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Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
Sufﬁxes. and Word Roots iii .CONTENTS Introduction v 1 12 31 45 61 74 81 99 117 174 1 2 3 4 5 6 About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Preﬁxes.
As you explore the vocabulary in this book.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. Here’s how to start. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. Is it the subject—the person. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. 3. you will eventually see how they ﬁt together. and heard words you’ve never read. With practice. Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. 1. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. it’s a verb. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. 2. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. You’ve read words you have never heard. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. a listening vocabulary. The words something and whatever work well v . and a speaking vocabulary. Start small. Usually you can ﬁgure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. You can also use trial and error to ﬁnd islands of meaning in a sentence. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. look at the words around it. though. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. One way you can do this is to ﬁnd a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. If so.
grammar. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. Share them with your coworkers. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. and certiﬁcation agencies. licensing. or family. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. thesaurus. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. For the TOEFL iBT. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. Sometimes. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. It mostly takes curiosity. Always keep your end goal in mind. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. Whenever the time is right.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). It may be first thing in the morning. or exchange and scholarship programs. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. Think about when would be the best time for you. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. Welcome them to your world. Vocabulary is a broad topic. In general. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. or before you go to bed at night. Determine how much time you have until the test day. You may ﬁnd you prefer nonsense words instead. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. If you study hard the first time. and spelling. during your commute to work. Take them apart. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. this book will help you prepare. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . write. friends. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have ﬁnished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. Once you establish a study plan for yourself.
Each chapter is ﬁlled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. once you have set a study plan for yourself. The book ﬁnishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). reread the questions and try responding one more time. and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes.I NTR O D U CTI O N vii Now. not waiting until the end of the book. you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. As you work through the practice questions. Sufﬁxes. . and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT. or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence. After you answer the practice questions. It will be very beneﬁcial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary.
and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school. speaking. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language. you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork. you may be given a position as a teaching assistant. listening. and writing on effective communication. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL. colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. and grade their assignments. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading. 1 . Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.About TOEFL iBT 1 T he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. instruct them. And if you are applying to a graduate program. In many courses. you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission. WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST Proﬁciency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes.
and Writing. The test is worth a total of 120 points. Speaking. After completing a section of the test.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages. each followed by 12–14 questions. followed by Listening. each test taker receives the same range of questions. The ﬁrst test section is Reading. you will not be able to return to that section to ﬁnish or change your answers. The test is not computer-adaptive. There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage . In other words.
Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simpliﬁcation • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons. a passage will appear on the computer screen. A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. On the right will be a clock. You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. . indicating your remaining time.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you.
life sciences. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume. After selecting Next. and your remaining time. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. and social science 2–3 conversations. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. In the Listening section. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen. there are Back and Next buttons. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. you may not go back and review questions. a question will appear on the screen. Difﬁcult words or phrases in the passage may be deﬁned for you. each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock.4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. physical sciences. When the listening passage is complete. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. the number of questions in the section. you are asked to click the OK button to conﬁrm that you want to move to the next question.
. you will type your response to two tasks. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. For four of the speaking tasks. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. Listening. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. Listening. For all of the speaking tasks. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. Listening. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. For the integrated writing task.
you will receive an instant e-mail conﬁrmation. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student ofﬁces at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative ofﬁces • from the TOEFL website. Canada. and a list of writing topics. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories). ﬁll out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. seven days a week. test center address. you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. territories.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers ﬁll up quickly.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. and a registration number.S. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend. After completing the registration form. which you must bring to the test center on test day. 24 hours a day. To schedule a test date elsewhere. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin. test instructions. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away.toeﬂ. To register by phone. institution codes. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. You will be given a test date. and other information you will ﬁnd useful. www. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. If you do not. reporting time. or U. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. such as sample questions. Canada. territories. call 1-443-751-4862. You should receive a registration conﬁrmation.S. To schedule a test date in the United States. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT. or U. To schedule a test date in the United States. To register by mail. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice.
If you reschedule. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date.O. you can get one examinee score report and up to four ofﬁcial score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test.M. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail. by mail. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. NJ 08541–6152. Fifteen days after you take the test. or by fax. you will be . Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. the examinee score report will be sent to you and ofﬁcial score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the ﬁnal section scores as well as your total score. You can have ofﬁcial score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140. Box 6152 Princeton. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. Requests must be made online. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. TOEFL test scores are kept on ﬁle for two years after the test date. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. call the RRC for your area or country.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Ofﬁce P. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. you may view your scores online.
If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. you will receive a refund of $65. you can cancel your score at the test center. For testing elsewhere. In the United States. the total score will range from 0 to 120. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas. However. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. After canceling your scores. territories. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric.S. If you do cancel your scores. the points are converted to a 0. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. you can take the TOEFL iBT again. contact your RRC.to 30-point scale. Canada. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your ﬁrst semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the ﬁrst time around. . after taking the exam. meaning each question has a correct answer(s). For each test section. and you will not receive a refund. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. or U.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. Alternatively. So. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective.
The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new ofﬁcial score reports. and U. These revised scores will become your ofﬁcial scores. registration number.O. If the rescoring conﬁrms your original score. daytime phone number. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee.S. Canada.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. you will receive a revised examinee score report. date of birth. . Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. If there is a change in your score. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. Box 6151 Princeton. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online. which is found on the TOEFL website. you will be notiﬁed via mail.
Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. Your identiﬁcation will be checked before you are admitted. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. pagers. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break. you must answer at least one question in each section. beepers. DON’T: • bring cellular phones. If you fail to provide proper registration and identiﬁcation documents on the day of the test. smoke. You will also need your registration number. you will be required to write your signature and sign a conﬁdentiality statement. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identiﬁcation for TOEFL test takers. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identiﬁcation. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. drink. Before the test session. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. To receive an ofﬁcial score report. raise your hand. • eat. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. . To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. In most cases. If. or chew gum. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. for some reason. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. watch alarms. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. at any time during the test. If. raise your hand. Read the identiﬁcation requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin.
pamphlets. calculators.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. books. dictionaries. • give or receive unauthorized help. translators. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identiﬁcation. . Follow these guidelines. highlighter pens. rulers. • attempt to tamper with the computer. • leave the test center during the test session and break. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. notes. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. • exceed the time permitted for the break. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. watch calculators.
Using a dictionary is. or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. For example. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. Simply put. of course. you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. which gives you a very clear definition of the word.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). you have been determining meaning from context. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your ﬁrst English words. Once in a while. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition. You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. . the best way to deﬁne a word. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word.
comfort with speaking in front of people. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. Even if you can’t ﬁgure out exactly what candor means. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. he can be a bit too honest. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. 4. irritability. b. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. you will soon forget what it means. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Speciﬁc Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. Now. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. The ﬁrst part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). sincere speech. thus signifying that candor means frank. 3. Candor means a. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. c. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. In this case. only b can be the correct answer. When you are learning a new word. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. . Based on the context of the sentence. Introduce them to members of your family. frank. d. but sometimes.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. readiness to judge or criticize others. 2. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. if you don’t use it.
done her grocery shopping. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. she was back to her old assiduous self. and by noon. laziness. But on Sunday. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. Besides. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. hard labor c. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. Saturday. essentially deﬁning the word within the sentence. laziness The correct answer is d. luxurious b.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. Again. deep sleep d. and left the dishes in the sink. she slept until noon. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . The ﬁrst sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. reading and watching television. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. so choice c is also incorrect. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. and paid her bills. Thus you can determine what indolence means. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. while the second and third sentences conﬁrm this with speciﬁc details. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. The speciﬁc details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail.
For example. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary. ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. unremitting. for example. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. Therefore. have more than one meaning. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions of the following words. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. Assiduous means diligent. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. the connotation can be favorable or positive. spirited and mischievous. cleaning and working around the house (speciﬁc detail). while playful is neutral in tone. when you are looking for context clues. Sometimes. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary deﬁnition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. is the sound a duck makes. you might get a deﬁnition similar to that of two of its synonyms. very busy on Sunday. not functioning or operating Some English words. . You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. For instance. A quack. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. At a minimum. however. hardworking. Then again. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualiﬁed person who pretends to be a doctor. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. or persevering. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary deﬁnition.
each word carries its own speciﬁc connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. for example. ample. Succinct is more neutral. though. you should choose your words carefully. the words bountiful. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufﬁcient context. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. and succinct. you can’t even ﬁgure out if it is something positive or negative. although these words are effectively synonymous. In fact. While you can have a bountiful. Terse. has the most positive connotation of these three words. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. ample. and glut suggest abundance. plentiful. Laconic. they are rarely identical. In some cases.16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. when it comes to your own communications. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. on the other hand. But you could ﬁgure out what inept means by . a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. Thus. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. terse. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. For example. For instance. While some synonyms can be similar. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. However. most words have their own unique connotation. one of these words suggests an overabundance. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase.
however. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance ﬂoor. There are some basic skills you need to acquire. but like everything else worth doing. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. it’s hard at ﬁrst and gets easier as you practice. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. Often. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. Even if you have no idea what a word means. Once you have the key to the code. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. though. it’s easy to decipher the message. SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. you can ﬁgure out what these words mean. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. Sometimes you will ﬁnd unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message. Meanwhile. though. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnition. Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. one of the units will express a complete thought. More often than not.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its preﬁx (in-) and word root (ept). By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph.
is the best answer choice. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. This question has a blank in each of its two units. . it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes. Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. secular. the unit without the blank. consider this sample question: Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. Choice d. For example. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. Now you’re ready to use the ﬁrst unit to illuminate the second.” a word such as civic.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. religious d. you have: After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. reverent b. a. Your ﬁnal step is to look at the answer choices to ﬁnd the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. the one with the blank. The first unit. Now you know you need to ﬁll in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-deﬁned units. If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. or secular. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. The second unit. ➥ After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. theological c.
There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. As in the preceding example. rest d. Think of something that. . Think of a synonym for “not bold. and cause and effect. sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. would indicate that kind of temperament. right? So the word that goes in the ﬁrst blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. reckless . . if not done before age two. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. you could be fairly conﬁdent that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. comparison. Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). daring. perambulate c. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. Now read the sentence using your word in the ﬁrst blank.” Put it in the ﬁrst blank. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. bold. adventurous . or move about on one’s own. ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. a. The second unit of the sentence. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. . to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. . The best answer to this question is choice b. . The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. . Actually is a clue word.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best ﬁll in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. scuttle The ﬁrst unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. Think of them as clues to a mystery. daring . If actually were to be removed from the sentence. . uses a phrase of comparison. . careful . The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. . careful . . amble b. as illustrated by. perambulate.
its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. however. but. despite. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. as the second unit. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. and. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. Now you have as the ﬁrst unit. This is the logical relationship of contrast. such as on the other hand. although. but. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases. gregarious. when you see one of these words or phrases. or opposition. or sociable are other options. and that is. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at ﬁrst glance. in fact. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. as well as. in other words. as shown. and and. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. or on the contrary. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. for example. The ﬁrst unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. First divide the sentence into two units. despite. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. however. and yet. Friendly. all meaning “not solitary. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. then ﬁll in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. similarly. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. using the punctuation to guide you. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the ﬁrst unit is in opposition to solitary. and as illustrated by. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . Words that signal comparison include likewise. You might choose the word social.
The correct answer will be posture. irrelevant . two complete and one incomplete.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. and because. English is a difﬁcult language because it is so visually confusing. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. Foster slouched. or its synonym. needs to be ﬁlled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. illogical c. You may also ﬁnd it helpful to use a nonﬁction or ﬁction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. In other words. as a result. you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. or very nearly so. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. This sentence has three units. Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. and phrases such as due to. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. consequently. The blank in the third unit. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. When you know what the complete unit says. This will help you match the word to its written form. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. Words such as thus. Foster never stood up straight. The ﬁrst two units tell you that before military school. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. ➥ Scientiﬁc knowledge is usually _______. decreasing d. Again. cumulative b. therefore. a. therefore.
vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. using key words and phrases. which.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. applies to lots of stuff. cumulative. you will be daunted if you are timid. • You might vacillate if you are timid or difﬁdent. • You might grovel if you are servile. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. The incomplete unit. while disdain and revere are opposites. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. of course. To prepare for these types of questions on the . match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. for example. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. Abate and ebb. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientiﬁc knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. chances are you will understand the crucial words. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. you’ve made a good start. have nearly the same meaning. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. • You might disdain something that is banal. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. the one with the blank.
try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. contrast. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. and speciﬁc detail. For example. Read carefully. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. like the TOEFL iBT.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. however. Look for speciﬁc details that provide clues to meaning. This is a skill you can practice every day. the more you will comprehend. and the less time you will spend looking up words. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. To help you eliminate answers. This may sound like a contradiction. At a minimum. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. . Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. have a dictionary handy. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. By reading actively. Remember the four types: restatement. surprisingly. Often. From the start. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. it is a good idea to become an active reader. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. positive/negative. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. By reading carefully. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately.
accomplished c. remainder c. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. revenue d. domain b. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. a. practical d. demographic c. nocturnal 3. receptive c. a. incumbent 2. a. candid d. a. 1.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank. blasé . She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. talkative b. assessment 4. nominal b. artiﬁcial d. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. but secretly she was very excited. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. dedicated b.
accessible b. eloquent d. he longed most of all for _____________. a. receptive c. irrelevancy 8. association c.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. outmoded . dedicated c. musty d. a. loneliness d. aged b. ambiguous 9. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. summit c. a. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. solitude b. decrepit 7. a. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. nadir 6. current b. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. circumference b. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. scented c. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. fulcrum d. but now it is _____________. We were tired when we reached the _____________. unnecessary d. a.
intricate. Explicit means a. radical. natural. d. insane. to be under close scrutiny. . The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. useless. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. cadence 11. Futile means a. fruitful. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. d. they were on a _____________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of tea.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. c. complex. c. d. b. clearly and fully stated. b. harmless. b. discovery d. surge b. of local origin. nearly overﬂowing. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. 12. a. Teem means a. dangerous. c. chronologically ordered. d. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. Benign means a. 13. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. to close down temporarily. c. b. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. quest c. 14. ambiguous or implied. to be full of.
Evade means a. who was always one step of his creator. d. descriptive. stray. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. d. b. difﬁcult to compare. Elusive means a. elegant. to soften. to regress. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. to answer indirectly. to deviate. Terse means a. d. b. to deceive. to refuse. . c. 16. d. c. difﬁcult to capture. to refuse to answer directly. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. b. to change the tone. to intensify. Digress means a. concise. 17. to express concisely. c.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15.000-word article. factual. preferring a more terse writing style. to create. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. The editor. revert. b. b. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics. cut 500 words from the 2. Diffuse means a. c. difﬁcult to avoid. d. 18. to escape or elude. difﬁcult to forget. c. 19.
foster c. unlike loneliness. d. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. 5. a. The summit means the highest point. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. to conﬁrm. banter c. 3. 1. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. to believe. to guess. activities 22. 6. bolster d. 21. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. to surprise. and it would be something a person who works in a busy ofﬁce would crave. d. Surmise means a. where the hikers would have a good view. Revenue is the income of a government. Incumbent means holding any post or position. d. b. a. c. b. c. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. b. c. behavior d. . can be a desirable thing. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. Solitude. antics b. a. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. 7. 2. a. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. 4. 8. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. sustain b.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20.
13. Benign means not harmful or malignant. d. vain. b. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. disperse. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. Elusive means evasive. Terse means concise. d. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. to soften or make less brilliant. deviate. b. using no unnecessary words. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. d. to avoid fulﬁlling. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. gentle. hopeless. 17. a. mild. d. b. 14. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. 10. a. 21. 15. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. Futile means useless. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. b. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. straightforward. producing no result. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. 20. dramatically reducing its wordiness. 12. 11. 19. The sentence tells you that Dr. a. having a beneﬁcial effect. there is likely to be a great number of security ofﬁcers in the hotel. eluding the grasp. To diffuse means to spread throughout. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. 18. d. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. to be present in large numbers. exact. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. c. difﬁcult to capture. 16. or doing. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. . To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. To digress means to turn aside. answering. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. To teem means to be full of. who constantly escaped his grasp.
30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. thus. want to raise or bolster this morale. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. If the friend has a “sinking morale. c. Choice a. b. . and d are all incorrect. The speaker would.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated.
3 Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. meaning before. but the job may be easier than you think. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. For example. A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. This chapter reviews preﬁxes and sufﬁxes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. Though preﬁxes and sufﬁxes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. There are dozens of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in the English language. changes: 31 . Thus the meaning of the root word. you are already using the same preﬁxes and sufﬁxes with simple words that you already know well. ﬁx. the word preﬁx itself uses the preﬁx pre-. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. Learning preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in another language may seem like a daunting task.
is easily frightened. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. which uses the preﬁx in-. Thus. knowing that the . Knowledge of preﬁxes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. including inept. you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. speaks many languages. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. c. For example. the base upon which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are added preﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning sufﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a preﬁx alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a preﬁx to determine whether a word is positive or negative. administers lie detector tests.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ﬁx: to place securely or ﬁrmly preﬁx: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used preﬁxes. to eliminate incorrect answers. it is the only possible correct answer. is an expert in global issues. b. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. d. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. If you know that the preﬁx poly. O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. meaning not—not suitable or competent. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word. For example. take the word polyglot.means many.
or wrong can help you signiﬁcantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. to speak badly about. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. trident. millennium. bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. . quarter. This will help you remember the meaning of each preﬁx—and show you just how well you already know them. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. millimeter) Following is a list of the preﬁxes. c. to arrange. bicameral. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. b.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 preﬁx mal. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. Among the most common number related preﬁxes are: un-. to cast an evil spell. bilateral. triple) quad-.means bad. unity. you may be able to choose the correct answer. enchant. d. evil. b. to charm. centipede. mono-: one (unique. decibel) cent-: hundred (century. To malign is to say evil. we have provided two examples of words that use that preﬁx. these examples are not test-prep words. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. and trilogy (a series of three plays). Take a look at some words that contain numerical preﬁxes: bipartisan (two parties). that is. quar-: four (quadrant. monotonous. decathlon. to speak ill of. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the preﬁxes are the numerical preﬁxes. rather. quart. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. you can eliminate choices a and c. With your knowledge of preﬁxes. and often untrue things about someone. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. trinity. decimal. traditionally in three orders of priority). With a few exceptions. For each preﬁx. harmful.
among. off abduct (to take by force). occur. jointly cooperate (to work together. abs-: from. or an occurrence) co-. reversal. in front of. together. comply). atypical (not typical) ab-. or lie between two points of time or things) . expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). com-. intervene (to come. an-: not. a particular incident. away from exit (go out). before anterior (placed before). on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). appear. circum-: around. antedate (to proceed in time. informal (not formal) inter-: between. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. not dismiss (to send away from. ant-: opposite. apart. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. without amoral (not moral). come before) anti-.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. away. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). con-: with. within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-. opposing. about. out of. eject).
multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonﬁction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than ﬁction). exceeding superb (grand. wrong. polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). magniﬁcent. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. to take the place of) sub-: under. bring under control). again rebuild (to build again after destruction). recent. multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. make known in advance) re-: back. misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. ill. predict (to forecast. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). abnormal. excellent).U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . malpractice (wrongdoing. of unusually high quality. beneath. evil. replace (to put back in its former position. below subdue (to overcome. over.
you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. which means “ten. The point of learning about preﬁxes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. For example. which means “to completely destroy. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . and illegible. and il. in-. . the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property. Go to the movie theater to see a ﬁlm in English. the preﬁxes un-. Try watching the evening news. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. inconsiderate. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. Other preﬁxes only remotely affect word meaning. .” in the word decimate. not a verb. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. the more you will understand. there is only a distant hint of the preﬁx deci-. or rent a ﬁlm in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. make sure you review the list carefully and study any preﬁxes that are unfamiliar to you. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken. displeasing. You may also realize that the sufﬁx -ian calls for an adjective.” Historically. For example. as in unhappy.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. The important point to remember is that in learning preﬁxes. dis-. As you use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to determine meaning.36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English preﬁxes is located in Appendix B. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. For example. . After you have completed this chapter. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present deﬁnition. Some preﬁxes immediately change the entire meaning of a word.
imagine. can also identify or quantify. exhilarating that (e. feel. how many. soon Examples cloud. contend. other adverbs.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. look how the sufﬁxes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the preﬁx. several dogs) slowly. ancient. place.. how and to what extent white. clumsily. or a modiﬁer. adjectives. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Deﬁnition one who opposes or contends with another. opponent opposing. how much adverb describes verbs. or entire clauses. oblong. an action or state of being (a verb). Elm Court. very. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. brush. tells what kind. never. interrupt For example. that dog) several (e. place. They often change a word’s part of speech. Part of Speech noun Function names a person.g. thing. an adversary. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. adversarial to oppose actively. car.g. jump. tells where. or thing (a noun). here. or concept verb shows an action. occurrence. ant-). valor go. combating.. which one. Sufﬁxes tell you whether a word is a person. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. when. Helen. which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). to provoke the hostility of .
just knowing sufﬁxes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. and only choice d is correct. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Deﬁnition to regard with deep respect or reverence. extremely shy. b.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. not adjectives. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. deserving of honor and respect. or shocked. to scream or squeal. . Similarly. For example. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. but it can help you determine the function of the word. but look for other clues to meaning as well. disgusted. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. For example. depending upon its sufﬁx. Select the best answer to the question. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. d. Squeamish means easily sickened. recurring illness. to honor with a sense of awe. ➥ Squeamish means a. BUT NOT ALWAYS While preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. as you come across vocabulary words with common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. such as equality (state of being equal). respectively. use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. Thus. the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. but they are both verbs. Only choices c and d deﬁne adjectives. c. However. zero in on its meaning. if you know that -ish is a common sufﬁx for adjectives. Choices a and b are deﬁnitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. easily disgusted. if you know that the sufﬁx -ity means state of being. nauseated.
pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. state or condition detection (the act of detecting). politician (one who seeks or holds a political ofﬁce) -ion: act or process. dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). practice. paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. process. . we have again provided two examples of words that use that sufﬁx. For each sufﬁx. makes. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. etc. ﬁdelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the sufﬁxes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). process. failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. state. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). and again. believes. -ence: action. and economic equality of the sexes). produces. materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. political. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). the transitional period between youth and maturity). or process. ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance.
