Man - made Fibres
Man-made (manufactured) fibres are fibres whose chemical composition, structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process and are either: •Synthetic fibres - Synthetic fibres are made of polymers that do not occur naturally but instead are produced entirely in the chemical plant or laboratory, almost always from by-products of petroleum or natural gas. For example nylon, polyester •Regenerated fibres –Natural fibres modified by chemicals during manufacturing, for example acetate, viscose.  They are produced from polymers. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings

Types of Man - made Fibres
Other synthetic materials used in Common synthetic fibers include: fibers include: Rayon •Acrylonitrile rubber: Modern fibers Acetate that are made from older artificial Nylon materials include: Modacrylic •Glass Fiber Olefin •Metallic fiber Acrylic Polyester PLA Specialty synthetic fibers include: Vinyon Dyneema/ Spectra Saran M-5 Spandex Orion Vinalon Zvlon Aramids Vectron Modal PBI Sulfur Lyocell


Nylon Fibre. • Nylon 5. or draw-texturing. spinning.Overview  Refers to family of polymers called linear polyamides  A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide-linkages are attached directly (-CO-NH-) to two aliphatic groups.  Two common varieties of nylon: •Nylon 6. drawing.6-molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with molecules containing amine (NH2) groups on each end. .a compound containing an amine at one end and an acid at the other is polymerized to form a chain with repeating units of (-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x  Production of nylon industrial and carpet fibers begins with an aqueous solution of monomers and proceeds continuously through polymerization.

soft. long-lasting fabrics  Spun yarns lend fabrics light weight and warmth .Nylon Characteristics  Exceptionally strong  Elastic  Abrasion resistant  Lustrous  Easy to wash  Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals  Can be precolored or dyed in wide range of colors Resilient  Low in moisture absorbency  Filament yarns provide smooth.

raincoats. foundation garments. sleeping bags. tarpaulins. dental floss Nylon . and cycle wear Home Furnishings: Bedspreads. It was even used in the production of a high-grade paper for U. curtains. ropes and nets.S.Uses of Nylon HISTORICAL USES Bill Pittendreigh. thread. ropes. swimwear. monofilament fishing line. racket strings. conveyer and seat belts. It was also used to make tires. lingerie. windbreakers. ponchos. parachutes. upholstery Industrial and Other Uses: Tire cord. underwear. and other individuals and corporations worked diligently during the first few months of World war II to find a way to replace Asian silk with nylon in parachutes. ski apparel. dresses. DuPont. carpets. tents. hosiery. hoses. and other military supplies. currency. MODERN USES Apparel: Blouses. tents.

is the most famous pioneer of the nylon we know today . Invista.. The Du pont Company.Producers of Nylon The producers of nylon include: Honeywell Nylon Inc. Wellman Inc. among many others.


in which substituent's have replaced not more than 15% of the hydrogen of the hydroxyl groups. The process of making viscose was discovered by C. Definition: A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose. cuprammonium rayon and saponified cellulose acetate .Cross and E.F.Bevan in 1891 The process used to make viscose can be (a) Continuous Process (b) Batch Process Three methods of production lead to distinctly different types of rayon fibers: viscose rayon.J.Rayon.Overview Rayon -oldest commercial manmade fibre.

used for paper making and other purposes Steeping The cellulose sheets are saturated with a solution of caustic soda (or sodium hydroxide) and allowed to steep for enough time for the caustic solution to penetrate the cellulose and convert some of it into “soda cellulose”. also known as dissolving cellulose or dissolving pulp . processes have been modified to allow some semi-continuous production.Rayon Manufacturing Process All of the early viscose production involved batch processing. . the sodium salt of cellulose. In more recent times. Steps involved : Cellulose Comes from processed wood pulp.

Rayon Manufacturing Process .

This shredded cellulose is often referred to as “white crumb”. Degradation should be carefully done to give manageable viscosity in the spinning solution .Pressing The soda cellulose is squeezed mechanically to remove excess caustic soda solution. Aging Used to oxidize cellulose partially and degrade it to lower molecular weights. Shredding The soda cellulose is mechanically shredded to increase surface area and make the cellulose easier to process.

