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Metal

Cutting, Metal Forming & Metrology


Questions & Answers (All Questions are in Sequence)
IES-1992-2012 (21 Yrs.), GATE-1992-2012 (21 Yrs.), GATE (PI)-2007-2012 (6 Yrs.), IAS1994-2011 (18 Yrs.), some PSUs questions and conventional questions are added. SectionI: Theory of Metal Cutting
Chapter-1: Basics of Metal Cutting Chapter-2: Force & Power in Metal Cutting Chapter-3: Tool life, Tool Wear, Economics and Machinability Page-1 Page-6 Page-12

SectionII: Metal Forming


Chapter-4:Cold Working, Recrystalization and Hot Working Chapter-5:Rolling Chapter-6:Forging Chapter-7:Extrusion & Drawing Chapter-8:Sheet Metal Operation Chapter-9:Powder Metallurgy Page-23 Page-25 Page-30 Page-35 Page-41 Page-49

SectionIII: Metrology
Chapter-10: Limit, Tolerance & Fits Chapter-11: Measurement of Lines & Surfaces Chapter-12: Miscellaneous of Metrology Page-54 Page-59 Page-61

For2013(IES,GATE&PSUs)

IAS2009main

IES2001
For cutting of brass with singlepoint cutting tool on a lathe, tool should have , (a) Negativerakeangle (b) P i i k Positiverakeangle l ( ) (c) Zerorakeangle g (d) Zerosidereliefangle Ans.(c) s (c)

TheoryofMetalCutting

Name four independent variables and three dependent variables in metal cutting. [5marks] IndependentVariables Startingmaterials Startingmaterials (tool/work) DependentVariables Forceorpowerrequirements Forceorpowerrequirements Maximumtemperaturein p cutting Surfacefinish

BySKMondal

Toolgeometry CuttingVelocity Lubrication

IES1995
Singlepointthreadcuttingtoolshouldideally have: a) Zerorake b) Positiverake c) Negativerake d) Normalrake Ans.(a) Ans (a)

GATE1995;2008
Cuttingpowerconsumptioninturningcanbe significantlyreducedby f l d db (a)Increasingrakeangleofthetool (b)Increasingthecuttinganglesofthetool (c)Wideningthenoseradiusofthetool (d)Increasingtheclearanceangle Ans.(a) ( )

IES1993
Assertion (A): For a negative rake tool, the specific A i (A) F i k l h ifi cutting pressure is smaller than for a positive rake tool under otherwise identical conditions. Reason (R): The shear strain undergone by the chip in the case of negative rake tool is larger. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually true and R is the h d d d ll d h correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (d)

IES 2005
Assertion (A): Carbide tips are generally given A i (A) C bid i ll i negative rake angle. Reason (R): Carbide tips are made from very hard materials. materials (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (b) (d) A is false but R is true
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2002
Assertion (A): Negative rake is usually provided on A i (A) N i k i ll id d carbide tipped tools. Reason (R): Carbide tools are weaker in compression. compression (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (c) (d) A is false but R is true
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IES2011
Which one of the following statement is NOT correct with reference to the purposes and effects of rake angle p p g of a cutting tool? (a) To guide the chip flow direction (b) To reduce the friction between the tool flanks and the machined surface (c) To add keenness or sharpness to the cutting edges edges. (d) To provide better thermal efficiency. Ans. (b)

Statement(I):Negativerakeanglesarepreferredonrigid setupsforinterruptedcuttinganddifficulttomachine t f i t t d tti ddiffi lt t hi materials. Statement(II):Negativerakeangledirectsthechipsonto themachinedsurface (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are y ( ) individually true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) Ans. Ans (b) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) ( ) Statement ( ) is false but Statement ( ) is true (I) (II)

IES IES 2012

GATE 2008(PI)
Brittle materials are machined with tools having zero or negative rake angle because it (a) ( ) results in l l lower cutting f force (b) i improves surface fi i h f finish (c) provides adequate strength to cutting tool (d) results in more accurate dimensions Ans. (c) ( )

IAS 1994
Considerthefollowingcharacteristics C id h f ll i h i i g g g y 1. Thecuttingedgeisnormaltothecuttingvelocity. 2. Thecuttingforcesoccurintwodirectionsonly. 3. Th Thecuttingedgeiswiderthanthedepthofcut. i d i id h h d h f pp g g Thecharacteristicsapplicabletoorthogonalcutting wouldinclude (a) d ( ) 1and2 (b) 1and3 d (c) 2and3 (d) 1,2and3 Ans.(d)

IES2006
Whichofthefollowingisasinglepointcutting tool? (a) Hacksawblade (b) Millingcutter (c) Grindingwheel (d) Partingtool Ans.(d)

IES1995
The angle between the face and the flank of the single point cutting tool is known as a) Rake angle b) Clearance angle c) Lip angle d) Point angle. Ans. (c)

Assertion (A): For drilling cast iron, the tool is p provided with a point angle smaller than that p g required for a ductile material. Reason (R): Smaller point angle results in lower rake angle. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A p (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A t l ti f (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

IES2006

IES2002
Consider the following statements: The strength of a single point cutting tool depends upon 1. R k angle Rake l g 2. Clearance angle 3. Lip angle Which of these statements are correct? hi h f h (a) 1 and 3 a d ( ) (b) 2 and 3 a d (c) 1 and 2 (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (d)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2012
Toollifeincreasewithincreasein T llif i i hi i ( ) (a)Cuttingspeed g p (b)Noseradius (c)Feed ( )F d ( ) p (d)Depthofcut Ans.(b)

IES2009
Consider the following statements with respect to the effects of a large nose radius on the tool: g 1. It deteriorates surface finish. 2. I i It increases the possibility of chatter. h ibili f h 3 3. It improves tool life. p Which of the above statements is/are correct? (a) ( ) 2 only l (b) 3 only l (c) 2 and 3 only a d o y (d) 1, 2 and 3 , a d Ans. (c)

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IES1995
Consider the following statements about nose C id h f ll i b radius 1. It improves tool life 2. 2 It reduces the cutting force 3. It improves the surface finish. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) ( ) 1 and 2 d (b) 2 and 3 d (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (c)

IES1994
Tool geometry of a single point cutting tool is specified by the following elements: 1. Back rake angle 1 2. Side rake angle 3. End cutting edge angle d d l 4. Side cutting edge angle 5. Side relief angle 6. End relief angle 7. Nose radius The correct sequence of these tool elements used for correctly specifying the tool geometry is (a) ( ) 1,2,3,6,5,4,7 6 (b) 1,2,6,5,3,4,7 6 (c) 1,2,5,6,3,4,7 (d) 1, 2, 6, 3, 5, 4,7 Ans. (b)

IES2009
The following tool signature is specified for a single p point cutting tool in American system: g y 10, 12, 8, 6, 15, 20, 3 What does the angle 12 represent? Wh d h l ? ( ) (a) Side cuttingedge angle g g g (b) Side rake angle (c) ( ) Back rake angle k k l (d) Side clearance angle de c ea a ce a g e Ans. (b)

IES1993
In ASA System, if the tool nomenclature is 8655 10152mm, then the side rake angle will be 5 , g (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 10

ISRO2011
A cutting tool having tool signature as 10 9 6 6 10, 9, 6, 6, , , g 8, 8, 2 will have side rake angle (a) 10o Ans. (b) (b) 9o (c) 8o (d) 2o

GATE2008
In a single point turning tool, the side rake angle I i l i i l h id k l and orthogonal rake angle are equal. is the principal cutting edge angle and its range is plane. 0o 90o . The chip flows in the orthogonal plane The value of is closest to (a) 00 (b) 450 0 (c) 60 (d) 900 Ans. (d) principal cutting edge angle is = 90 cs

Ans.(b) (b)

IAS 2009Main IAS 2009 Main

GATE2001
During orthogonal cutting of mild steel with a 10 rake angle tool the chip thickness ratio 10 tool, was obtained as 0.4. The shear angle (in degrees) evaluated from this data is (a)6.53 ( )6 (b)20.22 (b) (c)22.94 (d)50.00 Ans.(c)

GATE2011
A single point cutting tool with 12 rake angle is used to machine a steel work piece. The depth of p p cut, i.e. uncut thickness is 0.81 mm. The chip thickness under orthogonal machining condition is 1.8 mm. The shear angle is approximately (a) ( ) 22 ( ) (b) 26 (c) 56 (d) 76 Ans. (b)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 3

The following parameters determine the Th f ll i t d t i th p model of continuous chip formation: 1. True feed 2. Cutting velocity 3. 3 Chip thickness 4 4. Rake angle of the cutting tool. g g The parameters which govern the value of shear angle would include l ld l d (a) 1 2 and 3 (b) 1 3 and 4 1,2 1,3 (c) 1,2 and 4 (d) 2,3 and 4 Ans. (b)

IES1994

IES 2009
Minimum shear strain in orthogonal turning with a cutting tool of zero rake angle is (a) ( ) 0.0 ( ) 5 (b) 0.5 (c) 1.0 (d) 2.0 ( ) Ans. (d)

IES 2004
In a machining operation chip g p p thickness ratio is 0.3 and the rake angle of the tool i 10. Wh i the l f h l is What is h value of the shear strain? ( ) 3 (a) 0.31 ( ) (b) 0.13 3 (c) 3.00 (d) 3.34 Ans. (d)

GATE 2012 GATE2012


Details pertaining to an orthogonal metal cutting process are given below. Chip thickness ratio 0.4 Undeformed thickness 0.6 0 6 mm Rake angle +10 Cutting speed 2.5 m/s Mean thickness of primary shear zone 25 microns The shear strain rate in s1 during the process is (a) 0.1781105 (b) 0.7754105 5 (c) 1 010410 1.010410 (d) 4 397105 4.39710 Ans. Ans (c)

GATE2007
In orthogonal turning of a low carbon steel bar of diameter 150 mm with uncoated carbide 5 tool, the cutting velocity is 90 m/min. The feed is 0 24 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 2 mm 0.24 mm. The chip thickness obtained is 0.48 mm. If the orthogonal rake angle is zero and the principal cutting edge angle is 90, the shear angle is degree i d is (a) 20.56 .5 ( ) .5 (b) 26.56 (c) 30.56 (d) 36.56 Ans. (b)

IES2004
Considerthefollowingstatementswithrespectto C id h f ll i i h thereliefangleofcuttingtool: 1.Thisaffectsthedirectionofchipflow 2.Thisreducesexcessivefrictionbetweenthetool 2 Thisreducesexcessivefrictionbetweenthetool andworkpiece 3.Thisaffectstoollife 4.Thisallowsbetteraccessofcoolanttothetool 4 Thisallowsbetteraccessofcoolanttothetool workpieceinterface Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect? h h f h b (a) 1and2 (b) 2and3 (c) 2and4 (d) 3and4 Ans.(b)

IES2006
Considerthefollowingstatements: C id h f ll i g g g 1. Alargerakeanglemeanslowerstrengthofthe cuttingedge. 2. Cuttingtorquedecreaseswithrakeangle. 2 Cuttingtorquedecreaseswithrakeangle Whichofthestatementsgivenaboveis/arecorrect? (a) Only1 (b) Only2 (c) Both1and2 ( ) B th d (d) N ith Neither1nor2 Ans.(c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES2004
Match.ListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer M h Li I i hLi II d l h usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: ListI ListII A. Planapproachangle 1. Toolface B. Rakeangle 2. Toolflank C. Clearanceangle C Cl l 3. Toolfaceandflank T lf dfl k D. Wedgeangle g g 4 4. Cuttingedge g g 5. (a) (c) A 1 4 B 4 1 C 2 2 D 5 (b) 3 (d) Page 4 Toolnose[Ans.(c)] A B C D 4 1 3 2 1 4 3 5

IES2003
The angle of inclination of the rake face with Th l f i li i f h k f ih respect to the tool base measured in a plane perpendicular to the base and parallel to the width of the tool is called (a) Back rake angle (b) S d rake angle Side k l (c) Side cutting edge angle S de cutt g a ge (d) End cutting edge angle Ans. (b)

IES2004,ISRO2009
The rake angle of a cutting tool is 15, shear Th k l f i li h angle 45 and cutting velocity 35 m/min. 45 What is the velocity of chip along the tool face? f ? (a) 28.5 m/min (b) 27.3 m/min (c) 25.3 m/min (d) 23.5 m/min Ans. (a)

IES2008
Considerthefollowingstatements: C id h f ll i Inanorthogonalcuttingthecuttingratioisfoundtobe 075.Thecuttingspeedis60m/minanddepthofcut24 mm.Whichofthefollowingarecorrect? g 1. Chipvelocitywillbe45m/min. 2. Chipvelocitywillbe80m/min. 2 Chipvelocitywillbe80m/min 3. Chipthicknesswillbe18mm. 4. Chipthicknesswillbe32mm. Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow: (a) 1and3 (b) 1and4 (c) ( ) 2and3 d (d) 2and4 d Ans.(b) (b)

If is the rake angle of the cutting tool, is the i h k l f h i l i h shear angle and V is the cutting velocity, then the velocity of chip sliding along the shear plane is given b i by (a) (c) ( )
V cos cos( )
V cos sin( )

IES2001

(b) (d)

V sin cos ( )

V sin sin( )

Ans. ( ) A (a)

IES2003
An orthogonal cutting operation is being A h l i i i b i carried out under the following conditions: cutting speed = 2 m/s, depth of cut = 0.5 mm, chip thi k hi thickness = 0.6 mm. Th 6 Then th chip the hi velocity is y (a) 2.0 m/s (b) 2.4 m/s (c) 1.0 m/s (d) 1.66 m/s Ans. (d)

IAS2003
Inorthogonalcutting,shearangleistheanglebetween I h l i h l i h l b (a) Shearplaneandthecuttingvelocity (b) Shearplaneandtherakeplane (c) Shearplaneandtheverticaldirection (d) Shearplaneandthedirectionofelongationofcrystalsin thechip h hi Ans.(a)

IAS2002

Ans.(a)

IAS2000

IAS1998
The cutting velocity in m/sec, for turning a work piece Th i l i i / f i k i of diameter 100 mm at the spindle speed of 480 RPM is (a) 1.26 (b) 2.51 (c) 48 (d) 151 Ans. (b) A

IAS1995
In an orthogonal cutting, the depth of cut is halved and I h l i h d h f i h l d d the feed rate is double. If the chip thickness ratio is unaffected with the changed cutting conditions, the ff d h h h d d h actual chip thickness will be (a) Doubled (b) halved (c) Quadrupled (d) Unchanged Unchanged. Ans. ( ) (b)

Ans.(d)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 5

GATE 2009(PI)CommonDataS1
An orthogonal turning operation is carried out at 20 A h l i i i i d m/min cutting speed using a cutting tool of rake angle speed, 15o. The chip thickness is 0.4 mm and the uncut chip 5 p 4 p thickness is 0.2 mm. The shear plane angle (in degrees) is (a) 26.8 Ans. (c) (b) 27.8 (c) 28.8 (d) 29.8

GATE 2009(PI)CommonDataS2
An orthogonal turning operation is carried out at 20 A h l i i i i d m/min cutting speed using a cutting tool of rake angle speed, 15o. The chip thickness is 0.4 mm and the uncut chip 5 p 4 p thickness is 0.2 mm. The chip velocity (in m/min) is (a) 8 Ans. (b) (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 14

GATE1995
Plainmillingofmildsteelplateproduces (a)Irregularshapeddiscontinuouschips (b)Regularshapeddiscontinuouschip (c)Continuouschipswithoutbuiltupedge (d)Joinedchips Ans.(b)

IES2007
Duringmachining,excessmetalisremovedintheform Duringmachining excessmetalisremovedintheform ofchipasinthecaseofturningonalathe.Whichofthe followingarecorrect? f ll i t? Continuousribbonlikechipisformedwhenturning 1. Atahighercuttingspeed 2. 2 Atalowercuttingspeed 3. Abrittlematerial 4. Aductilematerial Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow: g g (a) 1and3 (b) 1and4 (c) d ( ) 2and3 (d) 2and4 d Ans.(b)

IAS1997
Considerthefollowingmachiningconditions:BUEwill C id h f ll i hi i di i BUE ill formin (a) Ductilematerial. (b) Highcuttingspeed. (c) Smallrakeangle. (d) Smalluncutchipthickness. Ans.(a) A ( )

GATE2002
Abuiltupedgeisformedwhilemachining (a)Ductilematerialsathighspeed ( ) (b)Ductilematerialsatlowspeed (b)D til t i l tl d (c)Brittlematerialsathighspeed (d)Brittlematerialsatlowspeed

Ans.(b)

IES1997
Assertion (A): For high speed turning of cast iron pistons, carbide tool bits are provided with chip breakers. b k Reason (R): High speed turning may produce long, ribbon type continuous chips which must be broken into small lengths which otherwise would be difficult to handle and may prove hazardous. yp (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A p (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false Ans. (d) (d) A is false but R is true
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Ch1:MechanicsofBasicMachiningOperation
Q. No Q N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Option O ti C B D C B D B A B B Q. No Q N 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Option O ti D D B C D B B D D B

Force & Power in Metal Cutting

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20

BySKMondal B SKM d l

ESE2000(Conventional)
The following data from the orthogonal cutting test is available. Rake angle = 100, chip thickness ratio = 0.35, uncut chip thickness = 0.51 mm, width of cut = 3 mm yield shear stress of work material = 285 mm, N/mm2, mean friction coefficient on tool force = 0.65, 6 Determine D i () (i) Cutting force (Fc) g ( (ii) Radial force (iii) N Normal f l force (N) on tool and l d ( ) (iv) Shear force on the tool (Fs ) ( Ans. 1597 N, 0 N, 1453.8 N, 1265 N

ESE2005Conventional
Mild steel is being machined at a cutting speed of 200 m/min with a tool rake angle of 10. The width of cut and uncut thickness are 2 mm and 0.2 mm respectively. If the average value of coefficient of friction between the tool and the chip is 0.5 and the shear stress of the work material is 400 N/mm2, Determine (i) shear angle and ( ) (ii) Cutting and thrust component of the g p force. [Ans. 429 N , 127 N]

GATE 2008 (PI) Li k d S 1 GATE2008(PI)LinkedS1


In an orthogonal cutting experiment, an HSS tool having experiment the following tool signature in the orthogonal reference g g g system (ORS) has been used: 0107710751. Given width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece material = 460 N/ i l 6 N/mm2; d h of cut = 0.25 mm; depth f coefficient of friction at toolchip interface = 0 7 tool chip 0.7. Shear plane angle (in degree) for minimum cutting force p g ( g ) g is (a) 20.5 (b) 24.5 (c) 28.5 (d) 32.5 [Ans. (d)]

GATE 2008 (PI) Li k d S 2 GATE2008(PI)LinkedS2


In an orthogonal cutting experiment, an HSS tool having experiment the following tool signature in the orthogonal reference g g g system (ORS) has been used: 0107710751. Given width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece material = 460 N/ i l 6 N/mm2; d h of cut = 0.25 mm; depth f coefficient of friction at toolchip interface = 0 7 tool chip 0.7. Minimum power requirement (in kW) at a cutting speed p q ( ) g p of 150 m/min is (a) 3.15 (b) 3.25 (c) 3.35 (d) 3.45 [Ans. (b)]

GATE 2007(PI)CommonData1 ( )
In an orthogonal machining test, the following test observations were made Cutting force 1200 N Thrust force 500 N Tool rake angle zero Cutting speed 1 m/s Depth of cut 0.8 0 8 mm Chip thickness 1.5 mm Friction angle during machining will be (a) 22 6o (b) 32 8o (c) 57 1o 22.6 32.8 57.1 (d) 67 4o [Ans (a)] 67.4 [Ans.

GATE 2007(PI)CommonData2 ( )
In an orthogonal machining test, the following test observations were made Cutting force 1200 N Thrust force 500 N Tool rake angle zero Cutting speed 1 m/s Depth of cut 0.8 0 8 mm Chip thickness 1.5 mm Chip speed along the tool rake face will be (a) 0 83 m/s 0.83 (b) 0 53 m/s 0.53 (c) 1.2 m/s (d) 1.88 m/s [Ans. (b)]

ESE2003 ESE 2003 Conventional


During turning a carbon steel rod of 160 mm diameter by a carbide tool of geometry; 0, 0, 10, 8, 15, 75, 0 (mm) at speed of 400 rpm, feed of 0.32 mm/rev and 4.0 mm depth of cut, the following b f ll i observation were made. i d Tangential component of the cutting force, Pz = 1200 N Axial component of the cutting force, Px = 800 N Chip thickness (after cut), 2 = 0.8 mm. For the above machining condition determine the values of (i) Friction force F and normal force N acting at the chip tool force, force, interface. (ii) Yi ld shears strength of th work material under thi Yield h t th f the k t i l d this machining condition. (iii) C i power consumption i kW Cutting i in kW. Ans. 828 N, For-2013 (IES, GATE, kW 1200 N, 231.15 Mpa, 4.021 PSUs)

GATE 1995Conventional
While turning a C15 steel rod of 160 mm diameter at 315 rpm, 2.5 mm depth of cut and feed of 0.16 mm/rev by a tool of geometry 00, 100, 80, 90,150, 750, 0(mm), 0(mm) the following observations were made made. Tangential component of the cutting force = 500 N Axial component of the cutting force = 200 N Chip thickness = 0 48 mm 0.48 Draw schematically the Merchants circle diagram for the cutting force in the present case. Ans. Ans F = 291 N N = 457 67 N Fn = 355 78 N Fs = 408 31 N, 457.67 N, 355.78 N, 408.31 N, Friction angle = 32.49o
Page 7

IAS 2003 Main Examination IAS2003MainExamination


During turning process with 7 ? 6 6 8 30 1 (mm) ASA tool the undeformed chip thickness of 2.0 mm and width of cut of 2.5 mm were used. Th d idth f t f d The side rake angle of the tool was a chosen that the machining operation could b approximated to b h ld be d be orthogonal cutting. The tangential cutting force and g g g g thrust force were 1177 N and 560 N respectively. Calculate: [30 marks] (i) The side rake angle (ii) Coefficient of friction at the rake face (iii) The dynamic shear strength of the work material Ans. 12o, 0.82, 74.43 MPa

IES 2004
A medium carbon steel workpiece is turned on a di b l k i i d lathe at 50 m/min. cutting speed 0.8 mm/rev feed and 1.5 mm depth of cut. What is the rate of metal removal? (a) 1000 mm3/min (b) 60,000 mm3/ /min (c) 20,000 mm3/min 0,000 / (d) Can not be calculated with the given data Ans. (b)

GATE2007
Inorthogonalturningofmediumcarbonsteel.The specificmachiningenergyis2.0J/mm3.Thecutting velocity,feedanddepthofcutare120m/min,0.2 mm/revand2mmrespectively.Themaincutting mm/revand2mmrespectively Themaincutting forceinNis (a)40 (b)80 (c)400 (d)800 Ans.(d)

ForPSU&IES For PSU & IES


In strain gauge dynamometers the use of how g g y many active gauge makes the dynamometers more effective (a) Four (b) Th Three (c) Two (d) One Ans. (a)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(1)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Uncutthickness=0.5mm Uncutthickness 0 5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Thrustforce 200N Cuttingforce=1200N Cuttingforce 1200N AssumeMerchant'stheory. Thecoefficientoffrictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis (a)0.23 (a)0 23 (b)0.46 (b)0 46 (c)0.85 (d)0.95 Ans.(b)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(2)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Uncutthickness=0.5mm Uncutthickness 0 5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Thrustforce 200N Cuttingforce=1200N Cuttingforce 1200N AssumeMerchant'stheory. Thepercentageoftotalenergydissipateddueto frictionatthetool chipinterfaceis frictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis (a)30% (b)42% (c)58% (d)70% Ans.(a)

GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(3)
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Uncutthickness=0.5mm Uncutthickness 0 5mm Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Thrustforce=200N Thrustforce 200N Cuttingforce=1200N Cuttingforce 1200N AssumeMerchant'stheory. Thevaluesofshearangleandshearstrain, respectively,are respectively are (a)30.3 and1.98 (b)30.3 and4.23 (c)40.2 and2.97 (d)40.2 and1.65Ans.(d)

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(1)
A cylinder is turned on a lathe with orthogonal machining principle Spindle rotates at 200 rpm The principle. rpm. axial feed rate is 0.25 mm per revolution. Depth of cut is 0.4 mm. 0 4 mm The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found 10 that the shear angle is 27.75 Thethicknessoftheproducedchipis (a)0.511mm (a)0 511mm (b)0.528mm (b)0 528mm (c)0.818mm (d)0.846mm Ans.(a)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(2)
A cylinder is turned on a lathe with orthogonal machining principle Spindle rotates at 200 rpm The principle. rpm. axial feed rate is 0.25 mm per revolution. Depth of cut is 0.4 mm. 0 4 mm The rake angle is 10. In the analysis it is found 10 that the shear angle is 27.75 Intheaboveproblem,thecoefficientoffrictionat thechiptoolinterfaceobtainedusingEarnestand p g Merchanttheoryis (a)0.18 (a)0 18 (b)0.36 (b)0 36 (c)0.71 (d)0.98 Ans.(d)
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GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(1)
Orthogonal turning is performed on a cylindrical work piece with shear strength of 250 MPa The following MPa. conditions are used: cutting velocity is 180 m/min. feed is 0 20 mm/rev depth of cut is 3 mm chip thickness 0.20 mm/rev. mm. ratio = 0.5. The orthogonal rake angle is 7o. Apply Merchant's h M h ' theory f analysis. for l i p g ( g ) Theshearplaneangle(indegree)andtheshear forcerespectivelyare (a)52:320N (b)52:400N (c)28:400N (d)28:320N Ans.(d)

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(2)
Orthogonal turning is performed on a cylindrical work piece with shear strength of 250 MPa The following MPa. conditions are used: cutting velocity is 180 m/min. feed is 0 20 mm/rev depth of cut is 3 mm chip thickness 0.20 mm/rev. mm. ratio = 0.5. The orthogonal rake angle is 7o. Apply Merchant's h M h ' theory f analysis. for l i g , p y, Thecuttingandthrustforces,respectively,are (a)568N;387N (b)565N;381N (c)440N;342N ( ) N N (d)480N;356N [A (b)] (d) N N [Ans.(b)]

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS1
In orthogonal turning of an engineering alloy, it has I h l i f i i ll i h been observed that the friction force acting at the chip tool interface is 402.5 N and the friction force is also p p perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed g y velocity is negligibly small with respect to the cutting velocity. velocity The ratio of friction force to normal force associated with the chiptool interface is 1. The uncut chip thi k hi thickness i 0.2 mm and th chip thi k is d the hi thickness i 0.4 is mm. The cutting velocity is 2 m/s. The shear force (in N) acting along the primary shear plane is (a) 180.0 (b) 240.0 (c) 360.5 (d) 402.5 Ans. (a)

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS2
In orthogonal turning of an engineering alloy, it has I th l t i f i i ll h been observed that the friction force acting at the chip tool interface i 402.5 N and th f i ti t l i t f is d the friction f force i also is l perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed velocity i negligibly small with respect t th cutting l it is li ibl ll ith t to the tti velocity. The ratio of friction force to normal force associated with th chiptool i t f i t d ith the hi t l interface i 1. Th uncut is The t chip thickness is 0.2 mm and the chip thickness is 0.4 mm. Th cutting velocity i 2 m/s. The i l i is / Assume that the energy expended during machining is gy p g g completely converted to heat. The rate of heat g generation (in W) at the primary shear plane is p y p (a) 180.5 (b) 200.5 (c) 302.5 (d) 402.5 Ans. (d)

G GATE 20 ( ) i k d S 2011(PI)LinkedS1
During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data is bt i d i obtained: p Uncut chip thickness = 0.25 mm Chip thickness = 0.75 mm Width of cut = 2.5 mm f t 95 Normal force = 950 N Thrust force = 475 N [Ans. (b)] The h Th shear angle and shear f l d h force, respectively, are ti l ( )7 5 5 5 (a) 71.565o, 150.21 N ( ) 435 75 4 (b) 18.435o , 751.04 N (c) 9.218o, 861.64 N (d) 23.157o , 686.66 N

G GATE 20 ( ) i k d S2 2011(PI)LinkedS2
During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data is bt i d i obtained: p Uncut chip thickness = 0.25 mm Chip thickness = 0.75 mm Width of cut = 2.5 mm f t 95 Normal force = 950 N Thrust force = 475 N Theultimateshearstress(inN/mm2) fth Th lti t h t (i N/ )ofthework k materialis [Ans.(d)] (a)235 (b)139 (c)564 (d)380

IES 2012
Duringorthogonalcutting,anincreaseincuttingspeed D i h l i i i i d causes (a)Anincreaseinlongitudinalcuttingforce (b)Anincreaseinradialcuttingforce (c)Anincreaseintangentialcuttingforce (d)Cuttingforcestoremainunaffected Ans.(d)

IES2010
The relationship between the shear angle , Th l ti hi b t th h l g g g the friction angle and cutting rake angle is given as

IES2005
Which one of the following is the correct expression for the Merchant's machinability Merchant s constant? (a) 2 + (b) 2 + (c) 2 ( ) (d) + (Where = shear angle, = friction angle and = rake angle) Ans. (a)
Page 9

GATE1997
Inatypicalmetalcuttingoperation,usinga cuttingtoolofpositiverakeangle=10 it cuttingtoolofpositiverakeangle 10,it wasobservedthattheshearanglewas20. Thefrictionangleis (a)45 ( ) (b)30 (b) (c)60 (c)60 (d)40 (d)40 Ans.(c)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Ans.(b)

IAS 1999
In an orthogonal cutting process, rake angle of the I h l i k l f h tool is 20 and friction angle is 25.5. Using Merchant's shear angle relationship, the value of shear angle will be g (a) 39.5 (b) 42.25 (c) ( ) 47.75 (d) 50.5 Ans. (b)

IES2003
In orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force = 900 N the thrust force = 600 N and chip N, shear angle is 30o. Then the chip shear force is (a) 1079.4 N (b) 969.6 N (c) ( ) 479.4 N (d) 69.6 N Ans. (c) ( )

IES2000
In an orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force and thrust force were observed to be 1000N and 500 N respectively. If the rake angle of tool is zero, the coefficient of friction in chip tool interface will be chiptool ill 1 1

(a)2
Ans.(a)

( b)2

( c)

( d) 2 2

IES1996
Which of the following forces are measured directly by strain gauges or force dynamometers during metal cutting ? y p g y 1. Force exerted by the tool on the chip acting normally to the tool face. g y 2. Horizontal cutting force exerted by the tool on the work piece. 3. Frictional resistance of the tool against the chip flow acting along the tool face. 4. 4 Vertical force which helps in holding the tool in position. (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 Ans. (b)

GATE2007
In orthogonal turning of low carbon steel pipe with principal cutting edge angle of 90, the main cutting 90 , force is 1000 N and the feed force is 800 N. The shear angle is 25 and orthogonal rake angle is zero zero. Employing Merchants theory, the ratio of friction force to normal f f l force acting on the cutting tool i i h i l is ( ) 5 (a) 1.56 ( ) 5 (b) 1.25 (c) 0.80 (d) 0.64 Ans. (c) ( )

IES1997
Consider the following forces acting on a finish turning tool: 1. Feed force 2. Thrust force 3. Cutting force. The Th correct sequence of th d t f the decreasing order of i d f the magnitudes of these forces is g (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1 (c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 3, 2, 1 [Ans. (c)]

IES1999
The radial force in singlepoint tool during turning operation varies between ( ) (a) 0.2 to 0.4 times the main cutting force 4 g (b) 0.4 to 0.6 times the main cutting force (c) 0.6 to 0.8 times the main cutting force (d) 0.5 t 0.6 ti to 6 times th main cutting f the i tti force Ans. (a)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES1995
The primary tool force used in calculating the total power consumption in machining is the (a) Radial force (b) Tangential force (c) ( ) Axial f l force (d) Frictional f l force. Ans. (b) ( )

IES2002
In a machining process, the percentage of heat carried away by the chips is typically ( )5 (a) 5% ( ) 5 (b) 25% (c) 50% (d) 75% Ans. (d) A

Page 10

IES1998
In metal cutting operation, the approximate ratio of heat distributed among chip tool chip, and work, in that order is (a) 80: 10: 10 (b) 33: 33: 33 (c) ( ) 20: 60: 10 (d) 10: 10: 80 Ans. (a) ( )

IAS 2003
Asthecuttingspeedincreases A h i di ( ) (a) Moreheatistransmittedtotheworkpieceandless p heatistransmittedtothetool (b) Moreheatiscarriedawaybythechipandlessheatis transmittedtothetool (c) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththechipandthe too tool (d) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththeworkpieceand thetool th t l Ans.(b)

IES2001
Power consumption in metal cutting is mainly due to ( ) (a) Tangential component of the force g p (b) Longitudinal component of the force (c) Normal component of the force (d) F i ti at th metaltool i t f Friction t the t l t l interface Ans. (a)

IAS 1995
Thrustforcewillincreasewiththeincreasein Th f illi i h h i i ( ) (a) Sidecuttingedgeangle g g g (b)Toolnoseradius (c) Rakeangle ( ) R k l ( ) (d)Endcuttingedgeangle. g g g Ans.(a) ( )

IES2010
Consider the following statements: C id th f ll i t t t In an orthogonal, singlepoint metal cutting, single point as the sidecutting edge angle is increased, 1. The tangential force increases. 2. 2 The longitudinal force drops drops. 3 3. The radial force increases. Which of these statements are correct? (a) 1 and 3 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) ( ) 2 and 3 only d l (d) 1, 2 and 3 d Ans. ( ) A (c)

IES1993
A 'Dynamometer' is a device used for the measurement of ( ) (a) Chip thickness ratio p (b) Forces during metal cutting (c) Wear of the cutting tool (d) D fl ti of th cutting t l Deflection f the tti tool Ans. (b)

IES2011
Theinstrumentordeviceusedtomeasurethe cuttingforcesinmachiningis: g g (a)Tachometer (b)Comparator (b)C ( ) y (c)Dynamometer (d)Lactometer Ans.(c) s (c)

IAS2001
Assertion (A): Piezoelectric transducers and preferred A ti (A) Pi l t i t d d f d over strain gauge transducers in the dynamometers for measurement of three dimensional cutting forces threedimensional forces. Reason (R): In electric transducers there is a significant leakage of signal from one axis to the other such cross other, error is negligible in the case of piezoelectric transducers. transducers (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A t l ti f (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c) Page 11

IAS 2003
The heat generated in metal Th h d i l conveniently be determined by (a) Installing thermocouple on the job (b) Installing thermocouple on the tool (c) Calorimetric setup (d) Using radiation pyrometer cutting i can

Ans. (c)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES1998
The gauge factor of a resistive pickup of cutting force dynamometer is defined as the ratio of (a) Applied strain to the resistance of the wire (b) The proportional change in resistance to the h l h h applied strain (c) The resistance to the applied strain (d) Change in resistance to the applied strain Ans. (b) A

IES2000
Assertion (A): In metal cutting, the normal laws of sliding friction are not applicable applicable. ( ) y g p Reason (R): Very high temperature is produced at the toolchip interface. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually true and R is h d d d ll d the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)

GATE1992
The effect of rake angle on the mean friction angle in machining can be explained by (A) sliding (Coulomb) model of friction (B) sticking and then sliding model of friction (C) sticking friction (D) Sliding and then sticking model of friction Ans. Ans (b)

IES2004
Assertion (A): The ratio of uncut chip thickness to A i (A) Th i f hi hi k actual chip thickness is always less than one and is termed as cutting ratio in orthogonal cutting d h l Reason (R): The frictional force is very high due to the ( ) y g occurrence of sticking friction rather than sliding friction (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A l i f (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true

GATE1993
The effect of rake angle on the mean friction angle in machining can be explained by (a) Sliding (coulomb) model of friction (b) sticking and then siding model of friction (c) Sticking friction (d) sliding and then sticking model of friction

, y ToolWear,ToolLife&Machinability ToolWear,ToolLife&Machinability

Ans. (b)

Ans. (b)

BySKMondal

IAS 2009Main IAS 2009 Main


Explain sudden deathmechanism oftoolfailure. Explainsuddendeathmechanismoftoolfailure. [4 marks]

IES2009Conventional
Showcraterwearandflankwearonasinglepoint cuttingtool.Statethefactorsresponsibleforwear cuttingtool Statethefactorsresponsibleforwear onaturningtool. [2marks] [ k ]

IES2010
Flank wear occurs on the Fl k th (a) Relief face of the tool (b) Rake face (c) Nose of the tool (d) C i edge Cutting d Ans. (a)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 12

IES 2007
Flankwearoccursmainlyonwhichofthe Fl k i l hi h f h following? (a) Nosepartandtopface (b) Cuttingedgeonly (c) Nosepart,frontreliefface,andsiderelieffaceofthe cuttingtool (d) Faceofthecuttingtoolatashort distancefrom thecuttingedge Ans.(c) ( )

IES 2004
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i g g , p During the third stage of toolwear, rapid deterioration of tool edge takes place because 1. 1 Flank wear is only marginal 2. Flank wear is large 3. Temperature of the tool increases gradually 4. T Temperature of th t l i t f the tool increases d ti ll drastically Which of the statements given above are correct? g (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 (c) ( ) 1 and 4 d (d) 2 and 3 d Ans. (b) A

IES 2002
Craterwearontoolsalwaysstartsatsomedistance C l l di fromthetooltipbecauseatthatpoint (a) Cuttingfluiddoesnotpenetrate (b) Normalstressonrakefaceismaximum (c) Temperatureismaximum (d) Toolstrengthisminimum Ans.(c)

IAS 2007
Whydoescraterwearstartatsomedistancefrom Wh d di f thetooltip? (a) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion (b) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion (c) Tooltemperatureismaximuminthatregion (d) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion

IES 2000
Craterwearstartsatsomedistancefromthetooltip C di f h l i because (a) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion (b) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion (c) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion (d) Tooltemperatureismaximumatthatregion Ans.(d)

IES 1996
Notchwearattheoutsideedgeofthedepthofcutis N h h id d f h d h f i dueto (a) Abrasiveactionoftheworkhardenedchipmaterial (b) Oxidation (c) Slipstickactionofthechip (d) Chipping. Ans.(b)

Ans.(c)

IES 1995
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrect M hLi I i hLi II d l h answerusingthecodesgivenbelowthelists: ListI(Weartype) ListII(Associatedmechanism) A. A Abrasivewears 1. 1 Galvanicaction B. Adhesivewears 2. Ploughing action C. Electrolyticwear 3. Moleculartransfer D. Diffusionwears D Diff i 4. Plasticdeformation Pl ti d f ti 5. Metallicbond [Ans.(a)] ( ) Code:A B C D A B C D (a) ( ) 2 5 1 3 (b) 5 2 1 3 3 (IES, GATE, PSUs) 2 4 (d) 5 3 4 (c) 2 1 For-2013

IES 1995
Craterwearispredominantin C i d i i ( ) (a) Carbonsteeltools (b) Tungstencarbidetools (c) Highspeedsteeltools ( ) Hi h d l l ( ) (d) Ceramictools Ans.(a) ( )

IES 1994
Assertion(A):Toolwearisexpressedintermsof A i (A) T l i di f flankwearratherthancraterwear. Reason(R):Measurementofflankwearissimple andmoreaccurate. andmoreaccurate (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe correctexplanationofA l f (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the ot a d R a e d v dua y t ue but R s ot t e correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse ( ) Ai t b tRi f l [Ans.(c)] (d) AisfalsebutRistrue

Page 13

IES 2008
Whatarethereasonsforreductionoftoollifeina Wh h f d i f llif i machiningoperation? 1. Temperatureriseofcuttingedge 2. 2 Chippingoftooledgeduetomechanicalimpact 3. Gradualwearsattoolpoint 4. Increaseinfeedofcutatconstantcuttingforce Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegiven S l tth t i th d i below: (a) 1,2and3 (b) 2,3and4 (c) 1 3and4 1,3and4 (d) 1 2and4 [Ans (a)] 1,2and4 [Ans.(a)]

IAS 2002
Consider the following actions: C id h f ll i i 1. Mechanical abrasion 2. Diffusion 3. Plastic deformation 4. Oxidation Which f h b Whi h of the above are the causes of tool wear? h f l ? ( ) (a) 2 and 3 ( ) (b) 1 and 2 (c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 3 Ans. (c)

IAS 1999
The type of wear that occurs due to the cutting Th f h d h i action of the particles in the cutting fluid is referred to as (a) Attritions wear (b) Diffusion wear (c) Erosive wear (d) Corrosive wear Ans. (c)

IAS 2003
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i pp g g Chipping of a cutting tool is due to 1. Tool material being too brittle 2. H h d Hot hardness of the tool material. f h l i l 3 3. High positive rake angle of the tool. g p g Which of these statements are correct? (a) ( ) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 3 d d (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2 Ans. (b)

IES 2012
InTaylorstoollifeequationVTn =C,theconstantsn I T l llif i VT C h andCdependupon 1.Workpiecematerial 2.Toolmaterial 2 Toolmaterial 3.Coolant (a)1,2,and3 (b)1and2only (b) d l (c)2and3only y (d)1and3only Ans.(a) A ( )

IFS2009 IFS 2009


With th h l of T l t l lif equation, the help f Taylors tool life ti determine the shape of the curve between velocity of cutting and life of the tool. Assume an HSS tool g and steel as work material. [10Marks]

IES1996
Chip equivalent is increased by Chi i l i i db (a) An increases in sidecutting edge angle of tool (b) An increase in nose radius and side cutting g edge angle of tool (c) Increasing th plant area of cut ( )I i the l t f t (d) Increasing the depth of cut cut. Ans. (b)

IES 1992
Toollifeisgenerallyspecifiedby T llif i ll ifi db ( ) (a) Numberofpiecesmachined p (b) Volumeofmetalremoved (c) Actualcuttingtime ( ) A l i i ( ) (d) Anyoftheabove y Ans.(d) (d)

GATE2004
In a machining operation, doubling the I hi i i d bli h 1 cutting speed reduces the tool life to 8 th of the original value. The exponent n in Taylor's tool life t l lif equation VTn = C i ti C, is
(a) 1 8 (b) 1 4 (c ) 1 3 (d ) 1 2

Ans.(c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 14

IES 2000
In a tool life test, doubling the cutting speed I l lif d bli h i d reduces the tool life to 1/8th of the original. The Taylor's tool life index is
( a )2
1

IES 1999
Inasinglepointturningoperationofsteelwitha I i l i i i f l i h cementedcarbidetool,Taylor'stoollifeexponentis 0.25.Ifthecuttingspeedishalved,thetoollifewill increaseby y (a) Twotimes (b) Fourtimes (c) ( ) Eighttimes h (d) S Sixteentimes Ans.(d)

IES 2008
InTaylor'stoollifeequationisVTn =constant. I T l ' llif i i VT Whatisthevalueofnforceramictools? (a) 0.15to0.25 (b) 0.4to0.55 (c) 6 ( ) 0.6to0.75 (d) 0.8to0.9 Ans.(c)

( b )3

( c )4

( d ) 8

Ans.(b)

IES 2006
Which of the following values of index n is Whi h f h f ll i l f i d i associated with carbide tools when Taylor's tool life equation, V.Tn = constant is applied? (a) 01 to 015 (b) 02 to 04 (c) 0.45 to 06 (d) 065 to 09 Ans. Ans (b)

IES 1999
The approximately variation of the tool life Th i l i i f h l lif exponent 'n' of cemented carbide tools is (a) 0.03 to 0.08 (b) 0.08 to 0.20 (c) 0 20 to 0 48 0.20 0.48 (d) 0 48 to 0 70 0.48 0.70 Ans. (c)

IAS 1998
MatchList I(Cuttingtoolmaterial)withList II M t hLi t I(C tti t l t i l) ithLi t (Typicalvalueoftoollifeexponent'n'intheTaylor's equationV.T C)andselectthecorrectanswerusing equationV Tn =C)andselectthecorrectanswerusing thecodesgivenbelowthelists: List List I List List II A. HSS 1. 0.18 B. Castalloy 2. 0.12 3 3. 0.25 5 C. Ceramic Ans.(d) Ans (d) D. Sinteredcarbide 4. 0.5 Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 3 4 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 1 2 4 3

GATE2009(PI) GATE 2009 (PI)


In I an orthogonal machining operation, th t l lif th l hi i ti the tool life obtained is 10 min at a cutting speed of 100 m/min m/min, while at 75 m/min cutting speed, the tool life is 30 g p 3 min. The value of index (n) in the Taylors tool life equation (a) 0.262 Ans. (a) (b) 0.323 (c) 0.423 (d) 0.521

ISRO2011
A 50 mm diameter steel rod was turned at 284 rpm and tool failure occurred in 10 minutes. The speed was changed to 232 rpm and the tool f il d i 6 minutes. h d d h l failed in 60 i Assuming straight line relationship between cutting speed and tool life, the value of Taylorian Exponent is p , y p (a) 0.21 Ans. (c)
Page 15

IES2010
The above figure shows a typical relationship between tool life and cutting speed for different materials. Match the graphs for HSS, Carbide HSS C bid and C d Ceramic tool i l materials and select the correct answer using th code given i the d i below the lists: Code: SS Carbide C C d HSS C bid Ceramic i (a) 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 (c) 1 3 2 (d) 3 1 2

(b) 0.13 3

(c) 0.11

(d) 0.23 3

Ans.(a) A ( )

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

During machining, the wear land (h) has been plotted against machining time (T) as given in the following figure. g

GATE 2008 (PI) GATE2008(PI)

GATE2010
For tool A, Taylors tool life exponent (n) is F l A T l l lif ( ) i 0.45 and constant (K) is 90. Similarly for tool B, n = 0.3 and K = 60. The cutting speed (in m/min) above which t l A will h / i ) b hi h tool ill have a hi h higher tool life than tool B is (a) 26.7 (b) 42.5 (c) 80.7 (d) 142.9 Ans. Ans (a)

GATE2003
A batch of 10 cutting tools could produce 500 b t h f tti t l ld d g components while working at 50 rpm with a tool feed of 0.25 mm/rev and depth of cut of 1 mm. A similar batch of 10 tools of the same specification could produce 122 components while working at 80 rpm with a feed of 0 25 0.25 mm/rev and 1 mm depth of cut. How many components can b produced with one be d d ih g p cutting tool at 60 rpm? (a) 29 (b) 31 (c) ( ) 37 (d) 42 Ans. (a) A ( )

For a critical wear land of 1 8 mm the cutting tool life (in 1.8 mm, minute) is Ans.(b) (a) 52.00 (b) 51.67 (c) 51.50 (d) 50.00

IES 1994,2007
Forincreasingthematerialremovalrateinturning, F i i h i l l i i withoutanyconstraints,whatistherightsequence toadjustthecuttingparameters? 1. 1 Speed 2. 2 Feed 3. 3 Depthofcut Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow: (a) 1 2 3 (b) 2 3 1 (c) 3 2 1 (d) 1 3 2 Ans.(c)[readquestionagain,commonerror(a)]

IES2010
Tool life is affected mainly with T l lif i ff t d i l ith (a) Feed (b) Depth of cut (c) Coolant (d) C i speed Cutting d Ans. (d)
Ans.(a)

IES 1997
Considerthefollowingelements: C id h f ll i l g p 1. Noseradius 2. Cuttingspeed 3. Depthofcut 4. Feed ThecorrectsequenceoftheseelementsinDECREASING Th f h l i DECREASING orderoftheirinfluenceontoollifeis (a) 2,4,3,1 (b) 4,2,3,1 (c) ( ) 2,4,1,3 (d) 4,2,1,3

ISRO2012
What is the correct sequence of the following parameters in order of their maximum to minimum influence on tool life? 1. Feed rate 2. Depth of cut 3. 3 Cutting speed Select the correct answer using the codes given below (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 3, 2, 1 (c) 2, 3, 1 (d) 3, 1, 2 Ans. (d) For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 1992
Toollifeisgenerallybetterwhen T llif i ll b h ( ) (a) Grainsizeofthemetalislarge g (b) Grainsizeofthemetalissmall (c) Hardconstituentsarepresentinthemicrostructure ( ) H d i i h i ofthetoolmaterial (d) Noneoftheabove Ans.(a)
1. 2. 3. 3 4.

IAS 2003
ThetoollifecurvesfortwotoolsAandBareshownin Th llif f l A dB h i thefigureandtheyfollowthetoollifeequationVTn =C. Considerthefollowingstatements: d h f ll
Valueofnforboththetoolsissame. ValueofCforboththetoolsissame. ValueofCfortoolAwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolB. ValueofCfortoolAwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolB ValueofCfortoolBwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolA.

Whichofthesestatementsis/arecorrect? Whi h fth t t t i / t? (a) 1and3 (b) 1and4 (c) 2only (d) 4only
Page 16

Ans.(a)

IAS 2002
UsingtheTaylorequationVTn U i h T l i VT =c,calculatethe l l h percentageincreaseintoollifewhenthecutting speedisreducedby50%(n=05andc=400) (a) 300% (b) 400% (c) 100% (d) 50%

IAS 2002
Optimum cutting speed for minimum cost (Vc min ) O i i df i i and optimum cutting speed for maximum production rate (Vr max ) have which one of the following relationships? g p (a) Vc min = Vr max (b) Vc min > Vr max (c) ( ) Vc min < Vr max (d) V2c min = Vr max

IES2010
With increasing cutting velocity, the total i i tti l it th t t l time for machining a component g p (a) Decreases (b) Increases (c) Remains unaffected ( ) (d) First decreases and then increases Ans. (d)

Ans.(a) Ans. ( ) (c)

IAS 2000
Considerthefollowingstatements: C id h f ll i y Thetoollifeisincreasedby 1. Builtupedgeformation 2. I Increasingcuttingvelocity i i l i 3 3. Increasingbackrakeangleuptocertainvalue g g p Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect? (a) ( ) 1and3 d (b) 1and2 d (c) 2and3 (d) 1,2and3 Ans.(a) ( )

IAS 1997
In the Taylor's tool life equation, VTn = C, the value I h T l ' l lif i C h l of n = 0.5. The tool has a life of 180 minutes at a cutting speed of 18 m/min. If the tool life is reduced to 45 minutes, then the cutting speed will be , g p (a) 9 m/min (b) 18 m/min (c) ( ) 36 m/min / (d) 72 m/min / Ans. (c)

IAS 1996
Thetoollifeincreaseswiththe Th llif i i h h ( ) (a) Increaseinsidecuttingedgeangle g g g (b) Decreaseinsiderakeangle (c) Decreaseinnoseradius ( ) D i di ( ) (d) Decreaseinbackrakeangle g Ans.(a) ( )

IAS 1995
Inasinglepointturningoperationwithacemented I i l i i i i h d carbideandsteelcombinationhavingaTaylor exponentof0.25,ifthecuttingspeedishalved,then thetoollifewillbecome (a) Half (b) Twotimes (c) Eighttimes g t t es (d) Sixteentimes. Ans.(d)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IAS 1995
Assertion (A): An increase in depth of cut shortens A i (A) A i i d h f h the tool life. Reason(R): Increases in depth of cut gives rise to relatively small increase in tool temperature temperature. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false [Ans. (a)] (d) A is false but R is true
Page 17

IES 2006conventional
An HSS tool is used for turning operation. The A l i d f i i Th tool life is 1 hr. when turning is carried at 30 m/min. The tool life will be reduced to 2.0 min if the tti th cutting speed i d bl d Fi d th suitable d is doubled. Find the it bl p g 3 speed in RPM for turning 300 mm diameter so that tool life is 30 min.

Ans. (36.66 rpm)

ESE1999;IAS2010Conventional
The following equation for tool life was obtained for HSS Th f ll i i f l lif b i df tool. A 60 min tool life was obtained using the following cutting condition VT0.13f0.6d0.3= C. v = 40 m/min, f = 0.25 mm, d = 2.0 mm. Calculate the effect on tool life if , speed, feed and depth of cut are together increased by 25% and also if they are increased individually by 25%; where f = feed, d = depth of cut, v = speed. Ans. 2.3 min, 10.78 min, 21.42 min, 35.85 min

IES2009Conventional
Determine the optimum cutting speed for an D i h i i d f operation on a Lathe machine using the following information: Tool change time: 3 min Tool regrinds time: 3 min Machine running cost Re.0.50 per min Depreciation of tool regrinds Rs 5 0 Rs. 5.0 The constants in the tool life equation are 60 and 0.2 Ans. 26 m/min

ESE2001Conventional
In a certain machining operation with a cutting I i hi i i ih i speed of 50 m/min, tool life of 45 minutes was observed. When the cutting speed was increased to t 100 m/min, th t l lif d / i the tool life decreased t 10 min. d to i g p Estimate the cutting speed for maximum productivity if tool change time is 2 minutes. Ans. Ans 195 m/min

GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(1)
Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary I hi i i llif f d withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner: Cuttingspeed(m/min) Toollife(minutes) 60 81 90 36 Theexponent(n)andconstant(k)oftheTaylor's toollifeequationare (a)n=0.5andk=540 (b)n=1andk=4860 (c)n=1andk=0.74 (d)n0.5andk=1.15 Ans.(a) Ans (a)

GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(2)
Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary I hi i i llif f d withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner: Cuttingspeed(m/min) Toollife(minutes) 60 81 90 36 Whatisthepercentageincreaseintoollifewhen thecuttingspeedishalved? (a)50% (b)200% (c)300% (d)400% Ans.(c)

GATE1999
What is approximate percentage change is Wh i i h i the life, t, of a tool with zero rake angle used in orthogonal cutting when its clearance angle, , i changed f l is h d from 10o t 7o? to (Hint: Flank wear rate is proportional to cot (a) 30 % increase (b) 30%, decrease (c) 70% increase (d) 70% decrease Ans. Ans (b)

GATE2005

IAS 2007Contd
A diagram related to machining economics with di l t d t hi i i ith various cost components is given above. Match List I (Cost Element) with Li t II (A (C t El t) ith List (Appropriate C i t Curve) and ) d select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: th Li t ListI ListII (CostElement) (AppropriateCurve) A. A Machiningcost 1. 1 Curvel B. Toolcost 2. Curve2 C. Toolgrindingcost l d 3. Curve3 D. Nonproductivecost 4. p 4 Curve4 4 5. Curve5
Page 18

Contd. F C d From previous slide i lid

Ans.(b)

Code:A (a) ( ) 3 (c) 3

B 2 1

C 4 4

D 5 2

(b) ( ) (d)

A 4 4

B 1 2

C 3 3

D 2 5

Ans.(a) For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 1998
The variable cost and production rate of a Th i bl d d i f machining process against cutting speed are shown in the given figure. For efficient machining, the range of best cutting speed would be between g g p (a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 5 d (c) 2 and 4 a d (d) 3 and 5

IES 1999
Consider the following approaches normally C id h f ll i h ll applied for the economic analysis of machining: 1. Maximum production rate 2. 2 Maximum profit criterion 3. Minimum cost criterion The correct sequence in ascending order of optimum cutting speed obtained by these approaches is (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 1, 3, 2 (c) 3, 2, 1 (d) 3, 1, 2 Ans. Ans (c)

IES2011
The optimum cutting speed is one which should have: 1. High metal removal rate 2. Hi h cutting tool lif High i l life 3 3. Balance the metal removal rate and cutting tool life (a) 1 2 and 3 1, (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 3 only l Ans. (d) A

Ans.(c)

IES 2000
The magnitude of the cutting speed for maximum Th i d f h i df i profit rate must be (a) In between the speeds for minimum cost and maximum production rate (b) Higher than the speed for maximum production rate (c) Below the speed for minimum cost (d) Equal to the speed for minimum cost Ans. (a)

IES 2004
Consider the following statements: C id th f ll i t t t 1. As the cutting speed increases, the cost of production initially d i i i ll reduces, then after an optimum cutting speed i h f i i d it increases 2. A the cutting speed i As h i d increases the cost of production h f d i also increases and after a critical value it reduces 3. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed reduces cost of production 4. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed increases the cost of production Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ( ) (a) 1 and 3 ( ) (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 3 only [Ans. (a)]

IES 2002
Ineconomicsofmachining,whichoneofthe I i f hi i hi h f h followingcostsremainsconstant? (a) Machiningcostperpiece (b) Toolchangingcostperpiece (c) Toolhandlingcostperpiece (d) Toolcostperpiece

Ans.(c)

IAS 2007
Assertion (A): The optimum cutting speed for the A i (A) Th i i d f h minimum cost of machining may not maximize the profit. Reason (R): The profit also depends on rate of production. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually true and R is the h d d d ll d h correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true [Ans. (a) ]
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IAS 1997
Inturning,theratiooftheoptimumcuttingspeed I i h i f h i i d forminimumcostandoptimumcuttingspeedfor maximumrateofproductionisalways (a) Equalto1 (b) Intherangeof0.6to1 (c) Intherangeof0.1to0.6 (d) Greaterthan1 Ans.(b)
Page 19

IES 2012
The usual method of defining machinability of a Th l h d f d fi i hi bili f material is by an index based on (a) Hardness of work material (b) Production rate of machined parts (c) Surface finish of machined surfaces (d) Tool life Ans. (d)

IES2011Conventional l
Discuss the effects of the following elements on the machinability of steels: (i) Aluminium and silicon (ii) Sulphur and Selenium (iii) Lead and Tin (iv) Carbon and Manganese (v) Molybdenum and Vanadium [5 Marks]

IES 1992
Easeofmachiningisprimarilyjudgedby E f hi i i i il j d db ( ) (a) Lifeofcuttingtoolbetweensharpening g p g (b) Rigidityofworkpiece (c) Microstructureoftoolmaterial ( ) Mi f l i l ( ) (d) Shapeanddimensionsofwork p Ans.(a) ( )

IES 2007,2009
Considerthefollowing: C id h f ll i 1. Toollife 2. Cuttingforces 3. S f fi i h Surfacefinish Whichoftheaboveis/arethemachinability / y criterion/criteria? (a) d ( ) 1,2and3 (b) 1and3only d l (c) 2and3only y (d) 2only y Ans.(a) A ( )

ISRO2007
Machinablity depends on (a) Microstructure, physical and mechanical properties and composition of workpiece material. i d ii f k i i l ( ) (b) Cutting forces g (c) Type of chip (d) T l lif Tool life Ans. (a)

IES 2003
Assertion (A): The machinability of steels improves A ti (A) Th hi bilit f t l i by adding sulphur to obtain so called 'Free Machining Steels. M hi i St l Reason (R): Sulphur in steel forms manganese sulphide inclusion which helps to produce thin ribbon like continuous chip. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the co ect e p a at o o correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true Ans. ( ) (c)

IES 2009
The elements which, added to steel, help in chip Th l hi h dd d l h l i hi formation during machining are (a) Sulphur, lead and phosphorous (b) Sulphur lead and cobalt Sulphur, (c) Aluminium, lead and copper (d) Aluminium, titanium and copper Ans. (a)

IES 1998
Considerthefollowingcriteriainevaluating C id h f ll i i i i l i machinability: 1. Surfacefinish 2. Typeofchips 3. 3 Toollife 4. 4 Powerconsumption InmodernhighspeedCNCmachiningwithcoated carbidetools,thecorrectsequenceofthesecriteria inDECREASINGorderoftheirimportanceis CR S G o de o t e po ta ce s (a) 1,2,4,3 (b) 2,1,4,3 (c) ( ) 1,2,3,4 (d) 2,1,3,4 Ans.(c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 1996
Which of the following Whi h f h f ll i machinability? 1. Smaller shear angle 2. 2 Higher cutting forces 3. Longer tool life 4. Better surface finish. (a) ( ) 1 and 3 d (b) 2 and 4 d (c) 1 and 2 (d) 3 and 4 Ans. (d) A
Page 20

IES 1996
indicate i di better b Small amounts of which one of the following S ll f hi h f h f ll i elements/pairs of elements is added to steel to increase its machinability? (a) Nickel (b) Sulphur and phosphorus (c) Silicon (d) Manganese and copper

Ans. (b)

IES 1995
Inlowcarbonsteels,presenceofsmallquantities I l b l f ll ii sulphur improves (a) Weldability (b) Formability (c) Machinability (d) Hardenability

IES 1992
Machiningoftitaniumisdifficultdueto M hi i f i i i diffi l d ( ) (a) Highthermalconductivityoftitanium g y (b) Chemicalreactionbetweentoolandwork (c) Lowtoolchipcontactarea ( ) L l hi ( ) (d) Noneoftheabove

IAS 1996
Assertion(A):Themachinabilityofamaterialcan A i (A) Th hi bili f i l bemeasuredasanabsolutequantity. Reason(R):Machinabilityindexindicatesthecase withwhichamaterialcanbemachined (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe correctexplanationofA l f (b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot the ot a d R a e d v dua y t ue but R s ot t e correctexplanationofA (c) AistruebutRisfalse ( ) Ai t b tRi f l (d) AisfalsebutRistrue Ans.(d)

Ans.(c)

Ans.(b)

GATE2009
Frictionatthetoolchipinterfacecanbe F i i h l hi i f b reducedby (a)decreasingtherakeangle (b)increasingthedepthofcut (c)Decreasingthecuttingspeed ( )D i th tti d (d)increasingthecuttingspeed Ans.(d)
Ans.(b) Ans (b)

IES 2002
The value of surface roughness 'h' obtained during Th l f f h b i dd i the turning operating at a feed 'f' with a round nose tool having radius 'r' is given as

IAS 1996
Given that Gi h / S = feed in mm/rev. and R = nose radius in mm, the maximum h i h of surface roughness Hmax h i height f f h produced by a singlepoint turning tool is given by (a) S2/2R (b) S2/ R /4R (c) S2/4R (d) S2/8R Ans. (d) A

IES 1999
In turning operation, the feed could be doubled to I i i h f d ld b d bl d increase the metal removal rate. To keep the same level of surface finish, the nose radius of the tool should be (a) Halved (b) Kept unchanged (c) doubled ( ) d bl d (d) Made f d four times Ans. (d) s.

GATE 1997
Acuttingtoolhasaradiusof1.8mm.Thefeedrate A i lh di f 8 Th f d foratheoreticalsurfaceroughnessofRa =5mis (a) 0.36mm/rev (b) 0 187mm/rev 0.187mm/rev (c) 0.036mm/rev (d) 0.0187mm/rev Ans.(none)

GATE 2007(PI) ( )
A tool with Side Cutting Edge angle of 30o and t l ith Sid C tti Ed l f d End Cutting Edge angle of 10o is used for fine g g g turning with a feed of 1 mm/rev. Neglecting nose radius of the tool the maximum (peak to valley) tool, height of surface roughness produced will be (a) 0.16 mm (b) 0.26 mm (c) ( ) 0.32 mm (d) 0.48 mm Ans. Ans (a)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 21

wo tools and ave signatures 5566830 Two too s P a d Q have s g atu es 5 5 6 6 8 30 0 and 55778150 (both ASA) respectively. They are used to turn components under the same machining conditions. If hp and hQ denote the peak tovalley h i ht of surfaces produced b th t l P t ll heights f f d d by the tools and Q, the ratio hp/hQ will be

GATE 2005

IES 1993,ISRO2008
For achieving a specific surface finish in single point F hi i ifi f fi i h i i l i turning the most important factor to be controlled is (a) Depth of cut (b) Cutting speed (c) Feed (d) Tool rake angle Ans. Ans (c)

IES 2006
In the selection of optimal cutting conditions, the I h l i f i l i di i h requirement of surface finish would put a limit on which of the following? (a) The maximum feed (b) The maximum depth of cut (c) The maximum speed (d) The maximum number of passes Ans. (a)

tan 8o + cot15o tan 8o + cot 30o tan15 t 15o + cot7o t7 (c ) o tan 30 + cot7o (a)

tan15o + cot 8o tan 30o + cot 8o t 7o + cot15o tan7 t15 (d ) o tan7 + cot 30o (b)
Ans.(b)

GATE2010(PI) ( )
During turning of a low carbon steel bar with TiN coated carbide insert, one need to improve surface finish without sacrificing material removal rate. To achieve improved surface finish, one should (a) decrease nose radius of the cutting tool and increase depth of cut (b) Increase nose radius of the cutting tool (c) Increase feed and decrease nose radius of the cutting tool (d) Increase depth of cut and increase feed [Ans.(b)]

IAS 2009 Main IAS2009Main


Whatareextreme pressurelubricants? Whatareextremepressurelubricants? [3 marks] Where hi h pressures and rubbing action are Wh high d bbi i encountered, hydrodynamic lubrication cannot be maintained; so E i i d Extreme P Pressure (EP) additives must b ddi i be added to the lubricant. EP lubrication is provided by a number of chemical components such as b b f h i l h boron, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, or combination of these. The Th compounds are activated b the hi h temperature d i d by h higher resulting from extreme pressure. As the temperature rises, EP molecules b i l l become reactive and release i d l derivatives such as iron chloride or iron sulfide and forms a solid protective coating. f lid i i

IES 2001
Dry and compressed air is used as cutting fluid for D d d i i d i fl id f machining (a) Steel (b) Aluminium (c) Cast iron (d) Brass Ans. (c)

IES 2012
Themostimportantfunctionofthecuttingfluidis Th i f i f h i fl idi to (a)Providelubrication (b)Coolthetoolandworkpiece (c)Washawaythechips (d)Improvesurfacefinish Ans.(b)

Ch3:CuttingTools,ToolLifeandCuttingFluid
Q. No Q N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Option O ti B A A D D D B A D D A Q. No Q N 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Option O ti C A A B B B A B A B B Q. N Q No 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Option O ti A C C B B A B A C B C

Ch4:EconomicsofMachiningOperation
Q. No Q N 1 2 3 4 5 Option O ti C B A C A Q. No Q N 6 7 8 9 Option O ti B A C A

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 22

IES2011

GATE2003
Cold working of steel is defined as working C ld ki f l i d fi d ki ( ) (a) At its recrystallisation temperature y p (b) Above its recrystallisation temperature (c) Below its ( ) B l i recrystallisation temperature lli i ( ) (d) At two thirds of the melting temperature of the g p metal Ans. (c)

g MetalForming
BySKMondal

Assertion (A): Lead, Zinc and Tin are always hot worked. Reason (R) : If they are worked in cold state they cannot retain their mechanical properties properties. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) ( ) A is true b R is f l but false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (b)

GATE2002,ISRO2012
Hot rolling of mild steel is carried out H lli f ild li i d ( ) (a) At recrystallisation temperature y p (b) Between 100C to 150C (c) Below ( ) B l recrystallisation temperature lli i ( ) (d) Above recrystallisation temperature y p Ans. (d)

ISRO2010 ISRO 2010


Materials after cold working are subjected to M t i l ft ld ki bj t d t following process to relieve stresses (a) Hot ( ) H working ki (b) Tempering (c) Normalizing (d) Annealing Ans. (d)
Ans. (c)

IES 2006
Which one of the following is the process to refine Whi h f h f ll i i h fi the grains of metal after it has been distorted by hammering or cold working? (a) Annealing (b) Softening (c) Recrystallizing (d) Normalizing

IES 2004
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i p g, g, In comparison to hot working, in cold working, 1. Higher forces are required 2. N h i i required No heating is i d 3 3. Less ductility is required y q 4. Better surface finish is obtained Which of the statements given above are correct? h h f h b (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 2, 3 and 4 Ans. ( ) (b)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2009
Consider the following characteristics: C id h f ll i h i i y g y 1. Porosity in the metal is largely eliminated. 2. Strength is decreased. 3. Cl Close tolerances cannot b maintained. l be i i d g / Which of the above characteristics of hot working is/are correct? (a) ( ) 1 only l (b) 3 only l (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3 Ans. (d)
Page 23

IES 2008
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i g 1. Metal forming decreases harmful effects of impurities and improves mechanical strength. 2. 2 Metal working process is a plastic deformation process. 3. Very intricate shapes can be produced by forging p ocess co pa ed cast g p ocess. process as compared to casting process. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) ( ) 1, 2 and 3 d (b) 1 and 2 only d l (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only Ans. (b)

IES 2008
Cold forging results in improved quality due to C ld f i l i i d li d which of the following? 1. Better mechanical properties of the process. 2. 2 Unbroken grain flow flow. 3. Smoother finishes. 4. High pressure. Select the S l t th correct answer using th code given b l t i the d i below: (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4 (c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4 Ans. (a)

IES 2004
Assertion (A): Cold working of metals results in A i (A) C ld ki f l l i increase of strength and hardness Reason (R): Cold working reduces the total number of dislocations per unit volume of the material (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (c) (d) A is false but R is true

IES 2003
Cold working produces the following effects: C ld ki d h f ll i ff p 1. Stresses are set up in the metal 2. Grain structure gets distorted 3. S Strength and h d h d hardness of the metal are d f h l decreased d 4 4. Surface finish is reduced Which of these statements are correct? (a) ( ) 1 and 2 d (b) 1, 2 and 3 d (c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 4 Ans. (a)

IES 2000
Assertion (A): To obtain large deformations by cold A i (A) T b i l d f i b ld working intermediate annealing is not required. Reason (R): Cold working is performed below the recrystallisation temperature of the work material material. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (d) (d) A is false but R is true

ISRO2009
In the metal forming process, the stresses encountered are (a) Greater than yield strength b ( ) G h i ld h but l less than h ultimate strength (b) Less than yield strength of the material (c) Greater than the ultimate strength of the material (d) Less than the elastic limit Ans. Ans (a)

IES 1997
In metals subjected to cold working, strain I l bj d ld ki i hardening effect is due to (a) Slip mechanism (b) Twining mechanism (c) Dislocation mechanism (d) Fracture mechanism Ans. (c)

IES 1996
Considerthefollowingstatements: C id h f ll i y Whenametaloralloyiscoldworked 1. Itisworkedbelowroomtemperature. 2. I i Itisworkedbelowrecrystallisation temperature. k db l lli i 3 3. Itshardnessandstrengthincrease. g 4. Itshardnessincreasesbutstrengthdoesnot increase. Ofthesecorrectstatementsare (a) 1and4 (b) 1and3 (c) d ( ) 2and3 (d) 2and4 d Ans.(c) A ( )
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2006
Assertion (A): In case of hot working of metals, the A i (A) I f h ki f l h temperature at which the process is finally stopped should not b above the recrystallisation temperature. h ld be b h ll Reason (R): If the process is stopped above the ( ) p pp recrystallisation temperature, grain growth will take p place again and spoil the attained structure. g p (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A l i f (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (d) Page 24

IES 1992
Specify the sequence correctly S if h l ( ) (a) Grain growth, recrystallisation, stress relief g , y , (b) Stress relief, grain growth, recrystallisation (c) Stress relief, recrystallisation, grain growth ( ) S li f lli i i h ( ) (d) Grain growth, stress relief, recrystallisation g , , y Ans. ( ) (c)

IAS 1996
For mild steel, the hot forging temperature range is F ild l h h f i i ( ) 4 (a) 4000C to 6000C (b) 7000C to 9000C (c) ( ) 10000C to 12000C ( ) 3 (d) 13000Cto 15000C 5 Ans. ( ) (c)

IAS 2004
Assertion (A): Hot working does not produce strain A i (A) H ki d d i hardening. Reason (R): Hot working is done above the re crystallization temperature temperature. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (a) (d) A is false but R is true

IAS2002
Assertion (A): There is good grain refinement in hot A i (A) Th i d i fi i h working. Reason (R): In hot working physical properties are generally improved improved. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (b) Ulta hai. Assertion reason me hona chaihe.

IES2008
Which one of the following is correct? Whi h f h f ll i i ? Malleability is the property by which a metal or y p p y y alloy can be plastically deformed by applying (a) Tensile stress (b) Bending stress (c) Shear stress (d) Compressive stress Ans. (d) A

ISRO2006
Which f the following Whi h of th f ll i processes would produce ld d

g Rolling
BySKMondal

strongest components? (a) Hot rolling ( ) (b) Extrusion ( ) (c) Cold rolling g (d) Forging Ans. (c)

ISRO2009
Ring rolling is used (a) To decrease the thickness and increase diameter di ( ) (b) To increase the thickness of a ring g (c) For producing a seamless tube (d) F producing l For d i large cylinder li d Ans. (a)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2006
Which one of the following is a continuous bending Whi h f h f ll i i i b di process in which opposing rolls are used to produce long sections of formed shapes from coil or strip stock? (a) Stretch forming (b) Roll forming (c) ( ) Roll b d ll bending (d) S Spinning Ans. (c)

GATE 2009(PI) GATE 2009 (PI)


Anisotropy i rolled components i caused b A i t in ll d t is d by (a) changes in dimensions (b) scale formation (c) closure of defects (d) grain orientation Ans. (d) s.

Page 25

GATE2008
In a single pass rolling operation, a 20 mm thick I i l lli i hi k plate with plate width of 100 mm, is reduced to 18 mm. The roller radius is 250 mm and rotational speed is 10 rpm. The average flow stress for the plate p p g p material is 300 MPa. The power required for the rolling operation in kW is closest to (a) 15.2 (b) 18.2 (c) 30 4 30.4 (d) 45.6 Ans. (a)

GATE2007
The thickness of a metallic sheet is reduced from an Th hi k f lli h i d df initial value of 16 mm to a final value of 10 mm in one single pass rolling with a pair of cylindrical rollers each of diameter of 400 mm. The bite angle 4 g in degree will be (a) 5.936 936 (b) 7.936 (c) 8.936 (d) 9.936 6 Ans. (d) A

GATE2004
In a rolling process, sheet of 25 mm thickness is I lli h f hi k i rolled to 20 mm thickness. Roll is of diameter 600 mm and it rotates at 100 rpm. The roll strip contact length will be g (a) 5 mm (b) 39 mm (c) ( ) 78 mm (d) 120 mm Ans. (b)

GATE1998
A strip with a crosssection 150 mm x 4.5 mm is i ih i i being rolled with 20% reduction of area using 450 mm diameter rolls. The angle subtended by the deformation zone at the roll centre is (in radian) ( ) (a) 0.01 (b) 0.02 (c) ( ) 0.03 (d) 0.06 Ans. (d) it is in radian.

GATE 2012SameQinGATE 2012(PI)


In a single pass rolling process using 410 mm diameter steel rollers, a strip of width 140 mm and thickness 8 mm undergoes 10% reduction of h k d % d f thickness. thickness The angle of bite in radians is ( ) (a) 0.006 (c) 0.062 ( ) (b) 0.031 3 (d) 0.600

GATE2006
A 4 mm thick sheet is rolled with 300 mm diameter hi k h i ll d i h di rolls to reduce thickness without any charge in its width. The friction coefficient at the workroll interface is 0.1. The minimum possible thickness of p the sheet that can be produced in a single pass is (a) 1 0 mm 1.0 (b) 1 mm 1.5 (c) 2.5 mm (d) 3.7 mm Ans. ( ) fi d hmin A (c) find

Ans. (c)

GATE 2011(PI)
The thickness of a plate is reduced from 30 mm to 10 mm by successive cold rolling passes using y g p g identical rolls of diameter 600 mm. Assume that there is no change in width If the coefficient of width. friction between the rolls and the work piece is 0.1, the minimum number of passes required is (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) ( )6 (d) 7 Ans. (d)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2003
Assertion (A): While rolling metal sheet in rolling A ti (A) Whil lli t l h ti lli mill, the edges are sometimes not straight and flat but b t are wavy. Reason (R): Nonuniform mechanical properties of the flat material rolled out result in waviness of the edges. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the co ect e p a at o o correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true Ans. ( ) (c)
Page 26

IES 2002
In rolling a strip between two I lli i b the neutral point in the arc depend on (a) Amount of reduction (b) (c) Coefficient of friction (d) Ans. (d) s. rolls, the position of ll h ii f of contact does not Diameter of the rolls Material of the rolls

IES 2001
Which of the following assumptions are correct for Whi h f th f ll i ti tf cold rolling? 1. The material is plastic. 2. The arc of contact is circular with a radius greater than g the radius of the roll. 3. 3 Coefficient of friction is constant over the arc of contact and acts in one direction throughout the arc of contact. contact Select the correct answer using the codes given below: Codes: d ( ) (a) 1 and 2 ( ) (b) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (a)

IES 2001
A strip is to be rolled from a thickness of 30 mm to i i b ll d f hi k f 15 mm using a twohigh mill having rolls of diameter 300 mm. The coefficient of friction for unaided bite should nearly be y (a) 0.35 (b) 0.5 (c) ( ) 0.25 (d) 0.07

GATE2008(PI)
In a rolling process, thickness of a strip is reduced from 4 mm to 3 mm using 300 mm d diameter rolls rotating at 100 ll rpm. rpm The velocity of the strip in (m/s) at the neutral point is ( ) 57 (a) 1.57 ( )3 4 (b) 3.14 ( ) 47 (c) 47.10 ( ) 94 (d) 94.20

Ans. (a)

IES 2000,GATE2010(PI)
In the rolling process, roll separating force can be I h lli ll i f b decreased by (a) Reducing the roll diameter (b) Increasing the roll diameter (c) Providing backup rolls (d) Increasing the friction between the rolls and the metal Ans. (a)

IES 1999
Assertion (A): In a two high rolling mill there is a A i (A) I hi h lli ill h i limit to the possible reduction in thickness in one pass. Reason (R): The reduction possible in the second pass is less than that in the first pass. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually true and R is the h d d d ll d h correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (b)

IES 1993
In order to get uniform thickness of the plate by I d if hi k f h l b rolling process, one provides (a) Camber on the rolls (b) Offset on the rolls (c) Hardening of the rolls (d) Antifriction bearings Ans. (a)

IES 1993
The blank diameter used in thread rolling will be Th bl k di d i h d lli ill b ( ) q (a) Equal to minor diameter of the thread (b) Equal to pitch diameter of the thread (c) ( ) A li l l little large than the minor di h h i diameter of the thread f h h d ( ) (d) A little larger than the pitch diameter of the thread g p Ans. (d)

IES 1992
Threadrollingisrestrictedto Th d lli i i d ( ) (a) Ferrousmaterials (b) Ductilematerials (c) Hardmaterials ( ) H d i l ( ) (d) Noneoftheabove Ans.(b) (b)

IAS 2004
Assertion (A): Rolling requires high friction which A i (A) R lli i hi h f i i hi h increases forces and power consumption. Reason (R): To prevent damage to the surface of the rolled products lubricants should be used products, used. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (c) (d) A is false but R is true

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 27

IAS 2001
Consider the following characteristics of rolling C id h f ll i h i i f lli process: 1. Shows work hardening effect 2. 2 Surface finish is not good 3. Heavy reduction in areas can be obtained Which of these characteristics are associated with hot rolling? (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (c)

IAS 2000
Rollingverythinstripsofmildsteelrequires R lli hi i f ild l i ( ) (a) Largediameterrolls g (b) Smalldiameterrolls (c) Highspeedrolling ( ) Hi h d lli ( ) (d) Rollingwithoutalubricant g Ans.(b) ( )

IAS 1998
Match List I (products) with List II (processes) M h Li ( d ) i h Li ( ) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: List I List II II A. M.S. angles and channels 1. Welding B. Carburetors 2. Forging C. C Roof trusses 3. 3 Casting D. Gear wheels 4. Rolling [Ans.(d)] Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 1 2 4 3 (d) 4 3 1 2

IAS 2007
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using M t h Li t ith Li t d l t th t i the code given below the Lists: List I List II (Type of Rolling Mill) (Characteristic) A. Two high A T hi h nonreversing mills 1. Middl roll rotates b f i ti i ill Middle ll t t by friction B. Three high mills 2. By small working roll, power for rolling is reduced C. Four high mills 3. Rolls of equal size are rotated only in one direction D. Cluster mills 4. Diameter of working roll is very small Ans.(d) A (d) Code:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 4 2 1 (b) 2 1 3 4 (c) 2 4 3 1 (d) 3 1 2 4

IAS 2003
In one setting of rolls in a 3high rolling mill, one I i f ll i hi h lli ill gets (a) One reduction in thickness (b) Two reductions in thickness (c) Three reductions in thickness (d) Two or three reductions in thickness depending upon the setting Ans. (b)

IAS 2007
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i g y Roll forces in rolling can be reduced by 1. Reducing friction 2. U i Using l large di diameter rolls to i ll increase the contact h area. 3. Taking smaller reductions per pass to reduce the contact area area. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1 2 and 3 1, Ans. Ans (c)

GATE2011
The maximum possible draft in cold rolling of sheet increases with the (a) increase in coefficient of friction (b) d decrease i coefficient of f i i in ffi i f friction ( ) (c) decrease in roll radius (d) increase in roll velocity Ans. (a) s

AssumptionsinRolling
1. Rolls are straight, rigid cylinders. R ll i h i id li d 2. Strip is wide compared with its thickness, so that no p p ,

[ForIESConventionalOnly]

widening of strip occurs (plane strain conditions). 3. 3 The arc of contact is circular with a radius greater than the radius of the roll. 4. The material is rigid perfectly plastic (constant yield st e gt ). strength). 5. The coefficient of friction is constant over the tool work i t f k interface.

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 28

StressEquilibriumofanElementinRolling

For sliding friction, x = p Simplifying and neglecting second order terms, sin and cos = 1 we get d d t i d 1, t d ( x h ) = 2 pR ( ) d 2 p x = 0 = 0' 3 d ' h ( p 0 ) = 2 pR ( ) d d ' p 0 h ' 1 = 2 pR ( ) d 0 d p 0' h ' d 0

' Due to cold rolling, 0 increases as h decreases, ' thus 0 h nearly a constant and itsderivative zero.

d ( p / 0' ) 2R d = ( ) ' p /0 h h = h f + 2 R (1 cos ) h f + R 2


' d ( p /0 )

Considering the thickness of the element perpendicular to the plane of paper to be unity We get equilibrium equation in x unity, x direction as, - x h + ( x +d x ) (h + dh) - 2pR d sin
+ 2 x R d cos = 0
I=

( p / )
' 0

2R ( ) d h f + R 2

p d ( 0' h ) = 2 pR ( ) + ' 1 0 d

Integrating both side 2 R d ' ln ( p / 0 ) = h f + R 2

2 R d = I II ( say ) 2 f + R

2Rd = 2 f + R

2Rd = h hf + 2 R

h/R

2d

h = ln R

h ln p / '0 = ln 2 R

R .tan 1 hf

R . + ln C h f

Now h / R = or

d h = 2 d R

h p = C '0 e H R R .tan 1 hf R . hf

h In the entry zone, p = C. '0 o e Ho y , R R Ho and C = .e ho p = '0 h H H . e ( 0 ) h0

where H = 2

2R R II = d h f + R2 = 2 h f / R + 2 d R R .tan 1 . h hf f

Now at entry , = Hence H = H0 with replaced by in above equation At exit = 0 Therefor p =


' 0

In the it I th exit zone h p = '0 .eH hf At the neutral po int above equations will give same results

= 2

hn h H H . e ( 0 n ) = n . e Hn h0 hf or ho H 2H = e ( 0 n) hf

If back tension b is there at Entry Entry, p = ( b ) o h H H . e ( 0 ) h0 h . e H hf

IFS 2010 IFS 2010


Calculate the neutral plane to roll 250 mm wide annealed copper strip from 2.5 mm to 2.0 mm thickness with 350 mm diameter steel rolls Take = rolls. 0.05 and o =180 MPa. [10marks] [10 marks]

h 1 1 or Hn = H0 ln 0 2 hf R . h f h f Hn hf n = .tan . R 2 R and h n = h f + 2R (1 cos n ) From H = 2 R .tan 1 hf


For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

If front tension f is there at Exit, p = ( f ) o

Page 29

RollingCh14
Q.No Q No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Option C B D D A A B D C C B C

GATE2010(PI)

Forging
BySKMondal y

Hot die steel, used for large solid dies in drop forging, should necessarily h h ld l have (a) high ( ) hi h strength and hi h copper content h d high (b) hi h h d high hardness and l h d d low hardenability bilit (c) high toughness and low thermal conductivity (d) high hardness and high thermal conductivity Ans. Ans (c)

IFS2011
What advantages does press forging have over drop forging ? Why are pure metals more easily cold worked g g y p y than alloys ? [5marks]

IAS2011Main IAS2011 Main


Compare S ith f i C Smith forging, d drop f i forging, press forging and upset forging Mention three points forging. for each. [10 Marks]

IES 2007 IES


Sometimes th parting plane b t S ti the ti l between t two f i forging dies is not a horizontal plane give the main reason plane, for this design aspect, why is parting plane g p y p g p provided, in closed die forging? [2marks]

GATE2007
In opendie forging, a disc of diameter 200 mm and I di f i di f di d height 60 mm is compressed without any barreling effect. The final diameter of the disc is 400 mm. The true strain is (a) 1.986 (b) 1.686 (c) ( ) 1.386 (d) 0.602 Ans. (c)

GATE1992,ISRO2012
Thetruestrainforalowcarbonsteelbarwhichis doubledinlengthbyforgingis (a) 0.307 (b) 0.5 (c) 0 693 0.693 (d) 1.0 Ans.(c) Ans (c)

GATE2012SameQGATE2012(PI)
A solid cylinder of diameter 100 mm and height 50 mm is f forged b d between two f frictionless fl d l flat dies to a height of 25 mm The percentage change in mm. diameter is ( ) (a)0 ( ) (b)2.07 7 ( ) (c)20.7 7 ( )4 4 (d)41.4

Ans.(d)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 30

IES 2006
Assertion (A): Forging dies are provided with taper A i (A) F i di id d i h or draft angles on vertical surfaces. Reason (R): It facilitates complete filling of die cavity and favourable grain flow flow. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (c) (d) A is false but R is true

IES 2005
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i
1. Forging reduces the grain size of the metal, which g g g ,

IES 1996
Which one of the following is an advantage of Whi h f h f ll i i d f forging? (a) Good surface finish (b) Low tooling cost (c) Close tolerance (d) Improved physical property Ans. (d)

results in a decrease in strength and toughness. 2. 2 Forged components can be provided with thin sections, without reducing the strength. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) Only 1 (b) Only 2 (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans. (b)

IES 2012
Which of the following statements is correct for forging? Whi h f h f ll i i f f i ? ( ) (a) Forgeability is property of forging tool, by which g y p p y g g , y forging can be done easily. (b) Forgeability decreases with temperature upto lower critical temperature. (c) Certain mechanical properties of the material are influenced by forging. ue ced o g g. (d) Pure metals have good malleability, therefore, poor forging f i properties. ti Ans. (c)

Statement (I): It is difficult to maintain close tolerance in normal forging operation. Statement (II): Forging is workable for simple shapes and has limitation for parts having undercuts undercuts. (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually i di id ll true and S d Statement (II) i the correct is h explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are y individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true Ans. (b) A

IES IES 2012

IES 1993
Which one of the following manufacturing Whi h f h f ll i f i processes requires the provision of gutters? (a) Closed die forging (b) Centrifugal casting (c) Investment casting (d) Impact extrusion Ans. (a)

IES 1997
Assertion (A): In drop forging besides the provision A ti (A) I d f i b id th i i for flash, provision is also to be made in the forging die for dditi di f additional space called gutter. l ll d tt Reason (R): The gutter helps to restrict the outward flow of metal thereby helping to fill thin ribs and bases in the upper die. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the co ect e p a at o o correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true Ans. ( ) (c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2003
A forging method for reducing the diameter of a bar f i h df d i h di f b and in the process making it longer is termed as (a) Fullering (b) Punching (c) Upsetting (d) Extruding Ans. (a)

IES 2002
Consider the following steps involved in hammer C id h f ll i i l d i h forging a connecting rod from bar stock: 1. Blocking 2. Trimming 3. 3 Finishing 4 4. Fullering 5. 5 Edging Which of the following is the correct sequence of operations? (a) 1 4 3 2 and 5 1, 4, 3, (b) 4, 5, 1, 3 and 2 (c) 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 (d) 5 1 4 2 and 3 5, 1, 4, Ans. (b)

Page 31

IES 2003
Consider the following steps in forging a connecting C id h f ll i i f i i rod from the bar stock: 1. Blocking 2. Trimming 3. 3 Finishing 4 4. Edging Select the correct sequence of these operations using the codes given below: Codes: (a) 1234 (b) 2341 (c) 3412 (d) 4132 Ans. Ans (d)

IES 2005
The process of removing the burrs or flash from a Th f i h b fl h f forged component in drop forging is called: (a) Swaging (b) Perforating (c) Trimming (d) Fettling Ans. (c)

IES2011
Which of the following processes belong to forging operation ? p 1. Fullering 2. S Swaging i 3 3. Welding g (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only d l (c) 1 and 3 only a d o y (b) 1, 2 and 3 only Ans. (a)

IES 2008
The balls of the ball bearings are manufactured Th b ll f h b ll b i f d from steel rods. The operations involved are: 1. Ground 2. 2 Hot forged on hammers 3. Heat treated 4. Polished What is the Wh t i th correct sequence of th above t f the b operations from start? (a) 3241 (b) 3214 (c) 2314 (d) 2341 Ans. (None) Correct sequence is 2 1 3 4

IES 2001
Intheforgingoperation,fullering isdoneto I h f i i f ll i i d ( ) (a) Drawoutthematerial (b) Bendthematerial (c) Upsetthematerial ( ) U h i l ( ) (d) Extrudingthematerial g Ans.(a) ( )

IES2011
Consider the following statements : 1. 1 Any metal will require some time to undergo complete plastic deformation particularly if deforming metal has to fill cavities and corners of small radii radii. 2. For larger work piece of metals that can retain toughness at forging temperature it is preferable to use forge press rather than forge hammer. g p g (a) 1 and 2 are correct and 2 is the reason for 1 (b) 1 and 2 are correct and 1 is the reason f 2 d d h for (c) 1 and 2 are correct but unrelated (d) 1 only correct Ans. (b)

IES 2008 IES 2005


Match List I (Type of Forging) with List II (Operation) M t h Li t (T f F i ) ith Li t (O ti ) and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: List I List II A. Drop F i A D Forging 1. Metal is i M l i gripped i the di and d in h dies d pressure is applied on the heated end B. Press Forging 2. Squeezing action p g g 3 p C. Upset Forging 3. Metal is placed between rollers and pushed D. Roll Forging 4. Repeated hammer blows Ans.(c) g g 4 p A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 4 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4 For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)
Match ListI i h ListII d l M h Li I with Li II and select the correct answer using h i the code given below the lists: ListI(Forging ListII(Process) Li I(F i Li II(P ) Technique) A.SmithForging B.DropForging B DropForging C.PressForging D.Machine Forging Code: A (a) 2 (c) ( ) 2 B 3 1 1. Materialisonlyupsettogetthedesiredshape 2. 2 Carriedoutmanuallyopendies 3. Done in closed impression dies by hammers in blows i bl 4. Done in closed impression dies by continuous squeezing force C 4 4 D 1 3 (b) (d) ( ) A 4 4 B 3 1 C 2 2 D 1 3
Ans.(a)

IES 1998
Which one of the following processes is most Whi h f h f ll i i commonly used for the forging of bolt heads of hexagonal shape? (a) Closed die drop forging (b) Open die upset forging (c) Close die press forging (d) Open die progressive forging Ans. (c)

Page 32

IES 1994,ISRO2010
In drop forging, forging is done by dropping I d f i f i i d b d i ( ) (a) The work piece at high velocity p g y (b) The hammer at high velocity. (c) The die i h hammer at hi h velocity ( ) Th di with h high l i ( ) (d) a weight on hammer to produce the requisite g p q impact. Ans. (c)

IAS 2003
Match List I (Forging Operation) with List II (View of the M h Li (F i O i ) i h Li (Vi f h Forging Operation) and select the correct answer using the codes given b l d i below th li t the lists: ListI ListII (Forging Operation) (View of the Forging Operation) g g (A) Edging 1. 1 2. (B) Fullering (C) Drawing 3. 4. (D) Swaging Codes:A C d A B C D A B C D (a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 2 1 4 3 (c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 2 3 4 1
Ans.(a)

IAS 2001
Match List I (Forging operations) with List II (Descriptions) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Flattening 1. Thickness is reduced continuously at different sections along l diff i l length h B. Drawing 2. Metal is displaced away from centre, reducing thickness in middle and increasing length C. Fullering g 3 3. Rod is pulled through a die p g D. Wire drawing 4. Pressure a workpiece between two flat dies Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 1 4 (b) 4 1 2 3 (c) ( ) 3 1 2 4 (d) ( ) 4 2 1 3
Ans.(b)

IAS 2000
Drop forging is used to produce D f i i d d ( ) (a) Small components p (b) Large components (c) Identical Components i l ( ) Id i l C in large numbers b ( ) (d) Mediumsize components p

IAS 1998
The forging defect due to hindrance to smooth flow Th f i d f d hi d h fl of metal in the component called 'Lap' occurs because (a) The corner radius provided is too large (b) The corner radius provided is too small (c) Draft is not provided (d) The shrinkage allowance is inadequate

IAS 2002
Considerthefollowingstatementsrelatedto C id h f ll i l d forging: 1. Flashisexcessmaterialaddedtostockwhichflows aroundpartingline. aroundpartingline 2. Flashhelpsinfillingofthinribsandbossesinupper die. 3. Amountofflashdependsuponforgingforce. ou t o as depe ds upo o g g o ce. Whichoftheabovestatementsarecorrect? (a) ( ) 1,2and3 (b) 1and2 d d (c) 1and3 (d) 2and3 Ans.(b)

Ans. (a) Ans. Ans (b)

IES2011
Assertion (A) : Hot tears occur during forging ( ) d f because of inclusions in the blank material Reason (R) : Bonding between the inclusions p g p y and the parent material is through physical and chemical bonding. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) ( ) A is true b R is f l but false ( ) (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c) ( )
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Matchthefollowing Group1 P. P Wrinkling Q.Centreburst R.Barrelling S.Coldshut S C ld h t

GATE2008(PI) GATE 2008 (PI)


Group2 1.Upsetting 1 Upsetting 2.Deepdrawing 3.Extrusion 4.Closeddieforging Cl ddi f i (b)P 3,Q 4,R 1,S2 (d)P 2,Q 4,R 3,S 1 (d)P 2 Q 4 R 3 S1 Ans.(c)

IES 2005Conventional
A strip of lead with initial dimensions 24 mm x 24 mm x 150 mm is f forged b d between two fl d flat dies to a final size of 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm If the mm. coefficient of friction is 0.25, determine the maximum forging force. The average yield stress of lead in tension is 7 N/mm2 [10] Will be discussed in class

(a)P 2,Q 3,R 4,S1 (c)P 2,Q 3,R 1,S 4 (c)P 2 Q 3 R 1 S4

Page 33

IES 2007Conventional l
A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is li d f h i h 6 d di i forged at room temperature between two flat dies. Find the die load at the end of compression to a height 30 mm, using slab method of analysis. The yield strength of , g y y g the work material is given as 120 N/mm2 and the coefficient of friction is 0 05 Assume that volume is 0.05. constant after deformation. There is no sticking. Also find fi d mean di pressure. die [20Marks] [ M k ] Will be discussed in class

IES 2006 Conventional l


A certain disc of lead of radius 150 mm and thickness 50 i di f l d f di d hi k mm is reduced to a thickness of 25 mm by open die forging. If the coefficient of friction between the job and die is 0.25, determine the maximum forging force. The 5, g g average shear yield stress of lead can be taken as 4 N/mm2. [10 Marks] Will be discussed in class

PracticeProblem1 bl
A strip of metal with initial dimensions 24 mm x 24 mm x 150 mm i f is forged b t d between t fl t di t a fi l size of two flat dies to final i f 6 mm x 96 mm x 150 mm If the coefficient of friction is mm. 0.05, determine the maximum forging force. Take the 5 g g average yield strength in tension is 7 N/mm2

[Ans. 178.24 kN]

PracticeProblem2 bl
A circular disc of 200 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height is h i ht i compressed b t d between t fl t di t a h i ht of two flat dies to height f 50 mm Coefficient of friction is 0 1 and average yield mm. 0.1 strength in compression is 230 MPa. Determine the g p 3 maximum die pressure.

PracticeProblem3 bl
A cylindrical specimen 150 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height is upsetted by open die forging to a height of 50 mm. Coefficient of friction is 0.2 and flow curve equation is
f = 1030
0.17

PracticeProblem4 bl
A circular disc of 200 mm in diameter and 70 mm in height is forged to 40 mm in height Coefficient of height. friction is 0.05. The flow curve equation of the material 5 q is given by
f = 200(0.01 + ) 0.41 MPa

MPa . Calculate the maximum

. Determine maximum

forging force. [Ans. 46.26 MN]

forging load, mean die pressure and maximum pressure. [ Ans. 9.771 MN, 178 MPa, 221 MPa] [Hint. Fi [Hi First calculate true strain and put the value i l l i d h l in the equation
f = 200(0.01 + ) 0.41 = y
0.17

[Ans. 405 MPa]

[Hint. Fi [Hi First calculate true strain and put the value i l l i d h l in the equation
f = 1030
=y

Practice Problem 5 {GATE 2010 (PI)} PracticeProblem5{GATE2010(PI)}


During open die forging process using two flat and parallel dies, a solid circular steel disc of initial radius (R IN ) 200 mm and initial height (H IN ) 50 mm attains a height (H FN ) of 30 mm and radius of R FN . Along the die-disc interfaces.
R IN i. the coefficient of friction ( ) is: = 0.35 1 + e RFN ii. in the region R ss r RFN ,sliding friction prevails, and 2

Contd. Contd

PracticeProblem5{GATE2010(PI)}
iii.In the region 0 r R SS ,sticking condition prevails The value of R SS (in mm), where sticking condition changes to sliding friction, is ( ) (a) 241.76 (b) 254.55 ( ) ( ) 265.45 (c) ( ) 278.20 (d)

Ch15:Forging
Q. No Q N 1 2 3 4 5 Option O ti A A A A B Q. No Q N 6 7 8 9 Option O ti B C C C

p = 3Ke H FN and = p, where p and are the normal and shear stresses, respectively; K i the shear yield strength of steel and r is th radial distance is th h i ld t th f t l d i the di l di t of any point (contd ........) For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

( RFN r )

Ans.(b)

Page 34

Extrusion&Drawing
How are

IAS2010Main
metal toothpaste tubes made commercially ? Draw the tools configuration with the help of a neat sketch. [30Marks] [ k ]

IES2009Conventional

BySKMondal

IES 2011Conventional
A 12.5 mm diameter rod is to be reduced to 10 mm d d b d d diameter by drawing in a single pass at a speed of 100 m/min. Assuming a semi die angle of 5o and coefficient of friction between the die and steel rod as 0.15, calculate: () (i) The power required in drawing p q g (ii) Maximum possible reduction in diameter of the rod (iii) If the rod is subjected to a back pressure of 50 N/mm2 , what would be the draw stress and maximum possible reduction ? ibl d ti Take stress of the work material as 400 N/mm2 . Willbediscussedintheclass[15Marks]

G S GATE 20 ( ) C 2011(PI)CommonDataS1
In a multi pass drawing operation, a round bar of 10 mm multipass operation diameter and 100 mm length is reduced in crosssection by drawing it successively th b d i i l through a series of seven di h i f dies of decreasing exit diameter. During each of these drawing operations, the reduction in crosssectional area d h d l is 35%. The yield strength of the material is 200 MPa. 35 y g Ignore strain hardening. The total true strain applied and the final length (in mm), respectively, are (a) 2.45 and 8 17 (b) 2.45 and 345 (c) 3.02 and 2043 (d) 3.02 and 3330 Ans. (c)

G S2 GATE 20 ( ) C 2011(PI)CommonDataS2
In a multi pass drawing operation, a round bar of 10 mm multipass operation diameter and 100 mm length is reduced in crosssection by drawing it successively th b d i i l through a series of seven di h i f dies of decreasing exit diameter. During each of these drawing operations, the reduction in crosssectional area d h d l is 35%. The yield strength of the material is 200 MPa. 35 y g Ignore strain hardening. Neglectingfrictionandredundantwork,theforce(in Neglectingfrictionandredundantwork theforce(in kN)requiredfordrawingthebarthroughthefirstdie,is (a)15.71 (b)10.21 (c)6.77 (d)4.39 Ans.(d)

JWM2010
Assertion (A) : Extrusion speed depends on work material. Reason (R) : High extrusion speed causes cracks in the material. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A t l ti f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the y correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

GATE2006
In a wire drawing operation, diameter of a steel wire I i d i i di f l i is reduced from 10 mm to 8 mm. The mean flow stress of the material is 400 MPa. The ideal force required for drawing (ignoring friction and q g (g g redundant work) is (a) 4 48 kN 4.48 (b) 8 9 kN 8.97 (c) 20.11 kN (d) 31.41 kN Ans. (b)

GATE2001,GATE2007(PI)
For rigid perfectlyplastic work material, negligible F i id f l l i k i l li ibl interface friction and no redundant work, the theoretically maximum possible reduction in the wire drawing operation is g p (a) 0.36 (b) 0.63 (c) ( ) 1.00 (d) 2.72 Ans. (b) s.

Page 35

GATE 2008 (PI) Linked S 1 GATE2008(PI)LinkedS1


A 10 mm diameter annealed steel wire is drawn through a die at a speed of 0.5 m/s to reduce the diameter by p 5 y 20%. The yield stress of the material is 800 MPa. Neglecting friction and strain hardening, the stress required for drawing (in MPa) is (a) 178.5 (b) 357.0 Ans. (b) (c) 1287.5 (d) 2575.0

GATE 2008 (PI) Linked S 2 GATE2008(PI)LinkedS2


A 10 mm diameter annealed steel wire is drawn through a die at a speed of 0.5 m/s to reduce the diameter by p 5 y 20%. The yield stress of the material is 800 MPa. The power required for the drawing process (in kW) is (a) 8.97 Ans.(a) (b) 14.0 (c) 17.95 (d) 28.0

GATE2003
A brass billet is to be extruded from its initial b bill i b d d f i i ii l diameter of 100 mm to a final diameter of 50 mm. The working temperature of 700C and the extrusion constant is 250 MPa. The force required 5 q for extrusion is (a) 5.44 MN (b) 2 2 MN 44 2.72 (c) 1.36 MN (d) 0.36 MN

Ans. (b)

GATE 2009(PI)
Using direct extrusion process, a round billet of 100 mm l length and 50 mm di th d diameter i extruded. t is t d d Considering an ideal deformation process (no friction and no redundant work), extrusion ratio 4, and average flow stress of material 300 MPa, the pressure (in MPa) on the ram will be (a) 6 ( ) 416 Ans. Ans (a) (b) 6 624 (c) ( ) 700 (d) 8 832

GATE1996
A wire of 0.1 mm diameter is drawn from a rod of 15 i f di i d f d f mm diameter. Dies giving reductions of 20%, 40% and 80% are available. For minimum error in the final size, the number of stages and reduction at , g each stage respectively would be (a) 3 stages and 80% reduction for all three stages (b) 4 stages and 80% reduction for first three stages followed by a finishing stage of 20% reduction (c) 5 stages and reduction of 80% 80% 40% 40% 20% 80%, 80%.40%, 40%, in a sequence (d) ( ) none of the above Ans. ( ) (b)

GATE1994
The process of hot extrusion is used to produce Th fh i i d d ( ) (a) Curtain rods made of aluminium (b) Steel pipes/or domestic water supply (c) Stainless ( ) S i l steel tubes used i f l b d in furniture i ( ) (d) Large she pipes used in city water mains g pp y Ans. ( ) (a)

IES 2007
Which one of the following is the correct Whi h f th f ll i i th t statement? (a) Extrusion is used for the manufacture of seamless tubes. (b) Extrusion is used for reducing the diameter of round y g p bars and tubes by rotating dies which open and close rapidly on the work? (c) Extrusion is used to improve fatigue resistance of the metal by setting up compressive stresses on its surface (d) E t i Extrusion comprises pressing th metal i id a i i the t l inside chamber to force it out by high pressure through an orifice which i shaped t provide th d i d f ifi hi h is h d to id the desired from of th f the finished part. Ans. (d) For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2007
Assertion (A): Greater force on the plunger is required A i (A) G f h l i i d in case of direct extrusion than indirect one. Reason (R): In case of direct extrusion, the direction of the force applied on the plunger and the direction of pp p g the movement of the extruded metal are the same. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) B th A and R are i di id ll t Both d individually true b t R i not th but is t the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false ( ) (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (b) ( )
Page 36

IES 2012
Which of the following are correct for an indirect hot Whi h f h f ll i f i di h extrusion process? 1. Billet remains stationary 2. 2 There is no friction force between billet and container walls. 3. The force required on the punch is more in co pa so comparison to direct extrusion. d ect e t us o . 4. Extrusion parts have to be provided a support. (a) ( ) 1, 2, 3 and 4 d (b) 1, 2 and 3 only d l (c) 1, 2 and 4 only (d) 2, 3 and 4 only Ans. (c)

IES 1993
Assertion (A): Direct extrusion requires larger force A i (A) Di i i l f than indirect extrusion. Reason (R): In indirect extrusion of cold steel, zinc phosphate coating is used used. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans.(b) (d) A is false but R is true

IES 1994
Metal extrusion process is generally used for M l i i ll d f producing (a) Uniform solid sections (b) Uniform hollow sections (c) Uniform solid and hollow sections (d) Varying solid and hollow sections. Ans. ( ) A (c)

IES 2009
Which one of the following statements is correct? Whi h f h f ll i i ? ( ) (a) In extrusion process, thicker walls can be obtained p , by increasing the forming pressure (b) Extrusion is an ideal process for obtaining rods from metal having poor density (c) As compared to roll forming, extruding speed is high (d) Impact extrusion is quite similar to Hooker's process Hooker s including the flow of metal being in the same direction Ans. ( ) (c)

IES 1999
Which one of the following is the correct Whi h f h f ll i i h temperature range for hot extrusion of aluminium? (a) 300340C (b) 350400C (c) 430 480C (d) 550 650C 430480C 550650C Ans. (c)

IES 2000
Consider the following statements: C id th f ll i t t t In forward extrusion process 1. The ram and the extruded product travel in the same direction. 2. The ram and the extruded product travel in the opposite direction. 3. The speed of travel of the extruded product is same as that of the ram. 4. The speed of travel of the extruded product is greater than that of the ram. Which of these Statements are correct? (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 4 Ans. (c)

IES 2009
What is the major problem in hot extrusion? Wh i h j bl i h i ? ( ) (a) Design of punch g p ( ) (b) Design of die g (c) Wear and tear of die (d) Wear of punch

Ans. (b)

IES 2012
Extrusion process can effectively reduce the cost of E i ff i l d h f product through (a) Material saving (b) process time saving (c) Saving in tooling cost (d) saving in administrative cost Ans. (c)

IES 2008
Which one of the following methods is used for the Whi h f h f ll i h d i df h manufacture of collapsible toothpaste tubes? (a) Impact extrusion (b) Direct extrusion (c) Deep drawing (d) Piercing Ans. (a)

IES 2003
The extrusion process (s) used for the production of Th i ( ) df h d i f toothpaste tube is/are 1. Tube extrusion 2. 2 Forward extrusion 3. Impact extrusion Select the correct answer using the codes given below: Codes: C d y (b) 1 and 2 (a) 1 only (c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 only Ans. (d) A

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 37

IES 2001
Which of the following statements are the salient Whi h f th f ll i t t t th li t features of hydrostatic extrusion? 1. I i suitable f soft and d il material. It is i bl for f d ductile i l 2. It is suitable for highstrength superalloys. 3.The billet is inserted into the extrusion chamber and pressure is applied by a ram to extrude the billet through the die. 4. The billet is inserted into the extrusion chamber where it is y q surrounded by a suitable liquid. The billet is extruded through the die by applying pressure to the liquid. g g Select the correct answer using the codes given below: Codes: (a) 1 and 3 (b) 1 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 Ans. (d)

IES 2006
What does hydrostatic pressure in extrusion process Wh d h d i i i improve? (a) Ductility (b) Compressive strength (c) Brittleness (d) Tensile strength

IES2010
Assertion (A): Pickling and washing of rolled rods is carried out before wire drawing. Reason (R): They lubricate the surface to reduce friction while drawing wires. g (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A t l ti f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the y correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

Ans. ( ) A (a)

IES 2009
Which one of the following stress is involved in the Whi h f h f ll i i i l di h wire drawing process? (a) Compressive (b) Tensile (c) Shear (d) Hydrostatic stress Ans. (b)

IES 1993
Tandem drawing of wires and tubes is necessary T d d i f i d b i because (a) It is not possible to reduce at one stage (b) Annealing is needed between stages (c) Accuracy in dimensions is not possible otherwise (d) Surface finish improves after every drawing stage Ans. (a)

IES 2000
Match List I (Components of a table fan) with List II M t h Li t (C t f t bl f ) ith Li t (Manufacturing processes) and select the correct answer using th codes given b l i the d i below th Li t the Lists: List I List II A. Base with stand 1. Stamping and p pressing g B. Blade 2. Wire drawing C. Armature coil wire C A t il i 3. Turning T i D. Armature shaft 4. Casting Ans.(d) Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 2 1 4 3 (c) 2 3 4 1 (d) 4 1 2 3

IES 1999
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct M t h Li t I ith Li t II d l t th t answer using the codes given below the Lists: ListI ListII A. Drawing g 1. Soap solution p B. Rolling 2. Camber C. C Wire dra ing drawing 3. 3 Pilots D. Sheet metal operations using 4. Crater progressive dies 5. Ironing Code:A B C D A B C D (a) 2 5 1 4 (b) 4 1 5 3 (c) ( ) 5 2 3 4 (d) 5 2 1 3
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)
Ans.(d)

IES 1996
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer List I (Metal/forming process) List II (Associated force)

IES 1996
In wire drawing process, the bright shining surface I i d i h b i h hi i f on the wire is obtained if one (a) does not use a lubricant (b) uses solid powdery lubricant lubricant. (c) uses thick paste lubricant (d) uses thin film lubricant Ans. (d)

A. Wire drawing B. Extrusion B E t i g C. Blanking D. Bending Codes:A C d A B C (a) 4 2 1 (c) 2 3 1

1. 2. 3. 4. D 3 4 (b) (d)

Shear force Tensile force T il f Compressive force p Spring back force A B C D 2 1 3 4 4 3 2 1 Ans.(c)

Page 38

IES 1994
MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswer M hLi I i hLi II d l h usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists:
ListI(Metalfarmingprocess)ListII(Asimilarprocess)

