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Pre-Calc Lesson 6

# Pre-Calc Lesson 6

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This is a lesson to do a whirlwind review of everything linear in a pre-calculus class. Aligned with Larson's "Pre-calculus: a graphing approach" 4th ed. and some problems pillaged from the Arlington Algebra Project.
This is a lesson to do a whirlwind review of everything linear in a pre-calculus class. Aligned with Larson's "Pre-calculus: a graphing approach" 4th ed. and some problems pillaged from the Arlington Algebra Project.

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07/25/2013

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# Pre-Calculus Lesson 6 Objectives

1. Intro to what a polynomial function is. 2. Review of linear functions: Slope and intercepts 3. Slope intercept form of a line 4. Point slope form of a line 5. Vertical and horizontal lines 6. Parallel and perpendicular lines. 7. Scatter plots and lines of best fit. Materials and Handouts 1.
Time 5 minutes 5 minutes Activity

Homework

35 minutes

Go over the test 1. Discuss any mistakes they made 2. Make sure they’ve mastered all the material. Intro to Polynomials 1. Explain that the rest of pre-calc will be about exploring different types of functions. We start with the most basic type of function and move on to talk about much more complex functions. 2. The most basic function is the polynomial function- discuss what it is and what it looks like- ( ) 3. We have names for the different polynomial functions depending on how many terms there are and what the power is on a. A polynomial with highest power : Takes the form ( ) is called a constant function. b. A polynomial with highest power takes the form ( ) is called a linear function. c. A polynomial with highest power takes the form ( ) is called a quadratic function d. A polynomial with highest power of takes the form ( ) is called a cubic function e. A polynomial with powers higher than , or in other words of power are called nth degree polynomials. f. Give them a few examples to help them name polynomials. 4. We’re going to start with the two simplest polynomials and review their properties today. Next time we get to look at quadratics. Linear Functions 1. Constant Functions are easy. You already know how to graph them. Let’s try a few ( ) a. b. ( ) 2. Can you think of any real life situations where a constant function may be useful? 3. Now, these aren’t functions, but they can be useful sometimes. Try graphing the relations a. b. 4. So in general, the equation of a horizontal line is and the equation for a vertical line is . 5. Linear Functions- have 3 important features, what are they? a. Slope- discuss what it is (rise/run) and that it describes the steepness of lines. If slope is

positive, the line slopes up from left to right, if it’s negative it slopes down from left to right. Give some real world slope examples too (think about what makes a stair case steep vs. shallow.) b. Y-intercept- this is where the input is zero. It is where the line hits the y-axis but it’s more than that. Often times the independent variable represents time. If time is zero, the y-intercept tells us where the starting point is. c. X-intercept- this is where the output is zero. If we have lines modeling moving objects, it might be nice to know where they crash into ground, or after how long are your stocks worthless. 6. Slope Formula- Have them recite the slope formula- I’m sure they know it. If they don’t, work through it carefully after graphing two points (1,5) and (6, 7) say. Then look at two random points (x1, y1) (x2, y2) 7. Point-Slope Form: So we have the formula . a. What if we let the firs point (x1, y1) stay fixed, but we let the second point (x2, y2) roam around. Let’s let (x2, y2) just become the point (x,y). Those will be our independent and dependent variables b. So we get . Now let’s rearrange this formula. Multiply both sides by . We ) get ( This is called the point-slope form of a line. It lets us find the equation of a line if we have a slope, and a point (x1, y1). This form is awfully nice because it lets us find the equations of lines through specific points. d. Examples of using point-slope i.) Find the equation of a line with slope that passes through ( ) c. ii.) Find the equation of a line that passes through the points ( ) and ( ) 8. Slope-Intercept Form: But you surely learned form of a line right? What we did above doesn’t look anything like this. But HOLD YOUR HORSES! They’re basically the same thing. ) a. Take the points slope formula from above ( and solve for : ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) b. Doesn’t that almost look like ? Well it is! That mass of gobbledygook ( ) is . Remember that is the y-intercept. This form is awfully nice because it’s easy to graph. c. If necessary, practice graphing a few lines. 9. Standard Form: a. This form is the bane of math students’ existence! It’s a form we use when writing lines formally, but it doesn’t help us out much. You have to mess around with it a lot to make it useful. It is where are integers. b. If you’re given an equation in this form, there are two ways to graph it: a. Solve for y to get it in slope intercept form Ex: b. Find the x and y-intercepts of the line. The x-intercept is wherever y is zero, so plug in zero for y. Then the y- intercept is wherever x is zero, so plug in zero for x. Ex: 10. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines a. Draw a line on the grid that’s parallel to the line . What do these two lines appear to share? What don’t they share? b. Parallel lines have the same slope, but pass through different points.

Ex: Find a line parallel to the line and passes through the point (6,5) c. Try drawing a line on the grid that’s perpendicular to the line . What clues will help us find the equation of the new line? (have them observe that the slope is negative, that it appears to be steeper than that of the original line.) d. Perpendicular lines have slopes that are negative reciprocals of each other. Ex: Find a line perpendicular to the line passing through the point (6,-5) 11. Scatter-plots and Lines of Best Fit. a. Unfortunately, real world situations rarely follow a perfectly linear graph. Usually they’re just loosely linear. This means that we need to find a line that will best fit the data. b. Go through the exercise with them, showing them how to do a linear regression model on their calculators c. When they get down to the r values problem explain the following: (i) Data that is roughly linear and slopes up has a positive correlation (ii) Data that is roughly linear and slopes down has a negative correlation (iii) Data with no linear trend has no correlation (iv) is called the correlation coefficient. The closer it is to 1 or -1, the more linear the data. The closer it is to zero, the less linear the data.

Pre-calculus Lesson 6

Name:__________________ Date:_________

Intro to Polynomial Functions and Lines Class Work
Intro to Polynomials 1. The most basic function is the polynomial function-

2. We have names for the different polynomial functions depending on how many terms there are and what the power is on a. A polynomial with highest power b. A polynomial with highest power c. A polynomial with highest power d. A polynomial with highest power of e. A polynomial with powers higher than f. Try to name the following polynomials , or in other words of power : takes

(i)

( )

(ii)

( )

(iii) ( )

Constant Functions 1. You already know how to graph them. Let’s try a few a. ( ) b. ( ) 1. Can you think of any real life situations where a constant function may be useful?

2. Now, these aren’t functions, but they can be useful sometimes. Try graphing the relations c. d. 3. So in general, a. The equation of a horizontal line is ________ b. The equation for a vertical line is __________ Linear Functions 1. They have 3 important features: a. Slopeb. Y-interceptc. X-intercept-

2. Slope Formula-

3. Point-Slope Form: Show all the steps in how we figure out points slope form below.

a. Find the equation of a line with slope that passes through (

)

b. Find the equation of a line that passes through the points (

) and (

)

c. This form awfully nice because:_____________________________________________ 4. Slope-Intercept Form: You surely learned same thing. a. Take the point-slope formula from above ( ) and solve for : form of a line? What we did

above doesn’t look anything like this. But HOLD YOUR HORSES! They’re almost the

b. Doesn’t that almost look like That mass of gobbledygook (

? Well it is! ) =________________

c. This form is awfully nice because ______________________________________________ 5. Standard Form: a. What is it:

b. If you’re given an equation in this form, there are two ways to graph it: (i) Way 1:

(ii)

Way 2:

6. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines a. Draw a line on the grid that’s parallel to the line lines appear to share? What don’t they share? . What do these two

b. Parallel lines have the same __________, but different__________________. c. Ex: Find a line parallel to the line and passes through the point (6,5)

d. Try drawing a line on the grid that’s perpendicular to the line clues will help us find the equation of the new line?

. What

e. Perpendicular lines have slopes that are _______________________________. f. Ex: Find a line perpendicular to the line passing through the point (6,-5)

Scatter Plots and Lines of best Fit 1. Plot the following points on the grid. A teacher is studying the number of candies she has to give out each month to keep her students motivated. Months # of candy 2 8 3 10 4 16 5 17 6 22 7 20 8 28

a. Plot these points on the grid to make a scatter plot. b. Draw a line through the points as best you can to represent the data. c. Try to find the equation for this line:

2. Now I’ll show you how to do it with your calculator. a. Hit the STAT button and go to the EDIT submenu. b. Enter the months as L1 and the #of candy as L2 c. Hit the STAT button again and go to the CALC submenu. d. Go to choice 4- LinReg(ax+b). Hit enter twice. e. This gives you the equation for a line that approximates the data. Use this line to predict how much candy I would need to give out if on the 10th month of school. 3. Some data is “more linear” or “less linear”

Possible r values: -1.00 -0.65 0.00 0.75 0.92 1.00

Pre-calculus Lesson 6

Name:_______________ Date:_________

Intro to Polynomial Functions and Lines Homework Pg 11 #1, 2, 12, 13, 16, 19, 20, 22, 26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 38, 43, 50, 51, 52, 58, 67, 71, 75-78. Pg 77# 13, 17, 30, 31.

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