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jif{ ^, c+s !

@)^( ;fn c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/ (Oct. 14, 2012)

hg:jod\ ;]jssf] cWoIfdf rnfpg]


sf7df8f}F . g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf]
hg:jo+ d ;] j ssf] cWoIfdf
k"jh
{ g;]gfsf ;xsdf08/ pboaxfb'/
rnfpg] r'lgPsf 5g\ . hg:jo+d ;]js
OGrfh{ eg] g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf ;lrj
g]qljqmd rGb ljKnj 5g\ . hg:jo+d
;]jssf] klxnf] /fli6o e]nfn] pboaxfb'/
rnfpg]sf] g]t[Tjdf (% ;b:oLo
sfo{;ldlt u7g u/]sf] 5 . ;Dd]ngn]
;+u7gsf] gfdsf] aLrdf o'jf /fvL
/fli6 o o' j f hg:jo+ ; ] j s
gfds/0f;d]t u/]sf] 5 . ;+u7gsf]
pkfWoIfdf o'j/fh cfrfo{ / ;fljqf
b'/f, dxf;lrjdf g]kaxfb'/ rf}w/L /

;lrjdf k|sfz
vgfn / lji0f'
dxh{ g rog
ePsf 5g\ . xfd|f]
kf6L{ o' 4 af6
cfPsf x'gd] f w]/}
; f y L x
k"j{hg;]gf
x'gx' G' 5 rnfpg]n] eg] t/, aflx/ rrf{
ePsf] h:tf] ;}Go ;+u7g eg] xf]Og .
cGo bnsf o'jf ;+u7g h:t} xfd|f]
kf6L{sf] o'jf ;+u7g xf] . cWoIf
rnfpg]sf cg';f/ hg:jo+d ;]jsn]
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

pTs[i6 sd{rf/Lsf] rlt{snf


sf7df8f}F . utjif{ pTs[i 6
lghfdlt sd{rf/L 3f]lift x'bF } @ nfv
?k}ofF k'/:sf/ kfPsf z}lIfs hgzlSt
ljsf; s]Gb|sf sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs
;"ok{ ;
| fb uf}tdn] nf]s;]jfsf] k/LIffdf
cfkm}Fn] pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f u/L
>Ldlt OlGb/f 9sfn uf}tdnfO{ kf;
u/fPsf] v'nf;f ePsf] 5 . o:t}
k"jl{ zIff ;lrj /fd:j?k l;Gxfn] klg
cfkm}n
F ] pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f u/L 5f]/L
clGtdfs'df/L l;GxfnfO{ klg nf]s;]jfsf]

k/LIff pQL0f{ u/fPsf] kfOPsf] 5 .


5fgljgsf qmddf g]kfn lzIff ;]jf,
lzIff k| z f;g ;d" x , lg/LIf0f
pk;d"xsf] ljBfno lg/LIfs kbdf
lgj]bg lbPsf clGtdfs'df/L /
OlGb/fsf] pQ/k'l:tsf pgLx?s}
cfkmGtn] k/LIf0f u/]sf] kfOPkl5 b'j}
hgfsf] k/LIff /2 ul/Psf] nf]s;]jf
cfof]un] hgfPsf] 5 . nf]s;]jf
cfof]un] lgsfn]sf] lj1lKtdf sfo{sf/L
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

dfOtL3/eb|sfnL af6f] v'Ng]


sf7df8f} F . dfOtL3/b] l v
eb|sfnL;Ddsf] gofF af6f] cfufdL
;f]daf/b]lv v'nf x'g] ePsf] 5 .
d' n ' s sf] k| d ' v k| z f;lgs s] G b|
l;+xb/af/ j/k/sf If]qdf x'bF c
} fPsf]
;jf/L rfknfO{ Jojl:yt t'Nofpg
dfOtL3/b]lv eb|sfnL;Dd g]kfnL
;]gfsf] d'Vofno k"jk{ Laf6 gofF af6f]

vf]n]/ ;~rfngdf Nofpg] ;/sf/n]


cl3Nnf] jif{g} lg0f{ u/]sf] lyof] .
;/sf/n] ;f] gofF af6f] lgdf{0f ug{
g]kfnL ;]gfnfO{ ? $% nfv pknAw
u/fPsf] lyof] . sl/a ^!* ld6/
nDafO/x]sf] ;f] gofF af6f]sf] rf}8fO
xfn !) ld6/ /x]sf] 5 . ;f] af6f]sf]
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

g]kfnL
/fhgLltdf
k|r08sf]
c/fhstf
xfjL ePsf]
5
k"0f{ ljj/0f # k]hdf

d"No ?= &.

;+s6 lgDTofpb} ;/sf/


sf7df8f} F . b] z sf] l:ylt
lbgk| l tlbg ;/sf/s} sf/0f
;+s6u|:t aGb} uO/x]sf] 5 . b]zsf
k|d'v bnxn] /fi6klt;dIf o;}
dlxgfsf] cGTo;Dddf cfk;L ;xdlt
u/]/ jt{dfg ;+s6sf] lgsf; vf]Hg]
k|lta4tf hgfP klg pgLx k'/fg}
9/f{ d f kmls{ P sf 5g\ . ;xdlt,
;xdlt eg]/ gyfSg] bn / g]tfx
hgtfnfO{ e|ldt kfb}{ cfgf] :jfy{l;4
ug{d} tlNng 5g\ . jt{dfg ;+s6sf]
lgsf;eGbf klg s;/L ;/sf/
xTofpg] eGg] Pdfn], sfFu;
]| sf] /0fgLlt
/ ;/sf/ s;/L l6ls/xg ;lsG5
eGg] k|wfgdGqL afa'/fd e/fO{sf]
WofpGg / cfk"m s;/L ljjfb/lxt
9n] k|wfgdGqLsf] s';L{ xTofpg ;S5'
eGg] Pdfcf]jfbLsf cWoIf k|r08sf]
bfpk]r g} jt{dfg ;+s6sf k|dv
'
sf/0f ePsf] /fhgLlt ljZn]ifsxsf]
7x/ 5 . b]zsf] jt{dfg ;+s6sf]
k|d'v sf/s k|d'v tLg bn eGb}
g]skfdfcf]jfbLn] jt{dfg ;+s6sf]
lgsf; uf]nd]r ;efsf] ljsNk

gePsf] atfPsf] 5 . sfFu|];, Pdfn]


/ Pdfcf] j fbLsf] /fhgLlts
Psflwsf/jfbL z}nLs} sf/0f b]zn]
;+ljwfg kfpg g;s]sf] / b; jif]{
hgo'4 / !( lbg] hgcfGbf]ngaf6
k|fKt pknlAw ;+:yfut x'ge
] Gbf u'Dg]
l:yltlt/ k'u]sf] g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf]
7DofO/x]sf] 5 . cfk"mnfO{ b]zsf]

;j{zlQmdfg 7fGg] sfFu|];, Pdfn] /


Pdfcf]jfbLn] b]z / hgtfnfO{ k6s
k6s em'Sofpg ;kmn ePsf 5g\ eg]
pgLxn] /fi6klt;dIf k6sk6s
u/] s f k| l ta4tfx;d] t kfng
u/] s f 5} g g\ . bf] i f hlt Psn]
csf{nfO{ b]vfpFb} cfgf] :jfy{l;4 ug{
kNs]sf sfFu;
]| , Pdfn] / Pdfcf]jfbLn]
b]znfO{ aaf{lblt/ 8f]ofpFb}5g\ . oL
bnxsf] cfk;L lvrftfgL /
n8fOFsf] sf/0f k|wfgdGqL afa'/fd
e/fO{nfO{ eg] lrf k/]sf] /fhgLlts
ljZn]ifsx atfpF5g\ . olb oL tLg
bnn] g]skfdfcf]jfbLn] eg]h:t} u/]/
uf]nd]r ;efaf6 jt{dfg ;+s6sf]
lgsf; lgsfNg tof/ eP eg] e/fO{
;/sf/ Ps ldg]6d} 9Ng] pgLxsf]
bfaL 5 . sfF u | ] ; , Pdfn] /
Pdfcf]jfbLsf] ;/sf/ df]xs} sf/0f
jt{ d fg ;+ s 6n] ;dfwfg kfpg
g;s]sf] pgLxsf] ts{ 5 . olb
g] s kfdfcf] j fbLn] cl3 ;f/] s f]
uf]nd]r ;efnfO{ ;a}n] cfTd;ft ug]{
xf] eg] If0fe/d} d'ns
' n] lgsf; kfpF5

/ zflGt / ;+ljwfgn] klg k"0f{tf


kfpF5 eGg]df pgLx ljZj:t 5g\ .
oxL s'/f a'em]/ k|wfgdGqL 8f=
afa'/fd e/fO{n] oL tLg bnaLr
cfk;L d]n x'g glbg cg]s k|k~r
ul//x]sf 5g\ . slxn] pgL ca
lgjf{rg u/fpg] ;/sf/ sfFu|];sf]
x'gk' 5{ eG5g\ t slxn] /fi6klt klg
;/sf/ klg sfFu;
]| sf] x'g ;Sb}g eg]/
;fj{hlgs u5{g\ . slxn] cfg}
cWoIfnfO{ ;/sf/sf] afu8f] /
x:tfGt0f ug]{ OR5f 3'dfp/f] 9n]
hfx] / u5{ g \ . pgsf] oxL
lts8dafhLn] k|wfgdGqL aGg Hofg
kmfn]/ nfu]sf /fhgllts bn /
g]tfxaLr ;xdlt x'g g;s]sf]
ljZn]ifsxsf] 7x/ 5 . s's'/nfO{
xL kmflnlbPkl5 ====== eGg] g]kfnL
pvfgnfO{ rl/tfy{ ub} { clxn]
k|wfgdGqL e/fO{ ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tj
ug{ k|To]s g]tfnfO{ pS;fpFb} cfk"m
/fh ul//x] s f 5g\ . g] k fnL
/fhgLltsf] k|d'v v]nf8L dfGg]
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

j}bl] zs /f]huf/ ljefu 3':ofxfsf] cv8f


sf7df8f}F . sd{rf/Ln] v'ndv'nf
3';sf] sf/f]af/ ul//xFbf j}b]lzs
/f]huf/ ljefus dxflgb]{zs df}g
a;]sf 5g\ . ljefudf 3';afktsf]
/sd clu|d lng yflnPsf] 5 . bz}s
F f]
d' v dfsfdsf] rfk a9] k l5
sd{rf/Lx?n] cufl8 g} /sdlnP/
kl5 sfd ul/lbg] u/] s f 5g\ .
clGtd :jLs[lt zfvfdf :j:Yo
k/LIf0fsf] Dofb ;lsPsf, b'jO{sf]
lelh6 lehf / JolStut k|of;df
b' j } n ufot vf8L hfg nfu] s f
JolStx?sf] kmfOn ;]l6 u/]/ 3';
lnFb} clGtd -;+:yfut_ >d :jLs[lt
lbg yflnPsf] 5 . clwsf+z o:tf
kmfOnx? cfpg] lbg lgb]z
{ s ;"o{
e08f/L cg'kl:yt /xg] ub{5g\ .
dxflgb]z
{ s k"0f{rGb| e/fO{sf e08f/L
ljZjflznf sd{rf/L x'g\ . kmfOn
;] l 6af6 b' j O{ hfg] clwsf+ z
sfdbf/x? ckmuflg:tfg / O/fs

hfg] ub{5g\ . oL d'ns


' x? ;/sf/f/f
k|ltjlGwt d'ns
' x'g\ . cled'vLs/0f
tflnd zfvfaf6 JolStut
gjLs/0fdf cfPsf lji0f'xl/ pkfWofo
/ JolStut gofF zfvfaf6 clGtd
zfvfdf kb:yfkg ul/Psf s[i0fdl0f
k'mFofnsf] /f}gs lgs} a9]sf] 5 .
cled'vLs/0f tflnd glnO{ hfg
nfu]sf sfdbf/sf] cf]l/G6];g ;]l6
ldnfPafkt
;+ : yfsf
;~rfnsx?af6 b} l gs} h;f]
/sda' b} cfPsf pkfWofo /
JolStut >d :jLs[ltdf b}lgs krf;
xhf/ dfly sdfP/ clGtd zfvf
k|jz
] u/]sf k"moF fnsf] ljefudf dgkl/
x] g { n fos 5 . To;f] t cGo
sd{rf/Lx? klg sd eg] 5}gg\ .
Psb'O{ lbg 3'; sxfF, s;/L cfpF5
eGg] d]nf] gkfPsf sd{rf/Lx?n]
kmfOn g} c8\ s fP/ Joj;foL
k|ltlglwx?nfO{ x}/fg kfg]{ u/]sf 5g\

eg] dxflgb]z
{ s k"0f{rGb| e/fO{ kfgL
dflysf] cf]efgf] aGb} 3'Dg] s';L{df
a;]/ l;l;l6leaf6 3'; lnPsf] x]g{
EofO{gEofO{ ePsf] 5 . >f]tsf
cg';f/ sfuhft ;SsnL ldn]sf /
gSsnL gldn]sf kmfOnsf] sfd ug{
lbg 5'f5'} ;]l6 ul/G5 . ;+:yfut
>d :jLs[ltsf clwsf+z kmfOnx?
r]s hfFr ug{] xf] eg] cfwfeGbf
/sds} e/df :jLs[lt u/]sf] kfpg
s'g} ufx|f] kb}{g . JolStut gofF /
gjLs/0fdf Ph] G 6dfkm{ t \ 3' ; sf]
sf/f]jf/ x'g yfn]sf] Ps jif{ ljlt;Sbf
klg s'g} ;'wf/ x'g ;s]sf] 5}g\ .
k|ltJolSt kfFr xhfb]lv rfnL;
xhf/;Dd Ph]G6, sfdbf/sf], lehf
k|s[lt k'?if of dlxnf x]/]/ 5'f5'}
3';sf] sf/f]jf/ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . >d
:jLs[lt lgsfNg] :jo+ jf ef8fsf
JolSt / Ph]G6 ;Fu;Fu} uP/ d'v
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

ljhofbzdL @)^(
sf] ;'vb pknIodf ;Dk"0f{
n]vs, kf7s, z'eR] 5's,
lj1fkgbftf, ljt/s Pj+
;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL bfh'efO tyf
lbbLalxgLdf ;'v, ;d[l4
Pj+ pQ/f]Q/ k|ultsf] nflu
xflb{s dndo z'esfdgf
JoQm ub{5f}F .

kl/jf/
xfd|f] cfufdL e]6
sflQs
ut] k]x'hgdf_
]5 .
-afF s L !(
clGtd

u|fpG8]8 hxfh ;~rfngdf NofOg] gj;+zf]wgjfbl;t ;DaGw ljR5]bsf] ;Gbe{df


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn jfo';j] f lgudn]
xfn u|fpG8]8 cj:yfdf /x]sf tLgj6f
hxfh s]xL ;doleq} ;~rfng ug]{
tof/L u/]sf] 5 . u|fpG8]8 cj:yfdf
/x]sf 6\jLgc6/ hxfhnfO{ dd{t
;Def/ u/L ;~rfngdf Nofpg] tof/L
ul/Psf] lgudn] hfgsf/L lbPsf] 5 .
lgudsf cg' ; f/ clxn] hxfh
dd{tsf] sfd ;'? ePsf] 5 . s'g}
afwf Jojwfg pTkGg ePg /
hxfhsf OlGhg dd{tdf k|fljlws
hl6ntf b]lvPg eg] Ps dlxgfleq}
hxfh ;~rfngdf Nofpg ;lsg]
atfOPsf] 5 . ;fdfGo dd{t u/]/
u|fpG8]8 cj:yfdf /x]sf hxfh
;~rfngdf cfpF5 eg] lsg ;~rfng
gug]{ eGg] p2]Zosf ;fy ;f] hxfhnfO{