IES 1993,ISRO2010
Match List I with List II and select the correct M t h Li t ith Li t d l t th t answer using the codes given below the lists: List I (Mechanical property) List II (Related to) A. Malleability y 1. Wire drawing g B. Hardness 2. Impact loads C. C Resilience 3. 3 Cold rolling D. Isotropy 4. Indentation 5. Direction Ans.(b) Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 4 2 1 3 (b) 3 4 2 5 (c) ( ) 5 4 2 3 (d) 3 2 1 5

IES 2007
Which metal forming process Whi h l f i manufacture of long steel wire? (a) Deep drawing (b) Forging (c) Drawing (d) Extrusion is i used d for f

A. A B. C. D. D

Blanking Coining Extrusion Cupdrawing B 3 2 C 4 1 D 1 5

1. 1 2. 3. 4. 4 5. (b) (d)

Codes:A (a) 2 (c) 3

Wiredrawing Piercing Embossing Rolling Ans.(d) Bending A B C D 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 5

Ans. ( ) Wi D A (c) Wire Drawing i

IES 2005
Which of the following types of stresses is/are Whi h f h f ll i f i / involved in the wiredrawing operation? (a) Tensile only (b) Compressive only (c) A combination of tensile and compressive stresses (d) A combination of tensile, compressive and shear stresses Ans. (a)

IES 2000
Which one of the following lubricants is most Whi h f h f ll i l b i i suitable for drawing mild steel wires? (a) Sodium stearate (b) Water (c) Lime water Limewater (d) Kerosene Ans. (c) Ans. (b)

IES 1993
A moving mandrel is used in i d li di ( ) (a) Wire drawing g (b) Tube drawing (c) Metal ( ) M l cutting i ( ) (d) Forging g g

IES 2002
Match List I with List II and select the correct M h Li i h Li d l h answer:
List I (Parts) List II (Manufacturing processes)

IAS 2004
Assertion (A): Indirect extrusion operation can be A i (A) I di i i b performed either by moving ram or by moving the container. Reason (R): Advantage in indirect extrusion is less quantity of scrap compared to direct extrusion. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually true and R is the h d d d ll d h correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (d)
Page 39

IAS 1995
The following operations are performed while Th f ll i i f d hil preparing the billets for extrusion process: 1. Alkaline cleaning 2. 2 Phosphate coating 3. Pickling 4. Lubricating with reactive soap. The Th correct sequence of th t f these operations i ti is (a) 3, 1, 4, 2 (b) 1, 3, 2, 4 (c) 1, 3. 4, 2 (d) 3, 1, 2, 4 Ans. (d) A

A. A Seamless tubes 1. 1 B. Accurate and smooth tubes 2. C. Surfaces having higher 3. hardness and fatigue strength4 strength4. Codes: A B C A (a) 1 4 2 (b) 2 (c) 1 3 2 (d) 2
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Roll forming Shot peening Forging Cold forming B C 3 1 4 1 Ans.(a)

IAS 2001
Match List I (Products) with List II (Suitable M h Li (P d ) i h Li (S i bl processes) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Connecting rods 1. Welding B. Pressure vessels 2. Extrusion C. C Machine tool beds 3. 3 Forging D. Collapsible tubes 4. Casting Ans. (a) Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 4 2 (b) 4 1 3 2 (c) 3 2 4 1 (d) 4 2 3 1

IAS 1997
Extrusion force DOES NOT depend upon the E i f d d h ( ) (a) Extrusion ratio (b) Type of extrusion process (c) Material of the di ( ) M i l f h die ( ) (d) Working temperature g p

IAS 2000
Assertion (A): Brittle materials such as grey cast A i (A) B i l i l h iron cannot be extruded by hydrostatic extrusion. Reason(R): In hydrostatic extrusion, billet is uniformly compressed from all sides by the liquid liquid. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (d) (d) A is false but R is true

Ans. (c)

IAS 2002
Assertion (A): In wiredrawing process, the rod A ti (A) I i d i th d crosssection is reduced gradually by drawing it several ti l times i successively reduced di in i l d d diameter di t dies. Reason (R): Since each drawing reduces ductility of the wire, so after final drawing the wire is normalized. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the co ect e p a at o o correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true Ans. ( ) (b)

IES 2011 IES2011


g MatchListIwithListIIandselectthecorrectanswerusing thecodegivenbelowthelists:

IAS1994
Which of the following methods can be used for manufacturing 2 metre long seamless metallic tubes? b g 2. Extrusion 1. Drawing 3. Rolling 4. Spinning Select the correct answer using the codes given b l l h h d below Codes: (a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 (c) ( ) 1, 3 and 4 (d) ( ) 2, 3 and 4 Ans. (b)

ListI List I A.Connectingrods A Connectingrods B.Pressurevessels C.Machinetoolbeds D.Collapsibletubes


Codes A (a) 2 (c) 2 B 1 4 C 4 1 D 3 3

ListII List II 1.Welding 1 Welding 2.Extrusion 3.Forming 4.CastingAns.(b)


(b) (d) A 3 3 B 1 4 C 4 1 D 2 2

WireDrawingAnalysis(HomeWork) Wire Drawing Analysis (Home Work)

or x 2rdr + d x r 2 + 2r x dx + Px 2rdx tan = 0 Dividing by r 2 dr and taking dx/dr = cot we get d x 2 2 + ( x + Px ) + x cot = 0 dr r r Vertical component of Px Px due to small half di i l f d ll h lf die

The equilibrium equation in x-direction will be dx ( x + d x ) ( r + dr ) x r + x cos 2 r cos dx + Px sin 2 r =0 cos For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)
2 2

angles and that of x can be neglected neglected. Thefore, Thefore two principal stresses are x and Px Both Tresca's and Von-Mises criteria will give g x + Px = o

d x 2 o 2 ( o x ) + + cot = 0 dr r r Let cot = B d x 2 = B x (1 + B ) o dr r d x 2 or = dr B x (1 + B ) o r Integrating both side ln B x (1 + B ) o 1 = 2 ln ( rC ) B {Cis integration cont.}

and x = Px = ( o Page 40 x )

or B x (1 + B ) o = ( rC ) B.C at r = ro , x = b
s

2B

at r = ro

ExtrusionAnalysis(HomeWork) Extrusion Analysis (Home Work)


For a round bar both wire drawing and extrusion will give g g same equation except B.Cs B x (1 + B ) o = ( rC )
2B

xo =

o (1 + B )
B

B b (1 + B ) o C = ro

1 2B

r 1 o r f

2B

r 2 B + . b or x = B r o 2B 2B o (1 + B ) rf rf 1 + . b Drawing stress ( d ) = B ro ro r 1 r o
2B

o (1 + B )

B.C s at r = rf , x = 0 (1 + B ) o C = rf or x =
1 2B

(at exit stress is zero)

A r Extrusion ratio, R = o = o for round bar , A f rf h = o h f 1 R 2 B for flat stock

o (1 + B )
B

1 r rf

2B

xo =

o (1 + B )
B

If effect of container friction is considered p f = ram pressure required by container friction

Ch17:Extrusion
Q. No Q N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Option O ti D C D D B C B Q. No Q N 8 9 10 11 12 13 Option O ti B B A B B A

Ch16:Drawing
Q. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Option A C C B C D

i = uniform interface shear stress between


billet and container wall p f . r0 2 = 2 r0 i L or p f = 2 i L ro

Total Extrusion Pressure(Pt ) = xo + p f and Extrusion Load = pt . r0 2

Example l
Determine the die and punch sizes for blanking a circular D i h di d h i f bl ki i l disc of 20mm diameter from a sheet whose thickness is 1.5 mm.

Example l
Estimate the blanking force to cut a blank 25 mm wide and 30 mm l d long f from a 1.5 mm thick metal strip, if the h k l f h ultimate shear strength of the material is 450 N/mm2. Also determine the work done if the percentage penetration is 25 percent of material thickness.

SheetMetalOperation

Shear strength of sheet material = 294 MPa Also determine the die and punch sizes for punching a circular hole of 20mm diameter from a sheet whose thickness is 1.5 mm.

BySKMondal y
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 41

Ans. 74.25 kN, 27.84 Nm

IAS2011Main IAS2011 Main


For punching a 10 mm circular hole, and cutting a rectangular blank of 50 x 200 mm from a sheet of 1 mm thickness (mild steel shear stress = 240 steel, N/mm2), Calculate, in each case : (i) Size of punch (ii) Size of die (iii) Force required. [10Marks]

IES 1999
A hole is to be punched in a 15 mm thick plate h l i b h d i hi k l having ultimate shear strength of 3Nmm2. If the allowable crushing stress in the punch is 6 Nmm2, the diameter of the smallest hole which can be punched is equal to (a) 1 mm 15 (b) 30 mm (c) 60 mm (d) 120 mm Ans. (b) A

ISRO2008,2011
With a punch for which the maximum crushing Wi h hf hi h h i hi stress is 4 times the maximum shearing stress of the plate, the biggest hole that can be punched in the l t th plate would b of di ld be f diameter equal t t l to
1 Thickness of plate 4 1 (b) ( ) Thickness of p plate 2 ( ) (c) Plate thickness (a) (d) 2 Plate thickness
Ans.(c)

Example
A hole, 100 mm diameter, is to be punched in steel plate 5.6 mm thick. The ultimate shear stress is 550 N/mm2 . With Wi h normal clearance on the tools, cutting i complete l l h l i is l at 40 per cent penetration of the punch Give suitable punch. shear angle for the punch to bring the work within the g g capacity of a 30T press.

Example E l
A washer with a 12.7 mm internal hole and an outside h ith i t lh l d t id diameter of 25.4 mm is to be made from 1.5 mm thick strip. strip The ultimate shearing strength of the material of the washer is 280 N/mm2. (a) Find the total cutting force if both punches act at the same time and no shear is applied to either punch or the die die. (b) What will be the cutting force if the punches are staggered, staggered so that only one punch acts at a time time. (c) Taking 60% penetration and shear on punch of 1 mm, what will b th cutting f h t ill be the tti force if b th punches act both h t together. Ans. 50.25 kN 33.51 kN F = 45.24 kN A kN, kN,

GATE2010StatementLinked1
Statement for Linked Answer Questions: S f Li k d A Q i In a shear cutting operation, a sheet of 5 mm thickness is cut along a length of 200 mm. The cutting blade is 400 mm long and zeroshear (S = 0) is provided on the edge. g ( ) p g The ultimate shear strength of the sheet is 100 MPa and p penetration to thickness ratio is 0.2. Neglect friction. g
400

Ans. 4.2o

Assuming force vs displacement curve to be rectangular, the work done (in J) is ( (a) 100 (b) 200 (c) 250 (d) 300 [Ans. (a)]

GATE2010StatementLinked2
Statement for Linked Answer Questions: In a shear cutting operation, a sheet of 5mm thickness is cut along a length of 200 mm The cutting blade is 400 mm. mm long and zeroshear (S = 0) is provided on the edge. The ultimate shear strength of the sheet is 100 MPa and g penetration to thickness ratio is 0.2. Neglect friction.
400

GATE2011
The shear strength of a sheet metal is 300 MPa. The blanking force required to produce a blank of 100 g q p mm diameter from a 1.5 mm thick sheet is close to (a) 45 kN (b) 70 kN (c) 141 kN (d) 3500 kN

GATE 2009(PI)
A disk of 200 mm diameter is blanked from a strip of an aluminum alloy of thickness 3.2 mm. The material shear strength to f h fracture i 150 MP Th bl ki f is MPa. The blanking force (i (in kN) is (a) 291 (b) 301 (c) 311 (d) 321

A shear of 20 mm (S = 20 mm) is now provided on the blade. Assuming force vs displacement curve to be g trapezoidal, the maximum f d l h force ( k ) exerted is (in kN) d (a) 5 (b) 10 (IES, GATE, PSUs) 40 [Ans. (b)] (c) 20 (d) For-2013

Ans. ( ) A (c)
Page 42

Ans. (b) ( )

ISRO2009
The force required to punch a 25 mm hole in a mild steel plate 10 mm thick, when ultimate shear stress of the plate is 500 N/mm2 will be nearly (a) 78 kN (b) 393 kN (c) 98 kN (d) 158 kN

GATE2007
The force requirement in a blanking operation of Th f i i bl ki i f low carbon steel sheet is 5.0 kN. The thickness of the sheet is t and diameter of the blanked part is d. For the same work material, if the diameter of , the blanked part is increased to 1.5 d and thickness is reduced to 0 4 t the new blanking force in kN is 0.4 t, (a) 3.0 (b) 4.5 (c) 5.0 (d) 8.0 Ans. Ans (a)

GATE2004
10 mm diameter holes are to be punched in a steel di h l b h di l sheet of 3 mm thickness. Shear strength of the material is 400 N / mm2 and penetration is 40%. Shear provided on the punch is 2 mm. The blanking p p g force during the operation will be (a) 22 6 kN 22.6 (b) 3 kN 37.7 (c) 61.6 kN (d) 94.3 kN Ans. (a) A ( )

Ans. (b)

GATE2003
A metal disc of 20 mm diameter is to be punched l di f di i b h d from a sheet of 2 mm thickness. The punch and the die clearance is 3%. The required punch diameter is (a) 19 88 mm (b) 19 94 mm 19.88 19.94 (c) 20.06 mm (d) 20.12 mm Ans. Ans (a)

GATE 2012 GATE


Calculate the punch size in mm, for a circular blanking operation for which details are given below. Size f h blank Si of the bl k 25 mm Thickness of the sheet 2 mm Radial clearance between punch and die 0.06 mm Die ll Di allowance 0.05 mm ( ) 4 3 (a) 24.83 ( ) 4 9 (b) 24.89 (c) 25.01 (d) 25.17 Ans. ( ) A (a)

GATE2008(PI)
A blank of 50 mm diameter is to be sheared from a sheet of 2.5 mm thickness. The required radial clearance between the die and the punch is 6% of sheet thickness. The punch and die diameters (in mm) for this blanking operation respectively are operation, respectively, (a) 50.00 and 50.30 (c) 49.70 and 50.00 Ans. (c) (b) 50.00 and 50.15 (d) 49.85 and 50.00

GATE2002
In a blanking operation, the clearance is provided I bl ki i h l i id d on (a) The die (b) Both the die and the punch equally (c) The punch (d) Brittle the punch nor the die Ans. (c)

GATE2001
The cutting force in punching and blanking Th i f i hi d bl ki operations mainly depends on (a) The modulus of elasticity of metal (b) The shear strength of metal (c) The bulk modulus of metal (d) The yield strength of metal Ans. (b)

GATE1996
A 50 mm diameter disc is to be punched out from a di di i b h d f carbon steel sheet 1.0 mm thick. The diameter of the punch should be (a) 49 925 mm (b) 50 00 mm 49.925 50.00 (c) 50.075 mm (d) none of the above Ans. Ans (d)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 43

IES 1994
In sheet metal blanking, shear is provided on I h l bl ki h i id d punches and dies so that (a) Press load is reduced (b) Good cut edge is obtained obtained. (c) Warping of sheet is minimized (d) Cut blanks are straight Ans. (a)

IES 2002
Consider the following statements related to C id h f ll i l d piercing and blanking: 1. Shear on the punch reduces the maximum cutting force 2. Shear increases the capacity of the press needed 3. Shear increases the life of the punch 4. 4 The total energy needed to make the cut remains unaltered due to provision of shear Which of these statements are correct? h h f h (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 and 4 Ans. (b)

IAS 1995
In blanking operation the clearance provided is I bl ki i h l id d i ( ) 5 (a) 50% on punch and 50% on die p 5 (b) On die (c) On ( ) O punch h ( ) (d) On die or punch depending upon designers choice p p g p g Ans. ( ) (c)

IES 2006
In which one of the following is a flywheel generally I hi h f h f ll i i fl h l ll employed? (a) Lathe (b) Electric motor (c) Punching machine (d) Gearbox Ans. (c)

IES 2004
Which one of the following statements is correct? Whi h f h f ll i i ? If the size of a flywheel in a punching machine is y p g increased (a) Then the fluctuation of speed and fluctuation of energy will both decrease (b) Then the fluctuation of speed will decrease and the fluctuation of energy will increase uctuat o o e e gy c ease (c) Then the fluctuation of speed will increase and the fluctuation f fl t ti of energy will d ill decrease p (d) Then the fluctuation of speed and fluctuation of energy both will increase Ans. (a)

IES 1997
For 50% penetration of work material, a punch with F % i f k i l h ih single shear equal to thickness will (a) Reduce the punch load to half the value (b) Increase the punch load by half the value (c) Maintain the same punch load (d) Reduce the punch load to quarter load Ans. (a)

IAS 2000
A blank of 30 mm diameter is to be produced out of bl k f di i b d d f 10 mm thick sheet on a simple die. If 6% clearance is recommended, then the nominal diameters of die and punch are respectively p p y (a) 30.6 mm and 29.4 mm (b) 30.6 mm and 30 mm d (c) 30 mm and 29.4 mm a d 9.4 (d) 30 mm and 28.8 mm Ans. (d)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

GATE 2007(PI) ( )
Circular blanks of 35 mm diameter are punched Ci l bl k f di t h d from a steel sheet of 2 mm thickness. If the clearance per side between the punch and die is to be kept as 40 microns the sizes of punch and microns, die should respectively be

IAS 1994
In a blanking operation to produce steel washer, the I bl ki i d l h h maximum punch load used in 2 x 105 N. The plate thickness is 4 mm and percentage penetration is 25. The work done during this shearing operation is g g p (a) 200J (b) 400J (c) ( ) 600 J (d) 800 J

(a) 35+0.00 and 35+0.040 (b) 350.040 and 350.080 (c) 350.080 and 35+0.00 (d) 35+0.040 and 350.080 Ans.(c)

Ans. (a)
Page 44

IAS 2002
In deciding the clearance between punch and die in I d idi h l b h d di i press work in shearing, the following rule is helpful: (a) Punch size controls hole size die size controls blank size (b) Punch size controls both hole size and blank size (c) Die size controls both hole size and blank size (d) Die size controls hole size punch size controls blank size, size Ans. (a)

IAS 2007
For punching operation the clearance is provided F hi i h l i id d on which one of the following? (a) The punch (b) The die (c) 50% on the punch and 50% on the die (d) 1/3rd on the punch and 2/3rd on the die Ans. (b)

IAS 1995
Assertion (A): A flywheel is attached to a punching A i (A) fl h l i h d hi press so as to reduce its speed fluctuations. Reason(R): The flywheel stores energy when its speed increase. p (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct e planation of A explanation (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)

IES 2002
Which one is not a method of reducing cutting Whi h i h d f d i i forces to prevent the overloading of press? (a) Providing shear on die (b) Providing shear on punch (c) Increasing die clearance (d) Stepping punches Ans. (c)

IAS 2003
Match List I (Presspart) with List II (Function) and select the (Press part) correct answer using the codes given below the lists: ListI ListII (Presspart) (Function) (A) Punch plate 1. Assisting withdrawal of the punch (B) S i Stripper 2. Advancing the workpiece through correct Ad i h k i h h distance (C) Stopper 3. 3 Ejection of the work piece from die cavity workpiece (D) Knockout 4. Holding the small punch in the proper position Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 4 3 2 1 (b) 2 1 4 3 (c) ( ) 4 1 2 3 (d) 2 3 4 1
Ans. Ans (c)

IES 1999
Assertion (A): In sheet metal blanking operation, A i (A) I h l bl ki i clearance must be given to the die. Reason (R): The blank should be of required dimensions. dimensions (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A l f (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the ot a d a e d v dua y t ue s ot t e correct explanation of A (c) ( ) Ai t is true b t R i f l but is false Ans. (d) (d) A is false but R is true

IAS 2003
The 'spring back' effect in press working is Th ' i b k' ff i ki i ( ) (a) Elastic recovery of the sheet metal after removal of y the load (b) Regaining the original shape of the sheet metal (c) Release of stored energy in the sheet metal (d) Partial recovery of the sheet metal Ans. (a) Ans. (c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 1997
A cup of 10 cm height and 5 cm diameter is to be f h i h d di i b made from a sheet metal of 2 mm thickness. The number of deductions necessary will be (a) One (b) Two (c) Three (d) Four

IFS 2009 IFS


What is deep d Wh t i d drawing process f sheet metal i for h t t l forming? Explain the function of a blank holder holder. g g What is drawing ratio and how is the drawing ratio increased ? [10 marks]

Page 45

GATE2008
In the deep drawing of cups, blanks show a tendency to I h d d i f bl k h d wrinkle up around the periphery (flange). The most likely cause and remedy of the phenomenon are, respectively, p y, (A) Buckling due to circumferential compression; Increase blank holder pressure (B) High blank holder pressure and high friction; Reduce blank holder bl k h ld pressure and apply l b i d l lubricant t (C) High temperature causing increase in circumferential length: Apply coolant to blank ( ) (D) Buckling due to circumferential compression; decrease g p ; blank holder pressure [Ans. (a)]

GATE1999
Identify the stress state in the FLANCE portion of a Id if h i h i f PARTIALLYDRAWN CYLINDRICAL CUP when deep drawing without a blank holder (a) Tensile in all three directions (b) No stress in the flange at all, because there is no blankholder bl k h ld (c) Tensile stress in one direction and compressive in e s e st ess o e d ect o a d co p ess ve the one other direction (d) C Compressive i t i in two di ti directions and t il i th d tensile in the third direction Ans. (b)

GATE2003
A shell of 100 mm diameter and 100 mm height with h ll f di d h i h ih the corner radius of 0.4 mm is to be produced by cup drawing. The required blank diameter is (a) 118 mm (b) 161 mm (c) 224 mm (d) 312 mm Ans. Ans (c)

ISRO2011
The initial blank diameter required to form a cylindrical cup of outside diameter 'd and total h h 'h' h l height having a corner radius ''r'' is d obtained using the formula

GATE2006
Match the items in columns I and II. M h h i i l d II Column I Column II P. Wrinkling 1. Yield point elongation Q. Q Orange peel 2. 2 Anisotropy R. Stretcher strains 3. Large grain size S. Earing 4. Insufficient blank holding force 5. Fine grain size 6. 6 Excessive blank holding force (a) P 6, Q 3, R 1, S 2 (b) P 4, Q 5, R 6, S 1 (c) P 2, Q 5, R 3, S 4 (d) P 4, Q 3, R 1, S 2
Ans. (d)

IES 2008
A cylindrical vessel with flat bottom can be deep li d i l l i h fl b b d drawn by (a) Shallow drawing (b) Single action deep drawing (c) Double action deep drawing (d) Triple action deep drawing Ans. (c)

(a ) Do = d 2 + 4dh 0.5r (b) Do = d + 2h + 2r (c) Do = d + 2h + 2r


2 2

(d ) Do = d 2 + 4dh 0.5r

Ans.(d)

IES 1999
Consider the following statements: Earring in a C id h f ll i E i i drawn cup can be due to nonuniform 1. Speed of the press 2. 2 Clearance between tools 3. Material properties 4. Blank holding Which f these statements are correct? Whi h of th t t t t? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2, 3 and 4 (c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4 Ans. (b) A
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 1994
For obtaining a cup of diameter 25 mm and height 15 F b i i f di dh i h mm by drawing, the size of the round blank should be approximately (a) 42 mm (b) 44 mm (c) 46 mm (d) 48 mm Ans. Ans (c)

IAS 2007
In drawing operation, proper lubrication I d i i l b i i essential for which of the following reasons? 1. To improve die life 2. 2 To reduce drawing forces 3. To reduce temperature 4. To improve surface finish Select the S l t th correct answer using th code given b l t i the d i below: y (b) 1, 3 and 4 only y (a) 1 and 2 only (c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 Ans. (d) A is i

Page 46

IAS 1997
Which one of the following factor promotes the Whi h f h f ll i f h tendency for wrinking in the process of drawing? (a) Increase in the ratio of thickness to blank diameter of work material (b) Decrease in the ratio thickness to blank diameter of work material k l (c) Decrease in the holding force on the blank ec ease t e o d g o ce o t e b a (d) Use of solid lubricants Ans. (c)

IAS 1994
Consider the following factors C id h f ll i f p 1. Clearance between the punch and the die is too small. 2. 2 The finish at the corners of the punch is poor poor. 3. The finish at the corners of the die is poor. 4. The punch and die alignment is not proper. The factors responsible f th vertical li Th f t ibl for the ti l lines parallel t ll l to the axis noticed on the outside of a drawn cylindrical cup would include. ld l d (a) 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 2 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4 Ans. (d)

IES 1998
Assertion (A): The first draw in deep drawing operation A i (A) Th fi d i d d i i can have up to 60% reduction, the second draw up to 40% reduction and, the third d % d d h h d draw of about 30% only. f b % l Reason (R): Due to strain hardening, the subsequent ( ) g, q draws in a deep drawing operation have reduced p percentages. g (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A l i f (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)

GATE1992
Thethicknessoftheblankneededtoproduce,by Th hi k f h bl k d d d b powerspinningamissileconeofthickness1.5mm andhalfconeangle30,is (a) 3 0mm 3.0mm (b) 2 5mm 2.5mm (c) 2.0mm (d) 1.5mm Ans.(a) Ans (a) Ans. (d)

IES 1994
The mode of deformation of the metal during Th d f d f i f h l d i spinning is (a) Bending (b) Stretching (c) Rolling and stretching (d) Bending and stretching.

