm. broad and sharp-pointed. in which latter case it should be given in combination with a mild laxative. Of value in skin diseases and sluggish liver. Habitat: In. where a remarkable case was reported by Dr. striated. porous bark. The same newspaper. Features: The largest of all the Docks. After a fortnight of warm fomentations with this liquid the growth was said to have disappeared. Root large. reddish brown. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . N. or very near.." He also claims diuretic and tonic qualities for the root. hollow. Action : Alterative. Synonym: Bloodwort. and in marshes and swampy places. under date March 18th. This may be used as a mouthwash for ulcers. detergent. WATER DOCK. thick.D.O. and the powder makes a first-rate medicinal cleanser for the teeth. 1905. ponds. greenish-yellow.com . large pith with honeycomb-like cells. some two feet in length. being slow but sure in promoting a healthy action of the depurative functions of the system. point turning over towards the water. N. Stem erect. M. Leaves very large.Page 96 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. should be read with considerable reserve. Daucus carota. with white threads which become brown. waterways. The dose is 3-4 tablespoonfuls of the decoction of 1 ounce to 1 pint after simmering from 1 1/2 pints. WILD CARROT. etc. Flowers (July and August) small. Hool highly esteems Water Dock.O. told its readers that violet leaves as a cure for cancer were advocated in the current issue of the Lancet.
irregularly notched at the edges. Wren tells us that "in taste and odour it resembles the garden carrot. Culpeper comments: "Wild Carrots belong to Mercury. retention of urine. with acute segments. The leaves are four to five inches long and about two inches broad. Taste is astringent. Habitat: This shrub. and doses of 2 fl. therefore. Action: Pronouncedly diuretic in action. like the Alders and the Hazel. Blossoming in June and July. and therefore breaketh wind. smooth above and downy underneath. pastures and field borders.O. gravel. says of this root. grows in bunches as high as eight or ten feet. obovate. and is found on high lands and the stony banks of streams. Action : Astringent and tonic. and faintly aromatic. ounces taken three or four times daily. the bark smooth and grey with brown spots. Habitat: Wastes. N. Hamamelidaceae. "no resemblance in taste or colour to the cultivated carrot. is yellowish-white. Part used : Bark and leaves. Either an infusion or decoction may be prepared in the usual proportions." WITCH HAZEL. not large. the umbel of white flowers usually contains one crimson flower in the centre. as well as de-obstruent and stimulant.Page 97 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. when the leaves are falling. however." Ferrier. and removeth stitches in the sides.Synonym: Bird's Nest. and smell slight and agreeable. but the root is small and white. and helpeth to break and expel the stone.com . Wild Carrot naturally. Yellow flowers appear in autumn. takes a prominent place in many formulae for the treatment of dropsy. Part used : The whole plant. sweetish.swsbm. provoketh urine and women's courses. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The whole plant is hairy. The root tapers. Features: The branches are flexuous and knotty. feather-veined. Features: The branched stems of one to three feet high are tough and bristly. Synonym : Spotted Alder and Snapping Hazel. and bladder trouble generally." Our own opinion is that Wild Carrot tastes like a rather distant relative of the household carrot—which it probably is. and the leaves are oblong and bipinnate. Hamamelis virginiana.
