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Complete Pmp Exam Review Cards

Complete Pmp Exam Review Cards

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Project Integration Management

Project Plan Development

Integrated Change Control?

Why is historical information useful in developing the project plan?

Constraints

Project Planning Methodology?

Project Plan

Work Authorization System?

Work Results?

How is the project plan used to in integrated change control?

Taking results of other planning processes and putting them into a coherent, consistent document.

The processes required to ensure that various elements of the project are properly coordinated.

Because it helps verify assumptions and assess identified alternatives. Any structured approach to guide the project team in the development of a project plan.
A formal procedure to sanction project work so that it is done at the proper time and in the proper sequence.

Coordinating changes across the entire project.

Factors that limit the project management team's options. A formal, approved document used to manage and control project execution.
Outcomes of activities performed to accomplish the project.

The project plan provides the baseline against which all changes are controlled.

What is required in the decision making process?

Llife-Cycle Costing

Line Manager

Matrix Organization?

Network Logic?

Organization Planning

Parametric Estimating

Pareto Diagram

Work Package

Work Breakdown Structure

The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating various alternatives.
Any organization structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.

Analyzing the problem to identify viable solutions and then making a choice from among them.
The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Also called a functional manager.

Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generate by each identified cause.
A task oriented structure that organizes and defines total work to be accomplished in a project. Each level represents an increasingly detailed definition of a project component.

Any continuous series of connected activities in a project network diagram.
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate. A deliverable at the lowest level of the Work Breakdown Structure. A work package may be divided into activities.

Float / Slack

Critical Path Method(CPM)

Backward Pass

Corrective Action

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)

Baseline

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)

Administrative Closure

Backward Pass

Activity

A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of tasks has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (i.e. the least amount of float).

The amount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start date without delaying the project finish date. Float is a arithmetic calculation and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Also called slack.

Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the project plan.
"The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline)."

The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the project's end date. The sum of the approved cost estimates (including any overhead allocation) for activities (or portions of activities) scheduled to be performed during a given period (usually project-to-date).
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start and the head represents the finish of the activity. Activities are connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence in which the activities are expected to be performed.

"Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion."
"An element of work performed during the course of a project. An activity normally has an expected duration, an expected cost, and expected resource requirements. Activities are often subdivided into tasks."

The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the project’s end date. The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor.

Activity Definition

Activity Description

Activity Duration Estimating

Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)

Actual Finish Date

Actual Start Date

Administractive Closure

Application Area

Bar Chart

Baseline

A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally describes the scope of work of the activity.

Identifying the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the various project deliverables.

Total costs incurred in accomplishing work during a given time period.

Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities.

The point in time that work actually started on an activity.
A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product of the project. Application areas often overlap. "The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline)."

The point in time that work actually ended on an activity.
"Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion."

"A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart."

Work Package

Word Breakdown Structure

Workaround

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Target Start Date (TS)

Target Finish Date (TF)

Time-Scaled Network Diagram

Team Development

Target Completion Date (TC)

Successor Activity

A deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements which organizes and defines the total scope of the project.

A deliverable at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure. A work package may be divided into activities.
A response to a negative risk event. Distinguished from contingency plan in that a workaround is not planned in advance of the occurrence of the risk event.

A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within an organization.

The date work is planned (targeted) to finish on an activity.
Developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance.
(1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which departs a node. (2) In the precedence diagramming method, the “to” activity.

The date work is planned (targeted) to start on an activity.
Any project network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes network logic.

An imposed date which constrains or otherwise modifies the network analysis.

Subnet

Statement of Work (SOW)

Start Date

Stakeholder

Staff Acquisition

Source Selection

Solicitation Planning

What is Project Risk Management?

How is Monte Carlo analysis used in schedule simulations?

What is the difference between a risk and a problem?

A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract. Individuals and organizations who are involved in or may be affected by project activities.

A subdivision of a project network diagram usually representing some form of subproject.
A point in time associated with an activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current.

Choosing from among potential contractors.
The process concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It also includes maximizing the results of positive events as well as minimizing the consequences of adverse events to project objectives.

Getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project. Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources.
To perform the project many times in order to provide a statistical distribution of the calculated results.

A risk is a future event; it has not yet occurred. A problem, on the other hand, currently exists.

Solicitation

Should-Cost Estimates

Scope Verification

Scope Planning

Scope Definition

Scope Change Control

Scope Change

Scope

Scheduled Start Date (SS)

Scheduled Finish Date (SF)

An estimate of the cost of a product or service used to provide an assessment of the reasonableness of a prospective contractor’s proposed cost.

Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate.
Ensuring that all identified project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily.
Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control. Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustment to the project cost or schedule.
The point in time work was scheduled to start on an activity. The scheduled start date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early start date and the late start date.

Developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, the major deliverables, and the project objectives.

Controlling changes to project scope.
The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project.
The point in time work was scheduled to finish on an activity. The scheduled finish date is normally within the range of dates delimited by the early finish date and the late finish date.

Schedule Variance (SV)

Schedule Performance Index (SPI)

Schedule Development

Schedule Control

S-Curve

Risk Response Development

Risk Response Control

What type of change constitutes one of the major areas of cost growth?

What is privity of contract?

What are the characteristics of a well-written SOW?

The ratio of work performed to work scheduled (BCWP/BCWS). Controlling changes to the project schedule.
Defining enhancement steps for opportunities and mitigation steps for threats.

(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.

Analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project schedule.
Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

Change to project scope.

Responding to changes in risk over the course of the project.
A doctrine of law that recognizes the contractual relationship existing between a buyer and its prime contractor.

The SOW shoulbe be clear, complete, and concise and include a description of any collateral services required.

Risk Quantification

Risk Identification

Risk Event

Retainage

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

Resource Planning

Resource-Limited Schedule

Resource Leveling

Reserve

Request for Quotation (RFQ)

Determining which risk events are likely to affect the project.
A portion of a contract payment that is held until contract completion in order to ensure full performance of the contract terms. Determining what resources (people, equipment, materials) are needed in what quantities to perform project activities.
Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resource management concerns (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult-to-manage changes in resource levels).

Evaluating the probability of risk event occurrence and effect.
A discrete occurrence that may affect the project for better or worse.
A structure which relates the project organization structure to the work breakdown structure to help ensure that each element of the project’s scope of work is assigned to a responsible individual.

A project schedule whose start and finish dates reflect expected resource availability. The final project schedule should always be resource-limited.
A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated. The specific meaning of the modified term varies by application area.

Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Request for Proposal (RFP)

Remaining Duration (RDU)

Quality Planning

Quality Control (QC)

Quality Assurance (QA)

Projectized Organization

Project Time Management

As a PMP, what laws, regulations, and ethical standards govern your professional practice?

What is meant when someone is said to be ethnocentric?

What are the two ways project resources are obtained?

The time needed to complete an activity.
(1) The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. (2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality control.

A type of bid document used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.
(1) The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. (2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality assurance.

Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities and to direct the work of individuals assigned to the project.

Those of the state or province and/or country where you provide project management services.

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project. It consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.

Staff acquisition and procurement.

A belief in the inherent superiority of one's own culture.

What are the two ways project resources are obtained?

Project Team Members

Project Schedule

Project Risk Management

Project Quality Management

Project Procurement Management

Project Planning

Project Plan Execution

Project Plan Development

Project Plan

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.

Staff acquisition and procurement.

A subset of project management that includes the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. It consists of risk identification, risk quantification, risk response development, and risk response control.
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization. It consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract close-out.

The planned dates for performing activities and the planned dates for meeting milestones.
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.

Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.
A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The primary uses of the project plan are to document planning assumptions and decisions, to facilitate communication among stakeholders, and to document approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan may be summary or detailed.

The development and maintenance of the project plan.
Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document.

Project Phase

Project Network Diagram

Project Manager (PM)

Project Management Team

Project Management Software Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

Project Management Professional (PMP)

Project Management (PM)

Project Life Cycle

Project Integration Management

Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project chronology. Often incorrectly referred to as a “PERT chart.”
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.

A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable.

The individual responsible for managing a project.
A class of computer applications specifically designed to aid with planning and controlling project costs and schedules.
An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with other professions such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics who apply and advance it. The PMBOK includes proven, traditional practices which are widely applied as well as innovative and advanced ones which have seen more limited use.

An individual certified as such by the Project Management Institute.
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques toproject activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.

A subset of project management that includes the processesrequired to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated. It consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and overall change control.

A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project.

Project Human Resource Management

Project Cost Management

Project Communications Management

Project Charter

Project

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Program

Procurement Planning

Predecessor Activity

Precedence Relationship

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget. It consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control.

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project. It consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.

A document issued by senior management that provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
An event-oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty with the individual activity duration estimates. PERT applies the critical path method to a weighted average duration estimate. Also given as Program Evaluation and Review Technique.

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure proper collection and dissemination of project information. It consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.

A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.
A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way. Programs usually include an element of ongoing activity.
(1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which enters a node. (2) In the precedence diagramming method, the “from” activity.

Determining what to procure and when.
The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably regardless of the diagramming method in use.

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)

PERT Chart

Performing Organization

Performance Reporting

Percent Complete (PC)

Path Convergence

Path

Pareto Diagram

Parametric Estimating

Overall Change Control

A specific type of project network diagram.
Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help ensure project progress.
In mathematical analysis, the tendency of parallel paths of approximately equal duration to delay the completion of the milestone where they meet.

A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (or nodes). Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work which has been completed on an activity or group of activities.

A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.

A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram.
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate.

Coordinating changes across the entire project.

Organizational Planning

Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)

Node

Network Path

Network Logic

Network Analysis

Near-Critical Activity

Monte Carlo Analysis

Monitoring

Modern Project Management (MPM)

A depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate work packages to organizational units.

Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities,and reporting relationships.
One of the defining points of a network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines. See also arrow diagramming method and precedence diagramming method.

Any continuous series of connected activities in a project network diagram.
The process of identifying early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities.
A schedule risk assessment technique that performs a project simulation many times in order to calculate a distribution of likely results.

The collection of activity dependencies that make up a project network diagram.

An activity that has low total float.

A term used to distinguish the current broad range of project management (scope, cost, time, quality, risk, etc.) from narrower, traditional use that focused on cost and time.

The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan.

Mitigation

Milestone Schedule

Milestone

Matrix Organization

Master Schedule

Management Reserve

Loop

Start-to-finish

Start-to-start

Finish-to-finish

A summary-level schedule which identifies the major milestones. See also master schedule.
Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.
A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which are impossible to predict. Management reserves may involve cost or schedule. Management reserves are intended to reduce the risk of missing cost or schedule objectives. Use of management reserve requires a change to the project’s cost baseline.

Taking steps to lessen risk by lowering the probability of a risk event’s occurrence or reducing its effect should it occur.

A significant event in the project, usually completion of a major deliverable. A summary-level schedule which identifies the major activities and key milestones.
A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional network analysis techniques such as CPM and PERT. Loops are allowed in GERT.

the “from” activity must start before the “to” activity can finish the “from” activity must finish before the “to” activity can finish

the “from” activity must start before the “to” activity can start

Finish-to-start

The four possible types of logical relationships

Logical Relationship

Line Manager

Why is the type of organizational structure important in project management?

When is the project team directory developed? Which type of power should a project manager use? What is the highest level of need's in Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Which type of power should a project manager avoid? What are the five methods of dealing with conflict?

Finish-to-start, Finish-to-finish, Start-to-start, Start-to-finish
(1) The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. (2) A functional manager.

the “from” activity must finish before the “to” activity can start
A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone.
The structure of the organization often constrains the availability under which resources become available to the project.

As part of the staff acquisition phase of the project.

Should try to use reward and expert powers.
Self-fulfillment through the development of powers and skills, and a chance to use creativity.

Avoid using coercive power.

Smoothing, Withdrawl, Compromise, Forcing and Problem Solving

Smoothing

What use does a Gantt Chart provide?

What is life-cycle costing?

What is a variable cost?

How is the cost performance index (CPI) figured?

Define what a payback period is?

What is internal rate of return (IRR)?

What is BCWS or PV?

How is schedule variance (SV) figured?

What are direct costs?

To identify when a particular resource is (or will be) working on a particular task.

Deemphasizing the opponents' differences and emphasizing their commonalities over the issues in question.
The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating various alternatives.

Costs that rise directly with the size of the project.
The number of times periods up to the point at which cumulative revenues exceed cumulative costs and, therefore, the project has turned a profit.

CPI = BCWP /ACWP or EV / AC

Budgeted cost of work scheduled or planned value.

The percentage rate that makes the present value of costs equal to the present value of benefits.

Costs incurred directly by a specific project.

SV = BCWP - BCWS or EV - PV

Level of Effort (LOE)

Lead

Late Start Date (LS)

Late Finish Date (LF)

Lag

Invitation for Bid (IFB)

Initiation

Information Distribution

Hanger

Hammer

A modification of a logical relationship which allows an acceleration of the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10-day lead, the successor activity can start 10 days before the predecessor has finished.

Support-type activity (e.g., vendor or customer liaison) that does not readily lend itself to measurement of discrete accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of activity over a specific period of time.

In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).

In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).
A modification of a logical relationship which directs a delay in the successor task. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a 10-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until 10 days after the predecessor has finished.

Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.

Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
An aggregate or summary activity (a group of related activities is shown as one and reported at a summary level). A hammock may or may not have an internal sequence.

Committing the organization to begin a project phase.
An unintended break in a network path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing logical relationships.

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)

Grade

Functional Organization

Functional Manager

Free Float (FF)

Forward Pass

Float

Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF) Contract

Firm Fixed Price (FFP) Contract

Finish Date

A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., “hammer”) but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).