IFS2011
Comparemetalspinningwithpresswork. [2marks]

IES2011
High energy rate forming process used for forming components from thin metal sheets or deform thin p tubes is: (a) Petro forming Petroforming (b) Magnetic pulse forming (c) Explosive forming (d) electro hydraulic forming electrohydraulic Ans. (b)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

JWM2010
Assertion (A) : In magnetic pulseforming method, pulse forming method magnetic field produced by eddy currents is used to create f force b between coil and workpiece. il d k i ( ) y p Reason (R) : It is necessary for the workpiece material to have magnetic properties. (a) Both ( ) B th A and R are i di id ll t d individually true and R i th d is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (a)
Page 47

IES2010
Assertion (A) : In the high energy rate forming method, the explosive forming has proved to be an excellent method of utilizing energy at hi h rate and ll h d f ili i high d utilizes both the high explosives and low explosives. Reason (R): The gas pressure and rate of detonation yp p can be controlled for both types of explosives. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

IES 2007
Which one of the following metal forming Whi h f h f ll i l f i processes is not a high energy rate forming process? (a) Electromechanical forming (b) Roll forming Rollforming (c) Explosive forming (d) Electrohydraulic forming Ans. (b)

IES 2009
Which one of the following is a high energy rate Whi h f h f ll i i hi h forming process? (a) Roll forming (b) Electro hydraulic forming Electrohydraulic (c) Rotary forging (d) Forward extrusion Ans. (b)

IES 2005
Magnetic forming is an example of: M i f i i l f ( ) (a) Cold forming g ( ) (b) Hot forming g (c) High energy rate forming (d) Roll forming Ans. (c) ( )

IFS2011
Writefouradvantagesofhighvelocityformingprocess. [2marks]

GATE2000
A 1.5 mm thick sheet is subject to unequal biaxial hi k h i bj l bi i l stretching and the true strains in the directions of stretching are 0.05 and 0.09. The final thickness of the sheet in mm is (a) 1.414 (b) 1.304 (c) ( ) 1.362 (d) 289 Ans. (b)

IES1998 IES 1998


The bending force required for Vbending, U V bending U bending and Edge bending will be in the ratio of (a) 1 : 2 : 0.5 (b) 2: 1 : 0.5 (c) 1: 2 : 1 (d) 1: 1 : 1 Ans. (a)

GATE2005
A 2 mm thick metal sheet is to be bent at an angle of hi k l h i b b l f one radian with a bend radius of 100 mm. If the stretch factor is 0.5, the bend allowance is (a) 99 mm (b) 100 mm (c) 101 mm (d) 102 mm
2mm

GATE2007
Match the correct combination for following metal M t h th t bi ti f f ll i t l working processes. Processes Associated state of stress P. Blanking g 1. Tension Q. Stretch Forming 2. Compression R. R Coining 3. 3 Shear S. Deep Drawing 4. Tension and Compression 5. Tension and Shear Codes:P Q R S P Q R S (a) 2 1 3 4 (b) 3 4 1 5 (c) ( ) 5 4 3 1 (d) 3 1 2 4
Page 48
Ans.(d)

GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)
Match the following metal forming processes with their associated stresses in the workpiece. p Metalformingprocess 1.Coining 2.WireDrawing 2 WireDrawing 3.Blanking 4 4.DeepDrawing p g (a) 1S, 2P, 3Q, 4R (c) ( ) 1P, 2Q, 3S, 4R Typeofstress P.Tensile Q.Shear Q Shear R.Tensileand compressive i S.Compressive p (b) 1S, 2P, 3R, 4Q (d) 1P, 2R, 3Q, 4S
Ans.(a)

1 radian

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Ans. (c)

GATE2004
Match the following M h h f ll i Product Process P. Moulded luggage 1. Injection moulding Q. Packaging Q P k i containers f li id 2. i for liquid Hot lli H rolling g p 3 Impact extrusion p R. Long structural shapes 3. S. Collapsible tubes 4. Transfer moulding 5. Blow moulding l ld 6. Coining (a) P1 Q4 R6 S3 (b) P4 Q5 R2 S3 (c) ( ) P1 Q5 R3 S2 (d) ( ) P5 Q1 R2 S2
Ans. (b)

IAS 1999
Match List I (Process) with List II (Production of parts) M t h Li t (P ) ith Li t (P d ti f t ) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: ListI ListII A. Rolling A R lli 1. Discrete parts Di B. Forging 2. Rod and Wire C. Extrusion 3. Wide variety of shapes with thin walls D. Drawing 4. Flat plates and sheets 5. 5 Solid and hollow parts [Ans. (d)] Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 2 5 3 4 (b) 1 2 5 4 (c) 4 1 3 2 (d) 4 1 5 2

IAS 1997
Match ListI (metal forming process) with ListII M h Li I ( l f i ) i h Li II (Associated feature) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List l Listl List List II A. Blanking 1. Shear angle B. Flow forming 2. Coiled stock C. C Roll forming 3. 3 Mandrel [Ans. [Ans (c)] D. Embossing 4. Closed matching dies Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 1 3 4 2 (b) 3 1 4 2 (c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 3 1 2 4

IES2010
Consider the following statements: follo ing statements The material properties which principally p p p p y determine how well a metal may be drawn are 1. R ti of yield stress t ultimate stress. Ratio f i ld t to lti t t 2.Rate of increase of yield stress relative to y progressive amounts of cold work. 3. R Rate of work h d i f k hardening. Which of the above statements is/are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Q. No Q N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Ch18:SheetMetalForming
Option O ti C B A A D A A A A Q. No Q N 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Option O ti C C C C D A B D

PowderMetallurgy

Ans. (d)

BySKMondal

GATE2011(PI) GATE 2011 (PI)


Which of the following powder production methods produces spongy and porous particles? (a) Atomization (b) Reduction of metal oxides (c) Electrolytic deposition (d) Pulverization Ans. (b)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2012
In electrolysis I l l i ( ) (a) For making copper powder, copper plate is made g pp p , pp p cathode in electrolyte tank (b) For making aluminum powder aluminum plate is powder, made anode (c) High amperage produces powdery deposit of cathode metal on anode eta o a ode (d) Atomization process is more suitable for low melting point metals i t t l Ans. (b)
Page 49

IES 2007Conventional IES 2007 Conventional


Metal powders are compacted by many methods but methods, sintering is required to achieve which property? What g q p p y is hot isostatic pressing?
[2Marks]

GATE2010(PI) GATE 2010 (PI)


In I powder metallurgy, sintering of a component d t ll i t i f t (a) Improves strength and reduces hardness (b) Reduces brittleness and improves strength (c) Improves hardness and reduces toughness (d) Reduces porosity and increases brittleness Ans. (b) s.

IES 2011Conventional IES 2011 Conventional


Whatisisostatic pressingofmetalpowders? Whatareitsadvantage? [2Marks]

GATE 2009(PI) GATE 2009 (PI)


Which f the following process i used t Whi h of th f ll i is d to manufacture products with controlled porosity? (a) Casting ( ) (b) welding g ( ) (c) formation (d) Powder metallurgy Ans. (d)

GATE 2011(PI) GATE 2011 (PI)


The binding material used in cemented carbide cutting tools is (a) ( ) graphite hi ( ) (b) tungsten g (c) nickel (d) cobalt b l Ans. (d)

IES2010
Consider the following parts: C id th f ll i t 1. Grinding wheel 2. Brake lining 3. Selflubricating bearings Which f h Whi h of these parts are made b powder d by d gy q metallurgy technique? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 2 only Ans. ( ) A (c)

IES2010
Metallic powders can be produced by M t lli d b d db (a) Atomization (b) Pulverization (c) Electrodeposition process (d) All of the above f h b Ans. (d)

IES 2002
The rate of production of a powder metallurgy part Th f d i f d ll depends on (a) Flow rate of powder (b) Green strength of compact (c) Apparent density of compact (d) Compressibility of powder

IES 2001
Match ListI (Components) with ListII M h Li I (C ) ih Li II (Manufacturing Processes) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: List I List II A. Car body (metal) 1. Machining B. Clutch lining 2. Casting C. C Gears 3. 3 Sheet metal pressing D. Engine block 4. Powder metallurgy Ans.(d) Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 4 2 1 (b) 4 3 1 2 (c) 4 3 2 1 Page(d) 3 4 1 2 50

GATE2011
The operation in which oil is permeated into the p pores of a powder metallurgy product is known as p gy p (a) mixing (b) sintering i i ( ) p g (c) impregnation (d) Infiltration

Ans. (c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Ans. (c)

IES 1998
In powder metallurgy, the operation carried out to I d ll h i i d improve the bearing property of a bush is called (a) infiltration (b) impregnation (c) plating (d) heat treatment

IES 1997
Which of the following components can be Whi h f h f ll i b manufactured by powder metallurgy methods? 1. Carbide tool tips 2. Bearings 3. 3 Filters 4. 4 Brake linings Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) 1, 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 3 (c) ( ) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4 d d

IES 1999
The correct sequence of the given processes in Th f h i i manufacturing by powder metallurgy is (a) Blending, compacting, sintering and sizing (b) Blending compacting sizing and sintering Blending, compacting, (c) Compacting, sizing, blending and sintering (d) Compacting, blending, sizing and sintering

Ans. (b) Ans. (a) Ans. (d) A

IES 2001
Carbidetipped cutting tools are manufactured by C bid i d i l f d b powder metal technology process and have a composition of (a) ZirconiumTungsten (35% 65%) Zirconium Tungsten 65%) (b) Tungsten carbideCobalt (90% 10%) (c) Aluminium oxide Silica (70% 30%) (d) NickelChromium Tungsten (30% 15% 55%)

IES 1999
Assertion (A): In atomization process of manufacture of A i (A) I i i f f f metal powder, the molten metal is forced through a small orifice and b k up b a stream of compressed ll f d broken by f d air. Reason (R): The metallic powder obtained by atomization process is quite resistant to oxidation. p q (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A l i f (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

IES 2007
What are the advantages of powder metallurgy? Wh h d f d ll ? 1. Extreme purity product p yp 2. Low labour cost 3. L equipment cost. Low i g g Select the correct answer using the code given below (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2 only (c) ( ) 2 and 3 only d l (d) 1 and 3 only d l

Ans. Ans (b)

Ans. ( ) (b)

IES 2006
Which of the following are the limitations of Whi h f th f ll i th li it ti f powder metallurgy? 1. High tooling and equipment costs. 2. Wastage of material. g 3. It cannot be automated. 4. Expensive 4 E pensi e metallic po ders powders. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) Only 1 and 2 (b) Only 3 and 4 (c) Only 1 and 4 (d) Only 1 2 and 4 1, Ans. ( ) A (c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2004
Consider the following factors: C id h f ll i f p p y 1. Size and shape that can be produced economically 2. Porosity of the parts produced 3. A il bl press capacity Available i 4 4. High density g y Which of the above are limitations of powder metallurgy? t ll ? (a) 1, 3 and 4 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2 Ans. ( ) A (a)
Page 51

Statement (I): Parts made by powder metallurgy do not have as good physical properties as parts casted. Statement (II): Particle shape in powder metallurgy influences the flow characteristic of the powder powder. (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually i di id ll true and S d Statement (II) i the correct is h explanation of Statement (I) (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are y individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I) (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false (d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true Ans. (b) A

IES IES 2012

IES 2009
Which of the following cutting tool bits are made by Whi h f h f ll i i l bi d b powder metallurgy process? (a) Carbon steel tool bits (b) Stellite tool bits (c) Ceramic tool bits (d) HSS tool bits

IAS 2003
Which of the following are produced by powder Whi h f h f ll i d d b d metallurgy process? 1. Cemented carbide dies 2. 2 Porous bearings 3. Small magnets 4. Parts with intricate shapes Select the S l t th correct answer using th codes given b l t i the d i below: Codes: (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4 (c) ( ) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4 d d Ans. ( ) A (a)

IAS 2003
In parts produced by powder metallurgy process, I d d b d ll presintering is done to (a) Increase the toughness of the component (b) Increase the density of the component (c) Facilitate bonding of nonmetallic particles (d) Facilitate machining of the part

Ans. (c)

Ans. (d) A

IAS 2000
Consider the following processes: C id th f ll i 1. Mechanical pulverization 2. Atomization 3. 3 Chemical reduction 4. Sintering Which of these processes are used f h h f h d for powder d preparation in powder metallurgy? (a) 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3 (c) 1 3 and 4 (d) 1 2 and 4 1, 1, Ans. (b) A

IAS 1997
Assertion (A): Close dimensional tolerances are A ti (A) Cl di i l t l NOT possible with isostatic pressing of metal powder i powder metallurgy t h i d in d t ll technique. Reason (R): In the process of isostatic pressing, the pressure is equal in all directions which permits uniform density of the metal powder. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the co ect e p a at o o correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true Ans. ( ) (d)

IAS 1998
Throwaway tungsten Th manufactured by (a) Forging (c) Powder metallurgy Ans. (c) carbide bid (b) (d) tip i tools l are Brazing Extrusion

IAS 1996
Which one of the following processes is performed Whi h f h f ll i i f d in powder metallurgy to promote selflubricating properties in sintered parts? (a) Infiltration (b) Impregnation (c) Plating (d) Graphitization Ans. Ans (b)

GATE2008(PI) GATE 2008 (PI)


Matc t e o ow g Matchthefollowing Group 1 P.Mulling Q.Impregnation Q Impregnation R.Flashtrimming S.Curing Group2 1.Powdermetallurgy 2.Injection 2 Injection moulding 3.ProcessingofFRPcomposites 4.Sandcasting (b)P 2,Q 4,R 3,S 1 (d)P 4,Q 1,R 2,S 3

IAS 2007
Assertion (A): Mechanical disintegration of a A ti (A) M h i l di i t ti f molten metal stream into fine particles by means of a j t of compressed air i k jet f d i is known as atomization. t i ti Reason (R): In atomization process inertgas or water cannot be used as a substitute for compressed air. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the co ect e p a at o o correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) ( ) A is false but R is true Ans. ( ) (c)

(a)P 4,Q 3,R 2,S 1 (c)P 2,Q 1,R 4,S 3


For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Ans.(d)

Page 52

IAS 2004
The following are the constituent steps in the Th f ll i h i i h process of powder metallurgy: 1. Powder conditioning 2. 2 Sintering 3. Production of metallic powder 4. Pressing or compacting into the desired shape Indentify the I d tif th correct order i which th h t d in hi h they have t b to be performed and select the correct answer using the codes given b l below: (a) 1234 1234 (b) 3142 3142 (c) 2413 (d) 4321 Ans. (b)

IAS 2003
Assertion (A): Atomization method for production of A i (A) A i i h d f d i f metal powders consists of mechanical disintegration of molten stream into f l fine particles. l Reason (R): Atomization method is an excellent means ( ) of making powders from high temperature metals. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) B th A and R are i di id ll t Both d individually true b t R i not th but is t the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false ( ) (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c) ( )

IAS 2007
Consider the following basic steps involved in the C id h f ll i b i i l d i h production of porous bearings: 1. Sintering 2. 2 Mixing 3. Repressing 4. Impregnation 5. C ld di Colddiecompaction ti g q Which one of the following is the correct sequence of the above steps? Ans. (b)

ConventionalQuestions
1. Explain why metal powders are blended. Describe what E l i h l d bl d d D ib h

ConventionalQuestions
1. Discuss the terms fineness and particle size Di th t fi d ti l i

ConventionalQuestions
Enumerate the steps involved in powder metallurgy E h i l d i d ll process. Discuss these steps. Name the materials used in powder metallurgy. What are the limitations of p powder metallurgy? gy [ [IES2005, 10 Marks] 5, ]

happens during sintering.

[IES2010, 2 Marks]

distribution in powder metallurgy. [IES2010, 2 Marks] M k ] Ans. Fineness: Is the diameter of spherical shaped particle p p p and mean diameter of nonspherical shaped particle. Particle size distribution: Geometric standard deviation (a measure for the bredth or width of a p distribution), is the ratio of particle size diameters taken at 84.1 and 50% of the cumulative undersized weight plot, respectively and mean mass diameter g p p y define the particle size distribution.

Ch12:PowderMetallurgy Ch 12: Powder Metallurgy


Q. No 1 2 3 4 Option D B C A Q. No 5 6 7 8 Option C B D C

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 53

ForPSU For PSU

t, o e a ce & ts Limit,Tolerance&Fits

Tolerancesarespecified (a) Toobtaindesiredfits (b) becauseitisnotpossibletomanufactureasize exactly y (c) toobtainhigheraccuracy (d) tohaveproperallowances h ll Ans.(b)

BySKMondal

ISRO2010
0.05 Expressing a di E i dimension as 25.30 05 mm i th case of i is the f

GATE 2010,ISRO2012
A shaft has a dimension,35 , The respective values of fundamental deviation and tolerance are
0.009 0.025

GATE 1992
TwoshaftsAandBhavetheirdiametersspecifiedas T h f A dBh h i di ifi d 100 0.1mmand0.1 0.0001mmrespectively. Whichofthefollowingstatementsis/aretrue? (a) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftA (b) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionisgreaterinshaft A (c) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftB (d) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionissameforshaft AandshaftB d h f Ans.(a)

(a) Unilateral tolerance (b) Bilateral tolerance (c) Limiting dimensions (d) All of the above Ans. (b) s.

( ) (a) 0.025, 0.008 (c) 0.009, 0.008


Ans.(d) Ans (d)

(b) 0.025,0.016 ( ) (d) 0.009,0.016

GATE 2004
In an interchangeable assembly, shafts of size I i h bl bl h f f i +0.020 25.000 mm mate with holes of size 25.0000.000 mm. The maximum possible clearance in the assembly will be (a) 10 microns (b) 20 microns (c) 30 microns (d) 60 microns
+0.040 0.0100

ISRO2010
Dimension of the hole is 50 The minimum clearance is ( ) (a) 0.02 mm (c) -0.02 mm ( ) 0.00 mm (b) (d) 0.01 mm
+0.02 0.00

GATE 2007
+0.02 +0.00
0 .0 5 0

mm and shaft is 50

mm.

