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Layers Feed Formulation Handbook............................................................................1
INTRODUCTION Layers chickens are part of the exotic breeds of the poultry family. They are known for their faster maturity and higher output in terms of egg production. The common breeds are the Light Sussex, the yellow skinned Rhode Island Red, white leghorn and the number of black Australorp. business, a things need To start poultry rearing
to be for effective
fulfilled approach to the venture.
Depending on the size type and of chicken one choose to rear, there is need to gather all necessary equipment and materials
but also produce feeds to meet the specific nutrient requirements for the varied ages of their poultry. A packet or two of Coccid (available from any agro vet shop). When a farmer formulates their own feeds for their poultry. (Effective Micro-organisms) On the realization of this gap. 4 small water feeders for first 2 weeks.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 2 and have them in clean and good working condition.gradually increasing in number as the chicks grow Clean. Chick mash produced by a reliable feed manufacturer. Such empowerment shall discuss on the ‘how’ to formulate Poultry feeds particularly for the Layers type of breed. gradually increasing in number as the chicks grow. Two bottles of E. one can make such feed at the convenience of their home provided the necessary raw materials and the know-how to formulate the proper feeds are available. (The Organic Farmer. this handbook aims to empower all the farmers in this line of business as well as other potential farmers who may wish to venture in poultry production for profit. draft free brooding room with a source of constant heat and good ventilation. 2007) temperature at 10 day of age.M. 4 grain feeders . Young birds need until their warmer body temperatures Perhaps more importantly to consider is the source of feed materials to meet the daily dietary requirements of each particular chick. While most farmers access their feeds from the agrovets stores near them. Farmers planning to keep about 200 chicks are advised to have the following materials in place: • • • • • • • A secure. These Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . dry bedding material – wood shavings or straw. Each farmer needs to know where to source for his or her feeds in a manner that will bring down the total cost of feeding the entire poultry. they not only reduce on the cost of purchasing feeds from agrovets stores.
Methionine is the first – limiting amino acid in grain and soya bean meal diets. amino an adequate amount can of be The protein requirement or acid requirements defined accurately only in relation to the energy density.Broilers are 4 week and turkeys over 10 weeks to to of set age the are most It is energy susceptible impossible heat stress. Also. requirement in terms of unit/kg diet because birds adjust their field intake to achieve the daily energy intake. but lysine is likely to become the first limiting amino acid if soya meal is replaced by another plant protein supplement such as cotton seed meal. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 1) Protein requirements Dietary energy content must be specified to maintain the proper ratio of protein to energy so that birds can consume protein. supplemented to the chicken’s diet by means of formulated feed products. As the description suggests essential amino acids appear to lack in some types of food thereby the term ‘limiting amino acid’. Some effect. Essential amino acids Methionine and lysine are among the essential amino acids required for the growth and development of poultry.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 3 young birds can tolerate heat stress better . They must therefore be combinations of fats and carbohydrates have a protein – sparing Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . the degree of fat deposition in meat producing birds can be affected by the relationship.
Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . but vitamins and minerals play major roles in the metabolic functions of poultry.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 4 2) Vitamins A vitamin and trace mineral supplementation contribution to the overall feed cost are not much.
eg.0 8.0 350.0 0. which is based on the activity of D3 because birds do not use vitamin D2.0 0. 3) Minerals Calcium perhaps.0 6.0 45.0 Vitamin D is expressed in ICU. Mn and Zn and it can reduce palatability of the diet.0 6.0 10.0 6. stability. Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center .0 16.0 g g g g g mg 450.7 1.0 30. Vitamin Requirements by the Different Types of Birds Table 1.0 0.0 2.0 3.6 0.0 3.0 30. of the variations and in the premixes are formulated to ensure adequacy.0 9.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 100. availability.0 2.Met.2 2.0 17.0 Turkey breeder s A D E B Riboflavin Niacin dPantotheni c acid Choline Menadione (K) Folic acid Thiamin Pyridoxinw d-Biolin MIU’ MIU TIU”” Mg g g g 7.0 1.5 30.0 5.0 0.0 10.0 0.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 5 because content.0 10.0 11. and the problem cannot be solved by simply adding a generous amount simply because excess Ca interferes with utilization of P.0 4.0 85.0 100.0 2.0 6.0 9.0 6.0 30.0 2.0 450.5 1.0 10.0 6.0 50. Mg.0 4.0 6.3 0.0 6.0 5.0 1.6 1.0 3.0 20.0 250.0 30.0 0.0 5.0 2. Vitamin requirements by the different types of bird Vitamins Units Starting chickens (0-6) weeks Growin g chicken s (8-18) weeks Eggtype laying hens Broiler and egg type breede rs Startin g turkey s (0-8) weeks Growing and finishing turkeys (8 weeks to market) 7.5 8.0 14.0 1.0 10.0 600.0 6.0 10.0 3.0 10.0 2.6 1.0 2.2 1. Zn-met & Se.0 100. selenium and antioxidant.6 0.0 8.0 6.0 9.0 400. the most difficult one to define its requirements.0 7.0 30. Vitamin E requirements vary greatly depending on dietary lipids.5 1.0 50.0 550.0 0. Trace minerals ones completed with amino acids or protein have increased in commercial use in recent years because of higher availability.6 1.
05 75.0 0.0 50.0 5.0 50.0 5.0 0.2 0. Also wheat.0 0.0 50.2 0.0 5.0 75.0 50.0 50.2 0.0 50. contaminants.0 5.Mostly affected by the moisture content.0 50.1 Turkey breede rs (8.Nutrient availability of feed ingredients are affected by the fiber content.05 25.1 75.0 0. and feed preparation.0 5.2 0.0 50.0 0.05 50.0 25.0 25.0 50.0 5. Mineral requirements by the different types of birds INGREDIENTS FOR POULTRY DIETS Selecting feed stuffs – Factors for Consideration a) Nutrient availability .0 5.0 0.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 6 Mineral Unit s Starting chickens (0-6) weeks Growin g chicke ns 18) weeks Eggtype laying Broiler and egg type breede rs Starti ng turkey weeks Growing and finishing (8 weeks to market) 50.2 0. b) Palatability .2 0.0 75. c) The content of growth inhibits or undesirable chemicals or pigments d) The cost and market availability of feed stuffs. fat content and amino acid balance.2 0.0 50.1 Table 2. Energy sources Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center Grains are most important and widely used.0 0. barley and oats are .hens s (0-8) turkeys Manganese Zinc Iron Copper Iodine Sodium mg mg mg mg mg mg 25.05 50.
Common salt to add 0. thus should be limited to not more than 2% of the diet. maize germ. limited to not more than 10%. mono sodium phosphate and role phosphate. Molasses can be used as a source of energy but have an adverse laxative effect. Should not exceed 3-5% of the poultry diet. but high in fat and tend to create a fishy flavor in meat and eggs when used in large amounts. d) Alfalfa meal and corn gluten meal: Used extensively. bath for their high content both should of be corotenoids. Vitamin sources Unlike in the past. limestone. a bone crushed meal oyster common dicalcium 50% of the soya bean meal in grower diets. which can cause a mottling and greenish cost to egg yolks.g. Mineral sources Calcium is common supplement from b) Cotton seed meal: i) Generally not used for layer diets because of: • Gossypol. Phosphorous supplements are bone meal. . Protein/Amino Acid Sources Plant sources a) Soya bean meal: Most widely used because of its ability to provide low in indispensable toxic or amino acids.5%. pollard. including various mills by products: e. but interior to corn in the relative value. bran.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 7 being used. and • Impacts pink colour to white eggs used to replace up to ground shells.2 – 0. c) Sunflower seed meal: Can cause weakening of egg shells in layers. brewery by – products etc. Animal sources Fish meal and Omena often used at 5% are 3% of the diet respectively. Grains by products. phosphate. too much salt will result in increased water consumption and wet droppings. high in digestibility and undesirable substances. a wide variety of feedstuffs are not included in poultry Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center diets for their vitamins content. dicalcium phosphate.
Grits can improve feed efficiency slightly. rate of lay. If your flock has peaked in egg production and begun a gradual decline in lay then. Birds will however. and egg size. but not when finely ground feeds are fed should be fed in special feeders every 3 week mixed in a complete feed at 0. Birds are considered to have started The objective of feeding laying hens is to produce a dozen eggs of good quality at the lowest possible field cost.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 8 Vitamins premixes are commonly used to satisfy the vitamins needs. Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center .0 1b or less of feed/dozen eggs. For laying hens calcium requirements varies with the age. continue to lay eggs even after 72 weeks but at rate that cannot guarantee maximum profit to the farmer. challenge can be repeated as often as necessary depending on the flock’s response.4g calcium per day and 3. There is a need to challenge the flock to lay more eggs by adding 2 more pounds of feed per 100 birds. if the flock does not respond by the 4th day return to the amount fed prior to these MANAGEMENT OF LAYERS Management of layers is important towards achieving maximum output of eggs yield. specialized feeds are required to make them achieve their nutritional requirement. For such laying birds. Analysts say that the most economical period for a layers breed is from 24 weeks to 72 weeks of age.8g calcium per day after 40 week of age. For light weight layers a target should be a field efficiently of 3. or sprinkled on top of the feed at a rate of 51b per 1000 hens every week. ambient temperature. 1) Sometimes will produce more efficiently on less feed or.25% of one diet.5 to 4. laying when at least 5% of them are laying. but a general recommendation is 3. 2) Passed peak and showing a normal decrease (4 to 6 %).
This therefore means for a farmer with 200 laying birds. Bathing enable the poultry to keep overturning the litter thereby keeping it dry while at the same time spending quality time with other chicken. 2007) MAKING THE FEEDS Farmers can easily formulate chicken feeds on their own provided they acquire the right skills and knowledge to do so. There is no feed restriction for a laying bird but on average one bird should consume about 150 gm per day. Such feeding should be accompanied with plenty of clean water failure to which birds stop feeding ensuing in reduced egg output and cannibalism (Wainaina. For inorganic poultry farming. it’s important to supplement the layers mash provided to attain the wholesome quality of eggs. 30 kg of layers mash should be provided daily. amaranthus leaves and grains and both dried grass and green grass. What one needs to know is the ingredients required for making a particular feed as well the amounts needed to sustain a bird’s nutritional requirements with the expectation of increased egg production. They can develop high Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center .Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 9 This handbook serves to train and educate farmers and potential farmers on how to formulate their own feeds to see their layers keep them in business while expanding their growth potential. Such supplementation includes dried lucerne meal. It is important to keep the feeds dry to prevent diseases such as coccidiosis that require moist conditions. Providing about 10 grams of whole grains per day per bird helps keep it busy and allows scratching and dust-bathing. natural behaviors that a bird need not to be prohibited from.
This therefore means farmers who choose to make the feeds by themselves saves by large extent what should have been extra costs by the manufacturer and the distributors. a farmer can through simple calculation achieve the 18% standard by calculating the content in Kg of each feed mixture to add. Common soya ingredients include or of of whole omena to the crude maize. the cost of barely everything has shot upwards. whole maize would Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . a farmer is able to One of the most common method is the usually referred to as the Pearson Square method. Maize bran (7% DCP) and sunflower (35% DCP). beans. maize germ. Before mixing the feed. Omena (55% DCP). 2012) contain (8. Equipped with the knowledge of the percentage DCP of each of the feed mixtures. The table below outlines the formulation levels in Kg for each particular feed mix. whole maize including the other ingredients has to be broken into the right sizes through crushing or milling to make it palatable for the chickens. Feed products for Layers should contain at least 18% crude protein to meet the high nutritional requirement for proteins in a layer breed. cotton seed cake.23% DCP). By way of simple calculation. Soya (45% DCP). understand protein The needs establish the total content of protein in the overall mixture of his 70 kg bag. (The Organic Farmer. food prices and labor. With the increasing cost of fuel.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 10 quality feeds with the correct ingredients mixed in the right proportions to produce high quality layers breed. sunflower farmer amount of each the (fishmeal). Just to mention a few. The mechanism behind this formulation is the use of Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic protein requirement of the feed. content ingredients used in feed making.
Biostrong contains vitamins. DCP-Dicalciulm phosphate. please call us for formulae adjustment. Formulation of layers feeds Materials Maize meal Pollard Maize germ Bran Omena cotton premix DCP Lime Sodium chloride TOTAL Source: Minerals & Allied Ltd Chick mash 200Kg 300Kg 240 Kg 65 Kg 80Kg 90Kg 2kg 3 kg 15kg 4kg 999kg Growers mash 25 Kg 250 Kg 280 Kg 125 Kg 30 Kg 140kg 1kg 3kg 17 kg 4kg 1000 kg Layers mash 180Kg 180Kg 180 Kg 140Kg 90 Kg 120kg 2kg 3kg 101 kg 4kg 1000 kg NB.mycotoxins binders and other feed additives. one should first measure the required amounts then mix a small amount and adding small quantities at a time all the while mixing thoroughly. The above feed stuffs should be mixed homogeneously to have a uniform diet. In the absence of a mechanical mixer. Incase a certain raw materials is not available. You should have a diet in the optimum texture so that the animal eats with ease Some tips on how to feed your Layers An egg-laying chicken requires 150 g of feed per day (provide clean water at all times). Chicks should be allowed to feed continuously and given adequate clean water . chelated minerals.FEED FORMULATION FOR LAYERS Table 3.2 kg of feed for 8 weeks (thus 100 chicks = 2. 1 chick requires 2.2 kg x 100=220 kg.
chickens should be put on free range to scavenge for other micronutrients not provided for in the feeds (The Organic Farmer. 2012) . 1 pullet (young chicken about to start laying) should be fed 4. If you use maize germ. If they finish their daily rations. Note that even after giving them the formulated feeds. It should then be put on layer diet.5 kg of feed for two and a half months until the first egg is seen. Supplement with vegetables. When using omena as an ingredient. Chickens are very susceptible to aflatoxins poisoning. it should be completely dry. . Feed should be thoroughly mixed to ensure the ingredients are uniformly distributed. give them fruit and vegetables cuttings to feed on. ensure it is free of sand and seashells. edible plant leaves or fruits peelings in addition to the daily feed rations. All ingredients used must be of high quality and palatable.at all times). It is preferable to use a drum mixer instead of a spade for mixing. Never use rotten maize (Maozo).
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