;~rfngsf] nflu k|lqmof cufl8


a9fOPsf] atfOPsf] 5 . lgud;Fu
/x]sf ;ftj6f 6\jLgc6/ hxfhdWo]
xfn u|fpG8]8 cj:yfdf /x]sf tLgj6f
hxfh dd{t u/L cfGtl/s uGtJodf
;]jf lbg] tof/L ul/Psf] lgudsf
sfodd'sfod dxfk|aGws /fh'axfb'/
s];Ln] hfgsf/L lbP . pgn] eg],
hxfh dd{tsf] sfd ;'? eO;s]sf]
5, cfzf u/f}F s]xL lbgleq} u|fpG8]8
cj:yfdf /x]sf hxfh ;~rfngdf
cfpg] 5 g\ / b' u { d sf uGtJodf
;xh}?kdf hgtfnfO{ ;]jf lbg
;lsg]5 . cGt/f{li6o hxfh vl/b
k|lqmof cGof]ndf /x]sf] kl/l:yltdf
cfGtl/s uGtJodf ;]jf lj:tf/ u/L
gfkmf cfh{g u/L lgud cl3 a9\g

lgikIf ;dfrf/ / k|:6 ljrf/sf nflu


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x]g{ ge'Ng'xf]nf .

nfu] s f] s] ; Ln] atfP . ;ftj6f


6\jLgc6/ hxfhdWo] xfn b'O{j6f
hxfhn] p8fg ul//x]sf 5g\ eg]
b'Oj{ 6f tf/f Po/nfO{ ef8fdf lbOPsf]
5 . u| f pG8] 8 tLgj6f hxfh
;~rfngsf nflu sl/a ? !% s/f]8
/sd dd{t vr{ nfUg] atfOPsf] 5 .
sfodd'sfod dxfk|aGws s];Ln] eg],
tLgj6fsf] OlGhg dd{t ug{k' g]5
{ ,
h;sf nflu !% / !^ s/f]8 vr{
eP k' U 5 . s] x L ;do klxn]
sfodd'sfod dxfk|jGwsf] lhDd]jf/L
;DxfNg' ePsf cfGtl/s
Joj:yfkgnfO{ r':tb'?:t agfO{ gofF
hxfh vl/b gu?Gh]n;Dd pknAw
;fwg / ;|f]tsf] plrt k|of]uaf6
lgudnfO{ ;an /fVg] of]hgf agfPsf]
hfgsf/L lbP . hxfh dd{tkl5
sf7df8f}F, kf]v/f / g]kfnu~hnfO{
cfwf/ agfO{ n'Snf, hf]d;f]d / s0ff{nL
If]qdf ;d]t p8fg ug{] of]hgf lgudn]
agfPsf] 5 . tL uGtJox? d'n'ss}
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

!) jif]{ hgo'4sf] g]t[Tj ub}{


cfPsf] g]=s=kf= -dfcf]jfbL_ sf] d'Vo
g] t [ T j zflGt k| l qmofdf cfpg]
k|lqmof;Fu} blIf0fkGyL cj;/jfbL
af6f] ks8g k'Uof] / Pg]skf dfcf]jfbL
alg;s]kl5 To;sf cWoIf k|r08

5 . ;a}vfn] ;+zf]wgjfbx g]kfnL


qmflGtsf] jfwssf] kdf v8f x'Fb}
cfPsf] n ] oL tdfd k| s f/sf
;+zf]wgjfbL wf/fxnfO{ ;}4flGts,
/fhg}lts / ;fFu7lgs kn] ;d]t
k/f:t u/]/ dfq g]kfnL qmflGtnfO{

If]Kof:q ax;
x:taxfb'/ s];L

pkfWoIf afa' / fd e/fO{


gj;+zf]wgjfbdf ktg eO;s]kl5
kf6L{leqsf] qmflGtsf/L ljrf/ ;d"xn]
@)^(c;f/ ! b] l v $ ut] ; Dd
cfof]hgf ul/Psf] /fli6o sfo{stf{
e]nfn] gj;+zf]wgjfbl;t ;DaGw
laR5]b u/L gofF 9sf] qmflGtsf/L
kf6L{ g]=s=kf=dfcf]jfbLsf] k'gu{7g
u/]kZrft g]kfnsf] jt{dfg sDo'lgi6
cfGbf]ngdf / ;du| /fhgLlts If]qdf
o;n] Aofks t/\u k}bf ul/lbPsf]

ljhosf] lbzflt/ k'ofpg ;Dej 5 .


gj;+zf]wgjfbLxsf] d'Vo rl/q leq
k|ltqmflGtsf/L sbd rfNg] / aflx/
qmflGtsf/Lsf rsf{ gf/fx lbO/xg]
ePsf]n] clxn] klg k|r08afa'/fdn]
dfS;{jfbn]lggjfbdfcf]jfbsf] hfdf
klxl/P/ g]kfnL e"lddf gj;+zf]wgjfbL
gfr gflr/x]sf]n] g]kfnL qmflGtsf]
dxfg\ ofqfdf Aofks e|dx k}bf
eO/x]sf 5g\ . sDo'lgi6 g]tf
sfo{stf{x / cfdg]kfnL hgtfnfO{

o; e|daf6 d'Qm ug{sf] nflu xfdLn]


;a}vfn] ;+zf]wgjfb ljz]iftM k|r08
afa'/fn] c+ufnL /x]sf] gj;+zf]wgjfbL
ljrf/ k|0ffnLnfO{ Wj:t kfg{sf] lglDt
gj;+zf]wgjfb eg]sf] s] xf] < eGg] ljifodf
Jofks 5nkmn / ax; ug'{ cfhsf]
cfjZostf ePsf]n] of] ;fgf] n]vdf oxL
ljifonfO{ Pp6f dxfg\ ax;sf] kdf
n}hfg] k|oTg ul/Psf] 5 .
sfn{ dfS;{ cfgf] cgGo ldq
k| ] m 8l/s P+ u ] N ;;F u ldn] /
sDo'lgi6xsf] ;+u7g sDo'lgi6
lnu df lqmoflzn x' g ' eof] .
sDo'lgi6 lnusf] bf]>f] sf+u|]; ;g\
!*$& sf] gf]e]Da/df cfof]hgf
ul/of] . To; sfFu|];df dfS;{ /
P+u]N;n] efu lng' eof] / To;}df
lqmofzLn x'g' eof] . To;} sf+u|];n]
dfS;{ / P+uN] ;nfO{ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf]
3f]if0ffkqsf] d:of}bf tof/ kfg{]
lhDd]jf/L ;'DKof] . pxfFxsf] Ps jif{
-afF s L clGtd k] h df_

ltdL ltd|f] tl/sfn] n8, xfdL xfd|f] tl/sfn] n8\5f}

s= dfcf]T;] t'

jif{ ^, c+s !, c;f]h @* ut] cfOtaf/ @)^


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5}7f}+ jif{ k|jz


] sf] cj;/df
bz jif{] hgo'4 / !( lbg] hgcfGbfn]gaf6 k|fKt u0ftGq;Fu}
o;nfO{ ;:+yfut ug{ tyf g]kfn / gkf]nLsf] :jfledfgsf] /Iff
ub{} hgtfnfO{ ;';l" rt ug{] dxfg\ sfo{df ;xof]u k'ofpg]
p2]Zosf ;fy ;'? ul/Psf] o; ;fKtflxsn] kfFr jif{ k"/f u/L
5}7f}F jif{df k|jz
] u/]sf] 5 . b]zdf cfdkdf k|sflzt cGo
5fkf ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 k[ys /xFb} If]Kof:qn] cfk\mgf] 5'}
klxrfg agfPsf] 5 . o; ;fKtflxsn] b]zdf JofKt cGofo,
cTofrf/, e|i6frf/ / s'/LltxnfO{ gf\ue
] mf/ kfb{} hgkIfLo
/ /fli6otfsf] kIfnfO{ ;jf]R{ r dfGb} ;dfrf/ / n]vx k|sflzt
ub{} cfPsf] 5 . xfd|f] k|sfzgsf] d'Vo nIo eg]s} b]zdf JofKt
cGofo, cTofrf/, e|i6frf/ / s'/LltnfO{ h/}bl] v gf]emf/ kfb{}
/fli6o :jfledfgsf] ljsf; ug{' /x]sf] 5 . xfd|f] o; cleofgsf]
5f]6f] cjlwdf g} cfdg]kfnL bfh'efO, lbbLalxgLn] xfdLk|lt
b]vfPsf] ;b\efj ;x|fgLo 5 . o;af6 xfd|f] xf};nf Pj+d bfloTj
ce}m a9\g uPsf] 5 . o;/L xfd|f] cleofgdf ;fy lbO{ xfdLnfO{
xf};nf k|bfg ug{] ;Dk"0f{ kf7s, lj1fkgbftf, laqm]tf Pj+
z'eR] 5'sxk|lt xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5fF} . jt{dfg ;dodf b]z
/ hgtfsf] lxtsf nflu kqklqsfn] Odfgbfl/tfk"js
{ sfd
ul//x]sf 5}gg\, kLt kqsfl/tf a9\b} uPsf] 5 . b]zsf 7"nf
ldl8of eGg]xn] t emg\ cfgf] JolQmut :jfy{ k"lt{sf] nflu
b]z / hglxt ljkl/t sfo{ ub{} cfO/x]sf 5g\ . /fi6, /fli6otf
/ gful/s ;jf]R{ rtfk|lt ltgLxnfO{ s'g} ?rL 5}g, 7f8f]
j}bl] zs x:tIf]kk|lt s'g} k|ltlqmof hgfpFbg} g\ . o; cj:yfdf
lgZro g} /fi6, /fli6otf / gful/s ;jf]R{ rtf kIfw/ ldl8ofxsf]
cfjZostf af]w ePsf] 5 . j}bl] zs x:tIf]ksf lj?4 cfjfh
a'nGb ug{] 5fkfxsf] cem} cfjZostf /x]sf] 5 . oxL
cfjZostfnfO{ af]w u/]/ k|sfzg ul/Psf] o; ;fKtflxs
cfufdL lbgdf klg cfgf] lhDd]jf/Laf6 k5fl8 x6\g] 5}g
eGg] ljZjf; lbnfpFb} / k|lta4tf ub{} xfd|f] o; cleofgdf
;xof]u k'ofpg] ;Dk"0f{{ /fi6eQm / lhDd]jf/ gful/sxaf6
cfjZos ;/;Nnfx / ;'emfj k|fKt x'g5] eGg]df xfdL ljZj:t
5fF} . of]aLrdf If]Kof:qn]] h]hlt k|ult uof] . kf7s sdfof],
ufnL / tfnL b'j} h]h:tf] kfof] . To;sf] kl/0ffd kSs} PSnf]
k|of;af6 ;Dej ePsf] xf]Og . xfdLnfO{ klqsf k9]/ ;xof]u
ug]{ kf7sju{, lj1fkgbftf, n]vs, z'eR] 5's ;a} ldqxnfO{
xfdL cfef/ JoSt ub{} xflb{s wGojfb JoSt ub{5fF} . xfdL
oxfFxsf] ;sf/fTds ;Nnfx, ;'emfj / cfnf]rgfsf ] lg/Gt/
ck]Iff /fVb5fF} .

/flqsfnLg cbfnt ;~rfngaf/] ;'emfj


sf7df8f} F . ;fF e mdf cbfnt
;~rfngaf/] ;jf] { R r cbfntsf
GofofwLz tflx/ cnL cG;f/Lsf]
;+of]hsTjdf ul7t ;ldltn] laxLaf/
k|wfgGofofwLz lvn/fh /]UdLnfO{
k|ltj]bg a'emfPsf] 5 . zL3| / Gofodf
;a}sf] kx'Frsf nflu ;fdsflng
cbfnt ;~rfngaf/] cWoog ug{ ut
r}tdf k|wfgGofofwLzn] ;ldlt u7g
u/]sf lyP . ;ldltn] ;fdsflng
cbfnt u7g ug{ !& j6f k"jf{wf/sf]
vfFrf] cf}FNofPsf] 5 . aa/dxndf
sf7df8f}+ lhNnf cbfntsf] ejg
alg;s]kl5 gd'gfsf ?kdf klxnf]
r/0fdf a]n'sL % b]lv & ah];Dd
cbfnt ;~rfng ug{ ;'emfj lbOPsf]
5 . ;'/Iffsf nflu k|x/L gfoj
lg/LIfssf] sdfG8df xftxltof/,
;~rf/ ;]6;lxt ^ hgf ;'/IffsdL{sf]
6f]nL v6fpg'kg{] k|ltj]bgdf 5 . /flq
cbfnt ;'? x'g'eGbf Ps 306fcl3
/ ;lsPsf] cfwf 306f;Dd ;'/Iffy{
k|x/L /xg'kg]{ / pgLx?n] g} cbfntsf
sd{rf/LnfO{ Nofpgn}hfg ;'/Iff
lbg'kg]{ k|ltj]bgn] ;'emfPsf] 5 .

/flqsfnLg cbfntdf vl6g]


sd{rf/Lsf nflu :6fkm a; tyf
lah'nLsf] lgoldt Joj:yf x'g] u/L
h]g/] 6] / h8fg ug{k' g]{ k|ltj]bgdf 5 .
d'2f uDeL/ vfnsf x'g' gx'g] ;'emfj;lxt
cbfntn] ;fdsfnLg cbfntsf nflu
rf/hgf GofowLzn] kfn}kfnf] d'2f x]g{
l;kmfl/; u/]sf] 5 . Psd'i7 nut
km:5\of}6{ ljj/0f lgsfNg], b]JofgL /
kmf}hbf/L d'2f kmFf6 u/L b'O{ kmfF6 v8f
ug{k' g]{ k|ltj]bgdf 5 . b'Oj{ 6f kmfF6sf
nflu tTsfn gfoj;'Aaf / l8f b'O{
b'Oh
{ gf yKg] / kl5 b/aGbL yKg ;lsg]
k|ltj]bgdf 5 . lkm/fbkq btf{ ug{
;dod} jfbLnfO{ ;fdsfnLg cbfntsf]
;'ljwf ePsf] hfgsf/L u/fpg] /
pgLx?sf] d~h'/L eP pSt d'2f
;fdsfnLg cbfntn] x]g]{ Joj:yf
ldnfpg ;'emfj lbOPsf] 5 . ljz]if u/L
aGbL k|ToIfLs/0f / lgif]wf1fsf] lgj]bg,
lnvtdf ljjfb gePsf] / kIfx?aLr
d]nldnfk ePsf], c+z bfaL gu/L
dlxnfn] lbPsf] ;DaGwljR5]b tyf
hf/Lnufot d'2f cbfntn] x]g;
{ Sg]
k|ltj]bgdf 5 .