Filtering The viscose is filtered to remove undissolved materials that might disrupt the spinning process or cause defects in the rayon filament. Dissolving The yellow crumb is dissolved in aqueous caustic solution . . The soda cellulose reacts with the CS2 to form xanthate ester groups The carbon disulfide also reacts with the alkaline medium to form “yellow crumb”.Xanthation The aged white crumb is placed into a churn. Because accessibility to the CS2 is greatly restricted in the crystalline regions of the soda cellulose. Two important process occur during ripening: Redistribution and loss of xanthate groups. Ripening The viscose is allowed to stand for a period of time to “ripen”. treated with gaseous carbon disulfide. it has been termed “viscose”.Because the cellulose xanthate solution has a very high viscosity. the yellow crumb is essentially a block copolymer of cellulose and cellulose xanthate.

Degassing Bubbles of air entrapped in the viscose must be removed prior to extrusion or they would cause voids. Washing The freshly regenerated rayon contains many salts and other water soluble impurities which need to be removed Cutting If the rayon is to be used as staple (i.. in the fine rayon filaments. . Drawing The rayon filaments are stretched giving the filaments the properties necessary for use as textile fibers.e. a device resembling a shower head with many small holes.(Wet Spinning) The viscose is forced through a spinneret. or weak spots. the group of filaments (termed “tow”) is passed through a rotary cutter to provide a fiber which can be processed in much the same way as cotton. Spinning . discreet lengths of fiber).

Rayon. Rayon has both poor crease products recovery and crease retention. blankets. because of degradation of cellulose chains. suits. dresses. tire cord Abrasion resistance is fair and rayon resists Other Uses: Feminine hygiene pill formation.Soft and comfortable . work clothes Home Furnishings: Bedspreads. exposure to sunlight causes loss of strength medical surgical products. lingerie. sportshirts.Rayon is attacked by bleaches at very high concentrations. sheets. USES Apparel: Accessories. linings.Characteristics & Uses CHARACTERISTICS Highly absorbent . curtains. draperies. upholstery Chemical properties: Hot dilute acids attack rayo.Easy to dye . It does not melt or stick at elevated temperatures. nonwovens products. jackets. Prolonged Industrial Uses: Industrial products. millinery.Drapes well Thermal properties: Viscose rayon loses strength above 149° C. tablecloths. ties. slacks. . slipcovers. sportswear. chars and decomposes at 177 to 204° C. blouses.


roica.Overview Spandex or Elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. which most manufactured fibers are. but derived by shifting around the letters in the word expands. Other spandex trademarks include elaspan.dorlastan and linel.Spandex. Spandex is a generic name and not derived from the chemical name of the fiber. When it was first introduced it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry.a trademark of invista. Spande x . The most famous brand name associated with spandex is lycra. It is stronger and more durable than rubber its major non-synthetic competitor and was invented by DUPONT in 1959.

Physical Spandex is produced as monofilament or fused multifilament yarns in a variety of deniers and monofilaments are round in cross section. Spande x . Spandex consists of rigid and flexible segments in the polymer chain. The flexible segments give the fiber the stretch and the rigid segments hold the chain together.Chemical & Physical Composition Chemical Spandex is block copolymer of polyurethane and polyethylene glycol. The proportions of flexible and rigid segments in the polymer chain determine the amount of stretch and linel. The deniers of a spandex fiber range from 20 to 4300 and are determined by what the product use will be. Multifilament are partly fused together at intervals and are found in fibers with deniers of 40 and above.

Spandex Fibre Production  Spandex fiber are produced in four different ways including melt extrusion. The solution dry spinning method is used to produce over 90% of the worlds spandex fibers.  Once the pre polymer is formed it is reacted further in various ways drawn out to produce a long fiber. reaction spinning. All of these method include the initial step of reacting monomers to produce a prepolymer. SOLUTION DRY SPINNING . and solution wet spinning.