A network analysis technique that allows for conditional and probabilistic treatment of logical relationships (i.e., some activities may not be performed).
An organization structure in which staff are grouped hierarchically by specialty (e.g., production, marketing, engineering, and accounting at the top level; with engineering, further divided into mechanical, electrical, and others).

A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department or function (e.g., engineering, manufacturing, marketing).

The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities.
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if it meets defined performance criteria. A point in time associated with an activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target or current.

The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities.
The amount of time that an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan. Also called slack, total float, and path float.

A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract) regardless of the seller’s costs.

Fast Tracking

Expected Monetary Value

Exception Report

Event-on-Node

Estimate To Complete (ETC)

Estimate At Completion (EAC)

Estimate

Effort

Earned Value (EV)

Early Start Date (ES)

The product of an event’s probability of occurrence and the gain or loss that will result. For example, if there is a 50 percent probability that it will rain, and rain will result in a $100 loss, the expected monetary value of the rain event is $50 (.5 x $100).

Compressing the project schedule by overlapping activities that would normally be done in sequence, such as design and construction. Sometimes confused with concurrent engineering.

A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes (or nodes) connected by arrows to show the sequence in which the events are to occur. Used in the original Program Evaluation and Review Technique.
The expected total cost of an activity, a group of activities, or of the project when the defined scope of work has been completed. Most techniques for forecasting EAC include some adjustment of the original cost estimate based on project performance to date. Also shown as “estimated at completion.” Often shown as EAC = Actuals-to-date + ETC.

Document that includes only major variations from plan (rather than all variations).
The expected additional cost needed to complete an activity, a group of activities, or the project. Most techniques for forecasting ETC include some adjustment to the original estimate based on project performance to date.
An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project costs and durations and should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., ± x percent). Usually used with a modifier (e.g., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility). Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply particular accuracy ranges (e.g., order-of-magnitude estimate, budget estimate, and definitive estimate in engineering and construction projects).
(1) A method for measuring project performance. It compares the amount of work that was planned with what was actually accomplished to determine if cost and schedule performance is as planned. See also actual cost of work performed, budgeted cost of work scheduled, budgeted cost of work performed, cost variance, cost performance index, schedule variance, and schedule performance index. (2) The budgeted cost of work performed for an activity or group of activities.

The number of labor units required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as staffhours, staffdays, or staffweeks. Should not be confused with duration.
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or the project) can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.

Early Finish Date (EF)

Duration Compression

Duration

Dummy Activity

Deliverable

Data Date

Current Start Date

Current Finish Date

Critical Path Method (CPM)

Critical Path

Shortening the project schedule without reducing the project scope. Duration compression is not always possible and often requires an increase in project cost.
An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with regular activity arrows. Dummies are shown graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow.

In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of an activity (or the project) can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.

The number of work periods (not including holidays or other non-working periods) required to complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time.

The point in time that separates actual (historical) data from future (scheduled) data. Also called as-of date.

Any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that must be produced to complete a project or part of a project. Often used more narrowly in reference to an external deliverable, which is a deliverable that is subject to approval by the project sponsor or customer.

The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed.
In a project network diagram, the series of activities which determines the earliest completion of the project. The critical path will generally change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule. Although normally calculated for the entire project, the critical path can also be determined for a milestone or subproject. The critical path is usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero.

The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin.
A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activities (which path) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float). Early dates are calculated by means of a forward pass using a specified start date. Late dates are calculated by means of a backward pass starting from a specified completion date (usually the forward pass’s calculated project early finish date).

Critical Activity

Crashing

Cost Variance (CV)

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) Contract

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) Contract

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

Cost of Quality

Cost Estimating

Cost Control

Cost Budgeting

Taking action to decrease the total project duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost. A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
The ratio of budgeted costs to actual costs (BCWP/ACWP). CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a possible cost overrun using the following formula: original cost estimate/CPI = projected cost at completion.

Any activity on a critical path. Most commonly determined by using the critical path method. Although some activities are “critical” in the dictionary sense without being on the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.

(1) Any difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less ACWP.
A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).

Estimating the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities. Allocating the cost estimates to individual project components.

The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and rework.

Controlling changes to the project budget.

Corrective Action

Control Charts

Control

Contract Close-out

Contract

What are the 3 general types of contracts?

Fixed price or lump sum contracts

Cost reimbursable contracts

Unit price contracts

Contingency Reserve

Control charts are a graphic display of the results, over time and against established control limits, of a process. They are used to determine if the process is “in control” or in need of adjustment.

Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the plan.
The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, evaluating possible alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as needed.

Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of all outstanding items. Fixed price or lump sum contracts, Cost reimbursable contracts, Unit price contracts
This type of contract involves payment (reimbursement) to the contractor for its actual costs. Costs are usually classified as direct costs (costs incurred directly by the project, such as wages for members of the project team) and indirect costs (costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as salaries for corporate executives). Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost reimbursable contracts often include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets or total cost.

A contract is a mutually binding agreement which obligates the seller to provide the specified product and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
This type of contract involves a fixed total price for a well-defined product. Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets.

A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in part (sometimes called “known unknowns”).

With this type of contract the contractor is paid a preset amount per unit of service (e.g., $70 per hour for professional services or $1.08 per cubic yard of earth removed) and the total value of the contract is a function of the quantities needed to complete the work.

Do you include contingency reservers in the schedule baseline? Are contingency reservers only used when dealing with costs?

Why would you use contingency reserves?

Contingency Planning

Concurrent Engineering

Communications Planning

Code of Accounts

Chart of Accounts

Change Control Board (CCB)

Calendar Unit

Contingency reserves are intended to reduce the impact of missing cost or schedule objectives.
The development of a management plan that identifies alternative strategies to be used to ensure project success if specified risk events occur.

Yes, contingency reserves are normally included in the project’s cost and schedule baselines.

No, contingency reserves may involve cost, schedule, or both.
An approach to project staffing that, in its most general form, calls for implementors to be involved in the design phase. Sometimes confused with fast tracking.

Determining the information and communications needs of the project stakeholders.
Any numbering system used to monitor project costs by category (e.g., labor, supplies, materials). The project chart of accounts is usually based upon the corporate chart of accounts of the primary performing organization. The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project. Calendar units are generally in hours, days, or weeks, but can also be in shifts or even in minutes. Used primarily in relation to project management software.

Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each element of the work breakdown structure.
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes to the project baselines.

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)

Budget At Completion (BAC)

Baseline

Bar Chart

Gantt chart

Backward Pass

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)

Arrow

Application Area

The sum of the approved cost estimates (including any overhead allocation) for activities (or portions of activities) completed during a given period (usually project-to-date).
The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline).
A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called a Bar chart.

The sum of the approved cost estimates (including any overhead allocation) for activities (or portions of activities) scheduled to be performed during a given period (usually project-to-date).

The estimated total cost of the project when done.
A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.

A diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow represents the start and the head represents the finish of the activity. Activities are connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence in which the activities are expected to be performed.

