This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Layers Feed Formulation Handbook............................................................................1
INTRODUCTION Layers chickens are part of the exotic breeds of the poultry family. They are known for their faster maturity and higher output in terms of egg production. The common breeds are the Light Sussex, the yellow skinned Rhode Island Red, white leghorn and the number of black Australorp. business, a things need To start poultry rearing
to be for effective
fulfilled approach to the venture.
Depending on the size type and of chicken one choose to rear, there is need to gather all necessary equipment and materials
4 small water feeders for first 2 weeks. (Effective Micro-organisms) On the realization of this gap. but also produce feeds to meet the specific nutrient requirements for the varied ages of their poultry.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 2 and have them in clean and good working condition. Farmers planning to keep about 200 chicks are advised to have the following materials in place: • • • • • • • A secure. they not only reduce on the cost of purchasing feeds from agrovets stores. Two bottles of E.gradually increasing in number as the chicks grow Clean. Each farmer needs to know where to source for his or her feeds in a manner that will bring down the total cost of feeding the entire poultry. 2007) temperature at 10 day of age. dry bedding material – wood shavings or straw. A packet or two of Coccid (available from any agro vet shop). draft free brooding room with a source of constant heat and good ventilation. gradually increasing in number as the chicks grow. When a farmer formulates their own feeds for their poultry. These Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . Such empowerment shall discuss on the ‘how’ to formulate Poultry feeds particularly for the Layers type of breed. (The Organic Farmer. one can make such feed at the convenience of their home provided the necessary raw materials and the know-how to formulate the proper feeds are available. Young birds need until their warmer body temperatures Perhaps more importantly to consider is the source of feed materials to meet the daily dietary requirements of each particular chick. 4 grain feeders . this handbook aims to empower all the farmers in this line of business as well as other potential farmers who may wish to venture in poultry production for profit.M. Chick mash produced by a reliable feed manufacturer. While most farmers access their feeds from the agrovets stores near them.
Also. They must therefore be combinations of fats and carbohydrates have a protein – sparing Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center .Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 3 young birds can tolerate heat stress better . amino an adequate amount can of be The protein requirement or acid requirements defined accurately only in relation to the energy density. supplemented to the chicken’s diet by means of formulated feed products. but lysine is likely to become the first limiting amino acid if soya meal is replaced by another plant protein supplement such as cotton seed meal. As the description suggests essential amino acids appear to lack in some types of food thereby the term ‘limiting amino acid’. requirement in terms of unit/kg diet because birds adjust their field intake to achieve the daily energy intake. Essential amino acids Methionine and lysine are among the essential amino acids required for the growth and development of poultry. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 1) Protein requirements Dietary energy content must be specified to maintain the proper ratio of protein to energy so that birds can consume protein. the degree of fat deposition in meat producing birds can be affected by the relationship.Broilers are 4 week and turkeys over 10 weeks to to of set age the are most It is energy susceptible impossible heat stress. Some effect. Methionine is the first – limiting amino acid in grain and soya bean meal diets.
but vitamins and minerals play major roles in the metabolic functions of poultry.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 4 2) Vitamins A vitamin and trace mineral supplementation contribution to the overall feed cost are not much. Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center .
0 10.0 9.5 1.6 0.0 g g g g g mg 450.0 6.0 550.0 3.0 6.0 1.0 10.0 0.0 8.0 30. Vitamin Requirements by the Different Types of Birds Table 1.0 6. Trace minerals ones completed with amino acids or protein have increased in commercial use in recent years because of higher availability.0 3.6 1. eg.6 1.0 5.0 1. Vitamin E requirements vary greatly depending on dietary lipids.0 45.0 4.5 30. Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center .5 8. stability.0 400.7 1.0 50.0 9.0 3.0 100.0 10. selenium and antioxidant.6 0. and the problem cannot be solved by simply adding a generous amount simply because excess Ca interferes with utilization of P.0 10.2 2.0 30.0 6.0 5.0 5.0 11.0 Vitamin D is expressed in ICU.0 6.0 9.0 8.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 5 because content.0 2.0 250.6 1.5 1.0 Turkey breeder s A D E B Riboflavin Niacin dPantotheni c acid Choline Menadione (K) Folic acid Thiamin Pyridoxinw d-Biolin MIU’ MIU TIU”” Mg g g g 7.0 0. which is based on the activity of D3 because birds do not use vitamin D2.0 7.0 17. Zn-met & Se.0 10.0 6.2 1. Mn and Zn and it can reduce palatability of the diet.0 6.0 6.0 3.0 450.0 0.0 30.0 2. availability.0 2.0 350.0 0.0 100.0 16.0 0.0 14.0 1.0 2.0 10.0 20.3 0.0 6.Met.0 3.0 50.0 2.0 1. Mg.0 1. Vitamin requirements by the different types of bird Vitamins Units Starting chickens (0-6) weeks Growin g chicken s (8-18) weeks Eggtype laying hens Broiler and egg type breede rs Startin g turkey s (0-8) weeks Growing and finishing turkeys (8 weeks to market) 7. 3) Minerals Calcium perhaps.0 4.0 30.0 85.0 30.0 2. the most difficult one to define its requirements. of the variations and in the premixes are formulated to ensure adequacy.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 600.0 100.0 2.0 6.
