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Processing Technology and Utilization of Manure as a Contribution to the Development of Small and Medium Industries in Pandansimo Baru
By : Andik Irawan 11/ 322749/PTK/07426
Master Program of System Engineering Faculty of Engineering Gadjah Mada University
Processing Technology and Utilization of Cow Manure as a Contribution to the Development of Small and Medium Industries in Pandansimo Baru
Presented by : Name : Andik Irawan No. of Student : 11/32279/PTK/07426
Yogyakarta 03 October 2012 Student
1. Title Processing Technology and Utilization of Cow Manure as a Contribution to the Development of Small and Medium Industries in Pandansimo Baru. 2. Background a. Introduction The concept of rural development in particular areas in Indonesia was born of an interactive process that combines basic theoretical understanding with practical experience as a form of dynamic application. In other words, the concept of regional development in Indonesia is an amalgamation of various theories and models that have been tested constantly growing apply. Furthermore reformulated into an approach that is tailored to the conditions and needs of development in Indonesia. In the history of its development, the development of the concept of assembling parts of Indonesia there are several theoretical foundation that also coloring existence. First is Walter Isard as a pioneer who studied the regional science causality of the main factors forming region of space, the physical factors, socio-economic, and cultural. Both are Hirschmann (1950's era) that gave rise to the theory of polarization effects and the trickling down effect by arguing that the development of a region does not occur simultaneously (unbalanced development). Third is Myrdal (1950's era) with a theory that explains the relationship between the forward and rear areas of the term backwash effect and spreadwash effect. Fourth is Freadmann (the 1960's) that places more emphasis on hierarchy formation in order to facilitate the development of systems development that became known as the theory of economic growth centers. Fifth is Douglass (70's era) that introduces the birth model of rural-urban linkages (rural-urban linkages) in the development of the region. The existence of the basic theory and concept development in the region and then enriched with
ideas born of the sons of the nation's thinking. Among them are Sutami (1970's era) with the idea that the intensive development of infrastructure to support the use of natural resources will be able to accelerate the development of the region. Poernomosidhi (transition era) contributed to the birth of the concept of the cities and hikarki hiriarki roads through kota.Selanjutnya order is Ruslan Diwiryo (the 1980's) who introduced the concept of pattern and structure of the space that even a major inspiration for the birth of Law No. 24/1992 on spatial planning . The concept of the development of the region began to be directed to address regional disparities, between regions in the island, as well as between urban and rural areas. Recent developments in the early centuries and even millennia, directing regional development concept as a means to realize the integration of the unitary Republic of Indonesia. Based on the understanding of the theoretical and empirical experiences above, then the conceptual understanding of regional development can be formulated as a series of attempts to bring coherence in the use of various resources, glue and balancing national development and national territorial integrity, increase harmony between regions, through the integration between the development sector on an understanding theoretical and empirical experiences above, then the conceptual understanding of regional development can be formulated as a series of attempts to bring coherence in the use of various resources, glue and balancing national development and unity of the national territory, increasing inter-regional harmony, integration between the development sector through the process of spatial planning role in the achievement of sustainable development goals in the container Homeland. Building on the above understanding of the development should not only be held to meet sectoral objectives partial sufficient, but more than that, construction was held to meet the objectives of regional
development is comprehensive and holistic approach by considering compatibility between various resources as a key element forming chamber (source natural, artificial, human and system activity), which is supported by the legal and institutional system that surrounded him. The development of energy related area is preferred to meet the goals in the region's energy needs and the needs of the industry tanggga. Since the oil crisis, the attention of the world, including Indonesia, the development of renewable energy sources and technologies of oil is increasing. Dependence only on fossil energy sources and imports for energy, particularly oil, natural gas and coal as well as increasing energy demand in Indonesia, should be anticipated through the efforts of developing alternative energy sources available and environmentally friendly. Development of rural areas have considerable opportunity for berkontribisi in alternative energy development program. Under the direction of the national team developing alternative energy biofuels (BBN), in the area should be linked poverty alleviation and job creation. In addition, the development of biogas in rural areas also need to consider the benefits and feasibility in order to take place on an ongoing basis. In relation to the benefits, biogas is a renewable energy source that can address energy needs and produce organic fertilizer in the form of solid and liquid. The use of livestock manure into biogas by anaerobic fermentation using bacteria and methanogens can support the application of the concept of zero waste, so the practice of sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly can be achieved (Andreas Wiji SP, 2010). Enny Ariani, et al (2007), some of the advantages livestock waste utilization in rural areas are: 1. reduce the cost of purchasing kerosene or LPG gas, and energy-efficient in the search for firewood, 2. environmentally friendly because livestock waste that had been allowed to be utilized, 3. incidental produce organic sludge that can be