it gives off a few distant pairs of rough. For varicose veins an extract of the fresh leaves and young twigs of Witch Hazel is applied on a lint bandage kept constantly moist. It is a helpful component of prescriptions in the treatment of rheumatism and blood impurities. Action: Aromatic. stomach cramp and colic. It is highly recommended for biliousness. as his remarks show that the herb was as popular a carminative a hundred years ago as it is to-day : "This herb boiled with wine or water.A decoction of the bark. oblong leaves with rounded teeth. makes one of the most effective pile medicines known. when in combination with the more specific principles of Pilewort. which is more astringent than the leaves." he tells us. The roots are white and thready. Both decoctions of the bark and infusions of the leaves are made in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water (after simmering for ten minutes in the case of the bark decoction) and taken in wineglassful doses. and this astringency. the odour is slight and pleasant. woods and shady waysides. or have belchings and a continual rising in their stomach. Bitter to the taste. oval spike. Synonym: Bishopswort.com . "is good for those who cannot digest their meals. Habitat: Thickets.Page 98 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. N.O. The compound can be obtained in the form of both ointment and suppositories for external application. Features: The stem of this well-known wild plant is slender. Labiateae. checks external and internal hemorrhages. A wineglass of the ounce to pint infusion may be taken frequently. WOOD BETONY. Stachys betonica.swsbm. Purplish flowers." Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . arranged in a terminal. astringent and alterative. square and hairy. Tilke is interesting on Wood Betony. bloom in July and August. Part used: The whole herb. and as a tonic in digestive disorders generally.
Hool tells us that Wood Sage "combined with Comfrey and Ragwort. Geraniaceae.WOOD SAGE. Wood Germander. white. commons. Part used: Herb. they are round. astringent. Features: Separate stem for each flower and leaf grows from root.O. Cuckoo Sorrel. Part used: Herb. yellow-green above. Labiateae. Habitat: Woods and other shady situations. Features : Very similar in appearance to the ordinary garden. Wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusions are taken warm. smooth." WOOD SORREL. tonic.Page 99 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. slightly hairy. purple veins. one to each slender flower stalk. freely influences the bladder. Rubiaceae. Synonym: Allelujah. Action: Diuretic. It is also said to work well with other diuretics in certain urinary conditions.O. rather lemon-like. or culinary sage. slender. with a pinkish hue lower down. woods. Synonym: Waldmeister Tea. Taste acid. Leaves trifoliate. Synonym: Garlic Sage. Asperula odorata. and as a tonic will be found equal to Gentian.swsbm. Action: Diaphoretic. Wineglass doses of the 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion may be given to feverish patients whenever a cooling medicine is desirable." and that it is "an appetiser of the first order. N.com . Habitat: Heaths.O. In feverish colds and faulty menstruation due to chills. emmenagogue. N. WOODRUFF. N. Flowers five-petalled. darkish purple underneath. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Oxalis acetosella. refrigerant. Teucrium scorodonia.
slender. in rings of. and bloom in dense. Action: Hepatic. Nosebleed.swsbm. Artemisia absinthium. smooth. with flattened mouth. N. lobes linear. eight round the stem. Habitat: A wayside herb. brittle. flattened. Dose. WORMWOOD. white (occasionally pink or purplish).Habitat: Woods and other shady places. Infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of boiling water. are slightly woolly. divided into four white. The dried herb smells like new-mown hay. The alternate leaves are pinnatifid. whitish. Synonym: Milfoil. Synonym: Ajenjo. In faulty biliary functioning and general liver sluggishness. Features: Stem eight inches to one foot in height. Thousand-leaf. Habitat: Waste ground. Old Woman. Flowers (August) pale yellow with greenish tint. clustered in erect. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers tubular. Achillea millefolium. Action: Tonic. stalked. A reliable remedy for worms. Tonic properties particularly applicable to the digestive apparatus. daisy-like.com . obtuse. three inches long by one and a half inches broad. and are cut into very fine segments. Features: Stem two feet high. leafy panicle. Part used: Herb. anthelmintic. on long. pinnatifid. clasp the stem at the base. small. tonic. axillary stalk. four-sided. taken in wineglass doses for poor digestion and debility. N. Part used: Herb. Compositae. The flowers are small. angular stem. Leaves downy.O. usually. terminal Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . stomachic. two tablespoonfuls of the 1 ounce to 1 pint boiling water infusion. Features: Yarrow has a rough. silky hairs. globular. Compositae. also often seen in the pasture and meadow lands of Europe and the United States.Page 100 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. cross-shaped petals. YARROW.O. rather rough at the edges. and grows from twelve to eighteen inches in height.
