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Before reading: discuss the following questions in groups. Do you know the answers? Where have you learned this information?
What percentage of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean? How is a person who studies seas and oceans called? What is the deepest point in the ocean and where is it located? How did salt get into the ocean? What are the 5 oceans called in English? Is the Artic Ocean closest to the North Pole? Why is ocean water saltier in warm places? How can ocean pollution be prevented?
Shykind, Edwin B., and Wehmiller, John F. "Ocean and Oceanography." Microsoft® Encarta® 2008
1) ____________________ Oceanography studies a great body of saline water comprising all the oceans and seas that cover nearly three-fourths of the surface of the earth, and the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the so-called world ocean. The major goals of oceanography are to understand the geologic and geochemical processes involved in the evolution and alteration of the ocean and its basin, to evaluate the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how the biological productivity in the sea is controlled. 2) ____________________ The world ocean covers 71 percent of the earth’s surface, or about 361 million sq km. Its average depth is 5,000 m, and its total volume is about 1,347,000,000 cu km. The three major subdivisions of the world ocean are the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean, which are conventionally bounded by the continental masses. The two minor subdivisions of the world ocean are the Southern Ocean, bounded by the Antarctic Current to the north and Antarctica to the south, and the Arctic Ocean, closest to the North Pole, almost landlocked except between Greenland and Europe. In the central parts of the oceans are the midocean ridges, which are extensive mountain chains. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge extends from the Norwegian Sea through the volcanic islands of Iceland and the Azores to the South Atlantic. 3) ___________________ The structure and topography of the ocean floor are studied through the use of satellite mapping, which measures the level of the ocean surface to estimate the shape of the ocean floor; sonar, which measures the depth of the oceans; and seismic techniques, which measure the thickness of sediments of the ocean floor. Using sonar, depth measurements are made by measuring the time for a sound wave to travel from the surface of the ocean to the ocean floor, and to return. In the Western Pacific, south of Japan and north of New Guinea is the lowest elevation of the surface of the Earth’s crust. Known as the Mariana Trench, the trench has a maximum depth of 10,923 metres. 4) _____________________ Seawater is a dilute solution of several salts derived from weathering and erosion of continental rocks. The salinity of seawater is expressed in terms of total dissolved salts in parts per thousand parts of water. Salinity varies from nearly zero in continental waters to about 41 parts per 1,000 in the Red Sea, a region of high evaporation, and more than 150 parts per 1,000 in the Great Salt Lake. In the main ocean, salinity averages about 35 parts per 1,000, varying between 34 and 36. The temperature of surface ocean water ranges from 26°C in tropical waters to -1.4°C, the freezing point of seawater, in polar regions. Surface temperatures generally decrease with increasing latitude, with seasonal variations far less extreme than on land. In the upper 100 m of the sea, the water is almost as warm as at the surface. From 100 m to approximately 1,000 m, the temperature 1
5) ___________________ The currents of the ocean are kept in motion by prevailing winds and the rotation of the earth. such as clams. The pollution of the marine environment by petroleum. and because the water itself is now being used on a small scale through desalination. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. such as carbon dioxide and methane. is another form of ocean power that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power . Other pollution concerns are the effects of insecticides and pesticides on marine fish and birds. 2 . such as the west coast of Mexico and the coast of Peru and Chile. British scientists with the Royal Society reported in 2005 that the release of more than 25 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide into the air each year is turning the oceans gradually more acidic. The thermal energy of the oceans resulting from absorption of solar heat and from ocean currents can be converted into electricity—a process known as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). 7) ___________________ Because the sea is expected to yield still larger quantities of valuable resources in the future. This dramatic change in ocean chemistry worldwide is reducing the availability of the carbonates that a wide variety of marine animals. Tidal power. and krill. Most of these wells are in the shallow waters of the continental shelves.mainly electricity. increasing levels of lead in the surface waters. deeper water. Oceans also hold potential as an important alternate source of energy. any loss of population would negatively affect the world’s fisheries. and also on ocean currents due to the release of fresh water from melting polar ice caps and glaciers. the concern for preserving the integrity of the ocean has grown. The phenomenon known as global warming could have a negative effect on many forms of marine life that are sensitive to ocean temperature. Many geologic structures under the seafloor are reservoirs for petroleum and also contain some commercially exploitable deposits of sulfur. need to produce limestone skeletons. scientists drew attention to another source of pollution that could have devastating effects on the oceans and marine life. 8) ____________________ In the early 21st century. also called tidal energy. and the disposal of hot water from power plants into the sea with irreversible effects on marine life. Scientists are also increasingly concerned about warming ocean temperatures due to increased amounts of greenhouse gases. Since these animals are at the bottom of the food chain. In regions where the prevailing winds blow offshore. surface waters move away from the continents and they are replaced by colder. coral. chemical spillage and sewage disposal has raised world’s attention to the need for controlled use of resources and planned disposal of waste products. tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Although not yet widely used. This deep water is rich in nutrients. in the atmosphere. The contaminative effect of increasing technological development and industrialization has been known to destroy the fragile coastal ecology by the discharge of industrial and municipal waste into the sea.drops rapidly to about 5°C and below this it drops gradually about another 4° to barely above freezing. The growing acidification of the oceans may also be weakening their existing skeletons. such as coral and plankton. 6) ___________________ Offshore oil and gas wells at present supply about 17 percent of the world petroleum production. The best known of these currents is probably the Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic that serves to warm the climate of the eastern edge of the ocean. and these regions have high biological productivity and provide excellent fishing. but deep-sea drilling techniques are expected to discover petroleum on the outer continental margins.