-ial. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. servile (pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave. pertaining to. or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. However. -ible: capable or worthy of. exhibiting folly. -ian: related to. useful). trustworthy). Because the words are already so familiar to you. tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. abjectly submissive. relating to. theatrical). such as cooperate and dismiss. or destroyed. improbable) -al. -ical: having the quality of. incredible (not credible. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. or resembling a child). or characteristic of a humanitarian). you can quickly and accurately learn the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes by remembering examples of words you already know.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difﬁcult vocabulary word for each preﬁx or sufﬁx. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama. unable to be believed. frail). realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. in the manner of a fool) . slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. damaged.
● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. angry. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. cooperate). form into beautify (to make beautiful). you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Remember that preﬁxes and sufﬁxes alone do not create meaning. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. -ose: full of. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. famous). rather. annoyed) -ify. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make.. all the time. nauseous (causing nausea. to make inferior in quality or character). done with or working with others for a common purpose). to make impatient. to bring about colonize (to establish a colony). the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the preﬁx or sufﬁx. relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. The more familiar the word is to you (e. By memorizing these essential word parts. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. having the quality of.g. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. they change or add to the meaning of the root word. You already know much of this material. Use as many . Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. -fy: to make. impair. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). Remember that you use preﬁxes and sufﬁxes every day. irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in.
d. uniform. word roots. put forth in writing. d. many sided. 2. ﬁghting against. two-faced.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. b. try to recall another word with a similar root. to examine thoroughly. Check preﬁxes. word roots (covered in the next chapter). Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. and context if possible to conﬁrm meaning. c. and context. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. coming before. Use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to eliminate incorrect answers. Does it match the part of speech of the deﬁnition according to the sufﬁx? If you know the preﬁx or sufﬁx but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. cut into parts. d. . Multifaceted means a. 3. relating to the circus. c. c. Circumspect means a. Antecedent means a. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. b. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns deﬁning a kind of person (one who does). The more you narrow down your choices. Plug in that meaning with the preﬁx or sufﬁx and see if it makes sense. 1. looking around carefully. looking after. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Allow for exceptions. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. b. under the authority of. including preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. not every -ist word is only a noun.
8. to pressure. 7. relating to land or land ownership. b. b. 9. or degree. d. c. with an air of superiority. c. c. to warn in advance. to make equal in status. c. to cultivate. b. a counting of individuals. the act of making someone or something equal in status. d. amount. 5. d. Parity means a. questionable. Agrarian means a. b.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. d. to issue a warning. or degree. amount. one who doubts. general agreement by a group. b. to be uncertain. Supercilious means a. or degree. to age gracefully. an individual opinion. one who is equal in status. incapable of making a decision. . haughty. amount. doubtful. to send a message. disappointing. c. Consensus means a. exactly as expected. amount. to be out of date. b. To presage means a. or degree. the state of being equal in status. speaking in a measured. 6. a nonbeliever. less than the norm. Dubious means a. d. c. d. exact tone. to doubt or question.
and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. indifferent. The preﬁx super. 9. c. Antecedent means that which precedes. over. The adjective sufﬁx -ian means related to. value or degree. 3.means not. c.means before. 2. or event that came before. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering preﬁxes and sufﬁxes? Check your answers here. circumstance. to predict. reversing a previous opinion or decision. The verb sufﬁx -ize means to cause. 10. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of. d.means before. The preﬁx multi. a. d. Nonchalant means a. relating to. haughty. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another). challenging. Parity means having equality in status. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. d. Circumspect means cautious. c. foretell. The preﬁx circum. equivalence. 11. 4. c. on all sides. d. d. one who becomes active or aware. 7. watchful. The preﬁx con. an opinion or position reached by a group. fraught with uncertainty. . d. b. 8. a. Consensus means general agreement or accord. the thing. questionable. Galvanize means a. b. or exceeding. Dubious means doubtful. to be active or aware.means above.means with. b. wavering. 5. The preﬁx ante.means many. b. wary. 11. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. to bring about. 6. the state of becoming active or aware. amount. done with the intent of harming another. scornful. disdainful. together. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. c. complex. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance. The preﬁx non. The preﬁx pre. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. not showing anxiety or excitement. to cause to become active or aware. not showing anxiety or excitement.means around. 1.
too. the stronger your vocabulary will be. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. meaning hand. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past.Word Roots 4 P reﬁxes and sufﬁxes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. For example. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning. Needless to say. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. In fact. and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. The study of word origins and development 45 . the more roots you know. The more word roots you know. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. so. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. meaning name. do many of the words in the English language.
the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. tunes.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. My mother plants herbs in her garden. green. the acronym Roy G. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. . or spelling. For example. blue. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. He will write the information on a graph. meaning. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. All the eggs are in the pan. For now. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. violet). Meaning “memory aid. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. or acronyms (words that are made up of the ﬁrst letters of a group of words or phrases. orange. yellow. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. For example. however. indigo. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. Phil loves to help others.
a course of action or conduct. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to this root and how the different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes change meaning. a thing yielded. move on. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. yield. especially after an interruption. meaning to go. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an ofﬁce or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. etc. rank. rhythmic patterns. kind ous: sufﬁx meaning having the quality of. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. On occasion. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. Now. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. for example. place. stop. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. roots are the base to which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. process . to yield. or tunes. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. respectively. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. useful: • Use rhymes. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. (often with reluctance). • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. proper. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. But most of the time. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. therefore. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. The Latin roots err and pug. related to Thus.
Thus. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to the root word. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. ➥ Incessant means a. The correct answer is b. continuous. to move or go below the surface. to stop or abandon before completion c. The preﬁx in. plac. cess means to go. subliminal. Again. meaning the act or state of. b. yield. or yield. not direct. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. continuing without interruption. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. again. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. to go together with others Remember your preﬁxes from Chapter 3. yielding readily under pressure. through. ceaseless. try determining what the word recede means: a.means back. Now add the noun sufﬁx -sion. d. to allay the anger of. self-satisﬁed. ced means to go. retreat d. c. or among. not stopping. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. to go forward blindly b. placate: to appease. performing or causing an action. you can also answer the following question.means not. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efﬁcacy of a drug . pacify. and the sufﬁx -ant means being in a state or condition of. to move back. withdraw. Re. stop. Recede means c. stop. going between. retreat. to move or go back. incessant means continuing without interruption. meaning to please.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now.
WO R D R O OTS
HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE
For many people, especially visual learners, the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. For example, to remember the root pug, you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring, or a boxer with a pug nose. Similarly, you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop, or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. You could also picture a trafﬁc light for the root ced/ceed/cess, because the colors of the trafﬁc light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go, stop, yield. If you are a visual learner, again, use pictures to help you remember words. To remember that eu means good or well, you can picture the letters EU on a well. If you are an auditory learner, you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. For example, you could try one of these sentences for the root am, meaning love: I am love. I love Amy. I love ham.
Many different words can be built from a single root. For example, look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron, meaning time. chronic: continuing for a long time; on-going, habitual; long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time; the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events; to record in chronological order, make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology; arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock; a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time; to occur at the same time, be simultaneous By changing the sufﬁx of synchronize, we can create even more words. For example, we can turn it into the noun synchronicity, which is the state or fact of being synchronous, an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. Review the list carefully, taking note of the examples, which once again are mostly everyday words. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. After you have completed this lesson, make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you.
COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS
ac, acr: sharp, bitter acid (something that is sharp, sour, or ill natured), acute (extremely sharp or severe; keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love; romantic, affectionate), enamored (inﬂamed or inspired by love; captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war, especially the American Civil War), rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast, chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank, profession, etc.), chastise (to punish severely, as with a beating; to rebuke) ced, ceed, cess: to go, yield, stop antecedent (that which precedes), exceed (to extend beyond or outside of; surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime), mea culpa (Latin, “my fault”) dic, dict, dit: to say, tell, use words dictate (to say or read aloud; to issue orders or commands), predict (to foretell, make known in advance) equ: equal, even equate (to make or consider two things as equal), equidistant (equally distant)
WO R D R O OTS
err: to wander err (to make a mistake), error (a mistake; an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil, bubble, burn fervid (very hot, burning; ardent, vehement), effervescent (bubbling up, as a carbonated liquid; high spirited, animated) loc, log, loqu: word, speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people), neologism (a new word or phrase) luc, lum, lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light; enlighten), translucent (almost transparent; allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug, lut, luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water; to lessen the force or purity of), pollute (to make impure or unclean; to make unﬁt or harmful to living things) mag, maj, max: big magnify (to increase in size, volume or signiﬁcance; to amplify), maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand), manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project, hang over prominent (standing out, conspicuous; projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface), eminent (towering above or more prominent that others; lofty, distinguished) nas, nat, nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country), innate (possessed at birth; inborn, inherent) nec, nic, noc, nox: harm, death innocent (uncorrupted by evil; free from guilt; not dangerous or harmful), obnoxious (offensive, hateful)
aware). revoke (to cancel. tranquil (free from disturbance. anxiety. science (knowledge. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. pos. tending to express oneself often and freely. taciturn (habitually untalkative. or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). vigorous (energetic. forceful. decision or judgment). pound: to put. distinct). especially that gained through systematic study) tac. bright.52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. hostile. verify (to conﬁrm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. interchange) pug: to ﬁght pug (a boxer). prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. calm. strong) voc. outspoken). reserved) ver: truth verdict (the ﬁndings of a jury in a trial. active. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). place). brilliant. implied). withdraw) . placate (to appease or pacify) pon. still). reverse. place deposit (to put or set down. true to life. call back. disposed to ﬁght) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise.
Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. or preﬁx. Not only do you need to know the word in question. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. and credit. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. unnecessary. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. A sufﬁx like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. . Otherwise. which means to trust or believe. To identify most word parts—word root. preﬁx. Preﬁxes come before the word root. Very often.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. sufﬁx. Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar. If you are lucky. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. For instance. Knowing this. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. For instance. the root of credible is cred. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. too. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. In this case. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. sacred. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions.
one who creates plans for buildings). to give support. anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. slant. bend incline (to lean. epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . seeing with one’s own eyes) card. andro: man. archi. principal. archy: chief. especially one made of biological materials). such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external inﬂuence or control.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. courage. to have a tendency or disposition toward something). especially one used as a burial place). cord. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. encourage (to inspire with hope. or cause to do so. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). ongoing. clin: to lean toward. the sequence in which events occurred) cli. slope. habitual. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). long-lasting or recurrent). or conﬁdence. cryptography (secret writing. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. chronology (the arrangement of events in time. ruler architect (one who plans or devises. human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. having inherent power of action or motion).
having a uniform structure or composition throughout). dia: apart. dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. deviate. or swerve. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) .WO R D R O OTS 55 di. nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). especially one praising someone who has died). abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. character. width). heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind. a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. thickness. hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. obstinate). a marked change of form. or function). digress (to turn aside. dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good.
harmony. remember to focus ﬁrst on roots. respond to a visual clue in a word. or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. You might. Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . suffering. existence. and sufﬁxes. a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. a large orchestra) theo: god. pat. sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. path: feeling. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects).56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed ﬁeld) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). preﬁxes. theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). agreement between two people) ped: education. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. all the gods of a people or region) pas. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). for example. philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra.
if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. A rebel. for example. . as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. the meaning of the root bel is war. burn. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and signiﬁcantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. Here are some speciﬁc strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s preﬁx with that same preﬁx on another word she knows. ﬁghts in a war. for instance.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. The prefix im. and word roots. the root ac means sharp. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. Similarly. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. sufﬁxes. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. fervent has the root ferv.in impervious means not. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. For example. Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. For example. Here again are some speciﬁc strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. which means to boil. bubble. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. bitter. By memorizing common preﬁxes. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam.
try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root. The more familiar the word is to you (e. . Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination.g. honest. is loosely held together. d. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. Remember that you use common word roots every day. talkative. truthful. tenuous. A lucid argument a. to determine meaning. is very clear and intelligible. loud. frequently digresses. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. Use the power of association. d. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. b. An amiable person is a. The more you narrow down your choices. highly educated. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. if possible. predict. You already know much of this material. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. good natured. 2. 1. use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. c. equate). Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Remember that word roots work with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. often without realizing it. By memorizing these word bases. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. errs repeatedly in its logic. b. Look at all parts of the word and the context. friendly. c.
self-satisﬁed. is contented to a fault. is known to tell lies. A quiescent place is a. circumference. d. pick a ﬁght with that person. dull. at rest. d. but does not accept responsibility. not ﬁt for consumption. b. 6. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. 4. expressed in a powerful and effective manner.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. 8. very old. Something that is eloquent is a. frequently makes mistakes. inedible. b. 5. d. charge that person with a crime. c. to lessen it. dangerous. d. likes to pick ﬁghts. harm that person. To indict someone is to a. to worsen it. antiquated. to solve it. c. stop or block that person from doing something. b. c. c. c. harmful. . hackneyed. 7. b. A complacent person a. d. b. value or worth. trite. very isolated. To exacerbate a problem means a. still. chaotic. b. truthfulness. to analyze it. d. c. tumultuous. weight. embellish the truth.
b. c. 6. d. is very stubborn. unwholesome. even-temperedness. The root loc/log/loqu means word. Veracity means truth. b. 10. 9. The root am means love. at rest. Complacent means contented to a fault. a. d. harmful. good natured. death. quiet. intelligible. d. b. a. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. 10. use words. to increase the severity. The root ac means sharp. A person with equanimity a. violence. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. especially under stress. The root plac means to please. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. The root qui means quiet. c. self-satisﬁed (pleased with oneself). The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. speech. or bitterness of. refreshing. tantalizing. 8. bitter. 5. To exacerbate means to make worse. has a violent temper. d. b. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. 1. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. Quiescent means inactive. d. c. tell. unscented. d. 3. easy to understand. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. likeable. The root luc/lum/lus means light. d. even. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. and persuasive manner. enjoys the company of others. pleasing. The root ver means truth. truthfulness. . 7. A noxious odor is a. ﬂuent.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. patience and composure. Lucid means very clear. The root equ means equal. 4. is even-tempered and composed. 2.
to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 .5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your ﬁnger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. fall. One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things. For example. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring. or winter to ﬂavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. he will learn something new about his craft. summer. They are called homonyms.
It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. or piece or peace. for example. . you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. Otherwise. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. for example. like TOEFL iBT. on one part of the word.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A speciﬁc type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. His conduct in school was terrible. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. For example. but have different spellings and meanings. There are dozens of homophones. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. as are slay and sleigh. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. or stress. and bear and bare. Night and knight. many of which you may already know. The term for these words. are homophones. If so. Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. this chapter will help you get them straight. while others that you may still ﬁnd confusing. great and grate. homophone.
CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to inﬂuence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (ﬁnancial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief deﬁnition of each word.
verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. verb) compliment (noun. suggest to assume. deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to ﬁnd something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late . having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun.
or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are . her.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue proﬁts main person in charge. sum of interest-earning money standard still. or they substitute for him. she. not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he.
c. d. although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. etc. relinquish. which is the deﬁnition of its homophone wave. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer. However. However. and the preﬁxes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis.). against. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its deﬁnition. only uninterested has this meaning.66 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct preﬁxes. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. not. or d. b. unmeans not. Here’s an example: To waive means a. The correct answer is c. given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. for example. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased.means away from. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. to swell up or rise to the surface. standard procedure. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles. but they also have similar meanings. reversal. you might encounter questions that use the deﬁnition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. you might be tempted to choose a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. free of selﬁsh motives or interests—a different word entirely. cue also means a signal. penalty. Take the homophones cue and queue. . If you don’t know the meaning of waive. to relinquish a right or claim. But the preﬁxes are attached to the same root. such as a word or action. which is related to the deﬁnition of a wave. however. to return to the original starting point. That is. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. apart.
think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table. The question is. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. for example: ➥ ➥ ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity. to set down.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 67 J HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. (subject) past tense: lay. not cunning or deceitful. . you simply need to memorize. The ones you don’t know. To keep them straight. to recline. artless. Rise Rise means to go up. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous. do something! Sit Sit means to rest. Lie Lie means to rest. And when it comes to frequently confused words. unable to mask feelings. You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. showing inventiveness and skill. (subject) After it is ﬁlled with helium. the balloon rises. frank. Lay Lay means to place. remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. had lain Don’t just lie there. 2. especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. sincere. (subject) She always sits in the third row. You can use this difference to remember key words in the deﬁnition of each word. how do you remember these differences in meaning. lacking sophistication or worldliness The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. Set Set means to put or place.
to forbid the publication. daring. 1. politically. to make aware of. concurrence. etc. given to prompt or remind someone of something. n. inform ascent (a·'sent) n. consent censor ('sen·sor) v.68 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings Similarly. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles. smoke. ﬁlms. 2. agreement. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation. rebuke. a allude (˘·'lood) v. 2. advancement ˘ ˘ assent (a·'sent) n. to evaluate. 1. to criticize strongly. to be incomprehensible to. 2. to remove what is considered morally. especially by cleverness. escape the understanding of a appraise (˘·'prayz) v. to give notice or information to. to make an indirect reference to elude (i·'lood) v. 1. distribution. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. to escape from or evade. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. a signal. an ofﬁcial who reviews books. or otherwise objectionable ˘ censure ('sen·shur) n. a rebuke or condemnation. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of ˘ apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. or skill. 1. v. a line of waiting people or vehicles. such as a word or action. condemn ˘ sensor ('sen·sor) n. 1. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light. a queue queue (kyoo) n. etc. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing . or other public dis˘ semination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the preﬁx. an upward slope. a movement upward. cue (kyoo) n. a hint or suggestion.
meeting acceptable standards. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv. about to occur. n. fake. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. to distribute widely. v. 2. 2. distinguished ˘ imminent ('im·˘·nent) adj. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. illegal. 2. sufﬁcient. distance. disagree. still in existence. hereditary derivation. character. the range. a vast multitude . not extinct. the act of descending or moving downward. to differ in opinion. towering above or more prominent than others. a downward slope or movement. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. nonconformity ˘ deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. to lessen the worth of. 2. to call forth or draw out. to belittle. cache. 1. a large group or crowd. a difference of opinion. as from a source extant ('ek·stant) adj. standing above others in quality. 1. adversary. 1. to diminish in price or value. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. an enemy. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. 2. reputation. to collect and lay up. 1. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or ˘ correct. destroyed or lost ˘ extent (ik·'stent) n. to cause to do so. 1. artiﬁcial. 2. or degree to which something reaches or extends. 1. 1. with joy. to provoke. to express disapproval of. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. 2. to think or speak of as being of little worth. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. gladly feign (fayn) v.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·sent) adj. to withhold approval or assent. 2. to separate and scatter in different directions. to pretend. etc.. lofty. impending ˘ emanate ('em·a·nayt) v. contrary to accepted morality or convention e eminent ('em·˘·n˘nt) adj. depreciate depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. forbidden by law. a hidden store or stock. to come or issue forth.
to oppress. 1. or intensity peek (peek) v. 2. obliterate team (teem) v. to lift. 2. to be present in large numbers . 1. 2. 1. n. 3. especially because of race. sincere. 2. spirit peak (peek) v. to prohibit. the highest possible point of development. quantity. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. or sexual orientation ˘ prosecute ('pros·e·kyoot) v. harass. 2. or intensity. to be full of. 1. n. put in an upright position 2. to provoke or arouse ˘ persecute ('pur·se·kyoot) v. to vex or create resentment. dictate. intensity. to reach its highest point or maximum development. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. pique (peek) v. or strength. 1. astonishing ˘ ˘ ˘ incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. religious or political beliefs. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. demolish completely. 2. remarkably clever ˘ ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. or mistreat. to cause annoyance or irritation.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·bel) adj. to carry on. courage. marked by inventive skill or creativity. showing ˘ inventiveness and skill. to join together so as to form a team. order something to be done. to bring a criminal action against. 1. unable to mask feelings. to increase in size. implausible. to erase. interfere ˘ mettle ('met·el) n. to intrude in other people’s affairs. the act of raising or increasing. a brief or furtive look. continue. to issue commands. skeptical. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. to level to the ground. make higher. 1. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. a group organized to work together. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. 1. artless. 1. frank. n. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. summit. beyond belief. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘ meddle ('med·el) v. activity. 2. the pointed top of a mountain. activity. degree. not cunning or deceitful. fortitude. 2. unwilling to believe ingenious (in·'jeen·yus) adj. n.
dispense with wave (wayv) v. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. 2. 2. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. rush. etc. to move up and down or back and forth. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. For example. 1. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. penalty. Or teach them to someone else. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. 2. relinquish. The more carefully you read each deﬁnition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. you will remember which word has which meaning. rhymes will be more effective. especially of the hand. for example. appraise has the word praise in it.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well.). review. Use ﬂash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. For example. and appraise means to evaluate. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. review. And then review them again. Review. Pay attention to details. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. Remember to make the most of your learning style. n. 1. undulate. if you are a visual learner. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. a surge. Meddle. For example. If you are an auditory learner. . 3. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. 1. Use these words. standard procedure. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. the more likely you are to ﬁnd a “key” for you to remember the differences between them.
Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. 9. 5. for example. have the root scrib/script. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. 3. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. 10. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. Once again. 7. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. 8. Both prescribe and proscribe.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. 2. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. but she didn’t say anything directly. 6. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. meaning to write. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. 4. .
8. move on. 9. Extent means the range.). To allude means to make an indirect reference to. Imminent means about to occur. imminent. advance. To disburse means to pay out. 6. ascent. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. distribution. advancement. An ascent is an upward slope. disbursed. 1. showing inventiveness and skill. distance. ingenious. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. 2. relinquish. 7. especially after an interruption. proceed. alluded. remarkably clever. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. penalty. prosecuted. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. . 3. waive. 5. or degree to which something reaches or extends. 4. To proceed means to go forward or onward. a movement upward.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. impending. etc. standard procedure. To censor is to forbid the publication. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. extent. 10. censor.
All of these expressions are idioms. or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their ofﬁce chairs. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. that a man was talking on the phone. depending on how it’s used within a sentence. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. and the third. however. 74 Taken literally. perched on top of telephones. you know that the ﬁrst means that someone was delayed at work. In its simplest form. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the ofﬁce until late last night. that there were people able to interpret a political ofﬁce seeker’s actions in a favorable light. . They’re called idioms. He was on the phone when I got to his house. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign.6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to deﬁne outside of the context in which they are used. the second. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage.
and slang.” “right as rain. In college. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. A related term is tenure track. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. colloquialisms. “Pretty as a picture. which are frequently heard around campus. Through overuse. Some of the words you’ll ﬁnd in the world of academia. . is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. for example. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the ﬁnancial ofﬁcer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. referring to the self. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. or even ask a university representative. their impact is lessened. An idiosyncrasy. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. try and locate the deﬁnitions of the following words. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these deﬁnitions. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. or the world of education. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. They are too well known to English speakers.
” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. What people in the United States call an “apartment building. give it a shot: try for the ﬁrst time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difﬁcult. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. hot heels result from running hard. You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously.” the British call a “block of ﬂats. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. presumably. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. up to the job. All languages have their own idioms. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language. For instance. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because.” Here are some idioms with their deﬁnitions. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something.
Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. all fouled up.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver ﬁnd out: discover. which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. . Reaganomics. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion ﬂy off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. from Reagan and economics.
indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. If it happens once in a blue moon. 1. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. _____ 5. The more you hear how they sound. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. textbooks. 2. it happens rarely. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. 3. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. a colloquialism. the more familiar they will feel to you. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. 4. Once again. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the deﬁnitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. _____ . and other dayto-day communications. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. or a cliché. “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________. and the easier it will be to remember them. If you burn out at something. it means that you need the services of an electrician. Answer yes or no to the following sentences.
If you give the slip to someone. 8. 6. _____ 7. 3. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here. 1. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. you hand over your undergarment. 2. 5. 7. 4. _____ 8. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something. If you give something a shot.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. you are willing to try.
make a list of these words. if you come across words that you are unsure of. shamelessly c. a. candidly d. however.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. Take your time when answering each question. elitist b. I have always liked your positive attitude. Then. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. After you complete the test. she was very _____________. expressive b. ingenious 2. a. reserved d. 1. a. artistic 3. Directions: For questions 1 through 20.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. When you are ﬁnished. irrational c. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. (We suggest not timing yourself. secretive c. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. aloof d. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. favorably 81 . it has _____________ affected our working relationship. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. adversely b.
potable 7. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. reminisced d. impure d. embodied 6. priceless b. conformed b. The directions to the new ofﬁce were _____________. released c. a. commonplace c. delectable b. explicit d. it could cause serious health problems. decreased d. docile 5. condoned . valid b. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. meddlesome d. arduous c. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. a. a. encompassed b. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. If your drinking water is not _____________. a.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. quenchable c. devised c. a. dispersed 8.
presumed d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. perplexity d. virtuously c. ample d. concept 11. vital 13. a. a. priority b. torrid c. redundancy c. obscurely 12. To get the promotion she wanted. conformity c. a. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. monotonous b. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. a. conspicuously d. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. prestige b. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. eminently b. surmised c. quandary d. resolved . Wanting to make a good impression. deﬁcit 10. a. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. supposed b. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot.
a. The ﬁre alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. audibly 17. a. After running an early 5K race. dynamically b. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. voraciously c. winding highway. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. duplicate . symbolically d. a. disguise d. reﬂex d. dissented b. portrayal b. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. careened d. a. ventilated c. approvingly b. agitated 16. attraction c. reunion 15. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. beneﬁcially 18. a. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. council c. signiﬁcantly c.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. mishap b. generously d.
a. in a new location. b. measurably d. belonging to a group. very high. Enigma means a. d. c. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. b. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. Sandra is truly an enigma. b. original. Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people ﬁnd his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. stranger. d. scatter c. Exorbitant means a. c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. c. Caustic means a. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. rendezvous b. Understanding the world economic conditions. 22. disperse 20. . although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. luxuriously c. warily b. enemy. a. 23. relentlessly funny. 21. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. refreshingly honest. d. newcomer. ﬁlibuster d. bitingly sarcastic. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. to orbit. mystery. cutting edge.
to transform. one who has changed. b. tending to change frequently. hierarchical. Unilateral means a. Metamorphosis means a. d. 25. b. d. one-sided. c. 27. outdo. to move away from. b. moralize. .86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. something ordinary or average. literal. d. b. repeated frequently to aid memorization. to preach. to denounce or openly condemn. to reestablish a close relationship between. 28. to undermine. d. intended to instruct. one who denounces or openly condemns another. c. to surpass. a teacher or instructor. c. Denunciation means a. Didactic means a. under someone else’s authority or control. d. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. understated. critical. c. a transformation. d. without distinction. to multiply. Subordinate means a. c. organized according to rank. the process of instructing. of or like a condemnation. 29. 26. To reconcile means a. b. moralizing. c. b.
32. an evil person. . Intermittent means a. Miscreant means a. 31. c. one who plants a garden. c. the process of encoding a message. d. to act forcefully. b. c. relating to the acquisition of territories. know intimately. d. d. revoke. badly handled. d. b. biting in nature. b. c. c. Perennial means a. To abrogate is to a. d. 34. someone who lacks creativity. a number between one and ten. d. 35. worthy of consideration. Incisive means a. Imperialism means a. someone who is unconventional. villain.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. quarrel. constant. rest quietly. abolish. to establish contact. ﬁght. a very naïve person. c. b. 33. one who acquires items from other empires. b. b. greatly varied. an empire built by acquiring other territories. lasting a very long time. insight. penetrating. occurring at intervals between two times or points.
has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. equality. c. 39. b. 41. speak in a whisper. extremely talkative. c. is extremely friendly. a place to rest. bitterness. A vicarious action is one that a. enables a guilty person to be set free. c. a formal proclamation or command. highly noble. c. d. b. To acquiesce is to a. there is a. c. exists only in the imagination. An edict is a. a place to stop. If there is amity between two nations. . b. surrenders the rights of others. given to wordy. has existed for a long time. rambling speech. d. d. 37. hobo. a wanderer. b. call attention to. d. comply with another’s wishes. d. peace. give in to. generous. d. is bitter or resentful. mask the truth.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. A magnanimous person is a. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. the act of seeing or shining. b. war. c. is experienced through the life or action of another. 38. b. 40.
46. steady pace. c. moves at a constant. appropriate. tends to like everyone. 48. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to ﬁnd out how much it is worth. intense. c. as with guilt. calmness. burdened. Something that is erratic a. d. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. in its proper place. b. . seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. 47. d. is properly ordered. light-hearted. 44. 43. c. b. b. combative. A pugnacious person is best described as a. 45. A loquacious person a. but believe me. d. he is very anxious to learn more about you. meandering. often has difﬁculty ﬁnding things. carefree. peace. To feel fervor is to feel a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. ruthless. nosy. b. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. straying from the norm. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. has good intentions. is unpredictable. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. talented. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. ﬁery emotion. 49. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. c. d. is not discerning. tends to talk a great deal.
60. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). 53. 58. identiﬁable b. A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. 59. 52. 55. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. enhanced . Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. let’s eat here. I think he’s telling the truth. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. visible d. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. incomplete c. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. a partial report a. 57. 54. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. 56. 51. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). preﬁxes. Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). or sufﬁxes.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50.
challenge 63. original b. proven d. pause d. conﬁrm b. slack c. rain delay a. alleged 62. regressed d. a substantial report a. reverted b. processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. tardy d. negate c. 64. punctual b. ﬁnal d. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. average c. desist 66. moderate work ﬂow a. manufactured goods a. regular 65. excessive . deny d. slow b. transgressed c. weighty c. corroborate the statement a. inconclusive b. hasten c. prompt payment a.
apropos b. cliché b.” “sleep like a baby. crisis c. the complete works of Shakespeare a. imbroglio 69. insouciant d.” and other such overused sayings a. gestalt b. mélange d. avant-garde d. rendezvous c. hiatus c. milieu c. zeitgeist d. mélange c. blasé b. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. façade 71. oeuvre 70. initial impression a. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. ﬁnal d. ﬁrst b. bourgeois c. savoir faire d. gauche 72. “work like a dog. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. 68. par excellence b. aﬁcionado . an avid sports fan a.
P R ACTI C E T E ST 1
Directions: For questions 73 and 74, choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. 73. proactive a. after b. forward c. toward d. behind 74. inscribe a. conﬁne b. see c. perform d. write 75. A synonym for vast is a. attentive. b. immense. c. steady. d. slight. 76. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. adamant. b. available. c. cheerful. d. eager. 77. A synonym for adequate is a. sufﬁcient. b. mediocre. c. proﬁcient. d. average. 78. A synonym for comply is a. subdue. b. entertain. c. ﬂatter. d. obey.
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79. An antonym for uniform is a. dissembling. b. diverse. c. bizarre. d. slovenly. 80. A synonym for ecstatic is a. inconsistent. b. positive. c. wild. d. thrilled.
1. d. Ingenious means marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception. 2. a. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. 3. d. Favorably means gracious, kindly, or obliging. 4. d. Docile means easily led or managed. 5. c. Explicit means clearly deﬁned. 6. d. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. 7. a. Encompassed in this context means included. 8. b. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles; to plan to obtain or bring about. 9. c. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. 10. a. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. 11. c. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind; attracting attention. 12. a. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. 13. d. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. 14. a. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. 15. c. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly; to lurch or swerve while in motion. 16. d. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. 17. b. Voraciously means having a huge appetite; ravenously. 18. a. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. 19. a. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement.
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20. a. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution, cunning, and watchful prudence. 21. a. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic, cutting; able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. The main context clue is that people ﬁnd Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous; thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. 22. d. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand; a bafﬂing problem or riddle. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is, but no one knows anything about her; thus, she remains a mystery. 23. d. The preﬁx ex- means out, out of, away from. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. 24. d. The noun sufﬁx -tion means the act or state of. Denunciation means the act of denouncing, especially in public; to openly condemn or accuse of evil. 25. c. The noun sufﬁx -sis means the process of. Metamorphosis means a transformation, a marked change of form, character, or function. Choices b and c are both nouns, but for choice b to be correct, it would require the sufﬁx -ist. 26. a. The preﬁx re- means back, again. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between, to bring back to harmony. 27. b. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to, having the quality of. Didactic means intended to instruct; tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. Only choice b deﬁnes a quality. 28. d. The preﬁx uni- means one. Unilateral means one-sided. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -al, meaning action or process. 29. a. The preﬁx sub- means under, beneath, below. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank; secondary; (2) subject to the authority or control of another. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another, and as a verb (notice the -ate sufﬁx) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class; (2) to make subservient; subdue. 30. c. The adjective sufﬁx -ive means having the nature of. Incisive means penetrating and clear; sharp, acute, biting. 31. b. The preﬁx inter- means between or among. Intermittent means occurring at intervals, not continuous; periodic, alternate. 32. d. The preﬁx mis- means bad, evil, wrong. Miscreant means a villain, criminal; an evil person. 33. a. The adjective sufﬁx -ial means having the quality of, related to, suitable for. Perennial means lasting an indeﬁnitely long time, forever; constantly recurring, happening again and again or year after year. Choice a is the only adjective deﬁnition.
42. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. down. d. The root am means love. give in. acting or suffering for another. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. 41. 35. d. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. fake. 45. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. The root rog means to ask. The root mag/maj/max means big. Uninterested means not interested. bubble. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. combative. understanding and forgiving of others. d. having the quality of. The root ferv means to boil. 47. burn. d. cause to be. to be present in large numbers. The sufﬁx -or means a condition or activity. do away with. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. intense emotion. formally revoke. or inconsistent manner. to establish value or estimate the worth of. The noun sufﬁx -ism means state or doctrine of. 40. Loquacious means very talkative. To abrogate means to abolish.means off. 38. Fervor means zeal. uneven. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. uninterested. speech. Magnanimous means very noble and generous. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. . faux. 37. 44. The root qui means quiet. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. b. 36. etc. 49. not genuine or real. away. The preﬁx ab. The root pug means to ﬁght. garrulous. To acquiesce means to comply. having no care or interest in knowing. appraised. a. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. The root err means to wander. use words. a. d. To teem means to be full of. 46. The root ac/acr means sharp. The root vi means life. Amity means friendship. inclined to ﬁght. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. 48. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. b. tell. away from. 43. d. To appraise means to evaluate. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. 39. teeming. An edict is an ofﬁcial order or decree. The root loc/log/loqu means word. a. opinion. bitter. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. c. ardor.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. Faux means artiﬁcial.
piqued. horde. rebuke. spirit. given to prompt or remind someone of something. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. 68. especially in the arts or literature. astonishing. consent. artist. a hint or suggestion. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. To raise is to lift. sufﬁcient. d. which means with or together. To prescribe is to issue commands. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. 55. 60. A horde is a large group or crowd. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. to vex. censured. prescribing. 63. 59. This sentence uses the second meaning. coworker. To corroborate is conﬁrm. and collide. Assent means agreement. d. quantity. excessive means extreme. To delay is to slow. a vast multitude. c. or strength. A partial report is only part of the whole. cutting-edge. 62. Context clues are important as well. 61. to increase in size. incredible. dictate. make higher. etc. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. 57. 53. (2) the total lifework of a writer. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. innovative. tardy means late. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. b. (2) to provoke or arouse. concurrence. order something to be done. A substantial report is extensive. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. The root of the word here is part. 69. 56. degree. Moderate means average. beyond belief. Incredible means implausible. To censure is to criticize strongly. condemn. Mettle means courage. to hasten is to hurry. Partial means incomplete. Some related words are cooperate. raise. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. 64. b. a. 65. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. 52. c. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance. Initial means ﬁrst. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. cue. 66. (2) meeting acceptable standards. The key part of the word substantial is substance. assent. fortitude. such as a word or action. decent. This sentence uses the second meaning. ﬁnal means last. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. 51. c. 58. A delay is a postponement in time. 54. mettle. d. Prompt means punctual. composer. Notice the preﬁx co-. . intensity. adequate. 67. A cue is a signal.
a. If someone is proactive. Vast means very great in size.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. especially of a sport or pastime. b. it is sufﬁcient. 76. (2) a place where people meet. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. d. a. 71. 75. b. 73. If something is adequate. The preﬁx pro means for. 77. d. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. Comply is synonymous with obey. to meet at a rendezvous. especially a popular gathering place. d. immense. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. to be diverse is to have variety. b. 78. An aﬁcionado is a fan or devotee. . 72. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. d. 80. The word root scribe means to write. to engrave on a surface. Enthusiastic means eager. d. 79. 74. b.
legitimate 2. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. Then. if you come across words that you are unsure of. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. Take your time when answering each question. facilitate 99 .) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. her claim to the estate was _____________. belittled b. (We suggest not timing yourself. 1. When you are ﬁnished. a. confound b. After you complete the test. optional b. integrate d. however. commended 3. make a list of these words. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. check the answer key carefully to assess your results.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. a. pummeled c. vicious c. Being a direct relative of the deceased. a. rebuked d. The hail _____________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. pacify c. prominent d.
a. When you address the members of the committee. treatise 6. delude b. depreciate c. massive . conﬂuence c.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. prohibit 8. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. principled b. a. seclusion d. comprehensive d. relinquish d. assumption b. varied 5. Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. diverged c. determined c. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. a. restorative d. requisite 7. a. punitive b. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. grandiose c. Do not _____________ yourself. exempliﬁed d. prevailed b.
repulsively b. he soon began to talk more than anyone. consummate d. reticent c. abated b. a. superﬁcial c. the thunderstorm _____________. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. customary b. ample . animated d. acute b. precursor c. evoked 13. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we ﬁrst met him. a. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. tedium b. principally 12. constricted d. reputedly c. a. germinated c. momentum 11. After years of experience. voluntary 10.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. The news was no longer secret. a. After an hour of heavy rain. a. preference d. perpetually d. and we were able to continue our golf game.