stimulant and tonic. Taste and odour.corymbs. aromatic. shiny above. It was sometimes prescribed by the old herbalists as a tonic in nervous debility. about three inches by one inch. Yarrow is taken at the commencement of influenza and in other feverish conditions. Part used : Herb. Eriodictyon glutinosum. serrate. (Eriodictyon californicum). Part used: Leaves. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . The herb is extremely useful in colds and acute catarrhs of the respiratory tract generally. thus permitting free perspiration. Synonym: Bearsweed. Often a constituent of asthma prescriptions.swsbm. Action: Expectorant. As it has the effect of opening the pores. Features: Leaves elliptic-lanceolate. appearing at their best in July. but there are many better herbal medicines for this condition. white down underneath. Action: Diaphoretic. YERBA SANTA. and imported from. As a very popular remedy for influenza colds it is usually combined with Elder flowers and Peppermint in equal quantities. Habitat: Grown in.com . In catarrhal affections of the respiratory organs. An infusion of 1 ounce to 1 pint of foiling water is drunk warm in wineglass doses.Page 101 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. California. Mountain Balm. tonic.
Ground Ivy.—Damiana . Bayberry. Water Dock. Wormwood . as opposed to laxatives. Sanicle. Celandine.Page 102 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.PART III I—INDEX TO THERAPEUTIC ACTION of herbs comprised in the Cyclopaedia ALTERATIVES: Medicines which gradually alter and correct a poisoned condition of the blood stream and restore healthier functioning. Lobelia. Sundew. Poke Root. Red Sage. Wood Betony.—Balmony. Scullcap. CARMINATIVES: Are for the dispersal of wind in stomach and bowels. Cinquefoil.com .—Blue Flag. Cranes-bill. relating particularly to the sexual AROMATICS (see Carminatives). Cowslip. including those agents which kill worms (vermicides) without necessarily causing their evacuation.—Angelica. and counteract griping tendencies of certain laxatives. Fringe-tree. Southernwood. The term taenicide also denotes a worm destroyer. Cudweed. Sarsaparilla. Soapwort. Avens. Balm. Witch Hazel. Burr Marigold. Chamomile. ANTHELMINTICS: Remedies for worms. ASTRINGENTS: Promote greater density and firmness of tissue. Red Clover. Bistort. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Pulsatilla. Periwinkle. Grindelia. Valerian . Cramp Bark. known as vermifuges. Mistletoe. APHRODISIACS: Tonics organs. Violet. Black Haw. ANTISPASMODICS: Reduce or prevent excessive involuntary muscular contractions. Plantain.swsbm. OxEye Daisy. Burdock.—Agrimony. ANTISEPTICS: Resist or counteract putrefaction: Barberry. Pilewort. Ladies' Slipper. and those which expel them from the bowels. Pink Root. Golden Seal. Tansy.—Black Cohosh. Spikenard.
Cardamoms. Slippery Elm. and more watery evacuations (both of which see). make supple. Liquorice. Black Horehound. Lobelia. the increased secretion and ejection of mucus. Mullein. Vervain . Balm. Catnep. DEMULCENTS: Soothe. Cloves. Clivers. by their influence on the respiratory passages. soften and allay irritation of mucous membranes. Horehound.enhance the menstrual flow. Chick-weed.—Coltsfoot. Mugwort. stomach contents by EMMENAGOGUES: Provoke and . Pennyroyal. EMETICS: Bring about the evacuation of vomiting. EXPECTORANTS: Assist. Mouse-ear. DIURETICS: Enhance the secretion of urine. Wild Ginger. Sundew. Parsley Piert. Bugloss. Melilot. Juniper. which induce gentle bowel movement. Melilot. and counteract dryness and harshness of internal and external surfaces. Wood Sage. Pleurisy Root. Slippery Elm. Prickly Ash. Iceland Moss. and (6) Purgatives.com . Southernwood. Eryngo.—Angelica. Pennyroyal. and may be divided into: (a) Laxatives. repeated. Marigold. Marshmallow. Yerba Santa. CATHARTICS : Promote bowel evacuation. Also known as refrigerants.—Bitter Root.Page 103 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. EMOLLIENTS: Soften. Mullein.—Broom. Wood Sage. —Liquorice. Buchu. Solomon's Seal . Pellitory-ofthe-Wall.swsbm. DIAPHORETICS: Induce increased perspiration. FEBRIFUGES: Reduce excessive temperature in fevers by enhancing evaporation of perspiration. Comfrey. Heartsease. Squill. Gravel Root. Peppermint. they are closely Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Boneset. Yarrow. Ragwort. Wild Carrot. Celery. Fennel. producing copious. Devil's Bit. Shepherd's Purse.—Black Cohosh. Marshmallow. Dill. Elecampane. Lobelia.—Blue Mallow.
Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . TAENIFUGES (see Anthelmintics).—Balm. Catnep. Prickly Ash. Sassafras. Mistletoe. Mandrake (American). with consequent improved functional action. Cloves. Cayenne. TONICS: Medicines which assist towards a higher bodily tone and increased vigour. Wild Ginger. Horseradish. Turkey Rhubarb. Calumba.swsbm. Pennyroyal. Centaury.—Black Haw. Bryony.v. Peppermint. Chamomile. NUTRITIVES: Assist assimilation. Centaury. Boneset. Psyllium.com . Bay-berry. Feverfew. Buckbean.—Cascara Sagrada. STIMULANTS: Produce increased nervous sensibility. Bugleweed. nourish and build tissue. Scullcap.). HEPATICS: Influence the liver.. Devil's Bit.—Iceland Moss. Slippery Elm. bowel evacuatives. Purple Loose-strife. NERVINES: Relieve nervous irritation and pain. Golden Seal.—Adonis. flow of LAXATIVES: Gently loosen the bowels.—Bitter Root.akin to diaphoretics and sudorifics (q. Senna. causing an increased bile. Woodruff. Toad Flax.—Avens. SEDATIVES (see Nervines). Butterbur.—Barberry. STOMACHICS: Stimulant medicines which act specifically upon the stomach. Turkey Rhubarb. Elder. Valerian. REFRIGERANTS (see Febrifuges). Golden Seal. Mountain Flax.Page 104 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. PURGATIVES: Powerful Mandrake (American).—Chicory. SUDORIFICS (see Diaphoretics). Dandelion. Blood Root.
Vervain. Gentian. Wormwood. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Damiana. Tormentil.Page 105 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. VERMIFUGES (see Anthelmintics). Peony. VERMICIDES (see Anthelmintics). Quassia.com . Chiretta. Hops.swsbm.Chamomile.
Page 106 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm.com .Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .
simmering down to 2 pints. Flatulence Balm Angelica Pennyroyal Cloves 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1 drachm An infusion in 11 pints boiling water to be taken in wineglass doses (warm) as required. Stomach and Liver Equal parts of Golden Seal American Mandrake Gentian Angelica To 1 ounce of the mixture add 1 1/2 pints of water. and simmer to 1 pint. Blood Blue Flag Root Burdock Red Clover Yellow Dock Sarsaparilla Wild Ginger 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 3/4 ounce 1 drachm Boil in 3 pints of water. An appropriate diet should be planned.swsbm. boil. Wineglass doses thrice daily. 3 tablespoons.—These medicines ought to be made as freshly as possible—the infusions and decoctions never in quantities to last longer than four days. Dose.B.com . Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .3—MEDICINAL FORMULAE N. and strictly adhered to. in all cases of ill-health.Page 107 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.