The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the project’s end date. The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor.

A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product of the project or the type of customer.

The graphic presentation of an activity.

Is stakeholder managerment a proactive task?

What is the triple constraint and what is it used for?

What is meant by the word internationalization?
Should you incorporate stakeholders' requirements into a project?

What is Social-Econominc Environmental Sustainability?

What does the initiating process do?

What is the meant by the planning process?

What is down in the executing process?

What is done in the controlling process?

What is done in the closing process?

The triple constraint is time, cost, quality. It is used to identify the three most important factors that a project manager needs to consider in a project.

Yes, stakeholder management is a proactive task.
Consideration of time-zone differences, national and regional holidays. travel requirements, and other logistical issues.

Being accountable for impacts resulting from a project both social and economic.

It authorizes the project of phase.

Yes, always incorporate the stakeholder's requirements into the project.
This process is used for defining and refining objectives and selecting the best of the alternatives.
This process is for ensuring that project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress in order to indetify variances from the plan so that corrective action can be taken if and when necessary.

During this phase people are coordinating with other resources to carry out the project phase or plan. This process is when formailizing acceptance of the project or phase is completed in the hopes of bringing it to an orderly end.

What is a tight matrix?

In a strong matrix what type of power/authority does the project manager have?

In a weak matrix does the project manager have much authority?

Project Coordinator

Project Expeditor

What are some advantages/benefits of a functional organization?
Is scope verification necessary when a project is terminated?

What are some disadvantages of a functional organization? Will management by objectives work if management doesn't support it.

Dephi Technique

In this type of matrix the power rests with the project manager.
An individual who reports to a higher-level manager in the organization, has the authority to assign work to individuals in various functional organizations, and shares authoity and resources with the functional manager.

This refers to locating the offices for the project team in the same room/location.

No, the power/authority rests with the functional manager.
An individual who is a staff assistant to an executive who has the ultimate responsibility for the project. Has authority only in his managers department but not over resources from other departments.

1) Easier management o specialist's, 2) Team memebers only report to 1 boss, 3) Clearly defined careeer paths, 4) resources are centralized.

Yes, scope verifcation is necessary when a project is terminated, it althoughs the organization to determine the level of completion.
A mthod to obtain opinions on issues. Information sent to experts, responses are compiled and the results are sent back for further review. Using the delphi technique helps reduce bias and undue influence.

1) The project manager has NO authority, 2) People place more emphasis on their speciality than to the project.

No, in orer to work properly, it must be supported by management.

What type of diagram uses dummy activities?

What are the three uses for dummy activites?

What is the expectancy theory?

What is problem solving/confrontation?

Give three examples of hygiene factors in Herzberg's theory of motivation. How do they affect motivation.

What is McGregor's Theory X?

What is McGregor's theory Y?

What is an organizational breakdown structure (OBS)?
Does the matrix form of project organization facilitate or complicate project team development?

What is the purpose of a resource Gantt chart?

1) logic, 2) time delay and, 3) uniqueness.

Activity-On-Arrow Network.

Addressing conflict directly by getting the parties to work together to define the problem, collect information, develop and analyze alternatives, and select the most appropriate alternative.

It holds that people tend to be highly productive and motivated if they believe their efforts will lead to successful results and they will be rewarded for their success.
Pay, attitude of supervisor, and working conditions. but improving hygiene factors in not likely to increase motivation. Motivators are an opportunity to achieve and experience self-actualization.

Traditional approach: workers stroy motivation, are self-centered, lazy, lacking ambition. Managers organize the elements of the productive enterprise in the interest of economic ends.

A specific type of organizational chart that shows which units are responsible for which work items
It complicates team development because team members are accountable to both a functional manager and a project manager.

Workers are not by nature resistant to organizational needs; they are willing and eager to accept responsibilities and are concerned with self-growth and fulfillment.

It identifies when a particular resource is or will be working on a particular task.

Name three major forms of project organizational structure. Describe the difference between a weak matrix and a strong matrix.

What is a projectized organization?

What is a project "war room" and what is its benefit?

What is variance analysis?

What is active listening?

What is major cause of conflict with functional managers?
What is earned value analysis and how is it used in performance reporting?

What is most difficult conflict to deal with?

What is the tool for used for communication planning?

One in which a separate, functional organization is established for each project. Personnel are assigned on a full-time basis.
A single location for the team to get together for any purpose. It provides a repository for project artifacts, records, and up-to-date schedules and status reports. It gives an identity to the project team.

Functional, Matrix, and Projectized

Weak matrices are similar to functional organizations. Strong matrices are similar to projectized organizations (with balance of power tipped toward the project manager)

Listening in which the recipient is attentive and asks for clarification of ambiguous messages

Comparing actual project results to planned or expected results in terms of cost, schedule, scope, quality, and risk.

Personality conflicts

Schedules

Stakeholder analysis

An analysis that integrates cost and schedule measures. It is used to help the project management team assess project performance.

5 Phases of Project Management

Initiation Phase Activities

Planning Phase Core Processes

Planning Phase Facilitating Processes

Activity

Activity aspects

Activity definition

Activity description

Activity Duration Estimating

Activity-On-Arrow

Initiation

Initiation - Planning Execution - Control Closure

Quality Planning Communicaiton Planning - Risk ID - Risk Quantification - Risk Response Devlp Organizational Planning - Staff Acquisition - Procurement Planning - Solicitation Planning

Scope Planning - Scope Definition - Activity Definition Activity Sequencing - Activity Duration Estimating - Resource Planning - Cost Estimating Schedule Development - Cost Budgeting - Project Plan Development

Duration - Expected cost - Expected resources required

Element of work on a project

The scope of work of the activity. - Used in project diagrams.

Identifying specific activities that must be performed in order to produce a project's deliverables.

Part of the Arrow Diagramming Method

Estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual activities.

Activity-On-Node

Actual Cost of Work Performed

Actual Finish Date

Actual Start Date

Administrative Closure

Application Area

Arrow

Arrow Diagramming Method

As-Of Date

Backward Pass

Total costs incurred (direct and indirect) for a project.

Part of the Precedence Diagramming Method

When work starts.

When work ends.

Type of: product, project or customer. - There is often overlap

Formalized project end.

Graphical representation of a project where activities are represented by arrows.

Graphic presentation of an activity.

Calculating a project length based on end-date

Same as Data Date

Bar Chart

Baseline

Baseline Finish Date

Baseline Start Date

Budget at Completion

Budget Estimate

Budget Cost of Work Performed

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled

Calendar Unit

Change Control Board

The original plan

Left side = Project elements Bottom = Date range (Also called = GANTT Chart)

Scheduled Start Date

Scheduled Finish Date

Estimate

The estimated total cost of the project when done.

Sum of approved cost estimates not yet completed. Part of Earned Value

Sum of approved cost estimates completed. Part of Earned Value

Group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes in the project baseline.

Smaller unit (Hours Days - Weeks - Shifts Minutes)

Change in Scope

Chart of Accounts

Charter

Code of Accounts

Communications Planning

Concurrent Engineering

Contingency Planning

Contingency Reserve

Contract - 3 Categories

Contract Definition

Numbering system used to monitor project costs by category.

Scope Change

Numbering system used to identify each element of the work breakdown structure.

Same as project charter

Not Fast Tracking - Calls for project implementations to be involved in the Design Phase. Known Unknowns. They are buffers (cost, schedules, resources) built into the project baseline.

Determining the communication needs and procedures for each stakeholder.

Risk mitigation plan

Mutually binding agreement.

1 - Fixed price or lump sum. 2 - Cost reimbursable. 3 - Unit price

Contract - 2 Parts

Contract - Fixed price/Lump Sum

Contract - Cost reimbursable

Contract - Unit Price

Contract Administration

Contract Close-out

Control

Control Chart

Corrective Action

Cost Budgeting

Fixed price for a well-defined product or service.

Seller - delivers product or service. Buyer obliged to pay for product or service.

Seller is paid a pre-set price for unit of product or service (i.e. $70 per hour)

Time and materials.

Completion of the contract.

Managing the relationship with the seller.

Graphical display of results.

Comparing planned vs. actual performance.

Allocating cost estimates to the actual project.

Used to get a project back on track.

Cost control.

Cost Estimating

Cost of Quality

Cost Performance Index = Formula

Cost Performance Index

Project Cost at Compellation

Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract

Cost Plus Inventive Fee Contract

Cost Variance

Crashing

Estimating project costs

Controlling changes in the project budget.

CPI = BCWP / ACWP

Cost incurred to ensure quality.

PCC = Original Cost Est. / CPI

Used to predict the magnitude of a project cost overrun.

Time and Materials + fixed profit level if all goals are met.

Time and Materials + a fixed profit level.

Taking action to decrease a project timeline.

BCWP < ACWP Difference between estimated and actual cost.

Critical Activity

Critical Path Method

Current Finish Date

Current Start Date

Data Date

Deliverable

Dependency

Dummy Activity

Duration

Duration Compressing

The path with the least amount of flexibility.

Critical Path Method

Current estimate of project initiation.

Current estimate of project completion

Tangible and verifiable outcome.

As-Of-Date. Point of time that is between historical and future date.

Zero length. Place holder activities in a project schedule.

Requires another step to be accomplished.

Shorten duration without decreasing project scope.

Length of time to complete an activity.

Early Finish Date

Early Start Date

Earned Value

Effort

Estimate

Estimate at Completion

Estimate to Complete

Event-on-Node

Exception Report

Expected Monetary Value

Used in the Critical Path Method. Earliest date the project can be started by.

Used in the Critical Path Method. Earliest date the project can be completed by.

Not Duration. Resource units needed to complete an activity.

1 - Method for measuring project performance. 2 Budgeted cost. 3 Compares work planned vs. actually performed.

EAC = Actuals-to-date + ETC

Prediction of costs, resources needed and duration.

Project diagramming method that uses connected boxes.

Expected additional cost needed to complete an activity.

Monetary gain or lose due to an event.

Document which show only major variations to the project plan.

Fast Tracking

Finish Date

Firm Fixed Price Contract

Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract

Float

Forecast Final Cost

Forward Pass

Fragnet

Free Float

Functional Manager

Project activities completed date.

Compressing a project schedule by overlapping activities. Not = Concurrent Engineering

Fixed price with a bonus for performance.

Fixed price, regardless of changes in Time and Material costs.

EST

Amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the project schedule.

Subnet

Calculating a project time-line based on a start-date.

Specialized department manager (i.e. Marketing Mgr.)

Amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting an early start of a project.

Functional Organization

Gantt Chart

Grade

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique

Hammock

Hanger

Information Distribution

Initiation

Integrated Cost/Schedule Reporting

Invitation for Bid

Bar chart

Department (i.e. Marketing Dept) grouped staff.

Cartoon representation of a Conditional evaluation of a problem.

Items in the same category but require different quality controls.

Break in the project path - missed activities in the plan.

Summary/roll-up activity

Committing the organization to begin a project phase.

Distributing necessary information to project stakeholders

Request for Proposal

Earned Value

Key Event Schedule

Lag

Late Finish Date

Late Start Date

Lead

Level of Effort

Life-Cycle Costing

Line Manager

Link

Logic Diagram

A step in the project path must wait X days after its predecessor is completed.

Master Schedule

Latest possible date a task can begin without delaying the schedule.

Latest possible date a task can be completed without delaying the schedule.

Estimate of resources needed to complete the task.

A step in the project path which can start X days before its predecessor is completed.

A manager who is also working directly on the project.

Acquisition - Operating Disposal costs. Considered when evaluating alternatives.

Project Network Diagram

Connection of steps

Logical Relationships (4 Types)

Finish-to-Start Activity

Finish-to-Finish Activity

Finish-to-Start Activity

Finish-to-Start Activity

Loop

Management Reserve

Master Schedule

Matrix Organization

Milestone

The FROM activity must FINISH before the TO activity can START.

Finish-to-start / Finish-to-finish / Start-to-start / Start-to-finish

The FROM activity must START before the TO activity can FINISH.

The FROM activity must FINISH before the TO activity can FINISH.

Cannot be in CPM or PERT. Can be in GERT

The FROM activity must START before the TO activity can FINSH.

Summary-level schedule that identifies key milestones.

Cost and schedule buffers planned by management for unseen events that would impact the project.

Significant event.

Project and Functional managers share responsibilities.

Mitigation

Modern Project Management

Monitoring

Monte Carlo Analysis

Near-Critical Activity

Network Analysis

Network Logic

Network Path

Node

Organizational Breakdown Structure

Broad / Not focused on cost and time / Focused on: scope, cost, time quality, risk, etc.

Steps to lessen risk by lowering probability.

Simulation of Risk that occurs throughout the project.

Tracking and reporting project performance and status.

The process of identifying early and late finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities.

An activity that has low total float.

Connected activities in the project network diagram.

A collection of dependencies that make up the project network diagram.

A depiction of the project into work breakdown "packages".

A junction point in a project network diagram.

Organizational Planning

Overall Change Control

Parametric Estimating

Pareto Diagram

Path

Path Convergence

Percent Complete

Performance Reporting

Performing Organization

Precedence Diagramming Method

Coordinating changes across the entire project.

Identifying, documenting and assigning project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships.

Histogram ordered by frequency of occurrence that shows multiple results relating to one cause.

Estimates based on statistics and history.

Parallel paths that lead to one milestone, but may singularly delay a project.

Sequential activities.

Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help ensure project progress.

Percent of work already performed.

Activities are represented by boxes and linked sequentially. A diagramming method.

The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.

Precedence Relationship

Predecessor Activity

Procurement Planning

Program

Program Evaluation and Review Technique

Project

Project Charter

Project Communications Management

Project Cost Management

Project Human Resource Management

1 - Arrow Diagramming Method - Activity which enters a NODE. / 2 Precedence Diagramming Method - Activity which goes "away from" the NODE.

Refers to the diagramming methods.

A group of related projects. Usually on-going.

Determining what to procure and when.

A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.

Event-oriented. Used to estimate project duration. Used for projects with uncertainly in duration.

Subset project for collecting and dispersing project info.

Sr. Management's written authority given to the PM for organization resources.

Subset project for effectively using personnel in the project.

Subset project for ensuring a project is completed within budget.

Project Integration Management

Project Life Cycle

Project Management

Project Management Body of Knowledge

Project Management Software

Project Management Professional

Project Management Team

Project Manager

Project Network Diagram

Project Phase

A collection of sequential project phases.

Subset project for integrating subset projects into the whole.

Book of proven project management practices.

The knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to meet and exceed a stakeholders expectations with a project.

Certified PM from PMI

Computer application designed to plan and control a project.

Individual responsible for managing the project.

Members of the project team.

A subset collection of project activities.

PERT or GANTT Schematic display of project activities.

Project Plan

Project Plan - Elements

Is a Project Plan Summary or Detailed?

Project Plan Development

Project Plan Execution

Project Planning

Project Procurement Management

Project Quality Management

Project Risk Management

Project Schedule

Plan / Cost Assumptions / Schedule / Decisions / Scope

Formal document used to guide the project.

Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a new document.

Can be both

Development and maintenance of the project plan.

Carrying out the project plan details.

Subset of the project used to ensure the project is up to requirements at delivery.

Acquiring goods and services outside of the project team for use in the project.

Outlines dates for each activity in sequential order.

Subset of the project for identifying and mitigating risks.

Project Scope Management

Project Team Members

Project Time Management

Projectized Organization

Quality Assurance

Quality Control

Quality Planning

Remaining Duration

Request for Proposal

Request for Quotation

They work for the Project Manager

Subset of the project used to ensure only the pre-defined work required is done and no more.

Where PM has 100% over project team. No shared authority.

Subset of the project that monitors and ensures a team meeting all milestone dates.

Process of evaluating specific project steps to verify they meet with the project quality standards.

Evaluating process to ensure the project will satisfy its quality standards.

Time needed to complete an activity.

Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project.

Bid document from a company to a vendor for pricing information.

Bid document from company to vendor.

Reserve

Resource Leveling

Resource-Limited Schedule

Resource Planning

Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Retainage

Risk Event

Risk Identification

Risk Quantification

Risk Response Control

Where scheduling concerns are addressed by resource management concerns.

Provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risks.

Resource identification process.

Project where start and end date are based on resource availability.

Down payment on a contracted product or service.

Relates project organization structure to work breakdown structure.

Identifying which risks will affect the project.

An occurrence that affects the projects outcome.

Responding to changes in risk over the course of the project.

Identifying probability of the risk.

Risk Response Development

S-Curve

Schedule Control

Schedule Development

Schedule Performance Index

Schedule Variance

Scheduled Finished Date

Scheduled Start Date

Scope

Scope Change

Graph showing cumulative cost and labor over time.

Risk mitigation plan

Analyzing activity sequences, durations and resource requirements to create a project schedule.

Controlling changes to the project schedule

Difference between scheduled and actual timeframes.

Work performed / Work Schedule (BCWP / BCWS)

Planned activity start date

Planned activity end date

Any change to the scope.

The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project.

Scope Change Control

Scope Definition

Scope Planning

Scope Verification

Should-Cost Estimate

Slack

Solicitation

Solicitation Planning

Source Selection

Staff Acquisition

Decomposing the major deliverables into small parts.

Controlling changes in the scope.

Auditing each scope element at the end of a project for completion.

Written scope statements.

Used in PERT for FLOAT

Used to judge the reasonableness of a vendors quote.

Document stating requirements and potential sources to meet those requirements.

Obtaining quotes, bids and offers.

Getting human resources to work on the project.

Choosing a vendor or product.

Stakeholder

Start Date

Statement of Work

Subnet

Successor Activity

Target Completion Date

Team Development

Time-Scaled Network Diagram

Target Finish Date

Target Start Date

Qualified starting date

People directly or indirectly involved in the project.

Subproject

A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract.

A constraining date in the project diagram.

Activity while "leaves" the node.

Diagram where the physical shape of each activity object is proportional to the duration of that activity.

Developing team members to enhance the project.

The date the work for the activity is planned to be started by.

The date the work for the activity is planned to be completed by.

How is contract closeout similar to administrative closeout?

How is performance reporting used as a tool for contract administration?

When are payment requests an output of contract administration?

Describe the characteristics of a unilateral contract?

What is a unilateral contract?

Under what two conditions must PMI members refrain from offering or accepting monetary payments or other forms of compensation or tangible benefits?

What is the most critical culture for the success of a project manager working internationally? When is a PMP responsible for reporting to PMI possible violations of the PMP Code of Professional Conduct?

Who can initiate an ethics complaint?

What are the two conditions under which PMI member's do not have to honor and maintain the privacy and confidentiality of client information?

it provides management with information about how effectively the seller is achieving the contractual objectives. It usually takes the form of a purchase order -- a standard form listing routine items at standard prices.
When payments do not conform with applicable laws and when they may provide an unfair advantage for themselves or their business.

Both contract closeout and administrative closure involve product verification. However, the contract terms and conditions may prescribe specific procedures for contract closeout.

When the project is using an external payment system.

A contract that has only one signature (the issuer).

Any person, group, or organization, including PMI.

Leadership

1) if granted permission by the customer, client, or employer, and 2) If maintaining the confidentiality is otherwise unethical or unlawful.

When reasonable and clear facts exist to verify the violation.

What is the best way to demonstrate a professional and cooperative manner with team members or other stakeholders?

What is the purpose of the procurement management plan?

What are two outputs from contract closeout?

What is a procurement audit? How is it used?

During which process are the impact and likelihood of identified risks assessed so that they may be prioritized according to their potential effect on project objectives?

How is expected monetary value computed?

What is a SWOT analysis and how is it used?

What action should the project manager take to ensure that each risk response plan is implemented and monitored?

What type of contract documentation should be reviewed in contract closeout?

What are five success factors for doing business internationally?

To describe how solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout will be managed.

By respecting cultural, ethnic and personal differences.

A comprehensive analysis and review of the process from procurement planning through contract administration. It is used to identify successes and failures, which can be applied as lessons learned to other projects.

The contract file, and formal acceptance and closure.

Expected monetary value is the product of two numbers: risk event probability (probability risk will occur) and risk event value (estimate if it does happen, the loss that will be incurred).

Qualitative risk analysis

Identify and assign an individual to own each risk who will take personal responsibility for protecting the project objectives from the risk's impact.

A strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats analysis. Used in risk identification, it tends to increase the number of project risks considered.
The contract itself and all associated schedules, requested and approved contract changes, seller developed technical documentation, seller performance reports, financial documents, and contract-related inspection reports

1) Cultural understanding, 2) Cross-cultural journeys, 3) Good communication, 4) Negotiation, and 5) Global management

What is the difference between attribute sampling and variable sampling?