/fatOfc t]u *@ hf];c nf; (^)@

ldof]lagfsf] g]kax;fnL /fhgLlt

xfd|f] b]zdf !)) df () hlQ


ul/a 5g\, s'6Lsf]bfnf] u/]/ ufpFdf
a:5g\, h;nfO{ vfg nfpg k'us
] f] 5}g
. g]kfn eg]s} ltg} !)) df gAa]
dflg; x'g\ . ha d g]kfnsf] sNkgf
ub{ 5 ' To;a] n f ltg} ul/a
bfh'efOx?sf] tl:a/ d]/f] cufl8 cfpF5,
d}nf n'uf nufPsf] vfg gkfPsf] /
/f]uL cg'xf/sf] tl:a/, clg dnfO{
nfUb5 oL /f]uL vfg gkfPsf] cg'xf/
kf] xfd|f] b]z xf], To;f] x'gfn] ToxL
vfg gkfPsf] k]6df cGg hfcf];,\ xf:g
gkfPsf] cf]7df xf;f] cfcf];,\ /f]uLn]
cf}iflw d"nf] kfcf];,\ s]6fs]6Ln] k9\g
kfpg\ eg]/ g} xfdL /fhgLltdf nfu]sf
xf},F dGqL xf}n
F f, 7"nf7"nf s';L{df hfpFnf
eg]/ /fhgLltdf nfu]sf xf]Ogf}F . s]
g]kfn eg]sf] oxfFsf kfFrj6f ;x/ xf] <
ls g]kfn eg]sf] ufpF xf] < xfdLn]
ljsf;sf s'/f ubf{ ljsf;n] u|fdL0f
kl/jf/nfO{ s] uof] < eGg] k|Zgsf]
hjfkm lbg ;Sg'k5{ olb 7"nf ;8s
aG5 eg] df]6/ uf8L hf]l;t 5,
p;n] pkof]u u5{, h]6 Kn]g ufpFnn
] ]
r9\bg} , lah'nL k|of]u ub}g{ . To; sf/0f
d}n] k|wfgdGqL x'bF f of]hgf cfof]usf]
ldl6df eg]sf] lyPF -tkfO{x+ ? leQfdf
/fhfsf] tl:j/ /fVg'xf];\ / ;fy} g]kfnsf]
Pp6f ul/a ufpFn] ls;fgsf] cfgf]
e'mk8L cufl8 ple/x]sf] lrq klg /fVgf];\
/ To;sf] cg'xf/ x]//] of]hgf agfpgf];\
/ ;f]Wgf];\ -o; of]hgfn] To; emf]k8Ldf
a:g] ls;fgnfO{ s] nfe lbg ;S5 <
d cfh klg ToxL k|Zg ;f]W5' . :juL{o
aL=kL= sf]O/fnfn] eGg' ePsf] oLdflysf
dd{:k;L{ x/kmx? jt{dfg /fhgLlts
cj:yfdf cem a9L ;fGble{s aGb}
uPsf] 5 . tTsfnLg ;dodf af6f]
3f6f] lah'nL aQLsf] kof{Kt ljsf;
gePsf] cj:yfdf ;f]lrPsf] ljrf/ /
clxn] PSsfO;f}F ztfAbL lj1fg /
k|ljlwsf] o'udf bf}l8/x]sf xfdLdf vf;}
leGgtf b]lvFbg} . df]6fdf]6L ?kdf b]z
ljsf;sf] cfwf/ @)$^ ;fnsf]
kl/jt{gnfO{ lng'kg]{ x'G5 . b]z
ljsf;sf] afws elgPsf] lgb{nLo

5qaxfb'/ d}gfnL

k~rfotL Joj:yf kmfn]/ k|hftGq


:yfkgf ePsf] dxfg\ ;do lyof] . Tof]
t/ h'g p2]Zo / l;4fGt af]s/] :yfkgf
ePsf] lyof] . 5f]6f] ;dod} ljs[lt /
lj;+ultn] el/Fb} uP/ cGttM zf;g
;Qf g} kl/jt{g x'g k'Uof] . sf/0f
d'ns
' nfO{ ;xL lbzfdf xfFSg ;Sg] c;n
kfqsf] cefjdf pTs[i7 dflgPsf]
k|hftflGqs Joj:yfn] cj;fg Joxf]g{'
kof] . /fhgLlts Pj+ k|zf;lgs g]tT[ j
txdf hf];s
' } k'u] klg ljs[lt, lj;+ult
x6fpg] ;f]r k"/} hfcf];\ pN6} dnhn
ug]{ sfd u/]/ ;dfhsf] tNnf] tx;Dd
e|i6frf/sf] ljs[lt km}Nofpg] sfd u/] .
h;sf] kl/0ffd ;xh ?kdf b]Vg ;S5f}F .
clxn]sf] /fhgLlts cj:yf cToGt}
eofjx cj:yfdf u'lh|g k'Ug'sf] sf/0f
dWo] e|i6frf/ klg xf] . g]kfnsf]
/fhgLlt ldof]+ lagfsf] bfOF aGg k'us
] f]
5 . s'g} g]tT[ jn] Ps sfo{sfn k"/f ug{
g;Sg', /fhgLlts ;xdlt sfod x'g
g;Sg' cflb ljs[ltsf csf]{ gd'gf x'g\ .
;/sf/ aGg'eGbf lu/fpg] v]ndf
;a}eGbf a9L ;do Joltt x'g k'us
] f]
5 . s;nfO{ s;/L ;Qfaf6 lu/fpg]
/ s';L{df k'Ug] Wofgafx]s /f:6sf] nflu
s] To:tf] ultnf] sfd u/]/ b]vfPsf
5g\ < /fhgLlts cj:yf / bnsf
g]tfx?sf] lqmofsnfkn] d'ns
' df cem}
cGof}ntf 5fpg] lglZrt 5 . b]z /
hgtfsf] nflu eg]/ ul/g] /fhgLlt
cGttM JolStut, bnut :jfy{afx]s
/fli6o :jfy{nfO{ cfTd;ft ug]a{ f6 kl5
x6\b} cfPsf 5g\ . h;/L x'G5 cfgf]
ceLi6 k"/f ug{ kfP Tof] g} ;j{ljho,
Tof] g} b]z / hgtfsf] nflu u/]sf]
7fGg]x?n] e'm7sf] /fhgLlt u/]/ b]z /
hgtfnfO{ wf]vf lbFb5
} g\ . of] b]z /
hgtfk|ltsf] 3f]/ ckdfg xf] . ;fob
Oltxf;sf] s'g} sfnv08df efjL lkF9Ln]
o;sf] plrt lx;falstfa t vf]Hnfg\
g} Tolta]nf;Dd ;don] g]6f] sf6L ;s]sf]

cj:yf x'g5
] . /fhgLlts bnx?n]
d'n'snfO{ ljleGg axfgfafhLdf
k|of]uzfnfdf kl/0ft u/]/ /fhgLlts
:jfy{kl" t{ ub}{ cfPsf] tLtf] ;To xf] . of]
ljifodf af]Ng] s;n] < olb af]lnxfn]sf]
v08df ;'lglbg] s;n] <
oxfF jf:tljs /fhgLlts zlSt
cfhsf] cfjZostf aGg k'us
] f] 5 .
t/, otflt/ Wofg lbg] k'm;{b sf]xL;Fu
b]lvFbg} . g]kfn / g]kfnL hgtfsf]
eljio dfly v]njf8 kSs} ePsf] 5 .
hfg]/ cyjf c~hfgdf t}kgL xfd|f]
r]tgfsf] f/ aGbsf] aGb} /Xof] . ;fob
g]kfnL hgtfn] Oltxf;df of]eGbf a9L
la8Dagf k"0f{ ;do slxNo} ef]us
] f
lyPgg\ xf]nf . ;j{xf/f ju{sf] lxt /
pTyfg ug]5
{ f}F eg]/ nfu]sf] PsLs[t
g]skf dfcf]jfbL kf6L{nfO{ g]kfnL hgtfn]
ljZjf; u/]/ Ps gDa/ /fhgLlts
bnsf] bhf{df k'ofP/ 7"nf] u'0f
nufPsf] w]/} ;do ePsf] 5}g . vfg
gkfPsf k]6df cGg hfcf];,\ xf:g
gkfPsfsf] cf]7df xf;f] cfcf];\ eg] h:t}
ul/a, ;j{xf/f, blnt, lk5l8Psf
ju{x?sf] pTyfg x'G5 eGg] ljZjf;sf
;fy cledt lbFbfsf] kl/0ffd cfgf]
3'8F fdf aGr/f] k|xf/ ePh:tf] x'g k'us
] f]
5 . lglZrt ju{ laz]ifsf] pTyfgafx]s
ul/a, lgd'vf hgtfsf] kL8f hxfFsf]
ToxLF c;/Nn k/]/ a;]sf 5g\ .
hgcledtsf] sb/ x'g ;s]g ;s]g .
Oltxf;n] lbPsf] ;'cj;/nfO{ ;d]t
/2Lsf] 6f]s/Ldf kmfNg] sfd u/] . ljleGg
kf6L{leq Jofks dgd'6fa pTkGg u/fP/
cGttM kf6L{ 6'lqmg] qmd;d]t a9\b}
uPsf] 5 . kf6L{leq pTkGg ljjfbnfO{
g]tT[ j txn] ;dodf ;Daf]wg ug{
g;Sbfsf] kl/0ffd clxn] cfP/ kL8fsf
aLr ef]Ub} 5g\ . 7"nf kf6L{ 6'lqmg] qmddf
PsLs[t g]skf dfcf]jfbL dfq geP/
Pdfn]nufotsf kf6L{x? 6'lqmg] qmd hf/L
g} 5 . emg\ ;;fgf kf6L{sf] t s'/f

u/]/ ;fWo 5}g . kf6L{ km'6k] Zrft


;+:yfkg kIfsf] k|ltlqmof ;'Gbf Psl5g
a8f] cfgGb nfu] klg JoSt k|ltlqmof
leq kL8f / j]bgfsf] /fk n'ss
] f] efj
x'G5 . rfx] kf6L{sf] P]h
F ?] eg"g\ ls,
xfQLsf] hLpaf6 em/]sf] w"nf] eg]/ /f]bg
u?g\, of cfk"mn] a9fg'{ kg]{ sl;/ xfjfn]
p8fP/ nUof] eg] leqleq} 8fFsf] 5f]8/]
ul/Psf] k|ltlqmof xf];\ . crfgf]sf] rf]6
v's/' LnfO{ s] yfxf x'G5 / < gjul7t
g]skfdfcf]jfbL kf6L{n] lautdf ;/sf/L
:jfldTjdf /x]sf afF;af/L 5fnf h'Qf
sf/vfgf, e[s6' L sfuh pBf]unufotsf
;+3;+:yfg w/fozL agfpg] tTsflng
lhDd]jf/ txdf /x]sfx?sf] gfdfjnL
;fj{hlgs ug{, ;fy} PsLs[t g]skf
dfcf]jfbL kf6L{leqsf gjwgf9\ox?sf]
;d]t gfdfjnL ;fj{hlgs ug]{ 3f]if0ff
:jfutof]Uo 5 . of] ljifodf g]skf
dfcf]jfbL kf6L{n] v'f sdfP/ aLrdf
Tolts} g5f8f] ; \ , of] ljifonfO{
cfdhgtfdfem nu]/ k"0f{tf lbg} kb{5 .
/fd|f] sfdsf] nflu hgtfn] cjZo ;fy
lbg] g} 5g\ . ljutdf k6sk6s of]
ljifo p7fg x'g] u/]sf] ;j{ljlbt 5 .
t/, of] ljifon] slxNo} k"0f{tf kfpg g;s]/
a]jfl/;] cj:yfdf /xg k'us
] f] 5 . of]
ljifon] k"0f{tf kfpgsf lglDt g]skf
dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf] sfFwdf gofF lhDd]jf/L
cfPsf] 5 . PsLs[t g]skfdfcf]jfbL
kf6L{leq /x]sf s]xL ;b:ox?sf] hLjgz}nL
kl/jt{gsf] lj/f]w :jod\ kf6L{leqsf
;b:ox?n] p7fpg' k/]sf] cj:yf 5 Tof]
:jfefljs g} xf] . lxhf] ;j{xf/f ju{sf]
pTyfgsf lglDt n8]/ :yflkt ePsf]
kf6L{ / kf6L{leq lhDd]jf/ txdf
/x]sfx?sf] hLjgz}nL PsfPs kl/jt{g
x'bF } hfg' sbflk Gofof]lrt gx'g ;Sb5 .
cflnzfg eJo dxn, ljnfzL uf8L
cflbsf] k|of]u kf6L{ l;4fGt / lxt ljkl/t
t 5Fb5
} . /fhzfxL ememNsf] lbg]
hLjgz}nL kf6L{ l;4fGt, cfdsfo{stf{sf]
efjgfljkl/t xf] eGg] 1ft x'g' h?/L
lyof] . ;"on{ fO{ xTs]nfn] 5]Sg] hlt g}
k|of; u/] klg cGttM lg/y{s g} ;fljt
x'g5] .

Pg;]ndf ckf/bzL{ nufgL

sf7df8f}F . :jL8]gsf] klqsfn]


o'/f]kn
] L sDkgL 6]lnof;f]g/] fsf] nufgL
/x]sf] g]kfnsf] df]afOn sDkgL Pg;]nn]
ca}w tl/sfn] ;]o/ vl/b u/]sf] v'nf;f
u/]sf] 5 . 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn] tTsflng
g]kfn :of6]nfO6 sDkgLsf] ;]o/ lsGbf
ckf/bzL{ tl/sfn] nufgL u/]sf],
Tolta]nfsf ;]o/ :jfldTj;DaGwL
sfuhft sDkgL /lhi6f8{sf] sfof{no
/ g]kfn b"/;+rf/ k|flws/0faf6
ldn]dtf]df ufoa kfl/Psf] bfaL;lxt
Ps l/kf]6{ k|sflzt u/]sf] 5 . ;g\
@))* df tTsflng d]/f] df]jfOnsf]
%! k|ltzt ;]o/ lsg]sf] 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn]
clxn];Dd Tof] ;]o/ sf]af6 lsg]sf] lyof]
/ To;sf] jf:tljs xsbf/ sf] lyof]
eGg] gv'nfPsf] ;f] klqsfn] hgfPsf]
5 . 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn] tTsfnLg /fhf
1fg]Gb|sf Psdfq HjfO{+ /fhaxfb'/
l;+xaf6 %! k|ltzt ;]o/ lsGbf $
ca{ @) s/f]8 ?k}ofFsf] 8Ln u/]sf]
eP klg 6]lnof ;f]g/] fnfO{ To;nfO{
kf/bzL{ gagfPsf] atfPsf] 5 . ;g\
@))) df v]tfg ;d"xn] df]jfOn
;+rfngsf] nfO;]G; lng] k|lqmof ;'?
u/]sf] lyof] . t/ ;g\ @))$ df s;/L
PsfPs /fhaxfb'/ (% k|ltztsf]
lx:;]bf/ x'bF } cfP eGg] k|Zg p7fpFb}
klqsfn] 6]lnof;f]g/] fn] g} /fhaxfb'/nfO{
k};f lbP/ ;]o/ lsGg nufPsf] x'g;Sg]
atfPsf] 5 . w]/} lgod sfg'g ldr]/
/fhaxfb'/nfO{ ;]o/ xf]N8/ agfOP klg
sDkgL /lhi6f8{sf] sfof{no / lgods
lgsfo g]kfn b"/;+rf/ k|flws/0faf6
tL ;g\ @))% ;Ddsf sDkgL;Fu
hf]l8Psf sfuhft ufoa kfl/Psf]
klqsfn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;g\ @))$ df
nfO;]G; kfpFbf (% k|ltztsf dflns
/fhaxfb'/ To;sf] # dlxgfkl5 g} #*
k|ltztdf em/]sf] / afFsL ;]o/ afFsL
;]o/ b'O{ sDkgLdf 6fG;km/ ul/of]
/]gf]N8; xf]lN8 lnld6]8, h'g s/ ltg{'
gkg]{ Sof/]laog 7fpF ;]G6 ls\;df btf{
5, p;n] $) k|ltzt / ;fOk|;df

btf{ ePsf] sDkgL bfN6f]68] lnld6]8nfO{


!& k|ltzt / afFsL % k|ltzt ;]o/
:kfO; ;] n s} /x] s f] hfgsf/L
k|flws/0fnfO lbOof] . 5f]6f] ;dodf
b]vfOPsf] ;]o/ ;+/rgf kl/jt{g s]jn
sfuhL dfq ePsf] / jf:tljs
dflnsdf s'g} kl/jt{g gePsf]
klqsfsf] bfjL 5 . ;g\ @))* df
6]lnof;f]g/] fn] %! k|ltzt ;]o/ lsg]sf]
;g\ @)!) df *) k|ltzt k'offPsf]
eP klg Tof] ;]o/ sf]af6 lsg]sf] lyof]
eGg] clxn];Dd v'nfPsf] 5}g\ . ;g\
@))* df b"/ ;~rf/ k|flws/0fnfO{
lbOPsf] csf]{ l/kf]l6{df :jfldTjsf]
;+/rgf k'gM kl/jt{g ePsf] elgof] .
ca /]gf]N8\;n] cfgf] :jfldTj a9fP/
^) k|ltzt agfof] . ;fOk|;sf]
8fN6f]68] n] klg a9fP/ @) k|ltzt
k'ofof] . ;fydf Pp6f clxn];Dd
g;'lgPsf] sDkgL klg ylkof] l;ghL{
g]kfn @) k|ltzt z]o/sf ;fy . of]
sDkgLsf k5fl8 :yfgLo Jofkf/Lx?sf]
;d"x /x]sf] atfOG5, t/ pgLx? 7\ofSs}
sf] sf] x'g,\ sfuhftdf v'nfOPsf] 5}g .
o;sf] jf:tljs sf/0f sfuhL ?kdf
@) k|ltzt ;]o/ :yfgLo ;fem]bf/ 5g\
egL b]vfpg' /x]sf] b]lvG5 . ;]K6]Da/
@))* df 6]lnof;f]g/] fn] :kfO; g]kfnsf]
lgoGq0f /]gf]N8;, 8fN6f]68] / l;ghL{
g]kfnaf6 lnP/ sDkgL lsGof] . t/
6]lnof;f]g/] fsf] l/kf]6n
{ ] o:tf] eGb}g .
6]lnof;f]g]/fn] cfly{s / sfg'gL
s'/fx?nfO{ n'sfP/ sDkgL jf:tjdf
s;sf] :jfldTjdf 5 eGg] s'/f atfPsf]
5}g . 6]lnof;f]g/] fn] shfv:tfgsf]
nufgL sDkgL le;f] / u| ' k af6
6]lnof;f]g/] f Pl;of xf]lN8 aLeLdfkm{t\
%! k|ltzt ;]o/ lsGb}5 . o;sf nflu
#@ lalnog vr{ ul/g]5 . sf/f]af/
xf]lN8 :6Sr/df ul/g]5 h;df
g]b/NofG8;sf] 6]lnof;f]g/] f Pl;of
xf]lN8 laeL, gj]s
{ f] 6]lnof;f]g/] f gj]{
g]kfn xf]lN8 PP; x'g5
] . gj]n
{ L
xf]lN8 sDkgLn] /]gf]N8; xf]lN8

lnld6]8, h'g j]:6 OlG8hsf] ;]G6


ls\;df 5, sf] ;ft k|ltzt :jfldTj
lng]5 . /]gf]N8; sDkgLn] :kfO;
g]kfnsf] *) k|ltzt ;]o/ lnPsf] 5 .
afFsL @) k|ltzt :yfgLo Jofkf/Lx?sf]
;] o / 5 . /fhaxfb' / l;+ x n]
6]lnof;f]g/] fnfO{ sDkgL a]rs
] f] s'/f
n'sfP/ p;n] le;f]/ u|k' sf] gfd lnPsf]
5 . of] l8nsf] af/]df sDkgLn]
;fj{hlgs hfgsf/L lbFbf :kfO; g]kfn
le;f]/ u|k' sf] dfq /x]sf] atfOPsf] lyof] .
clg of] sDkgL jf:tjdf pgLx?n]
slxn] lsg]sf lyP eGg] klg hfgsf/L
lbOPg . ;fOk|;df btf{ ul/Psf]
bfN6f]68] sDkgL klg /fhaxfb'/ l;+x /
pgsf] kl/jf/ s} ePsf] ljZjf; ug{
;lsG5 . kl5 Tof] sDkgLn] cfgf] ;]o/
le;f]/ u|k' nfO{ a]rs
] f] lyof] .
csf]{ zAbdf, 6]lnof;f]g/] fn] ljleGg
sDkgLx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fP/ ef/tLog]kfnL
:jfldTjsf] u|k' nfO{ xfO6\ofs u/L /fhaxfb'/
l;+xn] vl/b u/]sf] sDkgL lsGg k|of]u
uof] . :kfO; g]kfnsf] %! k|ltzt ;]o/sf
nflu 6]lnof;f]g/] fn] ;g\ @))* df #@
lalnog e'Stfg uof] . ;g\ @)!) df
6]lnof;f]g/] fn] cfgf] ;]o/ :kfO; g]kfndf
a9fpg] atfof] / yk !! lalnog vr{
uof] . clxn] Pg;] n k" 0 f{ ? kdf
6]lnof;f]g/] fsf] lgoGq0fdf 5 . @) k|ltzt
;]o/sf ;fy :yfgLo ;fem]bf/sf] ?kdf
lg/huf]ljGb >]i7 5g\, h;sf] ;DaGw
l;ghL{ g]kfnl;t 5 . klqsfn] 6]lnof
;f]g/] fdfly d"ntM tLgj6f k|Zg p7fPsf]
5 . 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn] cfk"mn] le;f]/ gfds
sDkgLaf6 ;]o/ lsg]sf] / le;f]/n] ;g\
@))^ b]lv g} :kfO; g]kfnsf] ;]o/ lsg]sf]
bfaL u/]sf] 5 . t/, klqsfn] oL tLg d"n
ljifo p7fPsf] 5 . 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn]
le;f]/af6 ;]o/ lsg]sf] eP le;f]/ sDkgL
s;sf] lyof] / Pg;]nn] lbPsf] k};fsf]
jf:tljs xsbf/ sf] lyP < klqsfn]
le;f]/df klg /fhaxfb'/ l;+xs} nufgL
/x]sf] bfaL ub}{ To:tf] cj:yfdf 6]lnof
;f]g/] fn] e|i6frf/ u/]sf] 7xg]{ bfaL u/]sf]

5 . To;;Fu} hf]l8Psf] csf]{ k|Zg Tof]


sDkgL;Fu hf]l8Psf cGo ;]o/ xf]N8/x?
crfgs s;/L ufoa eP <
6]lnof;f]g/] f;Fu 8Ln x'gc' l3;Dd pgLx?sf]
;"rL ;]o/xf]N8/sf ?kdf x'g' t/ 6]lnof
;f]g/] fn] lsGgf;fy pgLx?sf] gfdf]lg;fgf
gx'gd' f st} tL 6]lnof ;f]g/] fs} k|fS] ;L sDkgL
t lyPgg\ egL klqsfn] k|Zg p7fPsf]
5 . ;fOk|;df /x]sf] 8fN6f]68] sDkgLsf]
k5fl8 sf] lyof] < clg la|l6; cfONof08
sDkgLdf btf{ ePsf] hf]8bf/ sDkgL
s;sf] lyof] hf] Pg;]nsf] ;]o/ vl/b
k|lqmofdf ;xefuL lyof] < v]tfg / :kfO;
Ol08ofsf] ;]o/ /x]sf] sDkgLsf] (%
k|ltzt ;]o/ /fhaxfb'/n] cglws[t
tj/af6 lsg]sf] eGb} klqsfn] lsg To:tf]
sDkgLsf] ;]o/ lsg]sf] egL k|Zg u/]sf]
5 . Pg;]nn] Eof6 5nL u/]sf] cleof]udf
g]kfnsf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg
cfof]un] 5fgljg ul//x]sf] eGb} p;n]
To;af/] lsg k|dv
' sfo{sf/L clws[tn]
e'm6f] af]n] egL k|Zg u/]sf] 5 . :jL8L;
klqsfsf] of] v'nf;fn] 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn]
g]kfnsf] Pg;]ndf u/]sf] nufgL ca}w /
ckf/bzL{ /x]sf] k|i6 kf/]sf] 5 . ;g\
@))$ df /fhaxfb'/n] (% k|ltzt
;]o/ lsGg] k|lqmofb]lv g} u}/cfjf;Lo
g]kfnL pk]Gb| dxtf] of] sDkgLdf ;+nUg
5g\ . s]xL dlxgf cl3 dfq pgL cfgf]
:jfldTjdf /x]sf] @) k|ltzt ;]o/
lg/huf]ljGb >]i7nfO{ a]r/] sDkgLaf6
aflxl/Psf 5g\ . of] cj}w rnv]ndf
pgsf] ;+nUgtfaf/] eg] klqsfn] s]xL
vf]ns
] f] 5}g\ . kl5Nnf] ;dodf 6]lnof
;f]g/] fn] g} x]nf] g]kfn gfds sDkgLsf]
&% k|ltzt ;]o/ lsg]sf] 5, Tof] klg
lgods lgsfonfO{ hfgsf/L glbO{ . o;/L
Pp6} k|sl[ tsf b'O{ sDkgL lsg]/ qm;
xf]lN8 ug{ gkfOg] sfg'gL Joj:yf eP
klg 6]lnof ;f]g/] fn] To;nfO{ r'gf}tL lbPsf]
5 . x]nf] g]kfnsf] nfO;]G;b]lv ;]o/ &%
k|ltzt lsGg] k|so[ f;Dd klg 6]lnof
;f]g/] fsf] ;+sf:kb e"ldsf 5 h;sf af/]df
cem} v'nf;f x'g afFsL 5 .

/fatOfc t]u *@ hf];c nf; (^)@

g]kfnL /fhgLltdf k|r08sf]


c/fhstf xfjL ePsf] 5

;ftfsf] s'/fsfgL
) ev{ / } dfq /fli6 o o' j f
hg:jo++ ; ] j ssf]
hg:jo
k| y d
clwj]zg ;DkGg ePsf] 5,
of] clwj] z g ug' { s f] d' V o
p2]Zo s] lyof] <
d' n ' s /fhgLlt Oltxf;s}
;a}eGbf ;+s6k"0f{ cj:yfdf km:b}
uPsf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf g]kfnL
/fhgLltsf] qmflGtsf/L ljsf; /
g] k fnL hgtfsf] efjgf Pj+
cfsf+Iffcg';f/ jt{dfg /fhgLlts
;+s6sf] lgsf;sf] nflu ;dfhdf
c;fWo} r] t gzLn;F u } ef} l ts
;fdYo{ ; d] t ePsf] zlQmsf]
cfjZostf 5 . o' j fxnfO{
/fhgLltkdf kl/rfng ug{
qmflGtsf/L Pj+ h' e mf?
sfo{ q md;lxtsf] o' j fxsf]
;xeflutf h?/L 5 . ToxL
cfjZostfnfO{ k"/f ug{ o'jfxsf]
/fli6 o ;Dd] n g u/] / To;sf]
/fhgLlts sfo{lbzf / ;+u7gfTds
:jknfO{ gofF 9n] cufl8 a9fpg
vf]hL /x]sf 5f}F .
) o' j f
hg:jod; ] j sdf
hgd' l Qm ;] g faf6 cfPsf
;fyLx 5g\, To;nfO{ ;}Go
;+ / rgf af] s ] s f] ;+ u 7g xf]
eGg] ljkIfLxsf] cf/f]k 5,

o; ljifodf s] eGg' x ' G 5 <


bz jif]{ hgo'4sf] qmddf ljsf;
ePsf] hgd'lQm ;]gfn] To;a]nf cfgf]
dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] lyof] .
zflGtk|lqmof;Fu} g]kfnL hgtfsf]
kl;gf / /utaf6 tof/ ePsf]
hgtfsf] ;] g f b] z L, ljb] z L
8fF s fxnfO{ ;' D kF b } k| r 08,
afa'/fdh:tf cfd;dk{0fjfbLxn]
;+ ; b\ j fbLx;F u ldn] d tf] ub} {
hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] Oltxf;nfO{ gfd]6
ug]{ sfd u/] . hgd'lQm ;]gfsf]
;Daf]wgsf] gfddf ltgLxn] lj36g
u/] . Tolt dfq xf]Og hgd'lQm ;]gfsf]
xltof/nfO{ k|ltlqmofjfbLx;fd'
a' e mfOof] . of] ck/fwaf6
tl;{Psfxn] cg]sg k|rf/ u/]sf]
b] l vG5 . xfdLn] lgdf{ 0 f u/] s f]
hg:jo+;j] s ;+u7g ;dfhdf r]tgf
k}mnfpg], ;dfh ;'wf/sf] nflu vl6g]
;+u7g xf] . To;df lxhf] o'4 n8]sf
;fyLx? klg 5g\ . gn8]sf ;fyLx
klg 5g\ . To;df hgd'lQm ;]gfsf
dfG5]x dfq cfPsf 5g\ eGg] h]
eGg vf]lhPsf] 5, To;sf] k5fl8
uDeL/ if8\oGq 5 . To:tf] if8\oGqsf]
lj?4 cfdo'jfx ;r]t /xg' kb{5 .
xfdLn] lgdf{0f ug{ vf]hs
] f] o'jfxsf]
/fhgLlts qmflGtsf/L ;+u7g g} xf] .

zflGtk|lqmof;Fu} g]kfnL hgtfsf] kl;gf


/ /utaf6 tof/ ePsf] hgtfsf] ;]gf
b]zL, ljb]zL 8fFsfxnfO{ ;'DkFb}
k|r08, afa'/fdh:tf
cfd;dk{0fjfbLxn] ;+;b\jfbLx;Fu
ldn]dtf] ub}{ hgd'lQm ;]gfsf]
Oltxf;nfO{ gfd]6 ug]{ sfd u/] .
--xfd|f] clGtd k|of; uf]nd]r ;efdfk{mt\
/li6o ;/sf/ u7g u/]/ hgtfsf]
clwsf/ :yflkt ug]d
{ f x'G5 . o;sf]
lj?4 if8\oGq eof] . hg;+ljwfg
ag]g eg] j}slNks dfu{df nfu]/ eP
klg hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg agfpg'k5{ .
hgtfsf] /fHo / hgtfsf] zf;g
clgjfo{ rflxG5 .

xfdLn] lgdf{0f u/]sf] hg:jo+;]js ;+u7g ;dfhdf r]tgf


k}mnfpg], ;dfh ;'wf/sf] nflu vl6g] ;+u7g xf] .
g]kfnsf] jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;+s6sf] lgsf; uf]nd]r ;ef g} xf] eGg]df Joxfjl/s Pj+
gLltut kdf ;d]t :ki6 x'bF } uPsf] 5.
/fi6kltsf] e"ldsf g]kfnL hgtfsf] rfxgfeGbf km/s x'g'x'Fb}g . /fi6kltn]
clxn] v]ln/x]sf] e"ldsf ;xL 5 .
afa'/fdn] vf]nf tof], nf}/L la:of]{h:tf] Jojxf/ u/] . afa'/fdn] o;sf] d"No
Oltxf;df dxuf] u/L ltg'{kg]{5 .