processed into compost, and 4. support the government's energy-saving program. b. Authenticity Research Pandansimo a rural area in the district Poncosari Bantul. Pandansimo trying to create an energy independent region with various contributions in the development of rural areas. The development of independent energy region associated with the use and processing of livestock products in use and utilized as renewable energy and solid waste treatment industry in livestock. Until now the results of animal waste is used for small-scale biogas feedstock that is needed in the development of clusters in the processing and utilization of biogas and solid waste treatment biogas industry in the organic fertilizer industry. The author tries to create industrial clusters in the processing and utilization of biogas and biogas utilization of solid waste into organic fertilizer industry in New Pandansimo. c. Avail expected Pandansimo is a region located in the southern coastal Poncosari Bantul District with an area of ± 24ha, is an independent energy region with wind turbines and solar panels. The author tries to develop new Pandansimo region through the use of the concept of animal waste produced in one hamlet of New Pandansimo region. Utilization and processing are expected to provide added value to the local economy as well as serve as a village industry in the processing and utilization of animal waste into biogas and solid waste into organic fertilizer. 3. Research Objectives : From the theoretical discussion on the selection of cases in New Pandansimo aims to: a. Designing design in the processing of animal waste b. Providing industrial clusters in the processing and utilization of solid waste into organic fertilizer
4. Planinng Mechanism From the results of a case study in New Pandansimo draft plan with the following machine models: a. Biogas Cluster with Model Design Flow Rates in Small and Medium Industries b. Mechanisms Technology Fertilizer Organic with Cluster Model 5. Review of the literature
a. Potential Waste livestock (cattle) into compost
Dung and urine are the most animal waste generated in animal husbandry in the form of residual waste other than food. In general, every kilogram of beef produced cattle also produce 25 kg of solids. The amount of solid waste generated from fattening beef cattle could potentially be utilized as a source of compost and the potential to be a source of fattening beef cattle. For example, for fattening with a target daily weight gain (PBBH) of 0.5 kg will be produced as many as 12.5 kg dung per day. If the target is fattening weight gain of 90 kg in the fattening period for 6 months will produce as much as 2.2 tons of dirt from a cattle feedlot every single period. If livestock manure and feed residue is processed into compost, then at least of any feedlot cattle can produce 1.5 tons of compost per 6 months. Composting is the process of biodegradation or decomposition of organic matter decomposition by bacteria, yeast and decomposition of waste materials additional income from the business to the fungus. To speed up the composting process in which organic processes into organic fertilizer that is ready to be used by plant decomposition process is carried out artificially. Cattle dung can be used as the main ingredient for making compost contains nitrogen, potassium and a high fiber content. This manure need additional materials such as sawdust, ash, lime and other materials that have a high fiber content to provide a balanced supply of nutrients to the microbial decomposers that besides
the decomposition process can go faster also can produce high-quality compost.
b. Potential Waste livestock (cattle) into Biogas
Biogas is a combustible gas produced from the fermentation of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that live in air-tight conditions). In general, any type of organic material can be processed to produce biogas, organic material either solid, liquid and suitable for biogas systems. In many areas of food processing industries such as tofu, boiled fish or brem can unite channel Biogas waste into the system, so that the industrial waste does not pollute the environment. It's possible that the above-mentioned industrial waste originating from organic material is homogeneous. Types of organic matter processed greatly affects the productivity of the system in addition to other parameters such as biogas digester temperature, pH, pressure and humidity. One way menentuka organic material that is suitable for input into the system is to know the comparison Biogas Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) or called rasio C/N. Several experiments have been conducted by the ISAT demonstrated that metabolic activity daribakteri
methanogenik be optimal in the value of the ratio C/N around 8-20. Organic material incorporated into the airtight closed room (called Digester) so that anaerobic bacteria will decompose the organic material is then produced gas (called biogas). Biogas that has been accumulated in the subsequent digester gas flow through pipelines into gas storage tube or directly to localized use. 1. Process In the processing and utilization of animal waste (cow) in Pandansimo divided into :
a. Waste livestock (cattle) into compost b. Waste livestock (cattle) into Biogas
Processing required in the processes and mechanisms that can be used as a support treatment in the use of appropriate technology.
Procesing Waste livestock (cattle) into compost The principle of decomposition in composting Principles used in composting is the process of decomposition or decomposition transform organic waste into organic fertilizer through biological activity in controlled conditions. Decomposition in principle is to reduce carbon and nitrogen (C/N) ratio of organic waste that organic fertilizers can be readily utilized by plants. In the decomposition process would be an increase of temperature can be used to kill the weed seeds (weeds), pathogenic bacteria and form a uniform product overhaul in the form of organic fertilizer. Some of the essential elements needed for the decomposition process can run well, namely: 1). Carbon (C) as an energy source for microbial decomposers and. will be parsed through the oxidation process that produces heat, 2). Nitrogen (N) as a protein source for the bacteria to grow and multiply, 3). Oxygen (O) as a material to oxidize elemental carbon through decomposition and water (H2O) to ensure the decomposition process is robust and does not cause an anaerobic atmosphere. Table 1. Tolerance range of influential factors and elements in the compost to ensure the composting process.
Source by: Center for Agricultural Technology
Influential factors that must be controlled in composting:
1. C/N ratio; microbes require carbon (C) 20 to 25 times more than nitrogen (N) to remain active. Carbon source for composting can come from small pieces of wood, sawdust, rice straw and other materials that are high in fiber. Sources of N derived from manure. C/N ratio> 25 will cause slow decomposition due to lack of N instead of C/N ratio < 20 will result in the formation of ammonia gas that cause odor. 2. Aeration air needed to prevent anaerobic conditions that cause odor. Reversal regularly can improve aeration. Lack of air will cause methane, microbial activity decreases and the temperature dropped. Instead excess compost aeration causes dry and N elements disappear. 3. Humidity is an important element in the metabolism of the microbes. Good humidity is 50-60%, too wet (> 60%) can result in unpleasant odors arise and microbial activity decreases, the temperature also dropped and if it is too dry (<40%) also decreased microbial activity.
Impact of Various composting gains from the effort to utilize manure and food scraps for compost as fertilizer, among others:
a. Cage becomes more clear b. Stools were collected to reduce environmental pollution c. Reduce the population of flies around the cage d. Reduce eye worm infection (Thelazia) which often attack livestock e. Composting can be done naturally or using decomposers f. Directly compost is used for agriculture or to be sold Some of the conditions that need to be considered regarding the making of compost are: a. Higher than the surrounding floor to avoid a puddle
b. It has a roof to avoid direct sunlight or rain How to compost Materials needed: ● Cow dung 80-83% ● Sawdust 5% ● Abu husk 10% ● Calcite / Limestone 2% ● Decomposers 0.25% Making Process 1. Cow dung is collected and drained for a week to reduce the water content (± 60%) 2. Cow dung that has been drained and then mixed with organic materials such as pulp saws, husk ash, lime and decomposers. All the materials are mixed and stirred evenly. 3. After a week behind heaps / stir thoroughly to increase the supply of oxygen and increase the homogeneity of the material. At this stage, expect an increase in temperature up to 60 ° C, left behind again for a week and every week 4. In the fourth week of ripe compost fertilizer blackish brown color with a textured crumb odorless, to get a uniform shape and separate from materials that are not expected (for example, stones, pieces of wood, raffia) the fertilizer sieved / screened 5. Furthermore, the compost is ready to be applied to land or crops.
Waste livestock (cattle) into Biogas Biogas and Application Biogas is a mixture of gases produced by methanogenic bacteria that occurs in materials that can decompose naturally in anaerobic conditions. In general, biogas consisting of methane (CH4) by 50-70%, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 30-40%, Hydrogen 5-10% and other
gases in very small amounts. To make use of livestock manure into biogas, required several requirements related to the technical aspects, infrastructure, and human resource management. When these factors are met, the use of livestock manure into biogas as an energy provider in the country to run optimally. Figure 1. Illustration shows the functions that used Cattle waste into biogas.
Figure 1. Illustration of the use of Biogas There are ten factors that could affect the optimization of the use of livestock manure into biogas, namely: 1. Availability of livestock The type, amount and distribution of livestock in an area can be a potential for the development of biogas. This is because it is run by utilizing biogas manure. To run biogas individual or household scale required manure from 2-4 adult cows. 2. Ownership of livestock The number of livestock owned by farmers to base the selection of the type and capacity of biogas that can be used. When adult cattle are held for more than 4 tails, the biogas can be selected with a larger capacity (made of fiber or cement) or some household scale biogas.
3. The pattern of animal husbandry Availability of manure biogas needs to be maintained in order to function optimally. Manure more easily obtained when cattle maintained by grounded compared to the pasture. 4. Availability of land Land necessary to build the biogas around cages luasannya depends on the type and capacity of biogas. Land required to construct the smallest scale biogas reactor (household level) is 14 m2 (7m x 2m). 5. Labor To operate the biogas needed manpower from breeder / manager itself. It is important to remember biogas can function optimally when filling dirt into the reactor performed well and taken care equipment. Many cases concerning the operation or not is not optimal due to biogas: first, the lack of manpower to handle the unit, secondly, breeder / managers do not have time to replenish the dirt because they have other jobs in addition to raising livestock. 6. Waste Management In connection with the determination of the composition of the solidliquid manure suitable for producing biogas, the frequency of intake of dirt, and transporting manure or runoff into the reactor. The raw material is animal manure biogas reactor and water in the ratio 1:3. Frequency income dirt done every one or two days. Importation of these impurities can be done by or transported through the channel. 7. Energy need Energy from biogas can be utilized in a sustainable manner if the availability of other energy sources are limited. If the other energy sources available so farmers can be directed to process manure into compost. 8. Distance (between the reactor and the home cage) In order to optimal utilization of biogas should be between the cage, and the reactor was not telampau far.
9. Management by product of biogas Biogas by product management intended to use a liquid fertilizer and solid fertilizer (compost). 10. Supporting Facilities Means of support in the form of equipment used to facilitate work / relief work / maintenance of biogas installations. In addition to the above ten factors, willingness breeder / perpetrator, run the installation and use of biogas and biogas care are the main assets in the use of livestock manure into biogas. The process of biogas production and utilization:
Figure 2. Diagram of biogas production process systems and utilization 6. Appropriate Use of Technology to Plan a. Technology appropriate Currently, the community empowerment and regional development programs Border is one of the priority programs of the government is very important. This will appear when everything that needs to be reduced role of the government and the people in the border areas put forward as an optimal driving force to the nation and the state. Forms of empowerment border is the application and development of the
existing results in each layer continuously. This program gives more confidence to the public area of the extent to accelerate the recovery of the national economy, accelerate the progress of the village in the face of global competition in the various fields to be able to use appropriate technology. This is in accordance with Presidential Instruction no. 3 year 2001 on the Application and Development of Appropriate Technology. The purpose of developing a technology is essentially to meet the needs, both of which have real or perceived and desirable it is, and even that is anticipated to be desired, then an effective technology development efforts, first to be based on market demand, either There was real or perceived presence that began to appear. Prerequisite is indeed necessary, but not sufficient. That ability to be equipped with the ability to translate the development needs of the market with the ability to conceive how the spectrum of technologies that can respond to the needs observed. Pattern approach described above requires the institution, either stand alone or organized in the corporate systems or society. Such systems need to have a clear thought sophisticated resources, capable of integrating the needs of the potential wealth of knowledge, vocabulary translation into technology packages,
evaluation of the technology that manages to pack to test the appropriateness, both from the technical, economic, social and environmental requirements. In addition, being able to communicate to the scientific community and society, government and civil society organizations to motivate or convince them to support the benefits of what will be done, is being done, and that have been generated. However, the success rate is determined by the use of technology ketepat generated. The success rate will be higher when the elements and the use of ketepat ketepat saatan met. Ketepat term use of a vague term that means, if it is not followed by the use of statements against what ketepat. The latter is highly contextual, depending on the
environment where the technology will be enabled. Discussion of identifying efficiency, it will be linked to the context of the developments in Indonesia. Appropriate technology is a technology suited to the needs of the community so that it can be used at a certain time frame. Usually used as a term for the technologies associated with the local culture appropriate technology as one of the important pathways to achieve the fundamental purpose, which is to improve the welfare of society. Most of the people of Indonesia to the diversity of science and technology (science) can be positioned, not only as a supporter, but also as a pioneer of the browser path towards peace with justice for all people in Indonesia who are in different parts of the country with the level of technological mastery and limited economic. Appropriate Technology means the technology in accordance with the conditions of cultural and economic conditions, and their use should be environmentally friendly. b. The draft plan on the use of Biogas Preparation and determination of the location for the manufacture biodegister be determined and adjusted to the needs of that efficiency can be controlled. Figure 3. catch a glimpse of the beginning of creation biodegister manure for fermentation.
Figure 3. Placement Digester
Figure 4. Front View and Top View Digester Cluster usage and utilization Biogas
Individual House Agriculture
Use stove for cooking Use Diesel Engine Use Oil Lamp Use Engine Pump Use Engine Rice Mill
Use stove home industries Use Engine Home Industries
Figure 5. Cluster Usage Biogas
Become Fertilizer Livestock Waste Utilization and Industrial Fuel Results from biogas waste can be processed into organic fertilizer in the form of solid and granular form that can be used on agricultural land. figure 6. Circulation shows the use of biogas into organic fertilizer. The circulation process is very beneficial if an appropriate technology tools as well as the operator controls the highly profitable and provide economic value to rural areas.
Figur 6. Circulation Of usage waste cow Other than that required processing and technology that can be used to process a unit system can run well. Figure 7. Addressing diagram solid animal waste from the biogas into organic fertilizer. Figure 8. Shows a flow diagram of granular organic fertilizer.
Figure 7. Diagram of solid waste biogas into organic fertilizer.
Figure 8. Organic Fertilizer Production Scheme
7. Conclusion Spatial planning industry clusters in the processing or the use of animal waste in the concept and need to be tested by simulating a simple process that at the time of implementation failures can be
controlled. Additionally Appropriate technology are necessary in the processing unit of a production of raw materials to form a new product. Pandansimo is a fairly complex to be developed in terms of sharing and the various types of products can be produced in Pandansimo, one biogas and solid organic fertilizer.
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