A typical ratio of glycols dissociate is 1:2. The two compounds are mixed together in a reaction vessel to produce a prepolymer. an amount of solid strands are bundled together to produce the desired thickness.When the spools are filled with fiber they are put into final packaging and shipped to textile manufacturers. This can be magnesium stearate or another polymer. Step5:The resulting fibers are then treated with a finishing agent.This reaction is known as chain extension reaction. Each fiber of spandex is made up of many smaller individual fibers that adhere to one another due to the natural stickiness of their surface.Solution Dry Spinning  Step1: The first step is to produce the prepolymer.   Step3:The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted to fibers. The solvent helps make the solution thinner and more easily handled and then can be pumped into the fiber production cell. This cause the solution to be aligned in strands of liquid polymer. This is done by mixing a macro glycol with dissociate monomer. Step2:The pre polymer is further reacted with an equal amount of diamine.    . Step6. The resulting solution is diluted with solvent to produce the spinning solution. In this cell the polymer solution is forced through a metal plate called a spinneret. Step4:As the fiber exit the cell.

smooth and supple  Resistant to body oils. perspiration.lotions.Spandex Characteristics  Can be stretched over 500% without breaking  Able to be stretched repetitively and still recover original length  Lightweight  Abrasion resistant  Poor strength but stronger and more durable than rubber  Soft.and detergents  No static and pilling problem  Very comfortable  Easily dyed .

aerobic and exercise apparel Wetsuits .bathing suits Competitive swim wears Netball body suits Disco jeans Slacks Leggings Socks Skinny jeans Belts Under wear Hosiery Compression garments such as.Uses of Spandex Athletic. Surgical hose Support hose Cycling shorts Wrestling singlet One piece rowing suit Foundation garments motion capture suits Shaped garments such as bra cups Home furnishing such as microbed pillows .

various areas of research will help continue their improvement.Spandex in popular culture In comic books. In addition to spandex fiber improvements it is likely that advanced fabrics will be produced which incorporate spandex fibers with conventional fibers. FUTURE OF SPANDEX The quality of spandex fiber has continually improved since they were first developed. . Because Spandex is skin tight as many superheroes costumes appear to be drawn and because spandex is almost exclusively made in the same bright solid colors as the early golden age comics the after the fact assumption of spandex was made. superheroes and super heroines commonly wear costumes thought to be made of spandex. Scientists have found that by changing the starting prepolymer they can develop fibers which have even better characteristics. In Japan spandex is the common material for costumes used in the popular super sentai series(known overseas as power rangers).


the final polymer must contain at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units. it does not melt sharply to give a fluid melt suitable for melt spinning. It was first developed in the mid-1940s but was not produced in large quantities until the 1950s.Acrylic Fibre.  It is manufactured as a filament. and oxygen. Acrylic fibres are either wet or dry spun . and so must be solvent spun. Before 1960. Although acrylic polymer is thermoplastic. ammonia. Acrylonitrile is an addition polymer. the monomers adding or joining end-to-end without liberating any by-product. react at high temperature in the presence of catalysts such as bismuth phosphomolybdate. In order to qualify for the description acrylic. and spun into yarn. Modacrylic is a modified acrylic yarn. Strong and warm. then cut into short staple lengths similar to wool hairs. propylene. acrylonitrile was commercially produced by adding hydrogen cyanide to acetylene. In the Sohio process.Overview Acrylic Synthetic fibre was often used as a substitute for wool. acrylic fibre is often used for sweaters and tracksuits and as linings for boots and gloves. as well as in furnishing fabrics and carpets. or by dehydration of ethylene cyanohydrin.

Ndimethylformamide or aqueous sodium thiocyanate. boat covers. Acrylic fibers are produced in a range of deniers. and beanies. .Acrylic. stretching. typically from 1 to 15. The fiber is produced by dissolving the polymer in a solvent such as N. End uses include sweaters. the fiber is also used as a precursor for carbon fiber. awnings. hand-knitting yarns. drying and crimping complete the processing.  Washing. Production of acrylic fibers is centered in the Far East.Manufacturing Process The polymer is formed by free-radical polymerization. metering it through a multi-hole spinnerette and coagulating the resultant filaments in an aqueous solution of the same solvent. rugs.