v8\uaxfb'/ ljZjsdf{ k|sf08, kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o, g]skfdfcf]jfbL


) tkfO{+xn] oxL hg:jo+;]js
;+ u 7g h:t} u/L ljut
hgo' 4 sf]
;+ / rgf
hgcbfnt,
hg;/sf/,
Ao'FtfpFb} x'g'x'G5 eg] cf/f]k
klg 5 lg <
of] if8\oGqsf] csf]{ cleJolQm xf] .
xfdL bnfn gf]s/zfxL, cy{Joj:yfsf]
lj/f]w Pj+ Wj+z ub}{ cfTdlge{/
cy{ t Gq Joj:yfsf] ljsf; ug{
rfxG5f}F . To;sf] nflu xfdLn] lxhf]
u/]sf cEof;x hf/L /xG5g\ .
hgsDo' g x Jo' F l emg ;S5g\ .
hgtfsf] clwsf/ hg;+ljwfg agfP/
:yflkt ug]{ xfd|f] d'Vo of]hgf 5 .
clxn] hgtfsf] clwsf/ :yflkt x'g
glbg] k' / fgf / gofF bnfnx
hlGdPsf 5g\ . pgLxsf] ;lqmotf
a9]sf] 5 . xfd|f] clGtd k|of; uf]nd]r
;Dd]ngdfk{mt\ /li6o ;/sf/ u7g
u/]/ hgtfsf] clwsf/ :yflkt ug]d{ f
x'G5 . o;sf] lj?4 if8\oGq eof] .
hg;+ljwfg ag]g eg] j}slNks dfu{df
nfu]/ eP klg hgtfsf] ;+ljwfg
agfpg' k 5{ . hgtfsf] /fHo /
hgtfsf] zf;g clgjfo{ rflxG5 .
) k| d ' v tLg bnn] /fi6 k lt
;dIf
o;
dlxgfsf ]
cGTo;Dddf ;xdlt u5f} { +
eg]sf lyP . t/, Tof] ;xdlt
clxn];Dd x'g ;s]sf] 5}g .
o; ljifodf s] eGg' x ' G 5 <
clxn] s f] g] k fnL /fhgLltdf
k|r08sf] c/fhstf xfjL ePsf] 5 .
h;n] b]znfO{ csf]{ ;+s6sf] e'd/Ldf
ws]ns
] f] 5 . nfhdbf]{ s'/f t s] eof]
eg] k|r08sf] af]nLsf] s'g} 7]ufg gx'g]

eof] . slxn] ;+ l jwfg;efsf]


k'g:yf{kgf, slxn] ;+;b\sf] lgjf{rgsf]
s'/f u/]/ hgtfnfO{ u'd/fxdf /fVg]
sfd ePsf] 5 . ;xdltsf] lbzfdf
cl3 a9\g] u/L 5nkmnsf] k|lqmof
cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5}g a? tLg
rf/j6f bnxsf] aLrdf snx dfq
5 . ltgLxaf6 ;xdlt lg:sg] /
d'ns
' n] lgsf; kfpg] ;Defjgf 5}g .
) tkfO{ + x n]
p7fpF b }
cfpg' e Psf] uf] n d] r ;efsf]
ljifodf s] eO/x] s f] 5 <
g] k fnsf] jt{ d fg /fhgLlts
;+s6sf] lgsf; uf]nd]r ;ef g} xf]
eGg]df Joxfjl/s Pj+ gLltut kdf
;d]t :ki6 x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . clxn]sf]
/fhgLlts uTof/f]wnfO{ /f]Sg] /
cu|ufdL lbzfdf cl3 a9\g] sfo{qmd
eg]sf] uf]nd]r ;ef g} xf] . ;efdf
a[ x t\ /fhgLlts ax; / ToxL
ax;af6 ;xL gLlt tof/ u/]/ dfq
clxn]sf] ;d:ofsf] lgsf; lgsfNg
;lsG5 .
) o:tf] cj:yfdf /fi6 k ltsf]
e"ldsf s:tf] nflu /x]sf] 5
tkfO{ + x nfO{ <
/fi6kltn] clxn] h'g lrGtf JoQm
ub}{ kxnsb\dL lnO/x]sf 5g\, Tof]
cfwf/e"t kdf ;sf/fTds g} 5 .
/fi6kltsf] e"ldsf g]kfnL hgtfsf]
rfxgfeGbf km/s x'gx' bF' g} . /fi6kltn]
clxn] v]ln/x]sf] e"ldsf ;xL 5 .
) tkfO+ { + x n] ;/sf/lj?4sf]
;8s
cfGbf]ngnfO{
k|efjsf/L agfpg ;Sg' ePg
lg, o;sf] sf/0f s] xf]nf <
;+zf]wgjfbLx ;/sf/df Pj+

;Qfdf uO;s]kl5 bnfnsf] k


wf/0f u5{g\ . xfdL cfgf Ph]08f
/ cfjfhx bnfnxsf] lj?4
a'nGb ub}{ hfG5f}F . ha cj;/jfb,
Oltxf;sf ;a} pknlAwnfO{ Wj:t
ug]{ u/L lg/s'z 9n] cfpF5 .
Tolta] n f hgtfn] a' 5g\ ls
gj;+ z f] w gjfb
cGttM
lg/\ s ' z tfjfb xf] . ;/sf/
gjclwgfosjfbL lbzfdf cl3
al9/x]sf] 5 . sfFu;
]| , Pdfn]sf] ;Qf
s]lGb|t cfGbf]ngn] pgLx;Fusf]
xfd|f] ;xsfo{ ;Dej 5}g . ;Qfdf
hfg] / oxL kf/fn] ;/sf/ rnfpg]
lgolt sfFu|]; Pdfn] leq n's]sf]
b] l vG5 . bz} F k l5 hgtfsf]
clwsf/ :yflkt u/fpg, hg;+ljwfg
lgdf{0f ug{, xfdL cfGbf]ngnfO{ cem
k|efjsf/L Pj+ ;zQm 9n] cufl8
a9fpF5f}F . xfdL 7"nf] cfGbf]ngsf] tof/L
u/]/ cufl8 a9\5f},F /fli6o ;xdltsf]
;/sf/ u7g u/]/ lgsf; lgsfNg]
xfd|f] clxn]sf] k|fyldstfdf k5{ .
) tkfO{ + x n] g} afa' / fdnfO{
k| w fgdGqL agfpg' eof] ,
clxn] t ;k{ n fO{ b" w
v' j fPsf] g] k fnL pvfgh:t}
eof] x} tkfO{ + x sf] nflu,
afa' / fd ;/sf/ <

afa'/fdnfO{ k|wfgdGqL agfpg]


;jfndf xfdLn] ljz]if kxn u/]s} xf] .
pgL;Fu j}rfl/s Pj+ ;fFu7flgskdf
5nkmn ePsf] xf] . /fli6o /fhgLlt
Pj+ ;lGw;Demf} t fsf] ljifodf
afa'/fd;Fu 5nkmn u/]/ g} pgnfO{
k|wfgdGqLdf l;kmfl/; ug]{ lg0f{odf
xfdL k'u]sf xf}F . Tof] a]nfsf] xfd|f]
kxnsb\dL ;xL lyof] . t/, afa'/fd
t wf]s]afh /x]5g\ . afa'/fdn] vf]nf
tof], nf}/L la:of]{h:tf] Jojxf/ u/] .
afa'/fdn] o;sf] d"No Oltxf;df dxFuf]
u/L ltg'{kg]{5 .
) cGTodf yk s]xL eGg
rfxg' x ' G 5 <
glhlsFb} u/]sf] lxGb'xsf] dxfg\
rf8 b;}F / ltxf/sf] pknIodf kf6L{
/ d] / f] JolQmuttkm{ a f6 ;Dk" 0 f{
b] z af;LxnfO xflb{ s dndo
z'esfdgf JoQm ug{ rfxG5' . ;Dk"0f{
;d'bfoxnfO{ rf8kj{sf] gsf/fTds
kIfnfO{ 5f8\b} ;sf/fTds kIfsf]
ljsf; ug{ / ToxLkdf dgfpg
clkn ug{ rfxG5' . hgtfsf] cfsf+Iff
/ efjgfcg';f/sf] /fhgLlt lgsf;
lgl:sof];\ eGg] ck]Iff /fVb} To;sf]
nflu cfgf] 7fpFaf6 kxnsb\dL lng
klg ;Dk"0f{ hg;d'bfonfO{ cfu|x ug{
rfxG5' .

xfdL bnfn gf]s/zfxL, cy{Joj:yfsf] lj/f]w


Pj+ Wj+z ub}{ cfTdlge{/ cy{tGq Joj:yfsf]
ljsf; ug{ rfxG5f}F . To;sf] nflu xfdLn] lxhf]
u/]sf cEof;x hf/L /xG5g\ . hgsDo'gx
Jo'lF emg ;S5g\ . hgtfsf] clwsf/ hg;+ljwfg
agfP/ :yflkt ug]{ xfd|f] d'Vo of]hgf 5 .
--nfhdbf]{ s'/f t s] eof] eg] k|r08sf]
af]nLsf] s'g} 7]ufg gx'g] eof] . slxn]
;+ljwfg;efsf] k'g:yf{kgf, slxn] ;+;b\sf]
lgjf{rgsf] s'/f u/]/ hgtfnfO{ u'd/fxdf
/fVg] sfd ePsf] 5 .
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pgLx;Fusf] xfd|f] ;xsfo{ ;Dej 5}g .
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lgolt sfFu;]| Pdfn] leq n'ss
] f] b]lvG5 .

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g]kfnL sf+u;
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e'lng] 5}g . alNs cfh g]kfnL
sfFu|];, g]skf Pdfn] ;+ljwfg;efsf]
lj36gsf] sf/s tTj tTsfnLg
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ag] s f ;/sf/n] hgd' l v
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jf egf}+ s;/L k};f sdfpg] /
e|i6frf/ ug]{df s]lGb|t /Xof] .
To;sf] uDeL/ c;/ g]kfnsf]
cy{tGqdf kof] . kl/0ffd:jk cfh
bf]xf]/f] pRr b/sf] d"Noj[l4 / ;ft
k6s;Dd Ps} jif{ d f k] 6 f ] l nod
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cd]l/sfnufot y'k|} b]zsf] e|d0f
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sf] b'kof]u u/L ljb]z ;o/dfq
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oL / o:tf JolQmx Oltxf;sf
gfnfos kfq x'g\ . ca /fhgLlts
;xdltsf] gf/f hKg]xlt/ hfpF .
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ldnLh'nL ;/sf/ rnfpg] / /fli6o

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9's6' L ;Sg]afx]s c s]xL klg xf]Og .
t/ ToxL+ /fhgLlts ;xdltsf] gfd
hk]/ t /f]P h:tf] u/ d s'6] h:tf]
u5'{ eGg] gf/fn] clxn] rrf{ kl/rrf{
kfPsf] 5 . ;Qf afu]{lgdf s'/f
gldNbf cfh /fhgLlts cl:y/tf
a9\b} uPsf] 5 .
Pdfcf]jfbL / dw]z s]lGb|t ;+oQ' m
8df] q m] l 6s PnfoG; df] g f] k f] n L
Psflwsf/ Soflag]6df 5g\ . oL b'O{
leGg :jefjsf] geO{ FDR 5g\ /]
eg]/ FDR sf] ;+of]hs Pdfcf]jfbL
cWoIf k|r08 x'g /] . FDR n] s]
u5'{ < s] xf] eGg] lh1f;f nfu]df
dw]zjfbL, k|r08;Fu dfq xf]Og
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k|lti7fgxdf uP/ ;f]Wg'xf]nf clg
yfxf x'G5 lst ah]6 em\ofd kfg]{
;+Vof / gfd /x]5 . t/ o;sf]
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kIfw/sf] u7aGwg c/] . a8f]
ljlrqsf] hjfkm 5 . sf] ;+3Lotf
kIfw/, sf] ;+3Lotfsf] ljkIfL jf
;+3Lotf eg]sf] s] xf] < g]kfndf To;f]
eof] ;+3Lotfsf nflu cfGbf]ng ug{
FDR u7g ePsf] xf] t < s] ;/sf/df
/x]sf kf6L{x / ;/sf/sf dGqLx
cfGbf]ngsf/L 5g\ t < of] s:tf]
df]gf]kf]nL ;/sf/ / cfGbf]ngsf/L <
hghgsf] k|Zg / ;f]wfO{ 5 .
csf]{ /x:osf] ljifo ah]6 em\ofd\
kfg{nfO{ ;+Vof v'ns
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b]zdf ;/sf/sf] Psflwsf/ 5 .
;/sf/ x6fpg] s' g } sfg" g L /
;+jw} flgs af6f] 5}g . clxn]sf] ;/sf/
:yfoL ;/sf/h:tf] b]lvG5 eg]
;/sf/sf dGqLx sd{rf/Lx h:tf]
@% jif{;Dd klg /xg;Sg] s]xL jl/i7
g]tfx t dGqLxsf] d'Voaf6 cfjfh
u'l~hPsf 5g\ . o;/L x]bf{ klg of]
;/sf/sf] df]gf]kf]nL sfod x'g]
b]lvG5 .
clxn] /fi6kltn] k|of]u ug{ ;Sg]
clwsf/ wf/f ** / wf/f !%* klg
lgs} rrf{df 5 . /fi6kltn] wf/f !%*
cg';f/ afwf c8\sfp k'msfpg] jf
wf/f ** adf]lhd /fi6klt ;Gt'i6
gePdf ;/sf/sf cWofb] z x

:jLs[t gu/L ;/sf/nfO{ g}lts


bafadf kf/L /fli6o ;xdltsf nflu
k|wfgdGqLnfO{ bafa lbg] of] b'j}
ljsNk k|of]u x'g] cfwf/ klg b]lvg]
h:tf] nfUb}g . lsgeg] o;sf nflu
klg /fli6o ;xdltsf] cfjZostf
kb{ 5 . Ps xKtfcl3 dfq
;+ljwfg;efsf] k'g:yf{kgfsf nflu
dlGqkl/ifb\ n ] /fi6 k lt ;dIf
l;kmfl/; ug]{ / /fi6kltn] afwf
c8\sfp k'msfpg] u/L ;+ljwfg;efsf]
k' g :yf{ k gf ug] { eGg] d f k| d ' v
bnxaLr ;xdlt aGg] jf ag]sf]
;dfrf/ aflx/ cfP klg ;fFrf]
;dfrf/ cfPg jf ePg .
o;sf] tfTko{ ;/sf/sf 36s
bn jf ljkIfL bnx sf]xL klg gofF
;+ljwfg jf sfg"gL k|lqmof lgdf{0fdf
5}gg\ . alNs pgLx ;Qf s]lGb|t
/fhgLltdf s]lGb|t 5g\ . of] g}
/fhgLlts kl/jt{gsf] afws xf] .
clxn] ;/sf/ aflx/sf /fhgLlts
bnx ;/sf/sf] l;lG8s]6 k|yf
lj4 ;/sf/s} nflu sf6]{ln ub}{
uO/x]sf 5g\ . vf;u/L k|dv
' ljkIfL
kf6L{x g]kfnL sf+u;
]| , g]skf Pdfn],
g] s kf dfcf] j fbL, /fli6 o dw] z
;dfhjfbL kf6L{ n ufot cGo
/fhgLlts bnx ;/sf/lj4 s8f
kdf pqg] / ;/sf/ ;8saf6}
9fnL ;/sf/ sAhf ug]{ pb\3f]if ub}{
s]xL lbg cl3dfq ;+oQ
' m lg0f{o u/]sf
5g\ . o;af6 g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf
b'Oj{ 6f glh/ a:g ;S5 olb ;kmn
eof] eg] . Pp6f ;/sf/ sAhf
;8saf6} ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] csf]{
czflGt / ef}lts ;+/rgf tyf
;fj{hlgs ;DklQdf gf]S;fgL .

