The San Francisco


_ Cali

LIEUTENANT THO3IAS E. SELFRIDGE. U. S. A., killed at Fort 31ycr, September 17, 1908, while flying with OrTilleiVright; aeroplane turned over while swooping in great circle.

'Mons. Herbert
hy Gpooner

ft WMla*N» V.. -.

Le Blon.

E. FEPERTRE.. Jurisy on September 7, 1909. in a Wright machine, which turned turtle at a great height.. "-V 'p. EKEA KOSSI. killed in Rome on September 17, 1901). vrhen a machine of his own invention


CAPTAIN LOUS F. FERBER, killed at Boulogne 0 on Sepfo*niJ»er 22, li!9, when an aeroplane he was tesiins: turned a somersault as a wing touched the ground in making a turn. ASTONJO FEKNAXDEZ. killed at Nice on December 8, 1909, when be fell 1,000 feet after the motnr of his aeroplane exploded.

"The aviator must be careful in' three •directions. He Judge flying conditions with care, he must in-: spect his aeroplane with care,: he must -operate it with care. 1 would not bar 'stunts.' I Would not bar efforts to accomplish whatothers have not attempted or, hav" ing attempted, have failed. '.nL is something- moreN than' foolhardy to trj' a flight "It when the air is fairly boiling with cross currents. \u25a0';: It, is the height of ascend without knowing that every wire is in place, every bolt firm, the engine working smoothly, the' propeller true and strong and the controls obedient to every demand that may- bo made upon them. "Many accidents are due to errors in operation. . The, with, wnich he, is unfamiliar novice meets-conditions nnd becomes a plaything for* the currents. It.ho fails to know his machine even better than he knows himself it is apt to pro ve""as tricky as a frisky colt. "Take the case of Captain Rolls'^ (whose lamentable


death recently occurred in England. Many details are* lacking, yet it is evident that in descending "he turned downward at' too sharp an" angle to admit; of his returning to level or upward flight when his plane :

Captain Louis F. Fcrber.

LEO\ DELAGKAKGE was killed at Bordeaux on

January 4, 1810, when a "wing of his Blerlot mono}i3ane broke while the aviator was turning at lifzh «>;necd against the wind.

HL'BEKT LEBLOX vas killed at San Sebastian. Spain, on April 2, 1910, by falling into the harbor when, from an unkown cause, his machine turned turtle.

CffACYETTE "IICIIELIX was killed at

France, on jfay 13. 1910, when he lost control of his machine and came in collision with a derrick on the a via(lon grounds. /



2IOXS. LOGILY iras killed at Budapest on June 2, 1910. by a fall with his machine from a great

reached the currents close to the earth's surface. "In the case of Mme. de la Roche, who met with a terrifying accident Jn France, but fortunately escaped with her life, is to be found a very broad warning for all, especially those encaged in contests. When two or more aviators are in the air at the same time, over- the' same field, they can not use too much care in avoiding the paths of each other. Mme. de la Roche was making^ a highly successful flight when another aeroplane dashed across the 'field, passing over the one in which she was. making a flight. The currents set in motion by this other machine caused hers to swerve and apparently she lost control, not only of her machine but of herself. Had she been permitted to have ample air room the accident never would have happened. - "I have just received a letter from Mons. Paulhan
congratulating me on my two hours' flight and advising me to bo very careful above all things about my propeller, as most of the accidents that occurred In Europe this year were due to faulty propellers. Considering the terrifio number of revolutions a minute the propellers must make in order to give the machine the required momentum, too much care can nofbe taken to see that the propeller is made by a competent and

"EUGENE SPETC2K, a boy, was killed In San Francisco on June 17, 1910, when a glider he had attached to an automobile capsized and fell with him from an elevation of 35 feet.

HEBB BOBL iras killed at Stettin, Germany, on Jane 18, 1910. ivhen his aeroplane capsized and dropped 250 ieet.
CHARLES WACHTER was killed at Kheims, France, on July 8, 1910, inan Antoinette monoplane he was testing as an amateur, the machine dropping from a great height.

DA3TEL KDTET was killed at Ghent on July 19, 1910, when the rudder of his aeroplane broke and the machine, turning over and orer, fell from a great height.