BoobiesSquawkCastaway- Here you have some difficult vocabulary: AtollPropertyCorpseEel- http://education. II. Robinson Crusoe was shipwrecked for 28 years.nationalgeographic. 5) He spent all the time on the island on his own. 6) He had two tasks: shooting documentary footage and mapping the atoll for National Geographic Maps. 10) Lance was mapping the atoll only during low tide. Selkirk was a sailor who was stranded alone on a remote island for four years. 11) In the end he felt that the time he had spent on the island was too long. a posession of France located hundreds of miles west of Central America. 4) His friends thought the trip to be deadly dangerous.Tasks I. 12) Clipperton Island had been mapped for the last time in 1935. • Defoe was inspired to write Robinson Crusoe after hearing the story of Alexander Selkirk. The text consists of 8 paragraphs. the modern-day castaway. Then decide whether the statements below are true or false. 3 . off the coast of Chile. The island is now called Robinson Crusoe Island. that’s why Lance almost ran out of water. Watch a movie about modern-day Robinson Crusoe: in April of 2003 Lance Milbrand travelled to Clipperton Island. Answer the following questions: 1) What are the goals of oceanography? 2) How many subdivisions of the major ocean are there? Give their names in English and translate them into your language. 9) One of the most interesting animals he saw was the eel that can slither on land in order to catch his prey – crabs. 3) Lance Milbrand spent 31 day on the island. Think of the best subheading for each of them. 8) It rained only once. 3) How is the depth of the ocean measured? 4) Why is seawater saline? What does the salinity depend on? 5) What does the temperature of the ocean water depend on? 6) Why do the oceans have currents? 7) What is the most known current? Where it is and what effect does it have? 8) How can people use oceans for their needs? 9) What dangers have been caused to oceans? 10) How can the acidity of oceans affect the population of marine life? III. thus is not on all the maps.com/education/multimedia/robinson-crusoe/?ar_a=1&ar_r=999 1) Clipperton Island is a coral atoll 700 miles off the coast of Mexico. a coral atoll in the Eastern Pacific on a scientific expedition. Alexander Selkirk survived on the largest island in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. The fictional Robinson Crusoe was stranded near the Caribbean island of Trinidad. 2) Clipperton Island is only 4 sq miles. Here are some facts about real Robinson Crusoe: • The "real" Robinson Crusoe is the title character in the 1719 novel by Daniel Defoe. • Lance. • Lance survived on Clipperton Atoll. although he had brief interactions with many people. survived alone on the island for 41 days. 7) It turned out that he had not prepared enough for the trip.
The famous White Cliffs of Dover. Areas with a low tidal range have smaller waves that leave material closer to shore. The harder the material in the land. In places with a large tidal range (the area between high tide and low tide. This is a soft material and erodes easily. It was the most popular novel written in English until the 20th century. the more energy it has. a hard rock.• Robinson Crusoe was wildly successful. you've been on a coast. where land meets water. Tides. Because coasts are dynamic. Coasts help us understand natural events. Coastal changes can take hundreds of years. the harder it is to erode. it will move. The larger the wave. it exists in such great quantities that years of erosion have not made a visible impact on the coastline.nationalgeographic. It is part of the coast of France during low tide. coasts are the first places to be flooded. affect where sediment and other objects are deposited on the coast. Sandy beaches are washed away. tides. such as shells. the rise and fall of the ocean. Waves that are really big carry a lot of energy. The boundary of a coast. Coastlines with big beaches have more room for waves to spread their energy and deposits. The island of Mont Saint Michel is only an island when the high tide. Coastlines with small. Coastal plains are pieces 4 . However. Some coasts have coastal plains. stay pretty stable for centuries. and the more sediment. on the other hand. change almost daily. and insects. or particles of rock. The White Cliffs are a landmark of the English coast of the English Channel. are made of calcium carbonate. Waves. and crabs. The coast is the land along a sea. The sandy coastlines of islands. they are important ecosystems. Sugarloaf Mountain. The water slowly rises up over the shore and then slowly falls back again. is called the coastline. But they also leave behind little parts of the sea. The way coasts are formed depends a lot on what kind of material is in the land and water. or constantly changing. and spinoffs. Brazil. All the waves' energy is focused in a small place. They provide unique homes for marine plants.com/education/encyclopedia/coast/?ar_a=1#page=2 The Coast If you've ever been to the beach. translations. and has never gone out of print. is made mostly of granite and quartz.) waves deposit material such as shells and crabs farther inland. they wear away or erode the land. http://education. leaving material behind. and rocky coastlines are sometimes cracked by strong waves. sand dollars. in England. It has been a landmark for centuries. such as weather and changing sea levels. When waves crash onto shore. This gives the small beaches a weathered look. inspiring many sequels. narrow beaches have less room for waves to spread out. Sometimes these objects end up as more permanent parts of the coastline. seaweeds. and currents help create coastlines. During storms. animals. Coastlines of granite. on the coast of Rio de Janeiro.
have it rough sometimes.of flat. 5 . and garbage from both land and sea. as beautiful as they tend to be. low-lying land that can become visible when sea levels start decreasing. oil spills. They are affected by pollution. Coasts. Pollution negatively affects the way a coast looks and is damaging to the marine life that lives there.
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