In which project phase is quality control performed?

What is the difference between a tolerance and a control limit?

What are the three (3) key outputs from administrative closure?

Name five barriers to effective project communications.

Name three communications channels in an organization?

Why is communications planning so tightly linked to project organizational planning?

What is active listening?

What is earned value analysis and how is it used in performance reporting?

List the four parts of the communication model.

Quality control is performed throughout all phases of the project life cycle.

Attribute sampling determines whether the result does or does not conform to the specifications. In variable sampling, the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformance within a pre-established acceptable range.

1) Project archives, 2) Project closure, 3) Lessons learned.

A tolerance establishes the range of acceptable results. A control limit is computed based on the results themselves.
1) Lack of clear communication channels. 2) Physical distance between communicator and receiver, 3) Difficulties with technical language, 4) Distracting environmental factors, 5) Detrimental attitudes.

Personal, Organization, Grapevine

Listening in which the recipient is attentive and asks for clarification of ambiguous messages.

Because the project's organizational structure will have a major effect on project communications.
An analysis that integrates cost and schedule measures. It is used t help the project management team assess project performance.

Communicator, Message, Medium, Recipient

What is the difference between a risk and a problem?

When should EAC be calculated by AC + BAC EV?

When should EAC be calculated by AC + (BAC - EV) / CPI?

What does the benefit-cost ratio not tell you?

if a project is experiencing quality problems, should the project manager devote more resources to inspection of to prevention?

What are the seven (7) main quality control tools, often called the "basic seven" tools?

does the matrix form of project organization facilitate or complicate project team development? Why? How is simulation used in activity duration estimating and what is the most common type of simulation?

Project Human Resource Management comprises which three processes?

At which phase(s) in the project life cycle is significant risk thought to have the greatest impact?

When current variances are seen as atypical, and the project management team's expectation is that similar variances will not occur in the future.

A risk is a future event; it has not yet occurred. A problem, on the other hand, currently exists.

The absolute value of the benefit or cost.

When the current variances are seen as typical of future variances.

1) Flowcharts, 2) Diagrams, 3) Pareto Diagram, 4) Cause-and-Effect Diagram, 5) Graphs, 6) Control Charts, 7) Checklists

Prevention, because preventing a problem is far less costly, than fixing a problem. It complicates project team development. Because team members are accountable to both a functional manager and the project manager.
To calculate multiple durations with different sets of assumptions. Monte Carlo Analysis, in which a distribution of probable results is defined for each activity and used to calculate a distribution of probable results for the total project.

1) Organizational planning, 2) Staff acquisition, 3) Team development

Project execution and closeout.

Project Plan Execution - Inputs

Project Plan Development - Tools

Project Plan Execution - Tools

Integrated Change Control - Inputs

Integrated Change Control - Tools

Initiation - Inputs

Initiation - Tools

Scope Planning - Tools

Scope Planning Inputs

Scope Definition Tools

Project planning methodology, stakeholder skills & knowledge, project management information system (PMIS), earned value management (EVM)

Project plan, supporting details, organizational policies, preventive action, corrective action
General management skills, product skills & knowledge, work authorization system, project management information system (PMIS), and organization procedures Change control system, configuration management, performance measurements, additional planning, and project management information system (PMIS)

Project plan, performance reports, change requests

Product description, strategic plan, project selection criteria, and historical information Product analysis, benefit/cost analysis. alternative identification and expert judgement

Project selection methods, expert judgement

WBS templates and decomposition

Product description, project charter, constraints, and assumptions

Scope Definition Inputs

Scope Verification Tools

Scope Verification Input

Scope Change Control - Tools

Scope Change Control - Inputs

Activity Definition Tools

Activity Definition Inputs

Activity Sequencing Inputs

Activity Sequencing Tools

Project Plan Development - Input

Inspection

Scope statement, constraints, assumptions, other planning outputs, and historical information Work results, product documentation, WBS, scope statement and project plan

Scope change control system, performance measurement, and additional planning

Decomposition and templates

WBS, performance reports, change requests, and scope management plan WBS, scope statement, historical information, constraints, assumptions, and expert judgement
Precedence Diagram Method (PDM), Arrow Diagram Method (ADM), conditional diagram techniques and network templates

Activity list, product description, mandatory dependencies, discretionary dependencies, external dependencies and milestones

Other planning outputs, historical information, organizational policies, constraints, assumptions

Schedule Development - Inputs

Cost Control - Input

Activity Duration Estimating - Inputs

Schedule Development - Tools

Schedule Control Tools

Schedule Control Inputs

Resource Planning Tools

Resource Planning Inputs

Cost Estimating Tools

Cost Estimating Inputs

Cost baseline, performance reports, change requests, and cost management plan
Mathematical analysis, duration compression, simulation, resource leveling heuristics, project management software, and coding structure

Project network diagrams, activity duration estimates, resource requirements, resource pool descriptions, calendars, constraints, assumptions, leads and lags, risk management plan, and activity attributes

Activity list, constraints, assumptions, resource requirements, resource capabilities, historical information and identified risks
Schedule change control software, performance measurements, additional planning, project management software, and variance analysis

Project schedule, performance reports, change requests, and schedule management plan
WBS, historical information, scope statement, resource pool description, organizational policies, and activity duration estimates
WBS, resource requirements, resource rates, activity duration estimates, estimating publications, historical information, chart of accounts, and risks

Expert judgment, alternatives identification, and project management software
Analogous estimating, parametric modeling, bottom-up estimating, computerized tools, and other cost estimating methods

Cost Budgeting - Tools

Cost Budgeting - Tools

Cost Control - Tools

Activity Duration Estimating - Inputs

Quality Planning Tools

Quality Assurance Tools

Quality Assurance Inputs

Quality Control - Tools

Quality Control Inputs

Quality Planning Input

Cost estimating tools & techniques

Cost estimates, WBS, project schedule, and risk management plan

Expert judgment, analogous estimating, quantitative based durations, and reserve time (contingency)

Cost change control system, performance measurements, earned value management, additional planning, and computerized tools

Quality planning tools and techniques, and quality audits

Benefit/cost analysis, benchmarking, flow charting, design of experiments, cost of quality Quality management plan, quality control measurements, and operational definitions

Inspection, control charts, Pareto diagrams, statistical sampling, flow charting, and trend analysis

Quality policy, scope statement, product description, standards and regulations, and other process inputs

Work results, quality management plan, operational definitions, and checklists

Organization Planning - Inputs

Staff Acquisition Tools

Staff Acquisition Inputs

Team Development Tools

Team Development Inputs

Communication Planning - Tools

Communications Planning - Inputs

Information Distribution - Tools

Information Distribution - Inputs

Performance Reporting - Tools

Negotiations, pre-assignment, and procurement

Project interfaces, staffing requirements, and constraints

Team building activities, general management skills, reward and recognition systems, collocation, and training