vf;u/L ;8saf6} ;/sf/ sAhf


ug]{ xf] eg] ljBfyL{xn] jf dhb'/
hf] sf]xLn] u7aGwg agfO{ cfGbf]ng
u/]df ;/sf/sf] dGqL aGg kfOG5
eGg] pTk|/] 0ff hfUg ;S5 / cfGbf]ng
ug]{5g\ . t/ ;/sf/sf] s';L{sf]
u'Tjfsif{0f zlQm stflt/ 5 Tof]
klg ljrf/0fLo x'g5
] . To;f] eP s]xL
jif{ klxn] s6'jfn k|s/0fdf gful/s
;jf]R{ rtfsf nflu dfcf]jfbLn] u/]sf]
cfGbf]ng s;/L ts{;u+ t lyPg t <
alNs cfhsf ljkIfL ;/sf/sf] g]tT[ j
/ 36s lyP .
of] pgLx k|lta]nf Pdfcf]jfbLn]
gful/s ;jf]R{ rtfsf gfddf cfGbf]ng
ubf{ / ;8saf6} sAhf ug]{ eGbf
dfcf]jfbLn] ;8saf6} ;/sf/ sAhf
ug]{ lbjf ;kgf gb]v] x'G5 eGy] .
cfhsf ljkIfLx, ;8saf6} ;Qf
sAhf u5'{ eGg' ck|fhftflGqs jf
c:jfefljs sfo{ xf] eGy] t/ ltg}
lxhf]sf af]nL af]Ng] g]tfxn] cfhsf
ljkIfL agL ;8saf6} ;Qf sAhf ug]{
s]s] cfwf/ 5g\ t < hghgsf] k|Zg
klg cfhsf] oxL xf] < cfGbf]ngsf]
9fFrf s:tf] x'g] xf] < s]sf nflu
cfGbf]ngsf] k|flKtkl5sf] dGqfnosf]
efujG8f / ;/sf/sf] :jk s:tf]
x'g] xf] o;sf] nflu s]xL ;do s'gk{' g]{
b] l vG5 . lgisif{ d f df] g f] k f] n L
;/sf/sf] Psflwsf/sf] cGTo / ;a}
## bn ;lDdlnt ## j6f dGqfnosf]
lgdf{0f u/L Ps kf6L{ Ps dGqLsf]
cjwf/0ff jf Cumulative
voting system sf] dlGqd08n
s] agfpg] xf] g]tfxsf] :jfy{ k"/f
ug\ t/ g]kfn / g]kfnL hgtfnfO{
;w}F ;+ljwfgljxLg / sfg'gL ;+s6df
g/fv"g\ of] g} g]kfnL hgtfsf] rfxgf
xf] .
dw]z bk0f{af6

6]lnsdf/f u|fxsnfO{ %) k|ltzt 5'6


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn 6]lnsdn] lhP;Pd tyf l;l8PdP ;]jfdfkm{t\ sDkgLs}
g]6js{leq x'g] P;PdP; ;]jfdf oxL @( ut]bl] v @)^( d+l;/ % ut];Ddsf]
nflu ljBdfg dx;'n b/df %) k|ltzt 5'6 k|bfg ug]{ ePsf] 5 . lhP;Pd
kf]i6k]8 df]afOn ;]jfsf u|fxsnfO{ sflQs ! ut]b]lv d+l;/ #) ut];Ddsf]
nflu qm]l86 ;Ldf () k|ltzt /x]sf]df ;a} /sd a/fa/ sn ug{ ;lsg]
Joj:yf ul/Psf] 6]lnsdf/f hf/L k|;
] lj1lKtdf hgfOPsf] 5 . ;f]xL df]afOn
;]jfsf u|fxsnfO{ @)^( sflQs dlxgfsf] dx;'ndf !) k|ltzt 5'6 k|bfg
ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L, Nof08nfOg -lkP;l6Pg_ df ;]jfsf u|fxsn] xfn
Go"gtd dfl;s dx;'n ?=@)) df !&% :yfgLo sn 5'6 kfO/x]sf]df sflQs
dlxgfdf yk %) :yfgLo sn lgMz'Ns u/L s'n @@% :yfgLo sn pknAw
u/fOg] ePsf] 5 . lk|k]8 df]jfOn ;]jfsf u|fxsxn] c;f]h #) ut]b]lv
d+l;/ $ ut];Dd sn ubf{ k|of]u ul/g] s"n /sdsf] !) k|ltzt af]g;
pknAw u/fOg] / ;f] af]g; /sdsf] ;dofjlw af]g; k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] b'O{
dlxgf;Dd sfod /xg]5 . sDkgLsf k|jStf u'0fs]z/L k|wfgn] l;l8PdP
OG6/g]6 ;]jfsf u|fxso:xnfO{ c;f]h @( ut]b]lv d+l;/ $ ut];Dd !))
PaL 8f6f lgMz'Ns pknAw u/fOg]5 . To;}u/L, cGt/f{li6o sndf ci6l] nofsf
nflu ?= &=%, rLg / xssf nflu ?= #, anfb]zsf nflu ?= $ tyf
s'j]t / ax/fOgsf nflu ?= * gofF dx;'n b/ sfod ul/Psf] 5 .

3/]n' lx+;f, ck/fwsf] h3Go


k|sf/ ;a} ldnL u/f}F o;sf]
k|ltsf/ .

ko{6g ljz]if
ko{6g ;Dk"0f{ ljsf;sf] cfwf/
ljZj ko{6g lbj; g]kfnnufot ljZjel/g} ;+oS' t /fi6 ;+3;Fu+ cfj4
/fi6x?n] w'dwfdsf ;fy dgfPsf 5g\ . ;g\ !(*) b]lv cflwsfl/s?kdf
dgfOb} cfO/x]sf] ljZj ko{6g lbj; @)!@ cyf{t o;kfnL klg Pp6f gofF
gf/fsf ;fy dgfOof] . ;g\ !(*) df klxnf] gf/f lyof] ko{6g ;f+:s[lts
w/f]x/, zflGt / cfk;L ;DaGwsf nflu eg] @)!@ cyf{t o; k6ssf]
gf/f lyof] k|fs[lts phf{sf] ;xL ;b'kof]u . ljut !((* otfaf6 ljleGg
b]zx?n] ljZj ko{6g lbj;sf] cfof]hgf ljleGg gf/fsf ;fy ug{] u/]sf
5g\ h;sf] klxnf] cfof]hs b]z d]lS;sf] lyof] . To;} qmddf l5d]sL /fi6
ef/tn] @))* df / rLgn] @)!) sf] ljZj ko{6g lbj;sf] cfof]hgf
ul/;s]sf 5g\ / pgLx?n] cfk"mnfO{ ljZj;fd' lrgfO;s]sf 5g\ . @)!@
cyf{t o; k6ssf] cfof]hs df;kfnf]dfF; / u|fo] fg s]gl/of ;+oS' t ?kdf
/x]sf lyP . ;+o'St /fi6 ;+3cGtu{t dgfOg] ljZj zflGt lbj;, dfgj
clwsf/ lbj;, :jf:Yo lbj;, jftfj/0f lbj;, dlxnf lbj;h:t} ljZj
ko{6g lbj; klg Pp6f dxTjk"0f{ lbj; xf] . ljZj ko{6g lbj;nfO{ klg
;+o'St /fi6 ;+3n] :jLs[lt lbPsf] lyof] h;nfO{ ;g\ !(*) df cfP/
;]K6]Da/ @& s} lbg ljZoJofkL ?kdf dgfpg] 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] lyof] .
g]kfn Pp6f k|fs[lts ;Dkbfn] el/k"0f{ b]z xf] cem egf}F k|fs[lts ;|f]t /
;fwgsf] nflu Pp6f efUozfnL b]z g} xf] . *))) ld6/ eGbf cUnf *
j6f lxdlzv/x? xfd}| g]kfndf 5g\ . ljleGg tfntn}ofx? oxL 5g\, To;df
klg a'4 hGd]sf] b]z ;Dk"0f{ af}4dfuL{x?sf] cf:yfsf] s]Gb| g]kfn g} xf]
;du|df eGg' kbf{ ko{6g Joj;fosf nflu g]kfn Pp6f j/bfg g} xf] t/
b'ef{Uo s] eg] olt w]/} ko{6gsf] ;Defjgf x'Fbfx'Fb} klg xfdL cfh k5fl8
k/]sf 5f}F, cfh klg ljZjs} ;jf]{Rr lzv/ ;u/dfyf xfd}| b]zdf k5{ eg]/
/f]O{/f]O{ eGg kl//x]sf] 5 . a'4 hGd]sf] b]z xfd}| g]kfn xf] egL lrRofO
lrRofO eGg' kl//x]sf] 5 of] ;a xfd|} nfk/jfxL Pj+ xfd}| sdLsdhf]/Ln]
ubf{ ePsf] xf] cem egf}F xfdLn] ko{6gsf] Joj:yfkg /fd|/L ug{ ;s]gf}F .
slt ko{6sx? g]kfndf cfP xf]nfg\, uP xf]nfg\ t/ oxfFsf] af/]df /fd|/L
hfGg a'g kfPgg\ xf]nf To;df xfdLx?sf] 7"nf] sdhf]/L /x]sf] 5 . lsgls
ko{6sx?nfO{ ;Demfpg] a'emfpg] clg xfd|f] b]zaf/] lzlIft u/fpg] t xfd}|
lhDd]jf/L xf] lg ;/sf/n] klg o;af/] lgs} nfk/jfxL u/]sf] 5 kmn:j?k
cfh xfdL of] lbg ef]lu/x]sf 5f}F . :jL6h/Nof08 Pp6f xfd|f] b]z;/x
kxf8}kxf8, lxdfn g} lxdfn ePsf] b]z xf] t/ cfh slt cufl8 5 eGg]
t ;a}nfO{ cjut g} ePsf] xf] . p;sf] &) eGbf a9L cfDbfgLsf] >f]t g}
ko{6g xf] . h'g s'/f xfd|f] g]kfndf klg lyof] / 5 . l5d]sL /fi6 ef/tn]
;g\ @))* df hnjfo' kl/jt{g;DaGwL ;d:ofnfO{ lnP/ ljZj ko{6g
lbj;sf] cfof]hgf u/]sf] lyof] To;kl5 ef/tdf ko{6ssf] ;+Vof lgs}
a9]sf] lyof] . To:t} olb g]kfnn] klg s'g} gofF of]hgfsf ;fy ljZj ko{6g
lbj;sf] cfof]hgf ug{ ;Sof] eg] ko{6sx?sf] cfudgdf w]/} xb;Dd j[l4
ug{ ;lsG5 / o;n] ko{6g Joj;fonfO{ ljsf; u/fpg d2t ldN5 /
;du| g]kfnnfO{ g} cfly{s pGgltlt/ 8f]ofpg ;lsG5 . ko{6g Pp6f
o:tf] k'n xf] h;n] dfgjnfO{ dfgj;Fu hf]8\g] sfd ub{5 . Pscsf{nfO{
lrgfpF5, ;+:s[lt cfbfgk|bfg ug{ ;xof]u k'ofpF5 . gofFgofF s'/fx?sf]
1fg lbnfpF5 To;kl5 dflg;sf] cfjthfjt a9\g yfN5 clg :jtM
k|ToIf ck|ToIf ?kn] cfly{s ljsf;df ;xof]u k'ofO/x]sf] x'G5 . xfd|f]
g]kfn afXo ko{6g dfq} xf]Og cfGtl/s ko{6gsf] k|r'/ ;Defjgf af]s]sf]
b]z klg xf] olb xfdLn] klxnf cfGtl/s ko{6gnfO{ ljz]if Wofg lbP/
o;sf] k|a4{glt/ nfUg] xf] eg] :jtM o;n] lj:tf/} km}lng] df}sf kfpF5 /
cGt/f{li6o:t/d} ko{6sx?sf] uGtJo:yn aGg ;S5 . g]kfndf sf7df8f}F
/ kf]v/f h:tf 7"nf zx/x?df dfq} ko{6g;DaGwL sfo{qmdx? s]lGb|t /xg]
ePsfn] oL b'O{ ;x/afx]s cGoq o;sf] Tolt ljsf; x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g .
w/fgdf s]xL /fd|f] eP klg lrQ a'emfpg ;Sg] l:ylt 5}g, clxn] cfP/
n'lDagL e|d0f jif{ @)!@ cfof]hgf u/]kl5 eg] ?kGb]xL / cf;kf; If]qdf
ko{6gn] s]xL k|d'vtf kfPsf] 5 . dWoklZrd tyf ;'b"/klZrddf
ko{6g;DaGwL Joj;fon] vf;} dxTj kfpg s]sf] 5}g, @# jif{otf xf]6nx?
wdfwd v'n] tfklg k|rf/k|rf;sf] cefj Pj+ ko{6g;DaGwL c1fgtfn]
ubf{ ko{6gx? tfGg ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . alb{of /fli6o lgs'~h leqsf
l/;f]6{x?df afx]s cGo Joj;flos ufO8 tyf tflnd k|fKt ko{6g
Joj;foLx? gx'gfn] klg dWoklZrd tyf ;'b/" klZrddf afXo tyf cfGtl/s
ko{6g km:6fpg kfPsf] 5}g . olb ;DalGwt lgsfo / ;/f]sf/jfnfx?n]
o;k|lt Wofg lbg] o;tkm{ nufgL a9fpg] xf] dWoklZrd tyf ;'b/" klZrd
b]zs} pTs[i6dWo]sf] ko{6sLo If]q ;fljt x'g ;S5 .
cGTodf ljZj ko{6g lbj;sf] d'Vo nIo eg]sf] ;du| ljZjd} ;fdflhs,
;f+:s[lts, /fhgLlts / cy{Joj:yfdf ;xof]u k'ofpg' xf] / o;nfO{
xfdLn] cfTd;ft ug{ h?/L 5 / ljZj ko{6g lbj;sf] efjgf cg'?k cl3
a9\b} xfd|f] g]kfnnfO{ klg ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, /fhgLlts / cfly{s?kdf
k"0f{otf ;an agfpg h?/L 5 .
ltns k'g

kG5Lx?sf] aw ug]{ tyf df;'sf] pkef]u ug]{ k|j[lQ kl/jt{g u/f}+ .


a8{km\ n h:tf kG5LhGo /f]ux?sf] lgoGq0fdf ;xefuL agL,
cfk"m klg arf}+ ;dfhnfO{ klg arfcf}+ .
kG5Lx?sf] aw 3/aflx/ kfgLsf] ;|f]teGbf 6f9f ug]{ u/f}F .
s'v'/f sf6]kl5 e'OF /fd|f];Fu kvfNg], k'5\g] -lg;+qmd0f_ u/f}F .
aw ul/;s]kl5 s'v'/f tyf sfFrf] df;'sf] n;k;af6 afnaflnsfx?nfO{
6f9} /fvf}F .
df;' sf6]kl5 lg:sg] kmf]xf]/, ;'nL, Kjfn cflbnfO{ hyfefjL gkmfnL
vfN8f]df uf8\g] jf hnfpg] u/f}F .
s'v'/f;Fusf] n;k; tyf df;' sf6\g] sfd ;lsPkl5 ;fa'g kfgLn] /fd|f];Fu
xft w'g] u/f}F .
leqL efu;Dd /fd|f];Fu kfs]sf] s'v'/fsf] df;' dfq vfg] u/f}F .
la/fdL jf d/]sf s'v'/fsf] df;' s'g} klg cj:yfdf vfg] gu/f}F .
c08fsf] leqL;Dd ;fx|f] x'g] cj:yf;Dd pdfn]/ of ksfP/ vfg] u/f}F .

a8{km\ n' /f]usf] /f]syfd / lgoGq0fdf xfdL ;a}sf] k|lta4tf

g] k fn ;/sf/
;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno

;"rgf ljefu

g]kfn ;/sf/

s[lif tyf ;xsf/L dGqfno kz' ;]jf ljefu

Pleog OGk\mn'oGhf lgoGq0f cfof]hgf


a"9fgLns07, sf7df8f},F kmf]gM $^%)!@*&, $^%)$(!, $^%)!@*

/fatOfc t]u *@ hf];c nf; (^)@

j:qxLg /fhs'df/L / j:q a]l/Psf g]tf


s]xL xKtf cufl8 a]nfotL /fhs'df/L
Sofyl/g s]06sf] cw{gUg tl:j/
;fj{hlgs ePsf] ljifon] ljZj ;~rf/
hutdf lgs} rrf{ kfof] . tl:j/ 5fKg]
k|mfG;sf] Snf]h/ klqsfnfO{ k|mfG;sf] Ps
cbfntn] cfb]z lbof] pSt tl:j/
g5fKg' / tl:j/sf] d"nk|lt /fhkl/jf/sf
k|ltlglwnfO{ @$ 306fleq a'emfpg" .
;"u;"u} cbfntn] of] klg eGof] ls
klqsfn] cbfntsf] of] cfb]z pNn+3g
u/]df k|ltlbg !) xhf/ o'/f] hl/jfgf
] . Snf]h/ klqsfnufot ljleGg
x'g5
j]j;fO6x?df /fhs'df/Lsf] cw{gUg
tl:j/ ;fj{hlgs x'g]b]lv lnP/
cbfntsf] lg0f{o;Ddsf 36gf eO/x"bf
a]nfotL /fhs'df/L / /fhs'df/ eg]
k"jl{ gwf{l/t sfo{qmdcg';f/ Pl;ofsf
ljleGg :yfgx?sf] e|d0fdf Jo:t lyP .
w]/n
} ] cg'dfg u/]sf lyP ls kmf]6f]
;fj{ h lgs ePkl5 /fhs' d f/
/fhs'df/Lsf] k"jl{ gwf{l/t e|d0f sfo{qmd
:ylut x'g5] . t/, cg'dfg ljk/Lt kmf]6f]
;fj{hlgs ePsf] 36gfsf afjh'b klg
e|d0f sfo{qmd rnL g} /Xof] . g t pSt
kmf]6f] ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 36gfn] /fhs'df/,
/fhs'df/L tgfjdf g} b]lvP . kmf]6f]
;fj{hlgs x'gk' j" { pgLx? h:tf lyP,
kmf]6f] ;fj{hlgs ePkl5 klg p:t} /x] .
pgLx?df s'g} tgfj b]lvPg . dfgf}F ls
kmf]6f] ;fj{hlgs ePs} 5}g . /fhs'df/
/fhs'df/Lsf] of] ckl/jt{gLo l:y/tfn]
ubf{ klg pSt 36gfnfO{ ;fdGoLs/0f
ug{ lgs} d2t k'Uof] . k|;rflx" oxf"
/fhs'df//fhs'df/L slt gflP jf gflg'
x'GYof], x'GgYof] eGg] dfq xf]Og . k|; xf]
gff] s] xf], sf] xf] / s;/L gflG5 <
eGg] klg xf] . w]/n} fO{ nfUnf ls a]nfotL
/fhs'df/L gflOg\, o;/L gflg' x'GgYof] .
cflb, OToflb ;a}sf cfcfgf ts{ x'g
;Snfg\ . ;fdflhs b[li6n] ;dfh ;fk]If
u/]/ x]bf{ o:tf x]/fO / a'emfO cf+lzs?kdf
;To klg xf]nfg\ t/ k"0f{M ;To eg] xf]Ogg\ .
ef}lts?kdf x/]s dfG5] gff] hGdG5 /
hGd]kl5 sk8fn] 9flsG5 . afns
5p~h]n p;sf] gff]kgfdfly p;sf

8f= 6Lsf/fd kf]v/]n


afa'cfdf, kl/jf/ jf
cleefjs;Ddsf] kx'r
"
x'G5 . ha afns jo:s
x' G 5 ta p;sf]
gff]kgfdfly cleefjssf] klg kx'r
"
/xGg . jo:s ePkl5 p;sf] gff]kgf
lgtfGt p;sf] JolStut x'G5 . ;xdlt
eP hLjg;fyL jf hLjg;"lugLaLrdf
gUgtf k|bz{g xf]nf . t/ of] tx JolStsf]
lgtfGt JolStut / uf]kgLo tx x'G5 .
o:tf] uf]kgLo hLjgdf t];f| ] JolStsf]
k|jz
] jf x:tIf]k x'g ;St}g . x:tIf]k
ePdf x:tIf]k ug{n] ] c?sf] uf]kgLotfsf]
clwsf/sf] xgg\ u/]sf] 7x5{ . To;}n]
s;}sf] klg uf]kgLo hLjgdf k|jz
] ug{]
clwsf/ ;+;f/df s;}nfO{ 5}g . s;}
s;}n] ljlrqsf] ts{ u5{g\ ls ;fj{hlgs
hLjgdf k|jz
] u/]sf] dfG5]sf] JolStut
/ uf]kgLo hLjg x'b" g} . p;sf] x/]s
ultljlwsf] af/]df ;a}n] hfgsf/L
kfpg}k5{ . s]xL ;~rf/sdL{ jf ;dfrf/
dfWodn] klg o:t} ;f]rsf sf/0f
pRrkb:yx?sf] JolStut hLjg;"u
;DalGwt tl:j/ / ultljlw k|sflzt
u/]/ cfgf klqsfdf d;nf eg{] k|of;
u5{g\ . t/, dggLo s'/f of] 5 ls s'g}
klg JolStn] cfk"m JolStut / uf]kgLo
hLjg latfp"lbg eg]/ ;fj{hlgs hLjgdf
k|jz
] u/]sf] x'b" g} . clg ;fj{hlgs
hLjgdf k|jz
] ug{] JolStn] JolStut /
uf]kgLo hLjg TofUg'k5{ eg]/ st} pNn]v
u/]sf] klg kfO"bg} . sxL", st} s'g} b]zsf]
P]g sfg'gdf pNn]v g} ul/Psf] 5 eg]
klg of]eGbf 7"nf] dfgjclwsf/sf] xgg\
csf]{ s'g} x'b" g} . To;}n] x/]s ;fj{hlgs
hLjgdf k|jz
] u/]sf] JolStsf] klg
JolStut / uf]kgLo hLjgsf] clwsf/
x'G5 hlt JolStut hLjg dfq af"Rg]sf]
clwsf/ x'G5 . Pp6f a'g}kg]{ s'/frflx"
of] xf] ls ;fj{hlgs hLjgdf k|jz
] u/]sf]
JolStn] p;sf] JolStut / uf]kgLo
hLjgsf s'/fx? ;fj{hlgs :yfg jf
cfk"mn] ;fj{hlgs lhDd]jf/L axg ug{k' g]{

:yfgdf eg] Nofpg' x'Gg . ;fj{hlgs


hLjg / JolStut hLjgsf] ;Ldf/]vf
olt dfq tf]Sg ;lsG5 . ca km]l/
a]nfotL /fhs'df/Lsf] cw{gUg tl:j/sf]
k|;lt/ hfp" . /fhs'df/L s]06sf]
cw{gUg tl:j/ ;fj{hlgs 7fp"df
lvlrPsf] xf]Og . ;fj{hlgs 7fp" t Tof]
x'G5 h;n] ;lhn};u" kmf]6f] lvRg ;S5
/ h;sf] kmf]6f] lvlrPsf] 5 p;n] klg
cfgf] kmf]6f] lvlrPsf] s'/f ;lhn};u"
yfxf kfpg ;S5 . ls t To:tf] kmf]6f]
;fj{hlgs hLjgsf] lhDd]jf/L ub}{ /x"bfsf]
:yfg / ;dodf lvlrPsf] x'gk' b{5 .
cyjf o;afx]s cGoq st} o:tf] kmf]6f]
lvlrPsf] 5 eg] p;n] cfgf] ;fj{hlgs
hLjgnfO{ b'?kof]u u/]sf] cj:yfsf]
x'gk' b{5 . t/, oL s'g} klg cj:yf gx'b" f
gx'b" } sf]xL s;}sf] lrof]rrf{ ub}{ n'lsl5kL
lvlrPsf] kmf]6f]nfO{ ;fj{hlgs hLjg;"u
hf]8/] JofVof ljZn]if0f ug{ vf]lhG5 eg]
c?sf] uf]kgLotfsf] xs xgg\ u/]sf]
7x5{ . /fhs'df/L s]06sf] kmf]6f] lvRg'
klg pgsf] uf]kgLotfsf] clwsf/ xgg\
u/]sf] xf] lsgls h'g a]nf kmf]6f] lvlrof]
To;a]nf /fhs'df/ /fhs'df/L lgtfGt
JolStut If0f Joltt ul//x]sf lyP .
xfd|} b]zdf klg s]xL jif{cufl8 rnlrq
gfos /fh]z xdfnsf] gUg tl:j/ 5fk]/
Pp6f klqsfn] lgs} xNnfvNnf dRrfof] .
elgG5, gflosf >Liff sfsL{ s f]
cfTdxTofsf] sf/0f klg pgsf] gUg
tl:j/ ;fj{hlgs x'g' g} xf] . xfd|f] b]zsf
oL s]xL k|ltlglw pbfx/0f dfq x'g\ . ca
k|Zg pAhG5, s] /fh]z xdfn jf >Liff
sfsL{sf gUg tl:j/ s'g} ;fj{hlgs
:yfgdf lvlrPsf x'g\ < kSs} xf]Ogg\ tL
tl:j/ t kqsf/n] cg]s ltS8dafhLn]
xft kf/]/ ;fj{hlgs u/]sf x'g\ . k|Zg
s] xf] eg] s] /fh]z xdfnsf] JolStut
hLjg 5}g < pgn] c?sf] z/L/sf] gff]
tl:j/ t lvlrlbPsf xf]Ogg\ xf]nf <
cfg} z/L/sf] lvr]sf lvrfPsf g x'g\ .
km]l/ xdfnn] cfgf] z/L/sf] gff] kmf]6f]

s'g} lkmNdsf] kf]:6/df /fVg] cg'dlt g}


klg t lbPsf xf]Ogg\ xf]nf . To;}n]
;fj{hlgs hLjgeGbf 6f9f /x]/ ul/Psf]
of] sfd pgsf] JolStut / uf]kgLo
hLjgsf] kf6f] xf] . o:tf] JolStut /
uf]kgLo hLjgsf] clwsf/ >Liff sfsL{nfO{
klg 5 . clg a]nfotL /fhs'df/L s]06sf]
klg 5 . To;}n] t ljZj ;~rf/ hut\df
of] ;dfrf/ lgs} tftf] ag] klg /fhs'df/
/fhs'df/Ldf s'g} kl/jt{g cfPg, pgLx?sf]
e|d0f klg /2 ePg . a? kmf]6f] k|sflzt
ug{] klqsfnfO{ g} cbfntn] bf]ifL 7xofof] .
km]l/ k|;u+ abnf},F gff] dfG5] sf] xf] <
ef}lts ?kdf x]g{ ] xf] eg] sk8fleq t ;a}
dfG5] gff] x'G5 eGg] ;a}nfO{ yfxf 5 .
sk8f nufp"bd} f dfG5] gff] gx'g] / sk8f
gnufp"bd} f dfG5] gff] x'g] eGg] a'emfO g}
e|d xf] . sk8f vf]Hbf dfG5] sk8faf6
6f9f x'g] dfq xf] gff] x'g] xf]Og . gUgtfsf]
sk8f;"u s'g} ;DaGw 5}g . To;}n] oyfy{tf
gff] dfG5] vf]Hg] xf] eg] sk8f kmfn]sf]
dfG5] xf]Og Odfg, hdfg, g}ltstf kmfn]sf]
dfG5]sf] vf]hL ug{k' 5{ . g}ltsxLgx?nfO{
gff] b]Vg'k5{ . em"6 af]Ng]x? gff x'g\ eg]/
;dfrf/ k|sflzt ug{k' 5{ . af]ns
] f] afrf
k"/f gug]{ nfh kr]sfx? gff x'g\ eg]/
hgtfnfO{ lrgfOlbg'k5{ . o:tf Odfg,
hdfg / g}ltstf kmfn]sf, em"6 af]n/]
nfh krfpg]x? vf]Hg st} 6f9f
hfg'kb}g{ . lrGg] lrgfpg] lxDdt dfq
ug{k' 5{ . o;sf nflu xfd|} g]tfx? kof{Kt
5}gg\ / < hgtfsf cufl8 afrf u/]sf]
s'/f k"/f gug{,] ;+ljwfg gagfpg], b]znfO{
aaf{bLsf] vf8ndf ws]Ng] / af]ns
] f] 7]ufg
gePsf g]tfx? gff geP c? sf] gff]
x'G5 < xf], sk8f kmfn]/ dfG5] gff] x'b" g} .
Odfg, hdfg / g}ltstf kmfn]/ dfG5]
gff] x'G5 . To;}n] t a]nfotL /fhs'df/L
sk8f kmfn]/ klg gflOgg\, xfd|f g]tfx?
sk8f gkmfnL gflP . t/ xfd|f g]tfx?
cfk"m gflPsf] 7flg/x]sf 5}gg\ lsgls
pgLx?sf] sk8f v'ns
] f] 5}g . t/, ptf
/fhs'df/L s]06 klg cfk"m gflPsf]
7flg/x]sL 5}gg\ lsgls pgsf] Odfg,
hdfg / g}ltstf gflPsf] 5}g .

gf]an] zflGt k'/:sf/ o'/f]lkog o'lgognfO{


sf7df8f}F . of] jif{sf] gf]an
] zflGt k'/:sf/ o'/f]lkog o'lgognfO{ lbOg]
ePsf] 5 . o'/f]ksf] cfly{s ?kfGt/0fdf lgjf{x u/]sf] e"ldsfsf] k|z+;f
ub}{ kfFr ;b:oLo gf]a]n k'/:sf/ sld6Ln] Oo'nfO{ ;f] k'/:sf/ lbg] lg0f{o
u/]sf] xf] . cfly{s dGbLaf6 u'lh|/xFbf klg @& d'n'snfO{ PsLs/0f ub}{
Psn d'bf| o'/f] k|rngdf NofPsf]df gf]an
] k'/:sf/ sld6Ln] Oo'sf] k|z;
+ f
ub}{ ;f] zflGt k'/:sf/ lbg] lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] . bf];|f] ljZjo'4df ljeflht
o'/f]knfO{ PsLs/0f ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] eGb} k'/:sf/
sld6Ln] Oo'sf] k|z+;f u/]sf] 5 . p;n] Oo'n] o'/f]k k'gMlgdf{0fsf] sfd
ul//x]sf] eGb} k'/:sf/sf nflu 5gf}6 ul/Psf] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . ljZjsf]
k|ltli7t gf]an zflGt k'/:sf/ afkt Oo'n] !@ nfv cd]l/sL 8n/ k|fKt
ug]5
{ . l8;]Da/ !) df cfof]hgf ul/g] ljz]if ;df/f]xdf ;f] /sd x:tfGt/0f
ul/g]5 . @ ;o #! k|lt:kwL{af6 Oo'nfO{ 5gf}6 ul/Psf] /f]o6;{n] hgfPsf]
5 . Oo'n] gf]an
] zflGt k'/:sf/ kfpg'nfO{ w]/n
} ] cfZro{sf ?kdf lnPsf
5g\ . gf]an
] k'/:sf/sf] sfof{no ePsf] gj]s
{ f gful/sn] Oo'nfO{ gf]jn
]
zflGt k'/:sf/ lbOg' rnfvLk"0f{ lg0f{o eg]sf 5g\ . Ph]G;L