Acrylic in action .

and chemicals. It is resilient. and resists shrinkage and wrinkles. Typical comonomers are vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate Acrylic is resistant to moths. the polymer must contain at least 85% acrylonitrile monomer.000. . Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer(Polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100. However. static and pilling can be a problem. with a wool-like feel. retains its shape. To be called acrylic in the U.Properties & Uses of Acrylic Fibre Properties Uses Acrylic is lightweight. and warm. The disadvantages of acrylic is that it tends to fuzz (or pill) easily and that it does not insulate the wearer as well as cashmere. It is quite varied in form and sometimes has an appearance similar to wool or cotton Acrylic has recently been used in clothing (paschmina) as a cheaper alternative to cashmere. due to the similar feeling of the materials.S. It dyes very well and has excellent colorfastness. and is very resistant to deterioration from sunlight exposure. oils. soft.

carpets and rugs.Acrylic Statistics Principal applications in hosiery. and upholstery and drapery market sections account for the major volume in this area. blankets. Home furnishings markets represent a smaller percentage of the total market. craft yarn. and knits. pile. sweaters. .


Overview Cellulose acetate was invented by two Swiss brothers. In 1924. Camille and Henri. In 1905. Camille and Henri developed a commercial process to manufacture cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is one of the earliest synthetic fibers and is based on cotton or tree pulp cellulose Acetate is a very valuable manufactured fiber that is low in cost and has good draping qualitiesIt is also called the Fiber of beauty beacause it has luster and tactile feeling just like silk fibers.Acetate & Triacetate Fibres. the first commercial acetate filament was spun in the United States and trademarked as Celanese Acetate yarns were initially developed as an alternative to silk. .

cones.partial hydrolysis occurs Precipitated as acid-resin flakes Flakes dissolved in acetone Solution is filtered Spinning solution extruded in column of warm air. and a catalyst Aged 20 hours. or bobbins ready for use . Solvent recovered Filaments are stretched and wound onto beams. acetic anhydride.Acetate Production Process         Purified cellulose from wood pulp or cotton linters Mixed with glacial acetic acid.

Cellulosic and thermoplastic Chemical solubility Hydrophilic performance Safe to use High surface area Environmentally sound Can be dyed. Tri acetate Fibre Characteristics Shrink resistant Wrinkle resistant Easily washable Generally washable at high temperatures Maintains creases and pleats well .Acetate & Triacetate Fibre Characteristics Acetate Fiber characteristics: Acetate has an unusual combination of properties that are unmatched by other materials.

draperies. surgical products. home furnishings. In the 1980s triacetate was also used with polyester to create shiny tracksuits which were very popular at the time. and a host of other end uses Triacetate Particularly effective in clothing where crease or pleat retention is important. upholstery and slip covers. blouses. Acetate is found in screwdriver handles.Uses of Acetate & Triacetate Acetate Apparel: linings. and other filters. High absorbency products: diapers.  Industrial uses: cigarette filters. x-ray films. ink reservoirs for fiber tip pens. such as skirts and dresses. ink pen reservoirs. dresses. The material was very smooth and shiny on the outside and soft and fleecy on the inside . wedding and party attire.

The name "Celanese" (pronounced: "Sell-un-ease") is derived from a combination of "cellulose acetate" and the phrase "ease of care. . They opened their first factory in 1910. Belgium.Acetate in Industry Celanese Acetate. manufactures cellulose acetate products used in filtering and other industrial applications. who began their research in 1904 in Basel. Celanese Acetate has manufacturing sites in the US. The original Celanese Corporation was founded by the Swiss Dreyfus brothers. a business of Celanese. UK." referring to the easy wear of the material made from the product. Switzerland. Camille and Henri. Mexico and China.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful