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( let the master answer ) – the responsibility of the superior for the acts of their subordinates or in a broader sense, the responsibility of the third party that have the “ right, ability or duty to control ” the activities of a violator. It can be distinguished from contributory liability, another form of secondary liability. The law relating to group liability ( also termed as joint liability , constructive liability , or vicariously liability ) has been elaborately dealt with in sections 154 , 155 and 156 of the code. These provisions may be broadly classified into Three categories viz.1) Section 154 – Owner or occupier of land on which unlawful assembly is Held. 2) Section 155 – Liability of person for whose benefit riot is committed. 3) Section 156 – Liability of agent of owner or occupier for whose benefit riot is committed.
1.1 Literature Review –
The Indian Penal Code K.D. Gaur Fourth Edition – Vicarious liability is a legal doctrine that assigns liability for an injury to a person who did not cause the injury but who has a particular legal relationship to the person who did act negligently. It States that Sections 154, 155 and 156 incorporate the principle of Vicarious Liability under Criminal Law. The owner or occupier of land on which a riot take place, or a person for whose benefit it takes place and also their agents or managers, if they fail to inform the police of such happening or if they do not use all means at their command to suppress or avert rioting, are held liable and punished. A master is held criminally liable under Sections 154 and 155, IPC for acts committed by his agents or servants, whereas section 156 fixes personal liability on the managers and agents.