Staffing management plan, staffing pool descriptions, and recruitment practices Project staff, project plan, staffing management plan, performance reports, and external feedback
Communications requirements, communications technology, constraints, and assumptions

Stakeholder analysis

Communication skills, information retrieval systems, and information distribution systems
Performance reviews, variance analysis, trend analysis, earned value analysis, and information distribution tools

Work results, communications management plan, and project plan

Administrative Closure - Inputs

Administrative Closure - Tools

Performance Reporting - Inputs

Risk Management Planning - Inputs

Risk Management Planning - Tools

Risk Identification Tools

Risk Identification Inputs

Qualitative Risk Analysis - Tools

Qualitative Risk Analysis - Input

Organizational Planning - Tools

Performance reporting tools, project reports, and project presentations
Project charter, organizational risk management policies, defined roles and responsibilities, stakeholder risk tolerance, organization's risk management templates, and the WBS

Performance measurement documents, product documentation, and other project records

Project plan, work results, and other project records

Documentation review, information gathering techniques, checklists, assumptions analysis, and diagramming techniques
Risk probability and impact, probability/impact risk rating matrix, project assumptions testing, and data precision ranking

Planning Meetings

Risk management plan, project planning outputs, risk categories, and historical information
Risk management plan, identified risks, project status, project type, data precision, scales of probability and impact, and assumptions

Templates, human resource practices, organizational theory, and stakeholder analysis

Risk Monitoring & Control Tools

Quantitative Risk Analysis - Inputs

Procurement Planning - Tools

Risk Monitoring and Control - Inputs

Solicitation - Tools

Solicitation Planning Inputs

Solicitation Planning Tools

Procurement Planning - Inputs

Solicitation - Inputs

Source Selection Inputs

Risk management plan, identified risks, list of prioritized risks, list of risks for additional analysis, historical information, expert judgment, and other planning outputs

Project risk response audits, periodic project risk reviews, earned value analysis, technical performance measurements, and additional risk response planning

Risk management plan, risk response plan, project communication, additional risk identification and analysis, and scope changes

Make of buy analysis, expert judgment, and contract type selection

Procurement management plan, statement of work, and other planning outputs

Bidders conferences, and advertising

Procurement Planning - Inputs

Standard forms and expert judgment

Proposals, evaluation criteria, and organizational policies

Procurement documents, and qualified seller lists

Source Selection Tools

Quality Control Outputs

Contract Close-out Inputs

Contract Close-out Tools

Contract Administration - Inputs

Contract Administration - Tools

Project Plan Execution - Outputs

Organizational Planning - Outputs

Project Plan Development - Outputs

Quantitative Risk Analysis - Tools

Quality improvement, acceptance decisions, rework, completed checklists, and process adjustments

Contract negotiation, weighting system, screening system, and independent estimates

Procurement Audits

Contract Documentation

Contract change control systems, performance reporting, and payment systems Role and responsibility assignments, staffing management plan, oganization charts, and supporting details Interviewing, sensitivity analysis, decision tree analysis, and simulation

Contract, work results, change requests, and seller invoices

Work results, and change requests

Project plan, and supporting details

Schedule Development - Outputs

Quantitative Risk Analysis - Outputs

Activity Duration Estimating - Outputs

Qualitative Risk Analysis - Outputs

Activity Sequencing Outputs

Risk Identification Outputs

Activity Definition Outputs

Risk Management Planning - Output

Scope Change Control - Outputs

Administrative Closure - Outputs

Prioritized list of quantified risks, probabilistic analysis of the project, probability of achieving the cost and time objectives, and trends in quantitative risk analysis results

Project schedule, supporting detail, schedule management plan, an resource requirement updates Activity duration estimates, basis of estimates, and activity list updates

Overall risk ranking for the project, list of prioritized risk, list of risks for additional analysis and management, trends in qualitative risk analysis results

Risks, triggers, and inputs to other processes

Project network diagrams, and activity list updates

Risk Management Plan

Activity list, supporting details, and work breakdown structure updates

Project archives, project closure, lessons learned

Scope changes, corrective action, lessons learned, and adjusted baselines

Scope Verification Outputs

Performance Reporting - Outputs

Scope Definition Outputs

Information Distribution - Outputs

Scope Planning Output

Communication Planning - Output

Initiation - Outputs

Team Development Output

Integrated Change Control - Output

Staff Acquisition Outputs

Performance reports, and change requests

Formal Acceptance

Project records, project reports, and project presentations

Work breakdown structure, and scope statement updates

Communications management plan

Scope statement, supporting details, scope management plan

Performance improvements, and inputs to performance appraisals

Project charter, project manager identified and assigned, constraints, and assumptions

Project staff assigned, and project team directory

Project plan updates, corrective action, and lessons learned

Resource Planning Output

Risk Monitoring and Control - Outputs

Schedule Control Outputs

Risk Response Planning - Outputs

Schedule Development - Outputs

Risk Response Planning - Outputs

Risk Response Planning - Inputs

Risk Response Planning - Tools

Contract Close-out Outputs

Contract Administration Output

Workaround plans, corrective action, project change requests, updates to risk response plan, risk database, and updates to risk identification checklists
Risk response plan, residual risks, secondary risks, contractual agreements, contingency reserve amount needed, inputs to other processes, and inputs to a revised project plan Risk response plan, residual risks, secondary risks, contractual agreements, contingency reserve amounts needed, Inputs to other processes, and inputs to a revised project plan

Resource requirements

Schedule updates, corrective action, and lessons learned

Project schedule, supporting detail, schedule management plan, and resource requirements updates
Risk management plan, list of prioritized risks, risk ranking of the project, prioritized list of quantified risks, probabilistic analysis of the project, list of potential responses, risk thresholds, risk owners, common risk causes, trends in quality and quantitative analysis results

Avoidance, transference, mitigation, and acceptance

Correspondence, contract changes, and payment requests

Contract file, and formal acceptance and closure

Quality Planning Output

Source Selection Output

Cost Control - Outputs

Solicitation - Output

Cost Budgeting Outputs

Solicitation Planning Outputs

Cost Estimating Outputs

Procurement Planning - Outputs

Quantitative Risk Analysis - Outputs

Contract

Quality management plan, operational definitions, checklists, and inputs to other processes
Revised cost estimates, budget updates, corrective action, estimate at completion, project closeout, and lessons learned

Proposals

Procurement documents, evaluation criteria, and statement of work updates

Cost baseline

Procurement management plan, and statements of work

Cost estimates, supporting detail, and cost management plan

Prioritized list of quantified risks, Probabilistic analysis of the project, Probability of achieving the cost & time objectives, trends in quantitative risk

Total Float

Total Quality Management

Workaround

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Item

Work Breakdown Structure

Quality improvement program.

Float

Deliverable oriented approach. / Project elements are rolled up into larger project deliverables.

An alternative risk mitigation plan. Leaves Risk in place.

Lowest level deliverable. / May be divided into activities.

Activity

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