05 25.0 0.0 50.2 0.0 0.0 5. b) Palatability .0 75.0 0.0 50.2 0.0 0.0 75.05 50.2 0.2 0.0 50.0 0.Mostly affected by the moisture content.1 Turkey breede rs (8.0 25.2 0.0 50. Mineral requirements by the different types of birds INGREDIENTS FOR POULTRY DIETS Selecting feed stuffs – Factors for Consideration a) Nutrient availability . Also wheat. barley and oats are .0 0.Nutrient availability of feed ingredients are affected by the fiber content. contaminants. fat content and amino acid balance.2 0. c) The content of growth inhibits or undesirable chemicals or pigments d) The cost and market availability of feed stuffs.05 50.0 5.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 6 Mineral Unit s Starting chickens (0-6) weeks Growin g chicke ns 18) weeks Eggtype laying Broiler and egg type breede rs Starti ng turkey weeks Growing and finishing (8 weeks to market) 50.1 75.0 50.0 5.2 0.0 50.0 50.05 75.0 5.hens s (0-8) turkeys Manganese Zinc Iron Copper Iodine Sodium mg mg mg mg mg mg 25.0 5.0 5.0 50.1 Table 2.0 50.0 0.0 5. Energy sources Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center Grains are most important and widely used. and feed preparation.0 50.0 25.
Animal sources Fish meal and Omena often used at 5% are 3% of the diet respectively. a bone crushed meal oyster common dicalcium 50% of the soya bean meal in grower diets. Phosphorous supplements are bone meal. high in digestibility and undesirable substances. Grains by products. too much salt will result in increased water consumption and wet droppings. but high in fat and tend to create a fishy flavor in meat and eggs when used in large amounts. d) Alfalfa meal and corn gluten meal: Used extensively. Vitamin sources Unlike in the past. limestone. a wide variety of feedstuffs are not included in poultry Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center diets for their vitamins content.2 – 0. brewery by – products etc. pollard. Protein/Amino Acid Sources Plant sources a) Soya bean meal: Most widely used because of its ability to provide low in indispensable toxic or amino acids. limited to not more than 10%. Should not exceed 3-5% of the poultry diet. c) Sunflower seed meal: Can cause weakening of egg shells in layers. dicalcium phosphate. bath for their high content both should of be corotenoids. . including various mills by products: e. which can cause a mottling and greenish cost to egg yolks.5%. Common salt to add 0. and • Impacts pink colour to white eggs used to replace up to ground shells.g. bran.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 7 being used. mono sodium phosphate and role phosphate. Molasses can be used as a source of energy but have an adverse laxative effect. Mineral sources Calcium is common supplement from b) Cotton seed meal: i) Generally not used for layer diets because of: • Gossypol. phosphate. maize germ. but interior to corn in the relative value. thus should be limited to not more than 2% of the diet.
8g calcium per day after 40 week of age.25% of one diet. challenge can be repeated as often as necessary depending on the flock’s response. Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . specialized feeds are required to make them achieve their nutritional requirement.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 8 Vitamins premixes are commonly used to satisfy the vitamins needs. laying when at least 5% of them are laying. ambient temperature. There is a need to challenge the flock to lay more eggs by adding 2 more pounds of feed per 100 birds. For laying hens calcium requirements varies with the age. continue to lay eggs even after 72 weeks but at rate that cannot guarantee maximum profit to the farmer.0 1b or less of feed/dozen eggs. If your flock has peaked in egg production and begun a gradual decline in lay then. Birds are considered to have started The objective of feeding laying hens is to produce a dozen eggs of good quality at the lowest possible field cost. For such laying birds. and egg size. or sprinkled on top of the feed at a rate of 51b per 1000 hens every week. but not when finely ground feeds are fed should be fed in special feeders every 3 week mixed in a complete feed at 0. 1) Sometimes will produce more efficiently on less feed or. 2) Passed peak and showing a normal decrease (4 to 6 %).4g calcium per day and 3. Grits can improve feed efficiency slightly. For light weight layers a target should be a field efficiently of 3. but a general recommendation is 3. if the flock does not respond by the 4th day return to the amount fed prior to these MANAGEMENT OF LAYERS Management of layers is important towards achieving maximum output of eggs yield. Analysts say that the most economical period for a layers breed is from 24 weeks to 72 weeks of age. Birds will however.5 to 4. rate of lay.
Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 9 This handbook serves to train and educate farmers and potential farmers on how to formulate their own feeds to see their layers keep them in business while expanding their growth potential. This therefore means for a farmer with 200 laying birds. it’s important to supplement the layers mash provided to attain the wholesome quality of eggs. amaranthus leaves and grains and both dried grass and green grass. What one needs to know is the ingredients required for making a particular feed as well the amounts needed to sustain a bird’s nutritional requirements with the expectation of increased egg production. 2007) MAKING THE FEEDS Farmers can easily formulate chicken feeds on their own provided they acquire the right skills and knowledge to do so. For inorganic poultry farming. Providing about 10 grams of whole grains per day per bird helps keep it busy and allows scratching and dust-bathing. natural behaviors that a bird need not to be prohibited from. It is important to keep the feeds dry to prevent diseases such as coccidiosis that require moist conditions. Such supplementation includes dried lucerne meal. Such feeding should be accompanied with plenty of clean water failure to which birds stop feeding ensuing in reduced egg output and cannibalism (Wainaina. They can develop high Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . Bathing enable the poultry to keep overturning the litter thereby keeping it dry while at the same time spending quality time with other chicken. There is no feed restriction for a laying bird but on average one bird should consume about 150 gm per day. 30 kg of layers mash should be provided daily.
whole maize including the other ingredients has to be broken into the right sizes through crushing or milling to make it palatable for the chickens. content ingredients used in feed making.23% DCP). By way of simple calculation.Layers Feed Formulation – Hand Book 10 quality feeds with the correct ingredients mixed in the right proportions to produce high quality layers breed. (The Organic Farmer. understand protein The needs establish the total content of protein in the overall mixture of his 70 kg bag. This therefore means farmers who choose to make the feeds by themselves saves by large extent what should have been extra costs by the manufacturer and the distributors. maize germ. Just to mention a few. With the increasing cost of fuel. Omena (55% DCP). the cost of barely everything has shot upwards. whole maize would Minerals & Allied Ltd I Formulation Center . 2012) contain (8. Maize bran (7% DCP) and sunflower (35% DCP). a farmer can through simple calculation achieve the 18% standard by calculating the content in Kg of each feed mixture to add. a farmer is able to One of the most common method is the usually referred to as the Pearson Square method. The mechanism behind this formulation is the use of Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) as the basic protein requirement of the feed. Before mixing the feed. Soya (45% DCP). The table below outlines the formulation levels in Kg for each particular feed mix. Common soya ingredients include or of of whole omena to the crude maize. cotton seed cake. sunflower farmer amount of each the (fishmeal). food prices and labor. Equipped with the knowledge of the percentage DCP of each of the feed mixtures. Feed products for Layers should contain at least 18% crude protein to meet the high nutritional requirement for proteins in a layer breed. beans.
Formulation of layers feeds Materials Maize meal Pollard Maize germ Bran Omena cotton premix DCP Lime Sodium chloride TOTAL Source: Minerals & Allied Ltd Chick mash 200Kg 300Kg 240 Kg 65 Kg 80Kg 90Kg 2kg 3 kg 15kg 4kg 999kg Growers mash 25 Kg 250 Kg 280 Kg 125 Kg 30 Kg 140kg 1kg 3kg 17 kg 4kg 1000 kg Layers mash 180Kg 180Kg 180 Kg 140Kg 90 Kg 120kg 2kg 3kg 101 kg 4kg 1000 kg NB. please call us for formulae adjustment.2 kg of feed for 8 weeks (thus 100 chicks = 2. one should first measure the required amounts then mix a small amount and adding small quantities at a time all the while mixing thoroughly.mycotoxins binders and other feed additives.2 kg x 100=220 kg. You should have a diet in the optimum texture so that the animal eats with ease Some tips on how to feed your Layers An egg-laying chicken requires 150 g of feed per day (provide clean water at all times). 1 chick requires 2.FEED FORMULATION FOR LAYERS Table 3. Chicks should be allowed to feed continuously and given adequate clean water . DCP-Dicalciulm phosphate. Incase a certain raw materials is not available. The above feed stuffs should be mixed homogeneously to have a uniform diet. In the absence of a mechanical mixer. Biostrong contains vitamins. chelated minerals.
at all times). it should be completely dry. . Feed should be thoroughly mixed to ensure the ingredients are uniformly distributed. 2012) . Supplement with vegetables. Never use rotten maize (Maozo). If they finish their daily rations. chickens should be put on free range to scavenge for other micronutrients not provided for in the feeds (The Organic Farmer. edible plant leaves or fruits peelings in addition to the daily feed rations.5 kg of feed for two and a half months until the first egg is seen. ensure it is free of sand and seashells. If you use maize germ. It is preferable to use a drum mixer instead of a spade for mixing. When using omena as an ingredient. Note that even after giving them the formulated feeds. All ingredients used must be of high quality and palatable. 1 pullet (young chicken about to start laying) should be fed 4. give them fruit and vegetables cuttings to feed on. It should then be put on layer diet. Chickens are very susceptible to aflatoxins poisoning.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?