Laxative [mild) Dandelion Root Mountain Flax Golden Seal Cloves 1 ounce 1 ounce 1 ounce 1/2 ounce Boil in two pints of water and simmer for 10 minutes. boiled. warm. wineglassful three or four times daily.swsbm. wineglassful three times daily. 1 ounce 1 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce Boil gently in 3 pints of water for 10 minutes.Page 108 Herbal Manual The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.thrice daily. Bronchial Horehound Coltsfoot Marshmallow Valerian Pleurisy Root . Dose. and simmered for 10 minutes. Kidney and Bladder Buchu Parsley Piert 1 ounce 1 ounce by Harold Ward . Rheumatism Equal parts of Black Cohosh Poke Root Prickly Ash Agrimony Yarrow One ounce of the mixture to 1 pint of water. Dose.com . at bedtime. A wineglass to teacup dose.
sliced.Page 109 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Dose. sliced. let it stand till cool. and as a general stimulant.com ." Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . of each half-an-ounce. liquorice-root. Dose. return it to the liquor. a wineglassful three or four times a day. then take out the sarsaparilla and bruise it. then strain. Composition Powder Bayberry Bark (powdered) 1 ounce Wild Ginger 1/2 ounce Cayenne 1 drachm A teaspoonful of the mixture to a teacupful of boiling water is taken warm at bed-time to ward off the effects of chill. Coffin's Sarsaparilla Compound "Take of sarsaparilla-root and sassafras-chips.swsbm. and boil for ten minutes. macerate them in one quart of water for ten minutes. wineglassful thrice daily. snake-root. Nervine Valerian Scullcap Mistletoe Wood Betony Vervain 1 ounce 1 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce Boil slowly in three pints of water for 10 minutes.Wild Carrot Pellitory Juniper 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce 1/2 ounce Decoction of 3 pints simmered to 2 pints in wineglass doses 3 or 4: times daily. of each one ounce. bruised.
—TOILET RECIPES Tooth Powder Equal parts of Orris Root (powdered) Bayberry Bark Bistort Root Prepared chalk To Darken Grey Hair Grey hair may be gradually and harmlessly darkened by brushing regularly and thoroughly with the ounce to pint infusion of Red Sage. In addition to being valuable as seasonings. Pennyroyal and Red Sage.com . -CULINARY HERBS In addition to Celery Seed. the following list includes the remainder of the herbs used in the kitchen. which have also definite medicinal purposes and are dealt with in the dictionary. The slightly medicinal action which entitles these culinary herbs to consideration as aids to digestion is shown : Basil: Aromatic. 5.4. their qualities as digestives make it desirable that they should be added to dishes wherever possible.swsbm. massaging well with the finger-tips. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Shampoo (General) Balm Rosemary Melilot Soapwort 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 ounce ounce ounce ounce Tie up the herbs in a linen bag and pour on them 1 gallon of boiling water.Page 110 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. Both growth and texture also benefit. When cool enough apply all over the scalp with a cup for several minutes. carminative. cooling.
diuretic. 6. If naturally and carefully dried. Thyme : Tonic. as a leaf.which lie close against stem. APPRESSED (or Adpressed). Roots should be collected only after the herb itself has fallen back for the season. to which. shows remnants of style or stigma at the apex. for the expert gatherer. parallel and close to the stem. from a tree that has been cut down the previous autumn.com . etc. Tarragon : Aromatic. Applied to hairs. they should be tied in small bunches and hung head downwards from a wire line stretched across a dry. or by branch Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . Barks should never be taken from the living tree.—GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS ACHENE. the therapeutic virtues will remain for long periods. They should never be spread on the floor. unlike a seed.swsbm. Parsley : Aperient. Does not open when ripe.Bay Leaves : Carminative.—GATHERING & DRYING OF HERBS Herbs should be gathered just after they are fully developed and are beginning to go back for the season. shady and airy room.Page 111 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. or part of a compound fruit. but only in the spring time. there will be many exceptions. carminative. antiseptic. AXIL. Savory : Aromatic.—Angle formed by leaf or bract with stem or branch. ANTHER. no matter whether the plant is annual.—A one-seeded fruit. and.—Bag containing pollen. To dry. The above are general hints only. stimulant. Mint: Aromatic.—Rising. keeping the medicinal properties intact. Marjoram : Tonic. seen in the Buttercup and Clematis. biennial or perennial. 7.