Ans.(c) Ans (c)

A hole is specified as 4 0 0 . 0 0 0 mm. The mating h l i ifi d Th i shaft has a clearance fit with minimum clearance of 0.01 mm. The tolerance on the shaft is 0.04 mm. The maximum clearance in mm between the hole and the shaft is (a) 0 04 0.04 (b) 0.05 (c) 0.10 (d) 0.11 Ans. (c)

Ans. Ans (c)


For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 54

IES 2005
The tolerance specified by the designer for the Th t l ifi d b th d i f th diameter of a shaft is 20.00 0.025 mm. The shafts produced b th d d by three diff different machines A B and C t hi A, d have mean diameters of 1999 mm, 2000 mm and 20.01 mm respectively, with same standard ti l ith t d d deviation. What will be the percentage rejection for the h ft th shafts produced b machines A B and C? d d by hi A, d (a) Same for the machines A, Band C since the standard deviation is same for the three machines (b) Least for machine A (c) Least for machine B (d) L t f machine C Least for hi Ans. ( ) A (c)

GATE 2000
A slot is to be milled centrally on a block with a l i b ill d ll bl k i h dimension of 40 0.05 mm. A milling cutter of 20 mm width is located with reference to the side of the block within 0.02 mm. The maximum offset in mm between the centre lines of the slot and the block is (a) 0.070 (b) 0.070 (c) 0.020 (d) 0.045 Ans. (c) Ans.(d)

GATE 2007(PI) ( )
Diameter of a hole after plating needs to be controlled between 30+0.050 mm. If the plating thickness varies +0.010 between 10 - 15 microns, diameter of the hole before plating should be l i h ld b (a) 30+0.070 mm +0.030 (c) 30+0.080 mm +0.030
0.065 (b) 30+0.020 mm +

(d) 30+0.070 mm +0.040

IES2011
Interference fit joints are provided for: (a) Assembling bush bearing in housing (b) Mounting heavy duty gears on shafts (c) Mounting pulley on shafts (d) Assembly of flywheels on shafts Ans. (a)

GATE 2005
In order to have interference fit, it is essential that the l h lower l limit of the shaft should b f h h f h ld be (a) Greater than the upper li i of the h l ( ) G h h limit f h hole (b) L Lesser th th upper li it of th h l than the limit f the hole (c) Greater than the lower limit of the hole (d) Lesser than the lower limit of the hole Ans. Ans (a)

GATE2011
+0.015

A hole is of dimension 9

+0

mm. mm The

corresponding shaft is of dimension The resulting assembly has g y (a) loose running fit (b) close running fi l i fit (c) transition fit a s o (d) interference fit Ans. ( ) (c)

+0.010 +0.001

mm.

GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)
In an interchangeable assembly shafts of size assembly, mm mate with holes of size
0.03 25+0 03 +0.02

25+0.04 0.01

IAS2011Main IAS2011 Main


An interference assembly of nominal diameter 20 assembly, mm, is of a unilateral holes and a shafts. The , manufacturing tolerances for the holes are twice that for the shaft. Permitted interference values are 0.03 to 0.09 mm. Determine the sizes, with l h h limits, for the two mating parts parts. [10 Marks] [10Marks]

IES 2007

mm.

The maximum interference (in microns) in the assembly is (a) 40 4 ( )3 (b) 30 (c) 20 (d) 10 Ans. ( ) (c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 55

Ans.(a)

ISRO2011
Ashaftandholepairisdesignatedas50H7d8.This Ashaftandholepairisdesignatedas50H7d8 This assemblyconstitutes (a)Interferencefit (b)Transitionfit (c)Clearancefit (d)Noneoftheabove (d)N fth b Ans.(c)

IES 2006
Which of the following is an interference fit? Whi h f h f ll i i i f fi ? ( ) (a) Push fit (b) Running fit (c) Sliding fit ( ) Slidi fi ( ) (d) Shrink fit

IES 2009
Consider the following joints: C id th f ll i j i t 1. Railway carriage wheel and axle 2. IC engine cylinder and liner Which of the above joints is/are the result(s) of interference fit? (a) 1 onl only (b) 2 only (c) Neither 1 nor 2 (d) Both 1 and 2 Ans. (d) A

Ans. (d)

IES 2008
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i g 1. The amount of interference needed to create a tight joint varies with diameter of the shaft. 2. 2 An interference fit creates no stress state in the shaft. 3. The stress state in the hub is similar to a thick walled cylinder with internal pressure. a ed cy de t te a p essu e. Which of the statements given above are correct? (a) ( ) 1, 2 and 3 d (b) 1 and 2 only d l (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only Ans. (d)

IES 2004
Consider the following fits: C id h f ll i fi 1. I.C. engine cylinder and piston g y p 2. Ball bearing outer race and housing 3. B ll b Ball bearing i i inner race and shaft d h f Which of the above fits are based on the interference system? (a) ( ) 1 and 2 d (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3 d Ans. (b) A

IES 2003
Match ListI (Phenomenon) with ListII (Significant List I List II Parameters/Phenomenon) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: ListI ListII (Phenomenon) (Significant Parameters/Phenomenon) A. Interference fit 1. Viscosity index y B. Cyclic loading 2. Interference C. Gear meshing 3. Notch sensitivity D. Lubricating of bearings 4. Induced compressive stress [ [Ans. (b)] ( )] Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 3 4 1 2 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 4 3 1 2

GATE 2001
Allowance in limits and fits refers to All i li i d fi f ( ) (a) Maximum clearance between shaft and hole (b) Minimum clearance between shaft and hole (c) Difference b ( ) Diff between maximum and minimum size of i d i i i f hole (d) Difference between maximum and minimum size of shaft

GATE 1998
In the specification of dimensions and fits, I h ifi i f di i d fi ( ) (a) Allowance is equal to bilateral tolerance q (b) Allowance is equal to unilateral tolerance (c) Allowance i i d ( ) All is independent of tolerance d f l ( ) (d) Allowance is equal to the difference between q maximum and minimum dimension specified by the tolerance. tolerance Ans. (c)

IES 2012
Clearance in a fit is the difference between (a) Maximum hole size and minimum shaft size (b) Minimum hole size and maximum shaft size (c) ( ) Maximum hole size and maximum shaft size (d) Mi i Minimum h l size and minimum shaft size hole i d i i h f i

Ans. Ans (b)


For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs) Page 56

Ans. Ans (b)

ISRO2008
Basic h ft d basic hole B i shaft and b i h l are th those whose upper h deviations and lower deviations respectively are (a) +ve, ve ve ( ) (c) Zero, Zero , (b) ve, +ve ve, ( ) (d) None of the above

IES 2005
Assertion (A): Hole basis system is generally A i (A) H l b i i ll preferred to shaft basis system in tolerance design for getting the required fits. Reason (R): Hole has to be given a larger tolerance band than the mating shaft. (a) ( ) Both A and R are individually true and R is the h d d d ll d h correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

IES2006Conventional
Find the limit sizes, tolerances and allowances for a Fi d h li i i l d ll f 100 mm diameter shaft and hole pair designated by F8h10. Also specify the type of fit that the above pair belongs to. g Given: 100 mm diameter lies in the diameter step range of 80 120 mm The fundamental deviation for 80120 mm. shaft designation f is 5.5 D0.41 The values of standard tolerances for grades of IT 8 and IT 10 are 25i and 64i respectively. Also, indicate the limits and tolerance on a diagram. Will b di be discussed i class d in l [15Marks] [ M k ]

Ans. (c)

IES 2008
Consider the following statements: C id h f ll i A nomenclature 50 H8/p8 denotes that 5 /p 1. Hole diameter is 50 mm. 2. I i a shaft b It is h f base system. 3 3. 8 indicates fundamental deviation. Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect? (a) ( ) 1, 2 and 3 d (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) ( ) 3 only Ans. ( ) (a)

IES 2002
In the tolerance specification 25 D 6, the letter D I h l ifi i 6 h l represents (a) Grade of tolerance (b) Upper deviation (c) Lower deviation (d) Type of fit

GATE 2009
What are the upper and lower limits of the shaft Wh t th d l li it f th h ft represented by 60 f8? Use h following data: U the f ll i d Diameter 60 lies in the diameter step of 5080 mm. Fundamental tolerance unit, F d l l i i, in m= 0.45 D1/3 + 0.001D, where D is the representative size in mm; 5 Ans. (a) Tolerance value for lT8 = 25i. Fundamental deviation for 'f shaft = 5.5D0.41 (a) Lower limit = 59 924 mm Upper Limit = 59 970 mm 59.924 mm, 59.970 (b) Lower limit = 59.954 mm, Upper Limit = 60.000 mm (c) Lo er limit = 59.970 mm Upper Limit = 60 0 6 mm Lower 9 9 0 mm, 60.016 (d) Lower limit = 60.000 mm, Upper Limit = 60.046 mm

Ans. (c)

GATE 2008(PI)
Following data are given for calculating limits of dimensions and t l di i d tolerances f a h l T l for hole: Tolerance unit i (i it (in m) = 0 45 D + 0 001D The unit of D is mm Diameter 0.45 D 0.001D. mm. step is 1830 mm. If the fundamental deviation for H p 3 hole is zero and IT8 = 25 i, the maximum and minimum limits of dimension for a 25 mm H8 hole (in mm) are (a) 24.984, 24.967 (c) 25.033, 25.000 (b) 25.017, 24.984 (d) 25.000, 24.967 Ans. (c)

GATE 2000
A fit is specified as 25H8/e8. The tolerance value for fi i ifi d H8/ 8 Th l l f a nominal diameter of 25 mm in IT8 is 33 microns and fundamental deviation for the shaft is 40 microns. The maximum clearance of the fit in microns is (a) 7 (b) 7 (c) 73 (d) 106 6 Ans. (d)

GATE 1996,IES2012
The fit on a holeshaft system is specified as H7 Th fi h l h f i ifi d H s6.The type of fit is (a) Clearance fit (b) Running fit (sliding fit) (c) Push fit (transition fit) (d) Force fit (interference fit) Ans. (d)

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 57

GATE 2003
The dimensional limits on a shaft of 25h7 are Th di i l li i h f f h ( ) 5 (a) 25.000, 25.021 mm , 5 (b) 25.000, 24.979 mm (c) ( ) 25.000, 25.007 mm ( ) 5 (d) 25.000, 24.993 mm , 4 993 Ans. (b)

GATE2010(PI)
A small bore is designated as 25H7. The lower (minimum) and upper (maximum) limits of the bore are 25.000 mm and 25.021 mm, respectively. Wh th d ti l When the bore is designated as 25H8, then the upper (maximum) limit is 25.033 mm. When the bore is designated as 25H6, then the upper (maximum) limit of the bore (in mm) is ) (a) ( ) 25.001 (b) 25.005 ( ) 25.009 (d) 25.013 (c)

IAS2010main IAS2010 main


What is the difference between hole basis system and shaft basis system ? Why is hole basis system the more y y y extensive in use ? What are the differences between interchangeability and selective assembly ? [12Marks] [ k ]

Ans.(d)

GATE 2003

GATE 1997
Three blocks B1 , B2 and B3 are Th bl k d to be inserted in a channel of width S maintaining a minimum gap of width T = 0.125 mm, 0 125 mm as shown in Figure Figure. For P = 18. 75 0.08; Q = 25.00 0.12; R = 28.125 0.1 and S = 72.35 + X, (where all dimensions are in mm), the tolerance X is l
( ) (a)+0.38 3 [Ans.(b)] ( ) (b) 0.38 3 ( ) (c)+0.05 5 ( ) (d)0.05 5 Ans.(d)

IES 2000
Which one of the following tolerances set on inner Whi h f h f ll i l i diameter and outer diameter respectively of headed jig bush for press fit is correct? (a) G7 h 6 (b) F7 n6 (c) H 7h 6 (d) F7j6 Ans. Ans (b)

ISRO2008
Plug gauges are used to gg g (a) Measure the diameter of the workpieces (b) Measure the diameter of the holes in the workpieces (c) h k h diameter of the h l ( ) Check the d f h holes in the h workpieces (d) Check the length of holes in the workpieces Ans. (c)
For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

GATE 2004
GO and NOGO plug gages are to be designed for a d NO GO l b d i df 0.05 g hole 200 01 mm. Gage tolerances can be taken as 10% 0.01 of the hole tolerance. Following ISO system of gage design, design sizes of GO and NOGO gage will be NO GO respectively (a) ( ) 20.010 mm and 20.050 mm d (b) 20.014 mm and 20.046 mm 0.0 4 a d 0.046 (c) 20.006 mm and 20.054 mm (d) 20.014 mm and 20.054 mm d Ans. (b)
Page 58

GATE 1995
Checking the diameter of a hole using GONOGO Ch ki h di f h l i GO NO GO gauges is an, example of inspection by ..(variables/attributes) The above statement is (a) Variables (b) Attributes (c) Cant say (d) Insufficient data Ans. Ans (b)

GATE 2006,VS2012
A ring gauge is used to measure i i d ( ) (a) Outside diameter but not roundness (b) Roundness but not outside diameter (c) Both ( ) B h outside di id diameter and roundness d d ( ) (d) Only external threads y Ans. ( ) (c)

ISRO2010
MeasurementofLines&Surfaces
The vernier reading should not be taken at its face value before an actual check has been taken for (a) Zero error (b) Its calibration (c) Flatness of measuring jaws (d) Temperature equalization Ans. Ans (a)

BySKMondal

ISRO2008
The least count of a metric vernier caliper Th l t t f t i i li having 25 divisions on vernier scale, matching with 24 divisions of main scale (1 main scale 4 ( divisions = 0.5 mm) is (a) 0.005 mm (c) 0.02 mm Ans. (c) (b) 0.01 mm (d) 0.005 mm

ISRO2009,2011 ISRO2009 2011


In I a simple micrometer with screw pitch 0.5 i l i t ith it h mm and divisions on thimble 50, the reading corresponding to 5 divisions on barrel and 12 p g divisions on thimble is (a) 2.620 mm (c) 2.120 mm Ans. (a) (b) 2.512 mm (d) 5.012 mm

GATE 2008

S1

A displacement sensor (a dial indicator) measures the lateral displacement of a mandrel mounted on the taper hole inside a drill spindle. The mandrel axis is an extension of the drill spindle taper hole axis and the protruding portion of the mandrel surface is perfectly cylindrical. Measurements are taken with the sensor placed at two positions P and Q as shown in the figure. The readings are recorded as Rx = maximum deflection minus minimum deflection, corresponding to sensor position at X, over one rotation.

GATE 2008contdfromS1 d f
If Rp= RQ>0, which one of the >0 following would be consistent with the observation? (A) The drill spindle rotational axis is coincident with the drill spindle taper p p hole axis (B) The drill spindle rotational axis intersects the d ill spindle taper h l i h drill i dl hole axis at point P (C) Th d ill spindle rotational axis i The drill i dl t ti l i is parallel to the drill spindle taper hole axis (D) The drill spindle rotational axis intersects the drill spindle taper hole axis at point Q For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

ISRO2010
A master gauge is (a) A new gauge (b) An international reference standard (c) A standard gauge for checking accuracy of gauges used on shop fl h floors (d) A gauge used b experienced t h i i d by i d technicians

ISRO2008
Standards to be St d d t b used f reference purposes i d for f in laboratories and workshops are termed as (a) Primary standards ( ) (b) Secondary standards y ( ) (c) Tertiary standards y (d) Working standards Ans. (d)

Ans.(c)

Ans. Ans (c)


Page 59

PSU
Afeelergaugeisusedtocheckthe Af l i dt h kth (a)Pitchofthescrew (b)Surfaceroughness (c)Thicknessofclearance (d)Flatnessofasurface Ans.(c) s. (c)

ISRO2011
A sine b i specified b i bar is ifi d by (a) Its total length (b) The size of the rollers (c) The centre distance between the two rollers (d) The distance between rollers and upper surface Ans. (c) s.

( ) GATE2012(PI)
A sine bar has a length of 250 mm. Each roller has a diameter of 20 mm. During taper angle measurement of a component, the h i h f h height from the surface plate to the centre of a roller is 100 mm. The calculated taper angle (in degrees) is (a) 21.1 Ans. (a) (b) 22.8 (c) 23.6 (d) 68.9

GATE 2011(PI) GATE 2011 (PI)


The best wire size (in mm) for measuring effective diameter of a metric thread (included angle is 60o) of 20 mm diameter and 2.5 mm pitch using two wire method is (a) 1.443 (b) 0.723 (c) 2 886 2.886 (d) 2 086 2.086 Ans. (a)

IES 1992
Which grade symbol represents surface rough of Whi h d b l f h f broaching? (a) N12 (b) N8 (c) N4 (d) N1 Ans. (b)

IFS2011
What is meant by interchangeable manufacture? Laser light has unique advantages for inspection. What are they ? Define the terms 'roughness height', h i ht' ''waviness width' and 'l ' i connection i idth' d 'lay' in ti with surface irregularities irregularities. [10 marks] [10marks]

ISRO2011
CLAvalueandRMSvaluesareusedfor measurementof (a)Metalhardness (b)Sharpnessoftooledge (c)Surfacedimensions (d)Surfaceroughness Ans.(d) For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

IES 2006
The M and Esystem in metrology are related to measurement of: f (a) Screw threads ( ) S h d (c) Angularity ( ) A l it (b) (d) Flatness Fl Surface fi i h S f finish Ans. Ans (c) Ans. Ans (d)

IES 2007
What is the dominant direction of the tool marks or Wh i h d i di i f h l k scratches in a surface texture having a directional quality, called? (a) Primary texture (b) Secondary texture (c) Lay (d) Flaw

Page 60

IES 2008
What term is used to designate the direction of the predominant d surface f pattern produced d d by b

IES2010
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists: List I List II (Symbols for direction of lay) (Surface texture)

IES 2008

machining operation? (a) Roughness (c) Waviness Ans. (b) (b) (d) Lay Cut off

[Ans.(b)] [A (b)] (a) (c) A 4 4 B 2 1 C 1 2 D 3 3 (b) (d) A 3 3 B 2 1 C 1 2 D 4 4

Ans.(c)

ISRO2010
Surface roughness on a drawing is represented by y (a) Triangles (b) Circles (c) Squares (d) Rectangles Ans. (a)

GATE 1997
List I List II Li t Li t (A) Surface profilometer 1. Calibration (B) Light Section Microscope 2. Form tester (C) Microkater 3. 3 Film thickness measurement (D) Interferometer 4 4. Centre line a erage average 5. Comparator 6. Surface lay measurement Codes:A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 4 3 5 1 (c) ( ) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4
Ans.(b)

GATE 2003
Two slip gauges of 10 mm width measuring 1.000 mm T li f id h i and 1.002 mm are kept side by side in contact with each other lengthwise. An optical flat is kept resting on the slip gauges as shown in the figure. Monochromatic light pg g g g of wavelength 0.0058928 mm is used in the inspection. The total number of straight fringes that can be observed on both slip gauges is (a)2 (c)8 (b)6 (d)13

Ans.(a)

GATE 1998
Auto collimator is used to check A lli i d h k ( ) (a) Roughness g (b) Flatness (c) Angle ( ) A l ( ) (d) Automobile balance. Ans. ( ) (c)

GATE 2009(PI) GATE 2009 (PI)


An t A autocollimator i used t lli t is d to (a) measure small angular displacements on flat surface (b) compare known and unknown dimensions (c) measure the flatness error (d) measure roundness error between centers Ans. (c) s.

MiscellaneousofMetrology

BySKMondal For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)

Page 61

ISRO2010
Optical square is O i l i ( ) g (a) Engineer's square having stock and blade set at 90o q g 9 (b) A constant deviation prism having the angle of deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray ray, equal to 90o (c) A constant deviation prism having the angle of dev at o bet ee t e c de t ay a d e ected ay, deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray, equal to 45o (d) U d t produce i t f Used to d interference f i fringes Ans. (b)

IES 1998
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the List I List II codes given below the lists: ListI ListII (Measuring Device) (Parameter Measured) A. Diffraction grating 1. Small angular deviations on long flat surfaces B. Optical flat 2. Online measurement of moving p parts C. Auto collimators 3. Measurement of gear pitch D. Laser scan micrometer4. Surface texture using interferometer 5. Measurement of very small f ll displacements Code: A B C D A B C D (a) 5 4 2 1 (b) 3 5 1 2 ( ) (c) 3 5 4 1 ( ) (d) 5 4 1 2
Ans.(d)

GATE 1992
Match the instruments with the physical quantities they M t h th i t t ith th h i l titi th measure: Instrument I Measurement M (A) Pilottube (1) R.P.M. of a shaft (B) McLeod Gauge (2) Displacement ( ) (C) Planimeter (3) Flow velocity y (D) LVDT (4) Vacuum (5) Surface finish (6) Area [Ans. (b)] Codes:A C d A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 3 4 6 2 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

GATE 2004
Match the following M h h f ll i Feature to be inspected Instrument P Pitch and Angle errors of screw thread 1. Auto Collimator Q Flatness error of a surface plate 2 Optical Interferometer 2. R Alignment error of a machine slide way 3. Dividing Head and Di l G d Dial Gauge S Profile of a cam 4. Spirit Level p 5. Sine bar 6. 6 Tool maker's Microscope maker s (a) P6 Q2 R4 S6 (b) P5 Q2 R1 S6 (c) P6 Q4 R1 S3 (d) P1 Q4 R4 S2
Ans.(b)

GATE 1995
List I Li (Measuring instruments) ( g ) (A) Talysurf 1. (B) T l Telescopic gauge i 2. ( ) (C) Transfer callipers p 3 3. (D) Autocollimator 4. Codes:A B d C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) Ans. ( ) (b) List II Li ( pp (Application) ) Tslots Flatness Fl Internal diameter Roughness A B C D 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 4

GATE 2010
A taper hole is inspected using a CMM, with a probe h l i i d i CMM i h b of 2 mm diameter. At a height, Z = 10 mm from the bottom, 5 points are touched and a diameter of circle (not compensated for probe size) is obtained ( p p ) as 20 mm. Similarly, a 40 mm diameter is obtained at a height Z = 40 mm the smaller diameter (in mm) mm. of hole at Z = 0 is (a) ( ) 13.334 (b) 15.334 (c) 15.442 (d) ( ) 15.542
Ans.(a)

GATE 2008 (PI) GATE2008(PI)


An experimental setup is planned to determine the taper of workpiece as shown in the figure. If the two precision rollers have radii 8 mm and 5 mm and the total thickness of slip gauges inserted between the rollers is 15.54 mm, the taper angle is (a) 6 degree (b) 10 degree (c) 11 degree (d) 12 degree

IES 2000
AscrewthreadspecifiedbyM20x2.5CasperBIS A h d ifi db M C BIS threadsystemmeans (a) Metricthreadof20mmnominaldiameterand2.5 mmpitchhavingcoarsetolerance (b) Metricthreadof20mmrootdiameterand2.5mm pitchhavingcoarsetolerance hh l (c) Metricthreadoffineclasshaving20mmroot et c t ead o e c ass av g 0 oot diameterand2.5mmpitch (d) M t i th d f Metricthreadof20mmshankdiameterand2.5mm h kdi t d threaddepthwithcoarsetolerance Ans.(c)
Page 62

Ch 13:Metrology Ch13: Metrology


Q.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Option C C A C C B C B B Q.No 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Option D A B B D B C B

For-2013 (IES, GATE, PSUs)