CHABLES S. BOLLS, famons English aviator, was killed at Bonrnemonth on July 12, 1910, \u25a0irhen his Wright biplane buckled and he was
unable to control his machine in midair.
a a

careful manufacturer. "Every wire should be gone over carefully before the aeroplane !s taken, from the hanger. After alighting they should be gone over again, as the breaking of one. wire would put an extra strain on its neighbor and If it escapes getting tangled in the propeller it may still throw one of the planes or controls out of balance, which would leave .the- aviator In a very uncomfortable, , if not dangerous, position. "But there are bound to be accidents in aviation, no matter how much care Is used. There are accidents due to construction which can be prevented only by patient, long and constant study. New principles may be adopted. A different material may be used in some \

Rfcoto'by Pictorial Ne*vr Co.. N. It
otherwise, anything that points to an error in what are. now the generally accepted principles of aviation. think, rather, they go to prove these principles corI rect. A thorough understanding of these principles, a strict Inspection of the aeroplane in all its parts, ignoring not even a bolt, knowledge, experience and care In operation and regard for conditions will reduce aviation accidents to their minimum." MR. HAMILTON'S VIEWS Charles K. Hamilton, whose darinsr flights have startled the country. do«s not attach ?»o much Importance to what are called "Hying conditions" as do som«

Mons. B. JLete&vre.


••I \ I



"wlll not halt us nor disaster check our flights. Aviation Is not a fad of th« fla-3'- It la a human achievement that ranks with the steamship, the locomotive and the automobile. It la develop-


civilization." So says the aviator, who, while sorrowlne for his fellows who have met disaster and death In their flights, is keenly alive to the invaluable lessons taugrht by each tragredy of the air. The death list of aviation Is a long, grim one, and Is growing. From Selfrldge to Rolls, all the daring men who have died In the conquest of flight have bequeathed to those who follow some priceless lesson." "When a Lefebvre is killed by a machine turning turtle the men who fly learn to guard against this in their flights, and when a Fernandez loses his life through the explosion of a motor his fellows at once take pains Ftill further to improve their motors. When the dispatches tell of _a death because of a broken rudder, a faulty control or a snapping wire, each story drives home its lesson, and to the parts mentioned more and more of perfection is added. For this alone, say the daring masters of flight, spells safety and success. THE FAULTY PROPELLER Faulty propellers are the prime' causes of accident, the aviators cay. Nearly all the accidents in Europe in the last year, It is believed, were primarily caused by come break in this vastly Important part of the machine. OT course, when an aeroplane suddenly collapses end crashes to earth, killing Its sole occupant and
crushing Its machinery to fragments, there Is no actual means of knowing exactly what happened at first, but other aviators declare that in nearly all Instances the propeller is to blame. So, with the long list of the dead before him, the

ment, progress,

other aviators. "In a ijood machine an experienced operator can make a successful fllgrht at any time, no matter what the conditions are." he said. "Of course. Iwouldn't attempt a flight'in a hurricane, but it is like jailing in the ocean. Mariners don't balk at every little breeza
"When you can send your airship choppy sea. through the air at the rate of 50 or 60 miles an hour, why fear a 30 or 40 mile breeze? "Isee few lessons

The AccTdent to Captain Rolls* Aeroplane on July

Mons. Leon Dclagranffc.


"Accidents which are purely and simply accidents will also happen. They happen today to the steamship, the locomotive, the automobile and the electric car. ' aviator asks if these shall hare died In vain. What Accidents always. will happen. ; Their possibility, even probability, simply must be Ignored in every field lessons have the martyrs taught? Will their deaths their effort, and particularly so In aviation. -Were accicheck the progress of the cause In which they perished? of dents of the past or the probability of accidents in the Will the accumulated disasters of aviation daunt the future to be permitted to handicap aviation there'would ; dating or weaken tbo hearts of the men who have set be co aviation." : supporting.' parts.;. about to conquer the secret of flight, no matter at what VIEW OF CAPTAIX BALDWIN Captain Thomas S. Baldwin, one of the most careful .."Last.- and greatest of .all, be careful, be careful, bo cost? yet as daring as the veriest of . veteran aviators Prom wvery aerodrome and field of flying, from every novice, declares thatand ;mr;curtiss' advice .V neither accident nor death can ' aviator who has felt the thrill that can come only to appall him. J ['\u25a0 It.was :to" be •expected that Glenn 11. Curtiss would him who soars from earth to sky, comes a brave and "There -is something deeper and greater In aviation ."emphasize carefulness as theJlesson taught by, aviation than amusement or sport," he said. ."It is a great sciunfaltering "No.** accidents. gfNcfted (jgP. Jll s caution, which, however, it I Mo_ns. Antonio and one that will grow greater every day. It ;inust"-be>borne in -mind, hasi not 'prevented him from "We all face death In our aviation experiments, for ence In the field of experimentation. ItIs hardly yet-is still a be.coming»one of the most successful and most famous we are etlll experimenters," said Clifford B. Harmon. sport. It is destined to become of great commercial aviators in the "world, he was? quick, to point- out that believe there is no limit to Its possibilities. •"Death can stop only the Individual. It can not stop value. I ItVwas 1the lack of -care- which, was cause in I believe the day is coming when men will fly.from city The.lesson aviation. He Is a \u25a0worthless experimenter who takes .to -city 'as they now make those journeys by rail. here Ja that, the' novice 'must go slowly..-.He. .ni'ostjOf- the disasters.. .;. :' . "Details of -the accidents abroad, where most of them no risks. Without courage convictions are of no a. vail; lie "The; altitude of 'flight.Is not , an important matter must v not soar ;to -height's •! where i "I will meet 'condi-. jTayehappene^^he Sa}cl,\"are meager", you can- see tlonswlth whichihe ' There can be no forward etep without casting aside after we have reached such a height as jto make flying ..long flights- until, is unfamiliar. '"He must not attempt \u25a0in!'each of vthern a trace of carelessness. but- aviator can An he "„\u25a0 knows What. -'.they.Srequire of his \u25a0not _be>too the earth- engine fear. Ifwe feared to fall we never would walk. Ifwe sa.ti and free from the ordinary obstacles careful- if he values .his • life and limbs. In propellers. ..He must be ''"willing, to : profit*by. and may offer. ' .Blow; experience:; > feared to fly aviation would be numbered with th« lost :, . . ,•'• /, ;"the'; first -;place.*he must allow" for accidents, that -no . l\{< "Rapidity of flight, distance of; flight, and safety are Iamount :off care can^prevent. . There are enough 'of that arts. the great problems. : With the solution of those prob- MONS. DELAGRAAGE'S DEATH; j \varlety,.to satisfy, anybody. , Then ,he -must watch his lems will also, come the carrying capacity of the,aeroSTILL FAR FHOM THE GOAL ."One of •'" the saddest. 1 tragedies'- of-aviation was?' the * machine 'like.; a mother watches .her. baby. ' He should plane'for either passengers orfreight.. As to. the. value death'of Mons/ LeonvDclagranKe:VHe\was' at the; head v "Aviation has advanced with astonishing strides, yet of the. aeroplane in war, certainly if the ;»ororlano is never.: take 'a flight without knowing personally, thaCall .of Europe's practical aviators: -He :was a.of wealth, ft Is far from its goal. It must reach that goal and it developed to ; commercially .practical point -It must an:artist and of unusually-high ,standingman everyiway. "is well. Wheii.ln the air he must be able to sense anya ,thing; going, wrong."-. 'in? -^ '. willhave to be through daring almost foolhardy dar- become a practical engine, of war. v / |He was one of thelpibneers of aviation and had^been :• .."Operating an aeroplane calls for "Ido not feel that the accidents, fatal and otherwise, . remarkably successful \u25a0?>-. He was ;a^record ', \maker in No: flight.' should be' attempted unless the utmost caution. ing. Excess of caution spells defeat. the which. aro being charged;, up" to* aviation are showing altitude flights,; long \u0084<. distance ;;flights- and v sustained vite. ;ido not;go in,forVstunts.*'so"called. conditions in"-' " The 7 risk is "ButI would not eliminate carefulness. ' Carelessness ..anygreat danger in man attempting. to,fly.*, %-V flights. He -had met with several minor accidents, and too great .and they add nothing^to, the science oorr r art and daring are not synonymous. Study the disasters of ."Senor Antonio Fernandez was | killed by/a fall in it-would have ;seemed that ihis Y skill/- knowledge "and of,- aviation. .'Understand, I not say the aviation and you will find the trail of carelessness over Spain last-year. He had shown {himself able v and dar- experience would havepreventedia fatal accident in his] kshould.take noriski He must do that or abandonaviator do avla; But last -January,. while' making a nearly all of them, faintly marked in some, the dis- ing, but he had had liftlot experienced He was what .case. in a : But: There 'take 'no unnecessary, risk. might be called a daring novice, yet, he attempted a monoplane,: his machine collapsed 'and' he Vaa hurled .tion. wide he ;' is*;a: \u25a0difference. tinctive mark In others. flight equal to that attempted bytha'vataran.- aviator.;:;to his; death. \u25a0;./\u25a0 >'\u25a.>:'.'•- : .-..•. •\u25a0••' : \u25a0.- -;\u25a0\u25a0"; "I am unable to;see in any of the accidents, fatal or \u25a0\u25a0:\u25a0 \u25a0•.\u25a0?\u25a0--•• r •\u25a0'":".. \u25a0\u25a00 \'yp : -\u25a0-. : -. \u25a0\u25a0 \u25a0\u0084. , \u25a0>

Study by mere care. bring the remedy there.'


Defects in construction are not to be done away: afid experiment alone can

for aviation in the accidents that caused so much comment. They do not show- that any of the principles of aviation are wrongr. Pfloto by Pictorial News Co., R Y. They do not point "to any defect in construction or weakness in the engine. They do point to a lack of skill here and there and to rank carelessness now and then. Ido not see that the disasters have been of much to aviation, ..-"l:have, never learned the details of the accident, but benefit to individual although they may provetoof soms aviators. The thins is underI impressed with the idea that there was either. a value am machine, to know what you can do with it. lack' of,care -in-the Inspection of ;his aeroplane or. some stand the to be confident and courageous. No faint heart can carelessness in its. operation. is. often the case' that the, veterans of. aviation, the most experienced, display win aviation success." . Slgnor Albert C. Triaca of the International School a carelessness of which "a novice would not be guilty. with the idea that the "Captain Rolls lost his life in attempting to make a of Aeronautics Is impressed of • the builders, that tha ,do not know that operators .have gone ahead descent at •' tpo great an -angle/. I has not kept pace with the art. absolutely, but all I have learned about the case goes to science "It* for the engineers of aviation," he salt?, "to give is .substantiate, that/ theory. : Now, if you are gliding at more powerful enangle of from 20 to 30 degrees you can light in the us stronger and better machines, an : utmost safety or" you can. rise again without trouble. gines, stancher supporting posts. Operators are ready When you attempt to descend at from 35 to 50 degrees to accomplish anything with a machine of which it ia youare running a grave risk. It isj the: danger line. capable or of which it can be made capable. think a grea.t lesson of the \u25a0It puts "you at the> mercy of a strong surface current V "On the other hand. I accidents is that, the chief danger lies in 'stunts.' The or of "vans', gust. When you go over BO degrees I The aviators you against accident for less than 100 disasters, as a rule, happen at the meets. wouldn't Insure. '"- .' are excited by the crowds and the applause and lose \u0 84= per 'cent -premium.' They attempt' feats that they would not V "On 'the whole, .these disasters have Impressed me their balance. They strive for a speed that r have think of at other times. ;". with\u25a0„\u25a0 the •-.importance: of •• these rules, which, ;if I the construction of the aeroplane will not stand not^pasted 'them, in my hat, I have tacked to my mem- either beyond" ' or is y the capacity of the engine. Result, a :ory::~ c \u25a0;'\u25a0\u25a0",. '\u0084\u25a0„"\u25a0\u25a0":> : .'. :_ :' _'\u25a0[£-** : .."Nq detail of construction or operation or condition broken part or the collapse of the whole machine. They put too great a strain upon the aeroplane. Something? ; toosmall beVworth attention. is "Keepjall.supportingfparts away from the propellers. must. give way. The science is right, the art Is right. ; VMost- accidents happen close to the earth. The Itis the individual who is at fault." higher you' flyjthe' safer. -. '"Novices must-go slow. "The^gasolinejmotor is jnot 'yet sufficiently perfected . . toinsuretsafety at all times. ' - - • . study; how, best to increase the strength of ,




































Uiagranv Showing Angle at Which anplane May Descend with Safety


WAlbcrt^ C.'Triaca.

Captain Thomas S;; Baldwin;

Clifford ; Harmon. Ew'

Glenn H/; Curtiss£v

Charlcs;K. 'Hamilton; :


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