BRACT. BIPINNATIFID. CALYX.—A little flower forming part of an aggregate one.Page 112 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. DECURRENT.—A group or ring of bracts.—Heart-shaped.—A collective flower formation. FLORETS (or Flowerlets). outer flowers being the first to open. but each rises to the same level. FLEXUOUS. e.—Having very small notches or scallops at the margins. CORYMB.—An inflorescence in which the central flower opens first.—Curving.—Row of floral leaves cupping the remainder of the flower.with stem. winding.—Doubly divided in a feather-like manner.g. CARPELS. INVOLUCRE. CRENULATE. Elder.—Modified leaves bearing seeds and forming the seed vessel. either separate or joined together. CYME. CORDATE.swsbm.—Applied to leaves which have notched or scalloped edges.—Extending in a direction downward from the point of insertion. COROLLA.com . CRENATE.—The inner row of floral leaves. GLAUCOUS. Applied particularly to the central flowers in the flowerheads of the Composites.—Covered with a sea-green coloured bloom. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .—An irregularly developed leaf growing from the flower stalk beneath the flower. in which the flower stalks are of differing lengths.
—The fruit containing seeds.—Divided about half-way to the midrib or rachis in a featherHerbal Manual by Harold Ward . OVARY.Page 113 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.LABIATE. hairy calyx.swsbm. the outside flowers of each branch being the first to open. sometimes threadlike.—A feathery. and larger than the others. LAMINATE. PANICLE.—Inversely ovate. LYRATE. monopetalous corolla. LINEAR.—Lyre-shaped . LENTICELS. bark.—An embryo seed. OVOID.—Nearly egg-shaped. said of pinnatifid leaves where the terminal lobe is rounded. PEDUNCLE. LANCEOLATE. OVATE.—Corky developments of the breathing pores of leaf. PAPILLAE.—Composed of thin layers. PAPPUS.—Cleft in a feather-like way to the midrib.—Leaf stalk. PETIOLE.—Oval.—Slender. PINNATE.—An inflorescence of which the first branches themselves branch.—Flower stalk.com . PINNATIFID.—Small protuberances. etc. OBOVATE. OVULE.—Egg-shaped. with tapering ends.—Applied to an irregular.
thread-like portion of the female organ of a flower.—Proceeding immediately from root or root-stock. REVOLUTE. the carpels of which are scale-like as in the pines. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward . SPATULATE. RACEME.—Shaped as a rhomb.—A catkin." SERRATE.swsbm.—A division of the calyx. THALLUS.—Shaped as a spatula.—Streaked with fine parallel or wavy lines.like manner.—Wheel-shaped.—Curved or bowed downward. corresponding with "petal. SESSILE. STROBILE.com .Page 114 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. as in the Currant. creeping stem. in which the flowers grow from a central stem.—The male organ of a flower. which sends out shoots above and roots below. on branch-lets of equal length. STYLE.—Applied to a leaf divided into three segments. RECURVED (or Recurvate). the lowest flower opening first. TERNATE. RHIZOME. STAMEN.—Rolled back at the edges. ROTATE . SEPAL. or flattened spoon.—The middle. STRIATE (or Striated). RADICAL.—A more or less underground. branching growth of mosses and lichens.—The flat.—Obliquely toothed as a saw. RHOMBOID.—A form of inflorescence.—Stalkless.
TRUNCATE.—With three distinct leaflets as Clover. on the same level with each other.—An aggregate of flowers.—Appearing as though cut off at the tip. WHORL. the outer flowers opening first.com .TRIFID. Herbal Manual by Harold Ward .Page 115 The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www. the stalks of which all proceed from a single point and are of equal length.—Nearly cleft into three segments.—An arrangement of a number of leaves or flowers around a stem.swsbm. UMBEL. TRIFOLIATE.
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