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14. Anthony, a meticulous young man, _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. a. terminally b. perpendicularly c. diligently d. haphazardly 15. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. a. Irritating b. Poaching c. Provoking d. Smuggling 16. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails; otherwise, they were exactly alike. a. separated b. divided c. disconnected d. differentiated 17. On each slick curve in the road, I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. a. operate b. hydroplane c. submerge d. reconnoiter 18. My cousin claimed to be _____________; evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. a. dreamlike b. comical c. criminal d. clairvoyant
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Directions: For questions 19 through 45, choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. 19. Although the plot of the ﬁlm is admittedly trite, the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. Trite means a. original. b. exciting. c. complex. d. overused. 20. Ilka has always emulated her older brother, so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. To emulate means a. to support wholeheartedly. b. to strive to equal, imitate, or outdo. c. to be more successful than. d. to regard as inferior. 21. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea, and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. To garner means a. to create. b. to propose. c. to demonstrate. d. to withhold. 22. Cy’s attempt to ﬁnally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. To thwart means a. to injure seriously. b. to prevent from accomplishing. c. to support actively. d. to be excessively competitive. 23. To subjugate means a. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. b. to conquer, bring under control. c. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. d. to be surrounded on all sides.
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24. Benevolence means a. kindness, generosity. b. a kind, generous ruler. c. to be generous with one’s time or money. d. kind, giving charitably. 25. To coalesce means a. to dig up, mine. b. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. c. to combine and form a whole; join together. d. to withdraw silently, especially in shame. 26. Docile means a. one who domesticates animals. b. the management of domestic affairs. c. obedience. d. willing to obey, easily managed or taught. 27. Anomaly means a. regularity, consistency. b. something that is irregular, abnormal, or deviates from the usual form. c. a surprising collaboration, the cooperation of unlikely individuals. d. discontent among a speciﬁc group within a larger population. 28. Lamentable means a. regrettable, unfortunate. b. to regret. c. an unfortunate occurrence. d. to do something regrettable. 29. To abscond means a. to create a secret hiding place. b. to do something without telling anyone. c. to go away secretly and hide. d. to do something ahead of deadline.
or apart from others. c. 31. c. d. teaching a lesson. b. chosen from within. Rectify means a. distinct. 35. Antipathy means a. something that comes from multiple sources. from another country.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. 33. from the same origin. a beginner or novice. Disparate means a. an editor. A belligerent person is a. the act of separating from the source. foreign. loving. c. 32. a roommate. hostile. devoted. d. b. a surprising error. kept between or within members of a family. a strong aversion or dislike. b. d. fundamentally different. exceeding expectations. to correct. unique. someone who lives with another. c. Inscrutable means a. a correction. incapable of being understood. an examination of all aspects of an issue. . d. 34. b. d. eager to ﬁght. c. c. b. Neophyte means a. not fathomable. kind. b. original. eager to help. having little or no impact. d. that which occurred previously.
40. d. receives the maximum beneﬁt. burn or sting. To equivocate is to a. c. b. blames others for his or her own faults. put something in its proper place. d. full of life. c. full of knowledge. c. c. b. even. vocal. calm or quiet. guilty. often speaks without thinking. Someone who is omniscient a. a lie. d. c. A renaissance is a. obvious. b. 41. 39. equal. A person who is culpable is a. newborn. b. excessive. shining. Something that is luminous is a. b. a mistake. a punishment.106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. is eager to please. everywhere. speak in a way that conceals the truth. b. . d. deadly. Something that is manifest is a. d. capable. energetic. 38. c. bright. 37. d. a rebirth.
46. place side by side. I tried everything. wandering from the main path or point. clean. d. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. 45. d. be born again. overwhelm. b. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). Someone who is reticent is a. . judging equally. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. 44. A veritable autograph is a. speak in a round-about manner. bubbling over with enthusiasm. 47. harmless. a forgery or fake. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. b. 50. very valuable. but the dollar is up. c. b. 43. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. inoffensive. dangerous or deadly. silent. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. c. thoroughly washed. b. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. ﬂood. Something that is innocuous is a. an autograph by a famous person. To juxtapose is to a. 49. 48. c. fair. reserved. deeply in love. As soon as I get off the phone. d. d. irrelevant. genuine.
and soon it was no longer even noticeable. I must (decent/descent/dissent). not likely c. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. an incoherent answer a. 60. not understandable b. preﬁxes. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. but they ﬁnally caught up with him in Reno. 56. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. 59. 57. I think this is a bad decision. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. 54. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. 52. 58. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. Although you all seem to agree. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to ﬁnd out what he was getting. 55. 53. or sufﬁxes. undeniable d. challenging .
zealous pursuit a. purposely c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. transparent material c. capable employee a. carefully 63. competitive c. compatible workers a. eager c. absurd c. expensive b. good excuses b. reasonable d. unexpected c. apt d. mistakenly b. 64. able 65. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. comical 66. envious b. outrageous . experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. cautiously d. gifted b. harmonious d. unskilled b. idle d. covered with debris a. exorbitant prices a. inadvertently left a. scattered rubble d. protective material 62.
quid pro quo c. liaison c. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. gauche c. aﬁcionado b. malaise 70. hiatus d. an artist’s ﬁrst gallery showing a. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. imbroglio c. imbroglio c. oeuvre 71. appeasing c. debut 69. a temporary separation in a relationship a. incognito b. milieu d. cliché d. hostile b. vis-à-vis . parvenu d. parvenu d. façade 72. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. wearing a disguise a. instinctive d.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. belligerent attitude a. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. blasé b. 68. ad hoc b. ennui b.
An antonym for novel is a. sicken. d. 78. apart d. adjacent. contiguous. a state of being b. c. intermittent. old. over c. b. leery. b. a property d. alert. suitable d. unsettled. congregation a. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. . A synonym for affect is a. with b. c. uninterrupted. 73. 76. inﬂuence. accomplish. wisdom a. worried. c. d. A synonym for continuous is a. cause. careless. a relationship c. c. d. An antonym for wary is a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. time 74. 77. b. dangerous. an action 75. b.
9. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. 17. d. b. 11. Requisite means essential or necessary. A synonym for courtesy is a. d. b. 18. b. b. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. to deceive. weakness. d. 5. civility. b. d. a meeting. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. 8. . Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. Delude means to mislead the mind. c. 10. 14. Reputedly means according to general belief. 80. 12. blessing. c. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. ANSWERS 1. Precursor means something that comes before. Pummeled means to pound or beat. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. or a gathering at one point. truth. 13. d. congruity. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. a. d. d. reserved. 3. rudeness. b. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. c. b. 2. 7.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. it is called hydroplaning. 4. c. 15. fable. c. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. 6. d. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. An antonym for fallacy is a. b. a. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. c. conviviality. 16.
The preﬁx in.means off. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. b. a. a. The preﬁx ab. a disposition to act charitably. or causes an action. amass. The preﬁx neo. to join together.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. 27. subdue. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. bring under control. c. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. Trite means repeated too often. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. apart.means new. The preﬁx anti. The preﬁx a. promotes. unfortunate. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. 32. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. Neophyte means a beginner or novice.means not. 24. meaning one that performs. The preﬁx dis. especially by imitation. 30. a. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous. The preﬁx sub. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -able. together. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. To garner means to gather. or acquire. ready and willing to be taught. d. . 28. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. incapable of being understood. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. inspiring grief or mourning. d.means with. b. 33. Lamentable means regrettable. overly familiar through overuse. To subjugate means to conquer. correct. without. Notice also the verb sufﬁx -ate. 20. unfathomable. apart. fuse. 25. d. dissimilar. 34. being in a speciﬁed state or condition. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. The verb sufﬁx -ify means to make. down. a new form of. d. The noun sufﬁx -ence means state of. 29. b. one that is irregular or abnormal. opposed to. especially after wrongdoing.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. Inscrutable means bafﬂing. c. away from. 21. 23. To rectify means to make right. not. d. or easily managed.means under or below. reversal. 26. b. varied.means away from. The preﬁx co. d. recent. The adjective sufﬁx -ile means having the qualities of. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. 22. b. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea.mean not. 31.means against. Docile means willing to obey.
silent. to provoke. to lessen the worth of. To juxtapose means to place side by side. b. true. The root equ means equal. The root culp means blame. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. place. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. The root tac/tic means to be silent. 48. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. to belittle. elicit. d. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. d. 47. cause to be.means not.means back or again. harass. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. or sexual orientation. 38. 43. The root ver means truth. b. especially to compare or contrast. performing or causing a speciﬁed action. religious or political beliefs. at hand. Omniscient means having inﬁnite knowledge. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. not quite doing either). The preﬁx re. 44. reserved. 36. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. The root man means hand. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. To persecute is to oppress. the root sci means to know. a. a. Thus. genuine. 37. death. . obvious. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. having no adverse or ill effects. 42. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. a. c. 40. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. The preﬁx in. as the other answers correspond with different roots. brilliant. The ending -ent is an adjective sufﬁx meaning in a state or condition. the root voc/vok means to call. emitting light. c. c. Thus. especially because of race. Manifest means clear and unmistakable. knowing all things. The sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. blameworthy. innocuous means harmless. The root bel means war. Veritable means real. full of light. the sufﬁx -ance means state of. persecuting. 45. guilty. untalkative. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. a. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. depreciated. The root omni means all. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. or mistreat. thus. 39. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. 46. The root luc/lum/lus means light. Luminous means shining. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. 41.
which means out of or away from. which means not. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. 52. c. 66. (2) to distribute widely. (2) to withhold approval or assent. 50. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. (2) to be incomprehensible to. artless. as from a source. ingenuous. obliterate. inform. Capable means able. Zealous means eager. The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex-. 51. 55. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. eager.means not. c. You may have heard the word zeal before. 58. (2) to erase. very high. To apprise means to give notice or information to. c. queue. Incoherent means not understandable. 54. raze. disseminate. disagree. especially by cleverness. a. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. or skill. peek. or cause to do so. escape the understanding of. 62. 59. (2) in information processing. 57. 61. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. meddling. To feign is to pretend. 64. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. dissent. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. a. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in-. unskilled means unable. so idle is most nearly the opposite. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. elude. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. c. To emanate is to come or issue forth. to give the false appearance of. dispersed. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. unable to mask feelings. a. The preﬁx in. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. Inadvertently means by mistake. to make aware of. apprise. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. demolish completely. 60. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. interfere.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. 56. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. frank sincere. 63. feign. . To cohere means to connect. 53. daring. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. choice b. 65. emanating. Debris is scattered fragments or trash.
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67. b. The key element in this word is the root belli, which means warlike. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. The antonym would be appeasing. 68. d. A debut is a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. 69. c. Hiatus means a gap or opening; an interruption or break. 70. a. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed; in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. 71. d. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building; (2) an artiﬁcial or deceptive front, especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. 72. b. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups; one who maintains such communication; (2) a close relationship or link, especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 73. a. The preﬁx con- means to be together with. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. 74. a. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right, true, or lasting. 75. d. To affect means to inﬂuence. 76. d. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful; careless is the opposite of watchful. 77. d. To be novel is to be new; the opposite is old. 78. c. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. 79. a. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act; it is characterized by civility. 80. a. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea, trickery; a truth is something that conforms to the facts.
y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. Learn a short list every day. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. When you learn a new word, use it in conversation as soon as possible. Repetition is key—use a word three times, and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with ﬂash cards. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the deﬁnition on the other. Or, try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the ﬂash card and the deﬁnition of the word on the other. Flash cards are easy to handle, they’re portable, and they’re friend-friendly, so you can study with a buddy. You and your friends can drill each other. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary, studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now, review the word list. After each vocabulary word, you will ﬁnd the word’s pronunciation, part of speech, deﬁnition, and a sentence using the word. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used.) If the word list looks intimidating, try the following strategy. 1. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. 2. Multiply that number by 10.
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If you have only 30 days until the test day, you can learn 300 new words, by studying only ten new words each day! And, remember, some of these words may already be familiar to you.
Before you review the word list, here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the deﬁnitions. Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily.
a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n
hat, carry, fact ago, dependable, pedal palm, father car, chart, farm bare, scare, fair ball, walk, draw stage, blame, day bat, rabbit, crib church, preacher day, puddle, bed egg, head, cherry shaken, trickle eat, treat, tree ear, clear, cheer fan, stuffy, relief go, regular, fog heed, heaven, unhappy whether, nowhere it, live, middle stencil, edible icy, tire, sky jug, tragic, hedge kitten, shaken, track lost, trolley, toll more, summon, slim no, dinner, man
n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh
sing, ﬁnger, frank odd, fox, trot salmon, advisor oak, boat, sew aboard, score, coarse oil, coin, coy ooze, noodle, super pour, cure, sure for, scorn, horse out, house, how pan, paper, pop rain, marry, dear sun, listen, rice share, ﬁshing, cash tip, mutter, pot three, strengthen, breath this, father, breathe cup, come, shut delicious, measure her, turn, worry cook, put, pull vail, sliver, live want, aware, quaint you, yarn, yesterday zebra, hazy, please division, treasure
difﬁcult to comprehend. 1. extreme. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. praise or approval. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·us) adj. abscond (ab·'skond) v. accolade ('ak·o·layd) n. It ˘ ˘ was not surprising that the movie was a ﬂop. to refrain from voting. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. extremely bad. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. formally revoke. or degree. a ceremonial embrace in greet˘ ing. to repudiate. being temporarily suspended or set aside. When Joseph became a citizen. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. detest. eating and drinking in moderation. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. ˘ ˘ 2. suspension. to lessen in strength. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. 2. 1. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. His new ˘ ˘ ˘ scientiﬁc theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. to abolish. obscure. 3. absolution (ab·so·'loo·shon) n. . deviation from what is normal. abysmal (a·'biz·mal) adj. the reviews were abysmal. to give up or reject. profound. but he should still get out and vote. aberration (ab·e·'ray·shon) n. I have decided to abstain on this issue. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. abjure (ab·'joor) v. used with ˘ temperance or moderation. 2. 2. to regard with horror or repugnance. 1. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. distortion. abrogate ('ab·ro· ayt) v. subside. redemption.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a·'bayt) v. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. 1. limitless. 1. using or consuming sparingly. do away with. renounce under oath. intensity. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. ˘ ˘ Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. abeyance (a·'bay·ans) n. to go away secretly and hide oneself. we began to survey the damage it caused. 1. 2. a formal declaration of forgiveness. I know Carlos abhors politics. 2. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. As the violent ˘ storm abated. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. The dictator ˘ abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes.
aﬁcionado (a·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. ˘ deft. 2. purpose. bitter or caustic in language or manner. quickness. give in. acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. With Jonelle’s acumen. 1. judg˘ ˘ ment. sharp taste or smell. alacrity (a·'lak·ri·tee) n. and accuracy of perception. agrarian (a·' rair·ee·an) adj. 1. appeals. 1. 2. she would make an excellent trial lawyer. as in an egg. Jasleen ˘ did not like her new neighbors. acumen (a·'kyoo·men) n. An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.120 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT accretion (a·'kree·shon) n. ˘ ˘ inﬂexible. . 1. adroit (a·'droit) adj. for this case only. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city. Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer. ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. bother. addle ('ad·el) v. acrid ('ak·rid) adj. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground. trouble. ˘ ˘ building up. being happily ready and eager. keenness. dexterous. for a speciﬁc. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or ˘ ˘ cultivation. The ˘ prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant. or insight. it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. ado (a·'doo) n. acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. having an unpleasantly bitter. to muddle or confuse. to become rotten. she should have your trousers ﬁxed in no time. clever. 2. a fan or devotee. ˘ The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aﬁcionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts. especially of a sport or pas˘ time. fuss. Without much ado. skillful. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor. growth or increase by gradual. Priya is a very adroit seamstress. adamant ('ad·a·mant) adj. consent without protest. to comply. I acquiesced and walked to the next street. successive addition. 2. After the police ofﬁcer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian trafﬁc. ﬁrm. unyielding to requests. or adept in action or in thought. a cheerful willingness. bitter and sharp in language or tone. or reason. often temporary. she completed her book ˘ report.
2. looking at the amorphous clouds. thing. amulet ('am·yu·lit) n. one should avoid discussing politics and religion. 1. Andrea looked up at the sky.” altercation (awl·ter·'kay·shon) n. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood. anachronism (a·'nak·ro·niz·em) n. to make an indirect reference to. having no deﬁnite form or distinct shape. anarchy ('an·ar·kee) n. The ˘ remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees. After the king’s assassination. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play. amorphous (a·'mor·fus) adj. or idea that is out of date. anomalous. peculiar. political disorder and confusion. the country fell into a state of anarchy.WO R D LI ST 121 allay (a·'lay) v. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. a person. shape˘ ˘ less. to calm. opponent. pleas˘ ˘ ing. to reduce the intensity of. uncertain. put to rest. the complete absence of government or control result˘ ing in lawlessness. 1. 1. amiable ('ay·mee·a·bel) adj. alleviate. allude (a·'lood) v. good natured. 2. “We’ve all made sacriﬁces. one who opposes or contends with another. to make or become better. a heated dispute or quarrel. custom. one that is irregular. ameliorate (a·'meel·yo·rayt) v. or abnormal. so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly. Amity had existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to ﬁght about money anymore. 2. or situation. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction. The diplo˘ ˘ mat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. his amiable personality drew people to him. to improve. likable. friendship. Miguel was usually the ﬁrst person invited to a party. antagonist (an·'ta ·o·nist) n. amity ('am·˘·tee) n. . something that deviates from the general rule or usual ˘ ˘ form. With the rise in popularity of cell phones. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a ˘ ˘ person. To prevent an alter˘ ˘ cation at social functions. ˘ The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard. 1. anomaly (a·'nom·a·lee) n. friendly and agreeable. an ˘ adversary. of no particular kind or character. 2. something that is placed into an incorrect ˘ ˘ ˘ historical period. The presidential candidate ˘ alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying. ambivalent (am·'biv·a·lent) adj. pagers seem like an anachronism.
soothe. apathetic (ap·a·'thet·ik) adj. one who abandons long-held religious or political con˘ victions. inform. The ˘ ˘ aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light. or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. he is strict. to make calm or quiet. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons. Peter had antipathy for his classmate. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation ˘ ˘ or the end of the world. antipathy (an·'tip·a·thee) n. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting. antithesis (an·'tith·e·sis) n. anthropomorphic (an·thro·po·'mor·fik) adj. 2. ˘ ˘ motivations. to establish value or estimate the worth ˘ of. deiﬁcation. . unresponsive. 1. appease (a·'peez) v. Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry. apotheosis (a·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. feeling or showing a lack of interest. 2. Upon reaching the apex of the mountain. to still or pacify. appraise (a·'prayz) v. apex ('ay·peks) n. I am not. she was an apotheosis. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash. who express human characteristics such as love. especially one that lets in light. indifferent. pointed end. opposition or contrast. or ˘ emotion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet. an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. that which precedes. to evaluate. 1. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school. the thing. tip. apostate (a·'pos·tayt) n. an object of aver˘ sion. not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain. the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow. 2. attributing human characteristics. circumstance. the highest point. a strong aversion or dislike. 1. to make aware of. ˘ The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and ﬁnal exams would occur. the direct or exact opposite. apocalypse (a·'pok·a·lips) n. ˘ Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine. in his daydreams. and sadness. apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities. Hanson ˘ was so in love with Marge. ˘ event that came before. an opening or gap. to give notice or information to. concern. Disillusioned with religious life. envy.122 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT antecedent (an·ti·'see·dent) n. The only way ˘ to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right. aperture ('ap·er·chur) n.
to set aside for a special purpose. incidentally. 2. . zeal. but they were deﬁnitely apropos. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. adv. often without permission. The ˘ rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. severity. advancement.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro·'bay·shon) n. difﬁcult to traverse or surmount. ascetic (a·'set·ik) adj. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. to take for one’s own use. at an appropriate or opportune time. austere. Patrick’s Day. mysterious. The ˘ ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. apropos (ap·ro·'poh) adj. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. suitable to what is being ˘ said or done. 1. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. very difﬁcult. by the way. (˘·'proh·pree·ayt) v. asperity (a·'sper·i·tee) n. laborious. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. ˘ 2. not allowing oneself pleasures or ˘ luxuries. beyond comprehension. ill temper. a movement upward. roughness of manner. to one side. secret. characteristic of the past. ascent (a·'sent) n. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. occasion. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difﬁcult for many students to understand. an original model from which others are copied. ﬁery intensity of feeling. suitable for a particular person. a ¯ ¯ a or place. the grumpy accountant. approval. arduous ('ahr·joo·us) adj. askew (a·'skyoo) adj. 1. 2. 1. requiring great effort. passionate enthusiasm. Even the ˘ pictures on the wall stood askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. The asperity that Marvin. original pattern or prototype. ˘ irritability.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment. ﬁtting. practicing self-denial. an upward slope. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. crooked. belonging to former or ancient times. ardor ('ahr·dor) n. appropriate to the situation. not straight or level. harshness. The local authorities issued an approba˘ ˘ tion to close the street for a festival on St. appropriate (˘·'pro·pre·˘t) adj. & adv. condition.
˘ ˘ Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. to make something less severe. august (aw·' ust) adj. unre˘ strained by convention or propriety. 1. 1. consent. assuage (a·'swayj) v. but his interference only augmented the problem. the committee must reach an assent. reduce in ˘ force. simple. 3. austere (aw·'steer) adj. auspice ('aw·spis) n. very plain. audacious (aw·'day·sh us) adj. diligent. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. 2. or intensity. to make thin or slender. assent (a·'sent) n. patronage. Because she fol- . protection or support. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or ˘ ˘ robotic way. strength. concurrence. 1. augment (aw ·'ment) v. to satisfy (as ˘ hunger or thirst). attenuate (a·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. 2. unquestioning obedi˘ ˘ ence to authority as opposed to individual freedom. a forecast or omen. to try. In order to pass the new law. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. severe or stern in attitude or appearance. to agree to something ˘ especially after thoughtful consideration. to judge critically. a robot. agreement. automaton (aw·'tom·a·ton) n. I know my dad seems austere. to soothe. value. v. 2. to weaken. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. enlarge. to increase in size. authoritarian (a·thor·i·'tair·i·an) adj. evalu˘ ate after an analysis. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. unadorned. majestic. put to a test. inspiring admiration or reverence.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a·'say) v. 1. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. a self-operating or automatic machine. assiduous (a·'sij·oo·us) adj. to examine. favoring complete. unremitting. 2. or degree. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. but they often achieved results. hardworking. venerable. 2. persevering.
self-determination. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. quarrelsome. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. 2. to amuse or charm. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. B baleful ('bayl·ful) adj. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. the object of ˘ ˘ this feeling. cooked breakfast. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. cause of trouble. 2. distress. intense dislike. or harm. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. repugnance. 1. sinister. belie (bi·'l¯) v. commonplace. belligerent. to obstinately refuse or oppose. balk (bawk) v. 1. . especially in the arts or literature. to give a false impression. I was expecting ˘ something original and exciting. a strong. causing him to miss his secret meeting. personal or political independence. but the ﬁlm turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. bane (bayn) n. Whether it’s a ˘ man. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. to pass time in a pleasant manner. to distract the attention of. car. trite. Natasha made coffee. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. or animal. divert. to show to be false. eager to make war. banal (ba·'nal) adj. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. obvious and uninteresting. misery. aversion (a·'vur·zhon) n. harmful. 2. poison. to contradict. 1. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. self˘ government. innovative. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. 2. destructive. misrepresent. cutting-edge. autonomy (aw·'ton·o·mee) n. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. to deceive or cheat through cunning. 1. woman. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. menacing. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. Violet was able to beguile the spy. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company.
loud. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. casual. completely obvious. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. disrespect of something sacrosanct. to swindle. not harmful or malignant. a dis˘ ˘ ˘ position to act charitably. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. unconcerned. Coach ˘ Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s conﬁdence. especially to evade paying one’s debts. 3. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. ˘ ˘ 2. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. light-hearted. to deceive or defraud. having a beneﬁcial or favorable nature or inﬂuence. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. such as air pollution. 1. 2. hostile and aggressive. a ﬂock of animals or birds. 2. a large group or assemblage. 2. to buoy or hearten. 1. and lacking restraint or discipline. an unsightly object or area. boisterous ('boi·ste·rus) adj. the inclination to be kind and generous. cheat. blasphemy ('blas·fe·mee) n. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. showing an eagerness to ˘ ˘ ﬁght. benevolence (be·'nev·o·lens) n. 1. bilk (bilk) v. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. something that causes this condition. 2. bolster ('bohl·ster) v. contemptuous or irreverent acts. something that impairs or destroys. 4. not attempting to conceal in any way. very sophisticated. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. blithe (bl¯th) adj. utterances. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. 2. he always acted in a benign manner. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. mild. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. 1. nonchalant. atti˘ tudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. kind. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. 3. . blight (bl¯t) n. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. bevy ('bev·ee) n. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. you would be tortured and killed. and carefree. stormy and rough.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·er·ent) adj. gentle. to support or prop up. 1. 1. noisy.
a show of pretended bravery. 2. for many of the original tales included graphic language. broach (brohch) v. . as in to draw off liquid.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. a scheme or conspiracy. speaking pompously. she realized that it was. false courage. bravado (bra·'vah·doh) n. 1. cacophony (ka·'kof·o·nee) n. discordant sound. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. 1. censor. in order to begin a discussion of. light-hearted. or materialistic. bumptious ('bump·shus) adj. With Antonio as their leader. commonplace. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. jarring. in fact. 1. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. cheerful. ˘ the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. typical of the middle class. with inﬂated selfimportance. hence also. din. clamor. ill-mannered person. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. 2. to bring up. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. to polish. The bumptious man couldn’t stop ˘ talking about himself or looking in the mirror. Kyle’s ˘ bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. able to ﬂoat. introduce. boor (boor) n. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. I ˘ ˘ heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. C cabal (ka·'bal) n. conceited. burgeon ('bur·jon) v. In science class. a small group joined in a secret ˘ plot. a crude. conservative. loud. arrogant. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be ˘ considered offensive. bowdlerize ('bohd·le·r¯z) v. to begin to grow and ﬂourish. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. rub to a shine. burnish ('bur·nish) v. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. grow ˘ new buds. offensive. buoyant ('boi·ant) adj. blossom. 2. solid silver. to tap or pierce. Although she won millions in the lottery. to begin to sprout.
cajole (ka·'johl) v. or otherwise objectionable. 2. While visiting India. or dissolve by chemical action. . or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. 1. especially through art. The librarian served as a censor. he welcomed my candor. 2. to lurch from side to side while in motion. to inﬂict a severe punishment on. careen (ka·'reen) v. openness. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. to give in. to chastise severely. relieving emotions via ˘ the experiences of others. distribution. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. cutting. to remove what is ˘ considered morally. to surrender under speciﬁc terms or agreed upon ˘ ˘ conditions. capricious (ka·'prish·us) adj. to rush care˘ lessly or headlong. sincere speech. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. censor ('sen·sor) n. caste (kast) n. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. corrode.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. whimsical and unpredictable. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. a distinct social class or system. to forbid the publication. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. politically. ﬁlms. the comedian. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic ﬂuid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. they castigated him. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or ﬂattery. 1. to beg. an ofﬁcial who reviews books. v. etc. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. the act of ridding or cleansing. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. acquiesce. bitingly sarcastic. able to burn. to whee˘ dle. impulsive. When I told my boss about my ˘ performance concerns. capitulate (ka·'pich·u·layt) v. Robin ˘ ˘ Williams. catharsis (ka·'thahr·sis) n. to obtain by begging. candor ('kan·dor) n. frank.
Seduced by the chimera of immortality. as with a beating. chimera (ki·'meer·a) n. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. a goat’s body. and a serpent’s tail. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. chronology (kro·'nol·o·jee) n. 1. cliché (klee·'shay) n. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. to punish severely. (in Greek mythology) a ﬁre-breathing she-monster ˘ with a lion’s head. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. 1. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. continuing for a long time. an exceptionally accurate clock. Tito has an engaging writing style. . 2. to criticize harshly.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shur) n. a detailed record or narrative description of past ˘ events. ill-mannered. the sequence ˘ ˘ in which events occur. long-lasting or recurrent. on-going. a trite or overused expression or idea. rebuke. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. v. make a historical record. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. but he uses too many clichés. illusion. the arrangement of events in time. watchful. her mother censured her behavior. chronometer (kro·'nom·i·ter) n. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. chronicle ('kron·i·kel) n. rebuke. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. a rebuke or ˘ condemnation. condemn. to criticize strongly. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. cautious. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. circumspect ('sur·kum·spekt) adj. boorish. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. kept or done in private. habitual. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. 2. a vain or incongruous fancy. a precise ˘ ˘ instrument for measuring time. The prison guard was ˘ circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. wary. v. conducted in secrecy. rude. to record in chronological order. The ﬁreﬁghter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the ﬁre. an extreme nationalist.
mollifying. general agreement or accord. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. it was sure to be a lively debate. consternation (kon·ster·'nay·shon) n. coeval (koh·'ee·val) adj. etc. abundant.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a·'les) v. contemporary. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. plentiful. a puzzling question or ˘ ˘ problem. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. a hard riddle. to grant as a right or privilege. consensus (kon·'sen·sus) n. (often ˘ with reluctance). The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. a secret agreement between two or more people for a ˘ ˘ deceitful or fraudulent purpose. conspiracy. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. making or willing to make concessions ˘ ˘ to reconcile. to yield. of the same time period. a feeling of deep. an opinion or position ˘ ˘ reached by a group. competitive. 1. or comfort. The ˘ shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellﬁsh on the island. copious ('koh·pi·us) adj. cogent ('koh·jent) adj. With two contentious candidates on hand. 2. causing contention. enigma. . who thought he had prepared his students for the test. contentious (kon·'ten·shus) adj. fuse. a private or secret meeting. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her ﬁred. convincing. ˘ ˘ 2. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. complacent (kom·'play·sent) adj. proper. large in number or quantity. Jay ˘ and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. appeasing. concede (kon·'seed) v. collusion (ko·'loo·zhon) n. The poet Ben ˘ Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. soothe. conciliatory (kon·'sil·ee·a·tohr·ee) adj. self-satisﬁed. to join together. to acknowledge or admit as true. quarrelsome. uncon˘ ˘ cerned. 1. surrender. quick to ﬁght. persuasive. compelling belief. Ella’s cogent ˘ arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. contented to a fault. controversial. to combine and form a whole. conclave ('kon·klav) n. conundrum (ko·'nun·drum) n. incapacitating horror or ˘ ˘ dismay.
a total defeat or failure. ˘ ˘ graphs. The ﬁrst-graders ˘ ˘ made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. hidden. mysterious. conﬁrm. countenance ('kown·te·nans) n. secret. to make more certain. When the timer buzzed. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. especially of a problem. D daunt (dawnt) v. . culpable ('kul·pa·bel) adj. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. cursory ('kur·so·ree) adj. abundance. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. corroborate (ko·'rob·o·rayt) v. occult. ˘ 2. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. such as a word or action. facial features ˘ ˘ and expression. cowardly. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. His austere manner daunted the small children. craven ('kray·ven) adj. too willing to believe things. debacle (di·'bah·kel) n. 1. a queue. “This craven act of violence will not go unpun˘ ished. hasty and superﬁcial. the central or critical point or feature. I only had time to give it a cursory review. credulous ('krej·u·lus) adj.” remarked the police chief. blameworthy. All the tables. to make afraid or discouraged. to strengthen or support with evidence or ˘ ˘ authority. Although I should have proofread ˘ the essay carefully. 1. a horn of plenty. guilty. a line of waiting people or vehicles. I admitted that I was culpable. a hint or suggestion. a sudden disaster or collapse. having a hidden or secret meaning. a signal. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. to intimidate.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu·'koh·pi·a) n. crux (kruks) n. violent ﬂood waters. cue (kyoo) n. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. gullible. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. the appearance of a person’s face. so she must be telling the truth. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. As she walked down the aisle. deserving blame or censure for being or doing some˘ ˘ thing wrong or harmful. given to prompt or remind someone of something. 2.
When it was to her advantage. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. demure (di·'myoor) adj. hesitate. Polly hated to demur. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. ˘ Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. to deceive. demur (di·'mur) v. & adv. describe. to condescend. I always refer to Emily Post. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. propriety. to destroy a large portion of. depreciate. so those scenes were removed. make someone believe something that is wrong. deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. modest and shy. sketch. When questions concerning decorum arise. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. decency in ˘ manners and conduct. . to blacken the reputation of. disparage. depict. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. or pretending to be so. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. to express disapproval of. actual. appropriateness of behavior. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. v. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. in reality or fact. The king is only the nominal head of the country. a leader who obtains power by appealing to peo˘ ple’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. defame. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. Sharon could be very demure. decorum (di·'kohr·um) n. delude (di·'lood) v. to raise objections. deign (dayn) v. a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. to make a ﬁrst appearance in public. to portray. to draw or outline. the de facto leader is the prime minister. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. to belittle. demagogue ('dem·a· aw ) n.
to distinguish. digress (d¯·' res) v. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o·mee) n. expressing ridicule. to violate the sacredness of. . utterly lacking. In order to promote freedom of expression. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. jeering. moving from one subject to ˘ another without logical connection. to profane. to turn aside. shy and timid. Alan used to be so ˘ difﬁdent. extremely poor. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. make less brilliant. wordy.” desecrate ('des·e·krayt) v. 2. or swerve. ˘ derived from another source. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. slow or late in doing something. to perceive clearly. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. extend. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. detract (di·'trakt) v. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. 2. adj. to spread throughout. many families were left destitute. Unfortunately. recognize as being distinct. division into two usually contradictory parts or ˘ kinds. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. Someone dese˘ crated the local cemetery by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. difﬁdent ('dif·i·dent) adj. diminish. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. derivative (di·'riv·a·tiv) n. intended to delay. scornful. not concentrated. dilatory ('dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. 1. discern (di·'surn) v. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. lacking self-conﬁdence. aimless. to soften. unoriginal. deviate. correct a false impression or erroneous ˘ belief. mocking. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. adj. penniless. to undeceive.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. 2. to draw or take away from. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. 1. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. spread out. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. something that is derived or made by derivation. disabuse (dis·a·'byooz) v. to remove part of something. desultory ('des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. 1. ˘ especially to gain time. haphazard. verbose. After the economy declined. disperse. scattered.
despise. sad. 1. 2. 2. dejected. 2. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. a system of principles or beliefs. inconsolable. dissuade (di·'swayd) v. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. ˘ Some ﬁnd the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. dither ('dith·er) v. 2. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. 1. to disperse to the point of disappearing. During a crisis. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. 1. be indecisive and uncertain. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. 1. v. 1. to hesitate. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. a prescribed doctrine. disappointed. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. calculating. falsely pretending to be unaware. 2. a state of being despised. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives ˘ behind a false appearance. squander. 1. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. to frustrate ˘ plans by throwing into disorder. . not straightfor˘ ward or frank. 2. to upset the composure of. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. to separate and scatter completely. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so·lit) adj. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. especially the right to vote. rufﬂe. to shake or ˘ quiver. or nearly so. and only the very angriest protesters remained. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. dogma ('daw ·ma) n. to be extravagant and wasteful. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. dissemble (di·'sem·bel) v. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. ˘ hopelessly unhappy. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. belittle. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·kon·'surt) v. but they didn’t listen. insincere.
droll (drohl) adj. This is a wonderful. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. systems. harmonious. someone who is easily deceived. dupe (doop) n. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. sweet-sounding. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. lying asleep or as if asleep. 1. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. to ﬂow back or recede. trick. E ebb (eb) n. or styles. or trivial.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·mant) adj. 2. v. The ebul˘ lient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. brilliant performance or achievement. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. 2. 1. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. as the tide. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. inactive. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. extremely severe (especially a law or ˘ punishment). at rest. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. inactive but capable of becoming active. sludge. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. v. bubbling over with enthusiasm. conspicuous success. to deceive. decline. éclat (ay·'klah) n. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·an) adj. 1. irregular. 1. waste product. melodious. . ebullient (i·'bul·yent) adj. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. to fall back. gullible. commonplace. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. something worthless. great acclaim or applause. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. temporarily quiescent. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. exuberant. ˘ 2. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. I am eager for a reconciliation. anomalous. the return of the tide to the sea. latent. 2. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. very harsh.
egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. instructing. Within the student orchestra. ˘ standing above others in quality. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. lofty. 2. vigor. insolence. 1.. to earn or accomplish laboriously. 1. distinguished.S. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of ˘ equal political. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. overﬂowing. and persuasive manner. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. acting effectively. impudence. vivacity. profuse. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. etc. The customs ˘ ofﬁcials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. improving. towering above or more prominent than others. gushy. describe or comprehend. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. ﬂuent. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a power˘ ˘ ful. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. eloquent ('el·o·kwent) adj. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. and economic rights for all persons. 2. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. civil. Enid was ﬁred. producing the desired effect or ˘ result. The . élan (ay·'lahn) n. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. elite (i·'leet) n. eminent ('em·˘·nent) adj. a person or group regarded as superior. difﬁcult to capture. brazen boldness. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. evasive. social.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. effrontery (i·'frun·te·ree) n. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. ﬂa˘ grant. eluding the grasp. character. distinctive style or ﬂair. egregious (i·' ree·jus) adj. The bank robber was not caught during his ﬁrst crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. reputation. Margaret’s efﬁcacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. president. eke (eek) v. enthusiasm. efﬁcacious (ef·˘·'kay·shus) adj.
Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. enclave ('en·klayv) n. to ﬁx or settle ﬁrmly and securely. excessive wickedness. lasting only a very short time. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. enigma (e·'ni ·ma) n. 2. bring into existence. to make fee˘ ble or impotent. conceal. based on observation or experience rather than theory. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·an) n. give rise to. it’s time to go back to school again. Professor ˘ Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. 1. Ricky ˘ admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. 2. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. was actually imported from Japan.. especially by imitation. The math problem was difﬁcult to solve and proved to be an enigma. Kudzu. to produce. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. to weaken. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. deprive of strength or vitality. . enervate ('en·er·vayt) v. 2. ephemeral (i·'fem·e·ral) adj. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. atrocity. larger territory. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. to try to equal or excel.g. ensconce (en·'skons) v. engender (en·'jen·der) v. 1. transitory. native to a particular region. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. to place or hide securely. Joan became a true epicurean. 1.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and ˘ luxury. a hairy. Summer ˘ ˘ always seems so ephemeral. a monstrous offense or evil act. empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. before you know it. he began his secret mission. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. emulate ('em·yu·layt) v. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. a ˘ ˘ bafﬂing problem or riddle. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e.
3. especially one ˘ ˘ that is inferior. answering. to annihilate. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz trufﬂes. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. a sudden. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. or inconsistent manner. region. opinion. 1. 2. to root out and utterly destroy. especially under stressful circumstances. epitome (i·'pit·o·mee) n. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. ˘ scholarly. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o·kayt) v. 2. erudite ('er·yu·d¯t) adj. evade (i·'vayd) v. moving or behaving in an irregular. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. ethos ('ee·thos) n. . having or showing great learning. or doing. 2. ersatz (er·'zats) adj. a perceptive revelation. artiﬁcial. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. 1. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. a manifestation of the divine. attitude. When falling ˘ in love. something or someone that embodies a particular ˘ quality or characteristic. exterminate. a representative example or a typical model. profoundly educated. patience and composure. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. a brief summary or abstract. uneven. equanimity (ee·kwa·'nim·i·tee) n. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a) n. being an imitation or substitute. etc. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. Epiphany. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. the spirit. etc. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. calmness of temperament.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a·nee) n. epoch. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to ˘ mislead or conceal the truth. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. intuitive realization of the essence or ˘ meaning of something. to avoid fulﬁlling. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. 1. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone ˘ or something. 2. even˘ temperedness. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. eulogy ('yoo·lo· ee) n. The scholarly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young man. During an earthquake. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm.
to show or demonstrate clearly. 2. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. evince (i·'vins) v. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. crit˘ ical. appropriate ˘ for a purpose. 2. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a·'nes·ent) adj. a short-lived means to an end. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. the face or front of a building. 1. exacerbate (i ·'zas·er·bayt) v. requiring immediate action or attention. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·ent) n. 2. humorous and witty. stated clearly and fully. it served to exculpate Marcus. ﬂeeting. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. an artiﬁcial or deceptive ˘ front. to eliminate completely. to make worse. . cleverly amusing. demanding. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. facetious (fa·'see·shus) adj. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. suitable for a means to an end. exact. violence. delete. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. When Anthony admitted to the crime. 1. ˘ or bitterness of. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. jocular. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·tant) adj. straightforward. to try to partially excuse. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. urgent. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. 1. he is really a deeply emotional person. exigent ('ek·si·jent) adj. F façade (fa·'sahd) n. ˘ ˘ sportive. to wipe or rub out. requiring much effort or precision. to free from blame. to increase the severity. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal ˘ or reasonable. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. to make evident. annihilate. After ﬁnishing probation. to clear from a charge of guilt. transi˘ ˘ tory. inordinate and excessive. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. adj.
2. incompetent and ineffective. forbearance (for·'bair·ans) n. 1. to give the false appearance of. 2. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. 1. ornate. Gustaf ˘ dreaded the security check in the airport. 1. patience. weak. zeal. Because ˘ Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. suitably expressed. hanging loose or wrinkled. deception. ˘ Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. to impede or restrict. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the ˘ growing community. intense emotion. not showing proper seriousness. apt. apropos. complacently stupid. go against (as in a tradition or convention). The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. 1. feeble. Flappers in the early twentieth century ﬂouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. something that misleads. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. feeble-minded and silly. fertile. ardor. 2. 2. rosy. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. to disobey openly and scornfully. Y and Z will automatically follow. careless. weak. ﬂabby. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tus) adj. ﬂaccid ('fla·sid) adj. . tolerance. ﬂorid ('flor·id) adj. ﬂout (flowt) v. to shackle. fecund ('fek·und) adj. The presence ˘ of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. marked by good ˘ fortune. (of complexion) ruddy. not ﬁrm. mock. The fervor of the fans in the stands ˘ helped propel the team to victory. elaborate. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. 2. to reject. ﬂippant ('flip·ant) adj. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect ˘ or illogical reasoning. 1. willingness to wait. lacking purpose or vitality. feign (fayn) v. disrespectful.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a·see) n. fetter ('fet·er) v. fatuous ('fach·oo·us) adj. Mr. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. fervor ('fur·vor) n. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. put in chains. saucy. to pretend.
futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. forswear (for·'swair) v. tastelessly showy. acquire. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. especially excess ﬂattery ˘ or praise. vain. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. happening by accident or chance. garish (' air·ish) adj. occurring ˘ unexpectedly or without any known cause. The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·an) adj. to gather and store up.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. or declare false. arguing with her was futile. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. 2. . ˘ My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. however. thrifty. suggesting a hidden motive. fulsome ('fuul·som) adj. Whitney garnered ˘ enough money to buy a used car. 2. careful and economical. renounce. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to ﬁnd that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. huge. berate. to oppose. 1. characterized by stealth or secrecy. hopeless. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. gaudy. garner (' ahr·ner) v. It was a gargantuan super˘ market for such a small town. to explode or detonate. excessively bright or over-decorated. costing little. to amass. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. preempt.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. offensive due to excessiveness. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. 1. Wei chose a small. My mother would never let me attend the party. to give up. producing no result. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. surreptitious. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. 1. 1. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tus) adj. sparing. useless. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. to deny. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. shifty. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. In its true sense. 2. frugal ('froo· al) adj. 2. contradict. to deny under oath. gigantic. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v.
guile ( ¯l) n. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. 4. 3. the act of gerrymandering. gregarious ( re·' air·ee·us) adj. coarse burst of laughter. 1. 1. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. reﬁned. . shrewd. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. v. gestalt ( e·shtalt) n. so be ˘ ˘ prepared to listen for hours. to encompass. mock. gibe. 2. unlucky. without tact. unfortunate. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. and the soldiers girded for battle. especially military confrontation. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. treacherous cunning. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. and a very late arrival. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. 2. 2. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. clumsy or awkward. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. to make holy. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. hum˘ ble. missed connections. a noisy. ˘ ˘ sociable. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. 1. The negotiations had failed. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·der) n. to encircle or bind with a belt or band. well bred. lacking social graces or polish. to sneer at. crafty deceit. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. or fearful manner. Panji. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. gird ( urd) v. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. surround. a conﬁguration or pattern of elements so uniﬁed as a whole ˘ ˘ that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. to divide an area ˘ into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. talkative.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u·lus) adj. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. consecrate. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. seeking and enjoying the company of others. gauche ( ohsh) adj. grovel (' ruv·el) v. elegantly polite. to prepare for action. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations.
hegemony (hi·'jem·o·nee) n. 2. protected from outside inﬂuences. thing. a gap or opening. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. v. ignominious (i ·no·'min·ee·us) adj. . having an airtight closure. especially of ˘ one government over others. overbearing pride or presumption. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. disdainful. hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. lacking nobility in character or purpose. hone (hohn) v. to ˘ speak in a pompous maner. distressing. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. a tirade. not of the nobility. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. or event that foreshadows or indi˘ cates what is to come. By practicing creating spreadsheets. marked by shame or disgrace. ignoble (i ·'noh·bel) adj. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. beliefs. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the ﬁnancial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. dishonor˘ able. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. 1. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha·'ran ) n. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. scornfully arrogant and condescending. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. 2. make more effective. deserv˘ ˘ ing disgrace or shame. 1. After he was laid ˘ off by the bank. a forerunner or precursor. often scolding or bombastic speech. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. Using words as weapons. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. to sharpen. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tus) n. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. common. and many members of the organization resigned. harbinger ('hahr·bin·jer) n. 1. 2. 1. 2. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. creating great stress or torment. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. a person. a long. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. to declaim. an interruption or break. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. I honed my computer skills. despicable. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. to perfect. or institutions.
a deadlock. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. 2. 1. Stella was ˘ relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. In Shakespeare’s comedies. to beg persistently and urgently. but most are relatively easy to serve. inex˘ ˘ orable. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. as a sacriﬁce. a difﬁculty without a solution. unduly hasty and without thought. to kill. bossy. poor. I had to immolate the weeds. not able to ˘ be inﬂuenced or affected. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. 2. characterized by sudden. domineering. make incessant requests. having little or no money. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. imperious (im·'peer·ee·us) adj. the policy of extending the rule or author˘ ˘ ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. incapable of being placated or appeased. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. overbearing. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. In the book I’m ˘ ˘ reading. marked by violent force. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. impulsive. 1. to destroy (one thing for another). impervious (im·'pur·vee·us) adj. forceful energy or ˘ emotion. penni˘ ˘ less. 2. 2. incapable of being penetrated. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·us) adj. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. to ask incessantly.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. implacable (im·'plak·a·bel) adj. impasse ('im·pas) n. an invocation of evil. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. ˘ 3. importune (im·por·'toon) v. 1. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre. a confused or difﬁcult situation. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. impecunious (im·pe·'kyoo·nee·us) adj. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a·liz·em) n. a curse. stalemate. In order for the plants to grow. . imprecation (im·pre·'kay·shon) n. Great Britain embraced imperialism. immolate ('im·o·layt) v. and a strike seemed imminent. 1.
Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. The star was traveling incognito. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. to attack as false or questionable. 1. shamelessly forward. indisputable. incognito (in·ko ·ne ·toh) adj. boldly showing a lack of respect. with one’s identity concealed. (in·'sens) v. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. instill. incursion (in·'kur·zhon) n. insolent. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. inﬂammatory. incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. impute (im·'pyoot) v. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s terri˘ tory. it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow. or adv. not yet fully formed. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. as they mature. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. tending to incite or inﬂame. unwilling to believe. ascribe. incomplete. to attribute to a cause or source. to make (someone) angry. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. credit. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. . 1. to indoctrinate. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. The ˘ ˘ photographs showed Brad and Allison together. in disguise ´e or under an assumed character or identity. undeveloped.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu·dent) adj. incipient. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. skeptical. hoping to ﬁnd some measure of privacy on her vacation. a frog. immodest. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. to contradict or call into question. 1. undeniable. or a human. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. ˘ ˘ 2. in an initial or early stage of development. The members of ˘ ˘ the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro·'vur·t˘·bel) adj. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. just begun. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. burning readily. 2. 3. of or involving arson. incense ('in·sens) n. 2.
Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. forbid.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a·bel) adj. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. inclined to avoid labor. foolish. artless. indolent ('in·do·lent) adj. interdict (in·ter·'dikt) v. 1. 1. not cunning or deceitful. doctrine. 3. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. ˘ ˘ The volunteers were indefatigable. certain. ˘ indifferent. inﬁdel ('in·fi·del) n. Carlos argued that the agriculture ˘ department should interdict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. not easily exhausted or fatigued. 2. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta·bel) adj. ˘ ˘ unconquerable. haughty and contemptuous. His performance ˘ ˘ on the tennis court was inimitable. and he won three championships. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. absurd. defying imitation. insolent ('in·so·lent) adj. one ˘ who does not accept a particular religion. ˘ ˘ impertinent. inevitable. a person with no religious beliefs. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his ﬁnances will get him in trouble someday. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta·bel) adj. sincere. unfathomable. insouciant (in·'soo·see·ant) adj. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. inept (in·'ept) adj. 1. 1. not to be avoided or over˘ ˘ come. lacking sophistication or worldliness. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta·bel) adj. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. frank. causing lit˘ ˘ tle or no pain. inappropriate. a nonbeliever. . tireless. for even though he didn’t know her well. blithely unconcerned or carefree. 2. to prohibit. incapable of being ˘ ˘ understood. slow to grow or heal. not able to be vanquished or overcome. bungling and clumsy. incompetent. bafﬂing. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta·bel) adj. not suitable. unable to mask feel˘ ings. 2. lazy. 2. nonchalant. brazen. lethargic. disrespectful. the members considered him an inﬁdel. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. unmatchable. not easily discouraged or subdued. or system of beliefs.
unmanageable. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. complex.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta·bel) adj. and it no longer bothered her. irritate. you might help her make up her mind. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel ﬁlm. stubborn. anger. and he faced the mammoth without fear. wrath. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. involute ('in·vo·loot) adj. irritable. a very small amount. 1. accustomed to. hence: (a) lacking in interest or signiﬁcance. intricate. meager. inured (in·'yoord) adj. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. inveterate (in·'vet·e·rit) adj. unruly. ire (¯r) n. so if you talk to her. ˘ Sandra is still irresolute. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. habitual. Her ˘ irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. hot tempered. vex. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. irk (urk) v. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. fearless. ﬁrmly established. Professor ˘ Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. intransigent (in·'tran·si·jent) adj. irresolute (i·'rez·o·loot) adj. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂat˘ tery. inveigle (in·'vay· el) v. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. hesitant. Young ˘ children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. The tax reform committee faces an ˘ extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. adapted. I am an ˘ inveterate paciﬁst and am unlikely to change my mind. I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. 2. indecisive. the smallest possible quantity. brave. stubborn. unwilling to compromise. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. to entice. undaunted. J jargon ('jahr· on) n. The young colt ˘ ˘ was intractable. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. feeling or showing uncertainty. nonsensical or meaningless talk. specialized or technical language of a speciﬁc trade or ˘ group. deep rooted. to annoy. iota (¯·'oh·ta) n. . irascible (i·'ras·˘·bel) adj. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. lacking substance. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. easily aroused to anger.
brief and to the point. lax (laks) adj. merry. often to ˘ the point of being curt or brusque. cheerful. .148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·und) adj. a close relationship or link. feeble. present or in existence but not active or evident. L laconic (la·'kon·ik) adj. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. concise. lacking in rigor or strictness. 2. 1. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. Alexi’s jocund ˘ nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. weak. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. They claim to be avant-garde. libertine ('lib·er·teen) n. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. a channel or means of connection or com˘ munication between two groups. they’re just a bunch of libertines. Juggernaut. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. languish ('lan · wish) v. but in my opinion. hands-off. ﬂaccid. succinct. one who maintains such communication. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop˘ pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. to lose vigor or strength. sprightly and lighthearted. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. 2. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 'lee·a·zon) n. 1. Julian’s ˘ latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. 1. juggernaut ('ju ·er·nawt) n. not taut or rigid. title for the Hindu god Krishna. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. 1. to become languid. 2. latent ('lay·tent) adj. a massive. lenient. slack. terse. 2. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible ˘ way. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and proﬁts are up for the third quarter in a row.
malinger (ma·'lin · er) v. sane or rational. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. The maladroit waiter broke a ˘ dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. talkative. especially by a pub˘ ˘ lic ofﬁcial. tiny. a feeling of illness or unease. 1. 1. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from ofﬁce. Teaching is a very ˘ rewarding career. My troubles ˘ are lilliputian compared to hers. the act of plotting or devising. His malapropisms may make us laugh. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·us) adj. lucrative ('loo·kra·tiv) adj. 2. a crafty ˘ or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. but they won’t win our vote. 1. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. often exag˘ geratedly or ridiculously so.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·shan) adj. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·shon) n. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. clumsy. to wound. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. trivial or petty. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. garrulous. 2. comical misuse of words. misconduct or wrongdoing. loquacious (loh·'kway·shus) adj. very small. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. malaise (ma·'layz) n. Wella ﬁnally ˘ learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. 2. easy to understand. malfeasance (mal·'fee·zans) n. bungling. cripple. malapropism ('mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. to mutilate. inept. especially those ˘ ˘ that are similar in sound. disable. improper professional conduct. maladroit (mal·a·'droit) adj. maim (maym) v. After several tests. producing much money. intelligible. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. The loquacious woman sitting ˘ next to me on the six-hour ﬂight talked the entire time. . disﬁgure. proﬁtable. ˘ ˘ Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. excessively dismal or mournful. very clear. or injure.
move aimlessly or without a ﬁxed direction or course. easily molded or pressed into shape. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. mar (mahr) v. nonconformist. make defective or imperfect. trying to ﬁgure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. gaudy. . the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. meretricious (mer·e·'trish·us) adj. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. volatile. 1. 2. ˘ Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. 2. paying great ˘ ˘ ˘ attention to detail. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. melliﬂuous (me·'lif·loo·us) adj. mercurial (mer·'kyoor·ee·al) adj. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. to impair or damage. rebel. easily adapting to changing circumstances. honeyed. who don’t feel they can trust him. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. courageous. 1. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. 2. extremely careful and precise. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. Alice’s mettlesome atti˘ ˘ tude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. ˘ ˘ changeable. easily ˘ ˘ controlled or inﬂuenced. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. one who acts independently. maverick ('mav·er·ik) n. high-spirited. to wan˘ der about. 1. she’s quite a malleable person. sounding sweet and ﬂowing. lively. a falsehood or lie. With its casinos and attractions. 2. showily attractive but false or ˘ ˘ insincere. to move on a winding or turning course. 2. 3. meander (mee·'an·der) v. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. Her mel˘ liﬂuous voice ﬂoated in through the windows and made everyone smile. environment or setting. a mixture or assortment. mettlesome ('met·el·som) adj. I meandered through the park for hours. meticulous (me·'tik·yu·lus) adj. liable to change moods suddenly. 1. to distribute. tawdry. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. mete (meet) v. allot.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a·bel) adj. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. apportion. 1.
to moderate the force or intensity of. to make less intense or severe. minutiae (m˘·no¯'she·a) n. to walk or speak affectedly. myriad ('mir·ee·ad) adj. alleviate. gloomy. 2. joyous laughter. he’s a real misanthrope. not spiritual. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n. mirth (murth) n. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. My daughter has been morose ˘ ever since our dog ran away. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·us) adj. debatable. to cut into very small pieces. dull. soften. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. 2. calm. morose (mo·'rohs) adj. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. make less rigid. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. to soothe the anger of. If you do not have passion for your job. melancholy. innumerable. going to work each day can become mundane. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. secular. having many ˘ aspects. to soften. worldly. an immense number. sullen.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. 1. very varied. 3. . Pay no mind to his criticism. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother. trivial or triﬂing matters. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. n. The miscreant had ˘ eluded the police for months. 3. His ¯o ¯ attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. vast amount. commonplace. 2. too numerous to be counted. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. To the refugees from Somalia. to lessen in intensity. undecided. 2. pl. as with studied reﬁnement. one who hates or distrusts humankind. very small details. 1. evil person.. an indeﬁ˘ nitely large number. moot (moot) adj. diminish. greatly diversiﬁed. 1. criminal. miscreant ('mis·kree·ant) n. Although this is a moot issue. a villain. ordinary. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. great merriment. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. 1. but today he was ﬁnally captured.
1. adj. nexus ('nek·sus) n. to make null (without legal force). bane. but I could tell she was nervous. I doubt he’ll change his mind. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tur) n. nascent ('nas·ent) adj.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. invalidate. unwholesome. the very bottom. original. 2. In Frankenstein. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. a genre of literature. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. 2. emerging. admiration or worship of oneself. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. especially in odor. noisome ('noi·som) adj. The noxious smell ˘ drove everyone from the room. indifferent or cool. agent of retribution or vengeance. harmful. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·em) n. stubborn and inﬂexible. a link or tie between a series of ˘ things. offensive. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. foul. the core or center. 1. or different. noxious ('nok·shus) adj. a connected series or group. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. 2. hardhearted. nemesis ('nem·e·sis) n. 2. not showing anxiety or ˘ excitement. strikingly new. 1. the lowest point. . he’s the most obdurate person I know. the cause of one’s misery or ˘ downfall. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. not easily moved ˘ to pity. coming into existence. source of harm or ruin. excessive inter˘ est in one’s own personal features. ˘ The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. nonchalant (non·sha·'lahnt) adj. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. a conclusion that does not logically follow ˘ from the evidence. 1. O obdurate ('ob·du·rit) adj. unpleasant and harmful. a means of connection. novel ('nov·el) n. putrid. ˘ noxious. Marcus’s argument started off strong. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. The nascent movement ˘ gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. 3.
a work of art. Please don’t be so obtuse. oeuvre ('uu·vre) n. 3.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. fawning. secret. 2. incomprehensible. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. Thankfully. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. . Zachary found the work ˘ in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. detestable. involving the realm of the ˘ supernatural. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. aggressively ˘ ˘ boisterous. to dim or darken. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. but he was not omnipotent. eagerly offering unnecessary or ˘ ˘ unwanted advice. obsequious (ob·'see·kwee·us) adj. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. 2. to make obscure or unclear. Minsun survived the accident. not sharp or ˘ pointed. obtrusive (ob·'troo·siv) adj. ˘ thrusting out. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. bossy. 2. Instead of clarifying the matter. having unlimited or universal power or force. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. 1. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. to make unnecessary. undesirably noticeable. 2. beyond ordinary understanding. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e·rus) adj. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. meddlesome. obtuse (ob·'toos) adj. for she is also a classical pianist. 1. odious ('oh·di·us) adj. unruly. contemptible. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. projecting. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand. The embezzler was good at keeping his ﬁnancial records occult from the authorities. stupid and slow to understand. concealed. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. get rid of. ofﬁcious (o·'fish·us) adj. the total lifework of a writer. etc. you know what I mean. My ofﬁcious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. intrusive. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or ˘ ˘ submissive. blunt. but it is clearly an oligarchy. omnipotent (om·'nip·o·tent) adj. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. ˘ ˘ In Greek mythology. 1. com˘ poser. hidden. hateful. forward. 1. 2. Walter only obfuscated it further. occult (o·'kult) adj. artist. 1. prominent. 3. Zeus was the most powerful god.
2. excessive. mitigate. to gloss over. The fever subsided. having inﬁnite knowledge. lack of color. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. pretended. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. knowing all things. 2. lacking in importance or worth. immoderate. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. insigniﬁcant. but her pallor remained ˘ for several weeks. 1. contemptibly small in amount. presumptuously arrogant. ostracize ('os·tra·s¯z) v. put forward (as of a ˘ reason) but not necessarily so. to make something less intense or severe. 2. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. 2. put a positive spin on. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. luxu˘ ˘ rious. ˘ ˘ abusive. 1. paleness. 1. onus ('oh·nus) n. pallor ('pal·or) n. overweening (oh·ver·'wee·nin ) adj. vacillate. task. It was ˘ Clark’s idea. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·bel) adj. to waver. 1. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. seeming. ˘ 2. as between two conﬂicting options or opinions. cast out from a group or from society. bringing shame or disgrace. to provide relief from pain. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. opulent ('op·yu·lent) adj. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. afﬂuent. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ron) n. duty or responsibility of doing something. pitiful. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. Kendall ˘ was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. 1. 1.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·ent) adj. burden. appearing as such. uninterrupted rhythm. expressing contempt or reproach. opprobrious (o·'proh·bree·us) adj. such as friendly ﬁre. Lee is very wealthy. alleviate. In ˘ a story with an omniscient narrator. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. overbearing. but I believe they have already made their decision. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. wretched or contemptible. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. abundant. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. possessing great wealth. to reject. scornful. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly con˘ tradictory combination of expressions. . 2. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters.
easy to understand. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se·lahns) adj. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. quin˘ tessential. Ronnel was nice enough. marked by a narrow. 1. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. . a walker adj. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. smallness of supply or quantity. commonplace. translucent. a walker.. dull. 1. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. Don’t make such ˘ a big deal out of a little peccadillo.g.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a·d¯m) n. of. beliefs. especially of rules or trivial matters. an upstart. ˘ ˘ unimaginative. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. having the highest degree of excellence. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. pedestrian (pe·'des·tri· an) n. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. tiresome focus on or ˘ display of learning. a small sin or fault. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or ˘ economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. of writing) very clear. relating to. partisan ('pahr·ti·zan) n. able to be seen through with clarity. (e. set of assumptions. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. a guerilla. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a ˘ group or cause. peccadillo (pek·a·'dil·oh) n. After he told a sexist ˘ ˘ joke. ˘ 2. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. scarcity. pariah (pa·'r¯·a) n. or involving money.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. ˘ 2. an outcast. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. adj. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. 1. unremarkable. being the best or truest of its kind. Although the ﬁlm received critical acclaim. something that serves as a model or example. a rejected and despised person. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. trite. pellucid (pe·'loo·sid) adj. a trivial offense. 2. parvenu ('pahr·ve·noo) n. of course. Elected “Employee of the Month. pedantic (pi·'dan·tik) n. beyond comparison.
not allowing contradiction or refusal. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. . putting an end to debate or action. next to last. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. to make hard or stiff like a stone. The perﬁdious knight betrayed his king. penury ('pen·yu·ree) n. 1. it’s ˘ good to be ﬁnancially secure again. pernicious (per·'nish·us) adj. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. personable ('pur·so·na·bel) adj. destitution. holding ˘ ﬁrmly to a belief.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·chant) n. 3. 2. or dread. purpose. pervade (per·'vayd) v. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work. or course of action. pleasing in appearance or manner. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. perﬁdious (per·'fid·ee·us) adj. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. Consuela ˘ has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. perjury ('pur·ju·ree) n. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. a strong liking or inclination (for something). extreme poverty. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. not thorough. perfunctory (per·'fun k·to·ree) adj. done out of a sense of duty or routine but ˘ ˘ without much care or interest. Higgins would be their new teacher. treacherous. deeply thoughtful. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shus) adj. dishonest. dictatorial. to be diffused or present ˘ throughout. violating good faith. offensively self-assured. deadly. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. commanding. to spread everywhere. to stun or paralyze with fear. attractive. peremptory (pe·'remp·to·ree) adj. After the terrible car accident. imperative. or ˘ incomplete testimony while under oath. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. the deliberate willful giving of false. dis˘ ˘ loyal. superﬁcial. 1. very destructive. misleading. astonishment. extremely stubborn or persistent. Nancy’s opponent ˘ ˘ started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. ˘ ˘ 2. ˘ ˘ ˘ Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. permeate. After ten years of penury. harmful.
peevish. an overabundance. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. to arouse or provoke. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. to forcibly rob of goods. controversial. pique (peek) v. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm. (in biology) the soft. pleasantly ˘ stimulating or provocative. pillage ('pil·ij) v. 1. 1. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. 2. 2. to plunder. to offend. the wrong move now could ruin everything. pivotal ('piv·o·tal) adj. calm and peaceful. 1. a trite or banal statement. but he’s really just a philistine. to wound (someone’s) pride. especially in time of war. 2. 1. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. placid ('plas·id) adj. 1. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. sharp or tart in taste. The analyst presented ˘ ˘ a highly polemical view of the economic situation. ˘ ˘ The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. . expressing sorrow. but concise. extreme excess. piquant ('pee·kant) adj. especially one uttered as if it were new. a smug. plethora ('pleth·o·ra) n.). The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. agreeably pungent. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre. experience. piercing or incisive. mournful. the heart or essence (of the matter. being of vital importance. touching. Her brief. melancholy. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. arousing emotion. crucial. deeply moving. keenly ˘ distressing. We are at a pivotal point ˘ ˘ in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). etc. free from disturbance or tumult. poignant ('poin·yant) adj.WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u·lant) adj. ignorant person. the essential or central part. 2. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. argumentative. There was a plethora ˘ ˘ of food at the reception. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. idea. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. pith (pith) n. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. 2. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. polemical (po·'lem·ik·al) adj.
1. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. belonging to the earliest ages. unadulterated. nearness. 1. 2. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. propitious (proh·'pish·us) adj. primeval (pr¯·'mee·val) adj. free from contamination. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·us) adj. dropping sharply. to tell lies. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. 1. but she is sorely mistaken. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. 2. presenting favorable circumstances. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tus) adj. extremely steep. dissolute. given in great abundance. 1. pompous. proﬂigate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. The ˘ primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. The propinquity of these two elements make them difﬁcult to tell apart. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. 1. proletariat (proh·le·'tair·ee·at) n. pretentious (pri·'ten·shus) adj. 2. precept ('pree·sept) n. hasty. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. a phony. especially with ˘ money. lacking moral restraint. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. proximity. ancient. foolhardy. 2. someone who takes on airs to impress others. to stray from or evade the truth. . My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. lavish or profuse. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. 1. fraught with danger. showy. pure. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. 2. His prodigal actions led to his ﬁnancial ruin. practical. similarity in nature. putting on airs. a rule establishing standards of conduct. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. Hannah thinks ˘ that being pretentious will make people like her. afﬁnity. 2. favoring utility. prodigal. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. the working class. prodigal ('prod·˘· al) adj. dangerously unsteady ˘ or insecure.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. ˘ These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. matter-of-fact. original. auspicious. clean. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. ˘ rash. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. those who do manual labor ˘ ˘ to earn a living. in its original and unspoiled condition. Driving through the state park.
pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shus) adj. one who is an authority on a subject. proxy ('prok·see) n. pungent ('pun·jent) adj. 2. protocol ('proh·to·kawl) n. penetrating. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. variable. unimaginative. quarrelsome. In ˘ Native American mythology. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. 1. ceremony. 1. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. economi˘ cal. a learned person or scholar. puerile ('pyoo·r˘l) adj. ordinary. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. 1. taking many forms. protean ('proh·tee·an) adj. stinging. prudent ('proo·dent) adj. pundit ('pun·dit) n. ˘ caustic. extremely attentive to detail. a document authorizing this substitution. strong curry. etiquette. childish. to denounce or condemn. or procedure with regard to ˘ people’s rank or status. to convert or seek to convert someone to another ˘ religion. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. wisely providing for future needs. judicious. having a strong. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. exercising good judgment. forbid. I love the pungent taste of a good. frugal. 2. bel˘ ligerent. ˘ belonging to or of childhood. dull. versatile. Because my parents were so provident. to banish or outlaw. contentious. doctrine or cause. belief. eager to ﬁght. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. After a few minutes. .WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. 1. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. immature. changeable. 1. 2. to prohibit. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. 2. 2. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. proselytize ('pros·e·li·t¯z) v. suitable only for children. Clarissa has always been very prudent. very meticulous ˘ and precise. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and inter˘ ests. provident ('prov·i·dent) adj. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·us) adj. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. sharp taste or smell. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article.
I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. cower. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. to swallow in large draughts. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. ﬂinch. the perfect ˘ example or embodiment of something. Q quaff (kwahf) v. peevish. to have the appearance of being. the essence of a substance. commonplace. 1. at rest. querulous ('kwer·u·lus) adj. pedestrian. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. to steal. propose or intend. but who knows when it will erupt again. 1. inactive. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·an) adj. queue (kyoo) n. purloin (pur·'loin) v. dormant. He’s a cantan˘ ˘ kerous and querulous old man. Prudence ˘ took her quotidian dose of medicine. 2. 1. quiescent (kwi·'es·ent) adj. 2.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. complaining. to drink hurriedly or heartily. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. quail (kwayl) v. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of ˘ dollars. discontented. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. to draw back in fear. quintessence (kwin·'tes·ens) n. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. daily. romantically idealistic. a thing given in return for something. to free from impurities. to make or become clean. latent. 1. quiet. pure. an equal exchange or substitution. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. but I love him. After Leon writes a draft. to be intended to seem. 2. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. . 2. The volcano is ˘ quiescent at the moment. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. impractical. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance.
Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. censure. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. unmanageable. rancor ('ran ·kor) n. regale (ri·' ayl) v. 1. refractory (ri·'frak·to·ree) adj. long-lasting resentment. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. disobedient. and this causes tension at family gatherings.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. debonair. obscure. 1. a person who favors political conservativism. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho·ner·ee) n. 2. 1. boisterous. to reprove or reprimand. smartly dressed or mannered. rapacious (ra·'pay·shus) adj. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. 2. 1. a bitter feeling of ill will. 2. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. voracious. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. not easily understood. . He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. Greg is ˘ full of rancor towards his brother. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. unpleasantly loud and harsh. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. 2. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. unruly. raucous ('raw·kus) adj. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·trant) adj. refusing to obey authority. resisting control or dis˘ cipline. abstruse. ˘ one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for ˘ ˘ money). stubborn. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. The raucous music kept us awake all night. deal˘ ing with abstruse or profound matters. ˘ disturbing the peace. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. a relapse or backslide. disorderly. dissolute or debauched. unconventional and disreputable. ˘ ˘ especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. recondite ('rek·on·d¯t) adj. plundering. ˘ The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. jaunty in appearance or manner. reconnoiter (ree·ko·'noi·ter) v. to criticize sharply.
full. to disown. a criminal. 1. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and ˘ place. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. v. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·bel) adj. resting or being at rest. 1. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. to meet at a rendezvous. or opposition. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. to bring or come together at a certain place. 2. repose (ri·'pohz) n. reprobate ('rep·ro·bayt) n. to say or plead in protest.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. 2. peace of mind. one who rejects a cause. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of ˘ inﬂicting at least as much harm in return. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. disavow. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·zal) n. 2. Mrs. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. one without ˘ scruples. etc. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. repartee (rep·ar·'tee) n. group. objection. . Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. The repre˘ hensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. calmness. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. tranquility. 1. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla ﬁghters. to scold or reprove. and a traitor in his written confession. an immoral or unprincipled person. renegade ('ren·e· ayd) n. rendezvous ('rahn·de·voo) n. deserving rebuke or censure. the ability to make witty ˘ replies. witty reply. 1. 1. 1. postponement or cancellation of punishment. 1. famous. ˘ 2. a quick. especially of the death sentence. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. 2. a place where people meet. The house was replete with expensive antiques. reject completely. a deserter. gorged. especially a popular gathering place. well stocked or abundantly supplied. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. 2. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. 1. 2. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. widely known and esteemed. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. 2.
every painting is an homage to Cezanne. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. 2. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. having or showing sound judgment. sound advice. to stir up or agitate. confusing. unprincipled person. 1. disrespectful or irreverent towards something ˘ regarded as sacred. rigmarole ('ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. revere (ri·'veer) v. echoing. a complicated. to venerate. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. having great splendor or beauty. 2. a class or category. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. conspicuous. 1. petty procedure. hold in highest respect or estimation. to anger or annoy. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a ﬂood zone. title. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. untalkative. rubric ('roo·brik) n. Annette is very reticent. prominent. incoherent ˘ talk. a heading. resonant ('rez·o·nant) adj. resounding. silent.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·us) adj. 2. or note of explanation or direction. 3. ˘ reserved. salient ('say·lee·ent) adj. drawing ˘ attention through a striking quality. ˘ ˘ wise. to regard with reverence or awe. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. When you look at Judith’s work. 3. springing up or jutting out. sagacious (sa·' ay·shus) adj. rogue (roh ) n. bril˘ liant. reticent ('ret·i·sent) adj.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. . a pleasantly mischievous person. rambling. Yesterday. 1. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. 1. 1. perceptive. 2. resplendent (ri·'splen·dent) adj. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. dazzling. to void or annul. highly noticeable. 2. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. The new announcer at the stadium ˘ ˘ has a wonderfully resonant voice. a dishonest. to repeal or cancel. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy.” not “alternative medicine.
1. to approve or permit. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. of the color of blood. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. seditious (si·'dish·us) adj. ˘ excessively self-righteous. v. ratify. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. red. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. The saturnine child sulked for ˘ hours. gloomy. mocking scornfully. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. brilliantly clever and animated. schism ('siz·em) n. a trace or particle. saturnine ('sat·ur·n¯n) adj. 1. mean. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. composure. .164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. scintilla (sin·'til·a) n. 2. ofﬁcial authorization or approval. She has not one ˘ scintilla of doubt about his guilt. sparkling. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances. 2. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. shining brilliantly. a separation or division into factions because of a difference ˘ in belief or opinion. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. iota. sarcastic. engaging in or ˘ promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). reme˘ dial. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. graceful tact. to give ofﬁcial authorization or approval for. 1. sanction ('san k·shon) n. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. optimistic. a penalty ˘ imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. minute amount. sullen. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. 1. contemptible. 2. hypocritically pious or devout. To promote better health. sanguine ('san · win) adj. conﬁdently cheerful. dark. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate.
solecism ('sol·e·siz·em) n. 1. the study of meaning in language. but the matter is not open to interpretation. to seek to obtain by per˘ suasion or formal application. 1. serpentine. 2. winding. expressionless or dull. 2. moderate. I was amused by his sophistry. sententious (sen·'ten·shus) adj. 2. 3. He claims it’s an issue of semantics. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. persevering. slavish. It is dangerous to drive ˘ fast on such a sinuous road. 1. ˘ unimaginative. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. symbols. to satisfy. the researchers discovered a cure. abjectly submissive. expressing oneself tersely. to approach with an offer for paid services. or purpose. Scientists have studied ˘ humans’ simian ancestors. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. I was looking for your honest opinion. undulating. of or like an ape or monkey. initiative. slake (slayk) v. violation of ˘ ˘ good manners or etiquette. connotation. solicit (so·'lis·it) v. or other forms. simian ('sim·ee·an) adj. 2. pithy. hard working.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u·lus) adj. After years of sedu˘ ˘ lous research. thoroughly saturated. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. not a sententious reply. petition. quench. 1. 2. pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave or forced labor. 1. 2. ﬁnds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. or interpretation of words. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. sodden ('sod·en) adj. lazy and inefﬁcient. 1. to reduce the intensity of. sinuous ('sin·yoo·us) adj. The climax comes when Yolanda. full of ˘ maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. diligent. lacking ambition. soaked. impropriety. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. a mistake in the use of language. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. allay. to ask for earnestly. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. the meaning. . Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. 3. 1. clever but faulty reasoning. 2. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj.
The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. 2. cripple. having noble or majestic qualities. Subliminal ˘ advertising is devious but effective. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. or reverence. indifferent. shrill. seemingly plausible but false. to impair or make ineffective. to undermine. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. ˘ impassive. unpleasantly loud and harsh. supreme. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. specious ('spee·shus) adj. strident ('str¯·dent) adj. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. obstruct. Ian’s ˘ surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. wretched. 2. ﬁrmly loyal and constant. staunch (stawnch) v. concise. 1. 1. to overthrow. destroy completely. squalid. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. he is every bit as emotional as we are. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. ﬁrm and steadfast. to hinder. grating. morally degraded. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. . She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. ﬁlthy and wretched. 2. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. dirty. thwart. morally repulsive. unswerving. 1. adora˘ tion. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. counterfeit. not genuine or authentic. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won ﬁrst place in the essay contest. to prevent the accomplishment of something. ˘ When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. but underneath. stoical ('stoh·i·kal) adj. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. unswerving. ﬁrmly ﬁxed or unchanging. to ruin. deceptively pleasing ˘ in appearance. resolute. false. 2. 2. ˘ terse. 1. 1. Michael was stoical. 1. sordid. adj. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. discordant. succinct (suk·'sin kt) adj. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·nal) adj. spurious ('spyoor·ee·us) adj. below the threshold of consciousness. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. ﬁrm and constant in principle or loyalty. 2. (also stanch) stopping the ﬂow of something. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. inspiring awe. 3. lofty. sublime (su·'bl¯m) adj.
the state of being or eating until excessively full. to guess. an excessive amount or overabundance. a person who asks humbly for something. overindulge. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. glut. habitually untalkative. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. one who takes the place of another. suave. v. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. Martha ˘ agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. miscellaneous. 2. to pro˘ vide assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. 1. a fawning parasite. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. a substitute. made. . svelte (svelt) adj. one who ˘ beseeches or entreats. slender and graceful. to infer based upon insufﬁcient evidence. or fraudulent means. assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. satiety. supercilious (soo·per·'sil·ee·us) adj. scornful. v. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. Sunil’s super˘ ˘ cilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. 2. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. various. or obtained through stealthy. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. bad-tempered. to feed or ﬁll to excess. surrogate ('sur·o· it) n. surreptitious (sur·ep·'tish·us) adj. or disgust. surmise (sur·'m¯z) v. sycophant ('sik·o·fant) n. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. After ﬁnding dirty footprints in her apartment. conjec˘ ture. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or ˘ ˘ powerful people through ﬂattery.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·or) n. reserved. disdainful. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. supplicant ('sup·l˘·kant) n. In some countries. surly ('sur·lee) adj. 1. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. ˘ ˘ clandestine. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. haughty. done. gruff.
ﬂashy and tasteless. audacity. holding ﬁrmly to something. of or relating to a tangent. tenacious (te·'nay·shus) adj. 1. gaudy or showy but without any real value. to be present in large numbers. conviction.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·shal) adj. sticking ﬁrmly. This ˘ is no time for temerity. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. thwart (thwort) v. such as a right or ˘ ˘ principle. 2. not relevant facts. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. tenet ('ten·it) n. and it ˘ ˘ took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. not impartial. opinion. lacking conﬁdence. brashness. having little substance or ˘ validity. fearful. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. biased. only superﬁcially relevant. The stray dog was timorous. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. temerity (te·'mer·i·tee) n. succinct. ﬂimsy. or organization. cohesive. she is the most tenacious person I know. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. able to be perceived by touch. timorous ('tim·o·rus) adj. afraid. a belief. group. 1. 4. real or con˘ crete. holding ﬁrmly. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. 3. 2. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. fearful. unsubstantial. (of memory) retentive. or courage. persistent. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. tangible ('tan·j˘·bel) adj. using no unnecessary words. 1. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. hesitant. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. timid ('tim·id) adj. concise. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. tendentious (ten·'den·shus) adj. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. tenuous ('ten·yoo·us) adj. of no substantive ˘ connection. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. . stubbornly unyielding. partisan. it’s all hearsay. timid. foolish disregard of danger. supporting a ˘ particular cause or position. shy. palpable. The ﬁsherman found a stream teeming with bass. 2. adhesive. to be full of. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. After our disagreement. terse (turs) adj.
It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. of a form of government in which those in ˘ control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. Their relationship was transient but profound. 2. 2. In the ˘ ˘ novel Brave New World. 1. overly familiar through overuse. his tirade did not surprise his roommate. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·nal) n. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. tout (towt) v. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. It was a trenchant argument. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. obedient. v. especially with the goal of getting a customer. repeated too often. easily managed or controlled. truculent ('truk·yu·lent) adj. deﬁantly aggressive. exhausting labor or effort. lasting only a very short time. The theme of the novel was trite. or agitation. ﬂeeting.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. violent. and ﬂuctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. creating an uproar. clear-cut. a ˘ state of confusion. effective. to promote or praise highly and energetically. 2. etc. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. 1. etc. worn out. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·us) adj. to solicit (customers. 3. penetrating. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. toil (toil) n. 1. a court of justice. tumult. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. ˘ brief. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. noisy. incisive. angry. a violent denunciation or condemnation. a long. many writers had written about death in a similar way. trite (tr¯t) adj. 1. docile. difﬁcult or laborious work. trenchant ('tren·chant) adj. transitory. often highly critical speech. votes. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. ﬁerce. labor strenuously. sharply deﬁned. vote. forceful. disorderly. bitterly ˘ ˘ expressing opposition. He will be sentenced for his war crimes ˘ by an international tribunal. 2. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. turbulence. hackneyed. tractable ('trak·ta·bel) adj. Since Andre was known for his temper. 3. extremely per˘ ceptive. . to work laboriously. transient ('tran·zhent) adj.
offense. 2. undermine (un·der·'m¯n) v. ﬂuctuate. to wrongfully take over. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. suave. reproach sharply. by force and without right. or take possession of. wickedness. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. . condemn. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. to be indecisive. a corrupt or depraved act. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. This TV ˘ show is yet another vacuous sitcom. to destroy in an underhanded way. the babysitter undermined their mother. troublesome. 2. 1. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ˘ earnest or ingratiating. stupid. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. vacuous ('vak·yoo·us) adj. greasy. empty. ﬂuctuate. undulate ('un·ju·layt) v. to reprove. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. elegant. 1. 1. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. waver. resentment. inane. ˘ The curtains undulated in the breeze. 2. purposeless. to move or sway from side to side. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. 2. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. inconvenient. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. 1. highly reﬁned in manners. perverse. admonish. but he’s really quite pedestrian. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. to seize. improper. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. extremely tactful and polite. course of action. who had forbade them to eat sweets. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. senseless. 2. etc. who was the rightful heir to the throne. unctuous ('un k·choo·us) adj. 1. to weaken or injure.. unseemly. to swing back and forth about an opinion. especially by wearing away at ˘ the foundation.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. slippery. adverse.
The venal judge was ˘ removed and disbarred. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. to compete with or contend. to cen˘ sure severely. to annoy. 2. real. vigor. . 1. vis-à-vis (vee·za·'vee) adj. genuine. indeed. true. caustic. 2. the lights came back on. berate. savagely hostile or bitter. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. vignette (vin·'yet) n. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. a brief description or depiction. irritate. ˘ Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. referring or directing attention to. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. injurious or infectious. to cause worry to. After a few minutes of pandemonium. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or ˘ ˘ forcefulness of expression or conviction. The ﬁlm is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. marked by great force. 2. to strive for superiority or victory. venerable ('ven·e·ra·bel) adj. ˘ ˘ 2. verbose (ver·'bohs) adj. the appearance of being true or real. or energy. The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. face to face. The two scientists were vying to be the ﬁrst to ﬁnd concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. face to face ˘ with or opposite to. 1. easily bribed or corrupted. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e·ment) adj. vie (v¯) v. virulent ('vir·yu·lent) adj. 1. bitterly hostile or hateful. using more words than necessary. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. Einstein was a veritable genius. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. venal ('vee·nal) adj. adv. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. extremely poisonous. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. veritable ('ver·i·ta·bel) adj. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. wordy. acrimonious. dig˘ ˘ ˘ nity. character or position. unprincipled. vituperate (v¯·too·pe·rayt) v. 1. long-winded.
winnow ('win·oh) v. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. . The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. a strong dislike.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a·til) adj. After being swindled by the street vendor. excessively greedy. ﬁckle. voluble ('vol·yu·bel) adj. rapacious. 2. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. 1. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. likely to change suddenly or violently. turning or rotating easily on an axis. having a great ˘ appetite for something. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the ﬁfties. 1. the spirit of the times. eager. the point in the sky directly above the observer. top. ˘ ˘ Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. peak. 3. nimble speech. unstable. ˘ earnest. 1. changeable. ﬁlled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. the highest point. voracious (voh·'ray·shus) adj. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. Z zealous ('zel·us) adj. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to ﬁve highly qualiﬁed candidates. to separate the good from the bad. cautious. varying widely. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. zenith ('zee·nith) n. distrust. watchful. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. 1. devouring greedily. or fear of foreigners. 2. rapid. explosive. fervent. ˘ 2. talking a great deal and with great ease. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. X xenophobia (zen·o·'foh·bee·a) n. inconstant. language ˘ ˘ marked by great ﬂuency. 2. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. guarded. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n.
disinterested 173 . apart. jointly against. detract disperse. and examples of words with each preﬁx. PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES a-. circumnavigate. away. contraindication counterclockwise. dismiss. anab-. reversal. opposing. anarchy. antipathy bisect. and Word Roots PREFIXES The following table lists the most common English language preﬁxes. community. concontracounterdedis- not. abduct. countermeasure. antebellum antidote. antecedent. consensus contradict. counterpart deactivate. twice around. their meanings. without from. contrary. remove from. not atypical. absanteant-. amorphous abnormal. bilateral. Sufﬁxes. com-. antagonist. before opposite. reduce away from. together. bicameral circumference. on all sides with. dethrone. complementary do the opposite or reverse of. antibicircumco-. circumspect cooperate. against two. about. off prior to.WO R D LI ST APPENDIX B Preﬁxes. in front of. contrasting contrary. opposite or opposing. abscond antedate.
postpartum. uniform. subdue. within in. polyglot postpone. illicit. miscreant. precede. projecting false. monogamy. postoperative precaution. malign misspell.(also il-. subsequent. among. presage proceed. superﬁcial. within within. into. away from duo. behind before (a) earlier. unilateral in. beneath. triumvirate unable. thrice not one . in. duet. wrong bad. pseudoscience recall. exceeding across. unorthodox unite. surpassing. evil. through three. subjugate superhero. multiple new. intermittent intramural. exorbitant induct. beyond. single. before. impervious intervene. nonentity. below above. alone many. impart. profess pseudonym. in front of (b) for. nonchalant overabundance. prior to. incessant. during in. multimillionaire. rescind semiannual. ill. fake back. ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween. neonatal. later (than). wrong. over. abnormal. misanthrope monologue. not im-. incomplete under.ir-) two out. intravenous introvert. neophyte nonconformist. introduction malfunction. tricycle. translate. out of.(also il-. reconcile. overstimulate polytechnic. into. proclivity. supporting. inculcate invariable. excessive many.174 PREFIX MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES duoexim. exclaim. a new form of not exceeding. recent. monocle multiple. supercilious transmit. partly. opposite or lack of one. multifarious neologism. inept. much after. malpractice. in behalf of (c) forward. again half. within bad. uninterested. duality expel. semiconscious subconscious. translucent triangle. interact.
their meanings. quality or degree doctrine. makes. benevolence. imperialist clarity. homicide democracy. disposal. does. supremacy builder. means. amity. historian adolescence. and examples of words with each sufﬁx. -or -ion. being in a speciﬁed state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer. valor. result. reversal guardian. goodness biology.P R E F I X E S. foreigner. -ency -ant. activity or place of business drainage. ofﬁce or function state. metamorphosis exposure. anarchy . dignitary. produces. AN D WO R D R O OTS 175 SUFFIXES The following table lists the most common English language sufﬁxes. killing action or practice. imperialism anarchist.) quality. object. orphanage. vacancy. renaissance agency. feminist. legislature. succor diagnosis. or science. persecution. or agent of an action or process state. -ent -ary -cide -cy -er. pesticide. promotes. dissident. embankment. quality. -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y (a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state. a person specializing in action or process. censure laundry. anachronism. amazement happiness. or degree action or process. empathy. rank action or process of or relating to. or performs act or process. theology. latency disinfectant. NOUN ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -age -al -an. activity process or action act or process. sensor attraction. readiness. condition. oral or written expression condition. or causes an action. veracity entertainment. library suicide. state or doctrine of one who (performs. pediatrician. believes. theory. state or condition act. state or quality of one that is. or process. -ence -ancy. condition. S U F F I X E S. etc. miscreant adversary. state of quality or state one that performs. practice. dialysis. eulogy candor. state. -ian -ance. marriage rehearsal. denunciation criticism. legitimacy.
lengthen. futile. incessant. form into to cause to be or become. synchronize . emanate quicken. full of. relating to characterized by. rectify colonize. American. unable to act or be acted on (in a speciﬁed way) full of. -ical -an. -ose. inscrutable educational. cursory. exacerbate. electrify. having the qualities of. egregious sleepy. frighten beautify. preeminent helpful. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. relating to. servile Swedish. plagiarize. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. related to. fearless. -ible -al. cooperative. agrarian important. tolerate. peaceful. -ial. squeamish sensitive. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). of. tending or inclined to ﬂammable. ephemeral human. chronic. peripheral. culpable. pensive endless. archaic fragile. -ian -ant.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. wistful fantastic. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. to come to be or have to make. lacking. bookish. characteristic of performing (a speciﬁc action) or being (in a speciﬁed condition) full of. glorious. listless adventurous. having the nature of without. to bring about violate. or characterized by one who is or does. -fy -ize to make. having the qualities of. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. -y capable or worthy of. tending or liable to having the quality of.
preamble. belligerent. synchronize . recant capital. intercept. antebellum beneﬁt. alien amiable. to happen by chance to sing head. ruler self to be. to get heart ﬂesh cut to go. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. andr apo apt. anniversary. acrimonious agent. castigate exceed. cascade chant. to judge. around life. near other. ambush ambiguous. ali. ﬁtness. enamor ambulatory. cardiac. apocalypse. chronology. cess centr cern. headlong to take. reincarnation. soul. bemoan. benevolent. spirit year man. To learn these roots. autonomy. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. There are more than 150 roots here. amph anim annui. capitulate capture. mind. more than one. cent. another love to go. ennui anthro. alter am amb amb. discern chronic. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. perennial anthropology. carnage caste. amity. cert. S U F F I X E S. allure alternative. acute. their meanings. principal. animosity. toward. to decide time acid. bon cad. incessant central. and examples of words with those roots. bell ben. alias. adept. ceed. agitate adjacent. ag ad. critique. capit. cept card. bitter to do. acr act. al al. discord carnivore. to drive. cret. to yield. cip. principal. amphitheater unanimous. equanimity annual. cord. chast ced. ept arch. enchant. to stop center to separate.P R E F I X E S. to walk both. monarchy. crit chron sharp. crim. archy auto be bel. concentric. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. to have a certain quality war good to fall. coincidence. apotheosis adapt. misanthrope apology. cid cant. inept hierarchy. cour carn cast. ambivalent. human away skill. cipit cap. chant cap. eccentric ascertain. to distinguish. anarchy automatic. adhere. archi. belittle rebel. chastise. emancipate encourage. concede. bonus accident. ability chief. to lead to. android. enact. automaton befriend. to force.
obdurate dysfunctional. conducive endure. indict dignity. enclose. dictionary. increase. bureaucracy creation. to carry. transfer. error. equanimity. durable. to bear to boil. ﬁg. clamor decline. to tell. indoctrinate. proclivity recur. clo. abnormal upon equal. pandemic dialogue. incumbent culprit. dystopia. docile democracy. feign offer. indolence. proliferate fervor. even to wander becoming good. cur crat. coalesce. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. fam fac. endow dubious. dolorous donate. incursion. to make to bring. factory. ﬂuctuation. dia dic. a course to govern to grow to believe. recline. to bubble faith. incisive closet. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. inﬂammatory deﬂect. ﬂexible ﬂuid. ﬁnite. affable ﬁction.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. close to shout. erratic adolescent. dyslexia epidemic. dichotomy predict. exculpate doctor. incredulous crypt. induct. ﬁdelity. clu claim. famous. endow. cumb culp dac. dict. fervid. increment incredible. fait. cryptic. epidemic. doc dem di. cursory democracy. superﬂuous . feit. trust end to burn to bend to ﬂow scissors. equivocate err. bend running. cresc. clin cour. orthodox. precise. ﬁc. dow dub duc. credit. incubate. paradox condolence. dit dign dog. dot. ﬂam ﬂect. preclude exclaim. effervescent conﬁde. reﬂect. diatribe. through to say. cret cred cryp cub. euthanasia fable. clam cli. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. ﬂex ﬂu. cracy cre. well speak to do. indubitable. cryptography succumb. epigram. to cry out to lean toward. epigraph equation. autocracy. afﬁnity ﬂame. culpable. eulogy. ﬂux to cut shut. inﬁdel ﬁnal. proclaim. ﬂammable. fy fer ferv ﬁd ﬁn ﬂag. to use words worth opinion suffer. acquiesce euphoria. dubiety conduct. dox dol don. indignant dogma.
diffuse generous.P R E F I X E S. gno grad. junct jur lect. intermittent monitor. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. junction. heterogeneous. ingratiate cohere. preeminent transmit. forestall. deluge magnify. magnitude. hyperbole idiom. nym nat. lus lud. homonym. nown. lucid. manifest minute. creation. incognito progress. frag. lum. to throw down to meet. nown death change rule. ideology eject. log. inherent heterosexual. homogenous ignore. dilute. nym. taxonomy. race. alleviate dialogue. juxtapose jury. diminish. noun. anthropomorphic fra. moratorium mutate. adherent. eloquent. heterodox homogeneous. order to be born harm. elude. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. fortunate. nai nec. forbear fortune. loquacious illustrate. death name immortal. imminent. noun. allude lavatory. noxious. gress grat her. maj. excessive one’s own to throw. nas. metamorphosis. permutation economy. conjecture joint. infringe infusion. noc. nom. perjury. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. fring to break fus gen gn. digress grateful. nic. lus lug. S U F F I X E S. autonomy native. monit morph to pour birth. aggressive. fortuitous fracture. to join to swear to select. morbid. frac. idiosyncrasy. dejected. nominal . fraction. abjure election. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. rise word. select. remonstrate amorphous. immutable. remit. luv mag. to choose lift. leg lev loc. renaissance innocent. innocuous nominate. lever. hyperextend. light. lut. other same over. loqu luc. max man min min mis. admonish. recognize. eclectic elevator. magnanimous manual. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. homonym hyperactive. minutiae prominent. nascent. mit mon. gratitude. manufacture. nox nom. genetics. luminous illusion.
pensive perplex. education foot to pay. omniscient pacify. a lot to prove. permeate. sanct. impoverish pediatrician. insolent. pound port prehend. to strive love sound to please to ﬁll to fold. homophone. peripatetic compete. puncture. impetuous philosophy. antipathy. completely. sult sci scribe. poign que. conquest. placebo. to. pedantic pedestrian. paciﬁer panorama. prescribe. comply. to weigh. segregate. impede penalty. pens per peri pet. punishment. of. sacrament. reprisal proliferate. denounce novice. to get. proselytize probe. plethora complex. ridiculous. to compensate to hang. complacent complete. path pau. component. beside feeling. pervade perimeter. against. plic. juxtapose import. profuse. pat. deplete. science. obsequious omnipresent. apathetic poverty. omnipotent. cacophony placid. wrong around to go. penance depend. pronounce. pos. derision interrogate. petition. query quiet. pod pen. to seek. expedite. apprehend. compensate. seditious . paragon. nunc nov. peas pan par para pas. sanction assault. disparate. to jump to know to write apart announce. little. paradox passionate. sault. secr sal. novel. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. implicit expose. pung. to pay completely. probation. reprobate repugnant. sil. quis qui rid. to seize much. parity parallel. impugn point. oc. acquiesce riddle. surrogate. punctilious inquisitive. suffering. appease. encyclopedia. importune surprise. obstruct. prise pro prob pug punc. nou ob. pandemic. to tangle. abrogate sacred. philanthropy. ris rog sacr.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. pugnacious. disease few. circumscribe separate. bibliophile telephone. tranquil. poor child. pu ped ped. pov. panacea par. to bend to put. po. to place to carry to take. to twist. over all peace all. op omni pac. peripheral. desultory conscious. to test to ﬁght to point. pauper. pun pend. neophyte object. omniscient scribble. everyone equal next to. scrip se to announce new toward. pit phil phone plac ple plex. neo. ply pon. for. portable.
to plan. obstinate. tractable abuse. sid sens. venture. usurp convene. versatile vivid. to be still. tic tain. tension. ten. sustain. sentiment. vis voc. spic. obsequious subside. survey. steadfast suave. tenuous atheist. dissuade tacit. sent sol spec. dissolution perspective.P R E F I X E S. to see to stand. volition. persuade. apotheosis attract. tin tend. visionary vocal. veritable revert. vent ver vers. advocate. tenu theo tract us. to thin god. to be aware to loosen. equivocate volunteer. dissent dissolve. tenacious extend. dissident sense. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. circumspect static. spit sta. intervene verdict. detract. sess. to draw to use to come. to pull. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. tens. resolution. S U F F I X E S. vicarious evident. ut ven. vert vi vid. sequel. vok vol to follow to sit. benevolence . theology. verisimilitude. sequ sed. religion to drag. utility. tent. speculation. taciturn detain. reticent. tent. to free to look. aversion. assiduous. to plot to feel. sti sua tac. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. vigorous.
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