;"rgf dfUg] kqsf/nfO{ ;fj{hlgs d'2f


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn k|;
] o'lgogsf s]lGb|o ;b:o choafa' lzjfsf]6Llj?4
bf]nvfsf lhNnf lzIff clwsf/L lzjs'df/ ;fksf]6fn] ;"rgf dfu]s}
cfwf/df :yfgLo k|zf;gdf ;fj{hlgs d'2f bfo/ u/]sf 5g\ . c;f]h
!( ut] Od]h l6eLsf kqsf/ tyf xfd|f s'/f 86 sd / bf]nvfGo'h
86sdsf ;Dkfbs;d]t /x]sf lzjf]sf]6Llj?4 lhNnf lzIff clwsf/L
;fksf]6fn] d'2f bfo/ u/]sf lzjfsf]6Ln] hfgsf/L lbPs 5g\ . lhNnf
lzIff sfof{nodf kmf]g u/L ;"rgf dfu]s} cfwf/df lzjfsf]6Llj?4 ;fj{hlgs
d'2f bfo/ ul/Psfdf o'lgogsf dxf;lrj lzj nD;fnn] cfklQ hgfPs
5g\ . sfof{noleq ePsf clgoldttfaf/] lhlzc ;fksf]6f;Fu ;"rgf
dfUg vf]lhPsf] atfOPsf] 5 .

rLg;u #) d]ufjf6 ;f}op{ hf{ vl/b ug]{


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn ljB't\ k|flws/0f / lrlgofF sDkgLaLr ;f]nf/af6 #)
d]ufjf6 lah'nL pTkfbg ug{] ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . #) d]ufjf6 lah'nL pTkfbg
ug{ ;f]nf/ kfj/ :6]zg lgdf{0f ug{ k|flws/0f / rLgsf] x'gfg o'O/{ ;f]nf/
O{ghL{ 6]Sgf]nf]hL lnld6]8aLr ;Demf}tf ePsf] xf] . phf{ dGqfnodf g]kfn
ljB't\ k|flws/0fsf k|aGw lgb]z
{ g dx]Gb|nfn >]i7 / sDkgLsf] tkm{af6 ln
Kofcf] ldn] ;Demf}tdf x:tfIf/ ub}{ k|flws/0f / lrlgofF sDkgL o'O/{ sf]
;xsfo{df ;f}ol{ jB't\ pTkfbgsf nflu sfd ;'? ug{ phf{ dGqfnosf k|jStf
cg'k pkfWoon] hfgsf/L lbP . cWoogaf6 pko'St b]lvP pTkflbt lah'nL
g]kfn ljB't\ k|flws/0fn] vl/b ug]5
{ . cWoog / kfj/ :6]zg lgdf{0fsf nflu
k|flws/0fn] lrlgofF sDkgLnfO{ ;xof]u ug{] dGqfnosf k|jStf pkfWoon] hfgsf/L
lbP . k|flws/0fsf k|jStf z]/l;+x ef6n] lrlgofF o'O/{ ;f]nf/ O{ghL{ 6]Sgf]nf]hLn]
;f}op{ hf{ pTkfbgsf nflu O{R5f JoSt u/]sfn] cfk"mx? klg ;sf/fTds ePsf]
hfgsf/L lbP . k|flws/0fsf k|jStf ef6n] lrlgofF sDkgLn] ;DefJotf cWoog
u/]/ ;f}op{ hf{af6 ljh'nL lgsfNg] / pko'St d"Nodf cfk"mx?n] vl/b ug{] u/L
k|f/lDes ;Demf}tf ePsf] hfgsf/L lbP . lrlgofF sDkgLn] $ dlxgfleq
;DefJotf cWoog ;Sg] / ;DefJotf cWoog ;lsPsf] @$ dlxgfkl5 lah'nL
pTkfbg ug{] cfZjf;g lbPsf] 5 .

dw]zL g]tfx? dw]zk|lt OdfGbf/ 5}gg\


clgn s0f{
clgR5f, lg/fzf / cw} o { n ]
/fhgLltk|lt lg/fsf\IfL aGg ;lsFbg} \ .
g]kfnL /fhgLltsf]] cfFwL, kfgL / jtf;sf]
;+of]uaf6 j:t'ut / cfTdut kIfnfO{
emfF6g\ ;lsPg eg] eltm jf tk:ofs}
e/df bn jf Joltmsf] cfTdcx\sf/nfO{
kG;fpg ;lsFbg} . anldrfOFsf] k|al[ Qn]
a/a/L r'xs
] f] hgtfsf] cfF;s
' f] ennfO{
5]Sg ;lsFbg} \ . kL8fsf] kdf hgcfqmf]z
FlbPsf] 5 / o;sf] a]:s/L l/FufOn]
g]tf / hgtfaLrsf] /f;f]af;f]nfO{
l5g\gleGg kfg]{ vt/f a9]sf] 5 .
clwsf+z dw]zjfbL bnxsf]
;Qfofqf ;+l:yt ePkl5 dw]zL hgtf
nf]kfl/g yfn]sf] w]/} ePsf] 5 . g]tfx
nf] e fgLkfkfgLdf km:b} uPkl5
dw]zjfbsf] l;4fGtdf kfk|f] nfUg yfn]sf]
5 . cem\ k|i6 eGg'kbf{ g]tT[ jstf{sf]
a}ug' L,cljj]sL / nf]sf]Q/ Jofjxf/n] dw]z
cfGbf] n gsf
g] t fafx] s sf
zfvf;Gtfgxdf l/;/fu,c;Gt'li6 /
tgfj ulxl/Fb} hfg' :jfefljs g} 5 .
hgtfsf] l:y/tf, Psfu|tf / w}on{ fO{
j}/fUo,lj/ltm / pbf;Lgtfsf] ;fdfGo
k8fjsf] kdf lnOPsf]n] g} xf]nf ca
df3] cfGbf]ngsf a|tfn'x pkb|aLsf]
kdf ljb|fx] L aGg yfn]sf 5g\ . dw]zsf
dfu / d'bb\ fnfO{ ;Qfdb\df x'8F Ng] /
kmflhn agfpg] d]nf]d;] f] ul/P g]tfxsf]
j}wLs[t x'bF u} Psf] j}ej / as{tnfO{
aGWofs/0f ug{ hgtf kl5 kg]{ 5}gg\ .
;fot\ o;}n] klg gofF r'gfjsf] Jou|tfk"0f{
k|tLIffdf hgtf 5g\ . o:tf] kvf{OF
dw]zcfGbf]ngsf c 36sxnfO{ klg
5 . cyf{t\ gful/s ;dfh / ;~rf/
If]q klg ;b;lj]s k'ofpg] dxfkj{sf]
lbUbz{s aGg] ;'/ s:b}5g\ .
k|foM ljkl/t w|j' df b]lvg] dw]zL
kqsf/x df]xg l;F x / /fh]z
clx/fhxsf] s]xL lbgcl3sf] lblUjhoL
gag] s f] t/ ;Qfd:t /x] s f
dGqLg]tfxsf] db\d:t lbgs6gLnfO{
lbsbf/ agfOlbPsf] cg;gn] gofF

u0ftflGqs g] k fndf k[ y ' n fwLz


ag]sfxsf] khgLsf] k"jf{Eof; xf] eGbf
km/s kb}{g . /fhgLltdf g]tfsf]
lga[lQe/0fsf] lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/ b]zsf
c;n HofdLxs} xf] . /fhgLltsf]
wfjgdfu{af6 p8\g, u'8g\ / cjt/0f
ug{ hgtfnfO{ g} hbf} ug}k{ 5{ . nf]stGqsf]
;f}Gbo{ / clgjfo{ k4lt klg oxLF g} xf] .
dw]z cfGbf]ngn] p7fg u/]sf d'2fxnfO{
htg;d]t gu/]sf ;Qf9 dw]zjfbL
bn / g]tfxnfO{ dtkqsf] bflanf]n]
;f]t/ x'g] eo gx'g' cfkm}d
F f hlQ
cfZro{hgs 5, plQs} hLa|f] 6f]Sg] ljifo
;Qfs'ntL x'bF } s'nf\uf/ aGg' xf] .
ljrf/ / g}ltstfljxLg c8\8LnfO{
:jfledfg dflgb}g . of] bDe x'G5 . bDeL
aGg klg zltm, ;fwg / JoltmTjsf] 7"nf]
cfotg rflxG5 . g]kfnL /fhgLltdf nfdf]
;Qfofqf u/]sf anzfnL g]tf ljhos'df/
uR5bf/sf] k|efj cfOhLkL k|s/0fdf
dTy/ ePsf] 7Ls Ps;ftf eof] . t/
pgL hgtfnfO{ k|i6 kfg{ ;s]sf 5}gg\
ls s] sf/0fn] pgL jl/otf / sfo{bIftfdf
sd;n dflgg] clwsf/Lsf kIfw/ ag]
/ cGTodf k|wfgdGqL;Fusf] s'g s'/fdf
;xdlt hgfP s'a]/l;Fx /fgfsf]
kbf]Ggltsf nflu . /fHo;+oGqsf] k4lt
/ k|lqmofnfO{ g} eTsfP/ Pshgf of]Uo /
Ifdtfjfg hghflt k|x/L clwsf/LnfO{
lsgf/f nufpg] k|k~r ul//xFbf pgL
s;/L la;]{ dw]z cfGbf]ng pk]Iff,
pTkL8g / alxis/0fdf k/]sf ;a}
hfthfltsf] :j/nfO{ p7fg u/]sf] lyof] .
/fhgLltdf gLlt / sfo{qmd c:jLs[t
ePkl5 ;Qf 5f]8g] clgjfo{ k/Dk/f
5 . sDtLdf lgs} ;d[4 nf]stflGqs
k/Dk/f /x]sf] l5d]sL d'ns
' ef/taf6
l;lsb}cfPsf] kf7 xf] of] . cfOhLkL
k|s/0fdf cfkm\gf] of]hgf t'lxPkl5
kbaf6 cnlUug] g}ltstf jf cfF6 lsg
pgn] b]vfpg ;s]gg\ . of] k|Zg ;w}F
cg' Q l/t /xg] 5 . kf/blz{ t f /
pQ/bfloTjsf] /fhgLlt la;]s
{ f] d'ns
' df
uf]Kotfsf] kl/efiff cToGt ;fF3/' f] 5 .

dw] z jfbL bnsf g] t fxsf]


Jojxf/sf] k|;\un] dfq of] n]vn] k"0f{tf
kfpFbg} . ljrf/ / Jojxf/s} ;du|tfnfO{
vf]tNg'kg]{ x'G5 . d'Vo;lrj jf cfOhLkL
k|s/0fdf 3l/3l/ a}7s ug]{ ;+ot' m
nf]stflGqs dw]zL df]rf{ ef/t;Fusf]
k|frLg ;fdflhs, ;fF:s[lts / /fhgLlts
;DaGwsf] d"NonfO{ c:jLsf/ ug]{ /
sfnfGt/df b]znfO{ tflnafgL saLnf
agfpg] df]xg j}Bg]tT[ jsf] dfcf]jfbLn]
k|wfgdGqLnfO{ t];f{Psf] &) a'bF ] dfunfO{
lnP/ l6Kk0fL ug{ 5nkmn ug{ ;s]g .
a ;Qfaflx/ /x]sf] /fli6o dw]z
;dfhjfbL kf6L{n] df]xg j}Bsf] dfunfO{
lnP/ tTsfn k|To'Q/ lbof], g]kfn /
ef/taLrsf] k/Dk/fut d}qLk"0f{ ;DaGw
/ kf/:kl/s ;DaGw;Fu} dw]z;Fu
;LdfjtL{ If]qsf hgtfsf] b]zkf/ ljjfx,
:jf:Yof]krf/, wd{sd{ tyf cGo
;fdflhs ;F:sf/ cflbnfO{ lgif]w ug]{
cftftfoL ;f] r af6 k| ] l /t o:tf
dfuxnfO{ tTsfn lkmtf{ lnP/ ;b\efj,
;lxi0f'tf / ldqtfsf] k/Dk/fnfO{ yk
an k'ofpg ;f] kf6L{nfO{ cfJxfg;d]t
ub{5' . g]kfnL ;]gfdf clws[t Sof8]6
kbsf nflu lnOPsf] kl/Iffdf Pshgf
dw]zL o'jf ptL0f{ gx'gh
' :tf uDeL/
lje]bsf lj4 af]Ng g;Sg' ;Qf;Lg
g]tfxsf] lgotd} vf]6 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{
k'li6 u5{ . a o; ;afndf klg
cbfntaf6} pkrf/ vf]Hg] sfddf
/fd;kfsf] tTk/tf b]lvof] . o:tf y'kf|
lje]bsf ;afnx 5g\, h;nfO{ dw]z;Fu
/fdf]/fd u/]/ ;Qfdf k'us
] f bnxn]
pl56\6ofP . /fd;kf jf Psfw bnxsf]
kxnn] dfq dw]zsf] ;afn ;Daf]wg x'g]
sDtLdf clxn] cj:yf 5}g\ . t/ h'g
kdf ;Qf9 bnxk|lt dw]zL hgtf
lg/k]If x'bF u} Psf 5g\, o;n] cfufdL lbgdf
;+u7g la:tf/ ug]{ b[li6n] dw]zsf] df6f]
z/t\l;Fx e08f/L g]tT[ jsf] /fd;kf, pk]Gb|
ofbj g]tT[ jsf] dw]zL hgclwsf/ kmf]/d
g]kfn cflbsf nflu dlnnf] x'g;S5 .
x'g t ;fFrf] s'/f of] klg xf], oL b'a}

bnsf cltl/tm dw] z df /fh] G b|


dxtf]gt] T[ jsf] ;b\efjgf kf6L{sf] dfq ks8
5 . k|bz
] lgwf{/0fsf] ;afndf ;/sf/ g}
5f]8g] r]tfjgL lbPsf ;b\efjgf cWoIf
dxtf]sf] ;'Sb}uPsf] dw]zkIfLo af]nLsf]
a]lnla:tf/ nufpg] a]nf ePsf] 5 .
;b\efjgfh:tf] k'/fgf] kf6L{ csf]
cof]Uotfn] nf]slk|o aGg] xf]Og, cfkm\gf]
k|i6tf / k|v/tfn] dfq hglk|o x'g;Sg]
;b\efjgfsf Pp6f cleoGtf nId0fnfn
s0f{n] a'em]sf 5}gg\ eGg] s;n] kTofpF5g\ .
z/t\l;Fx e08f/L Pstfsf /fhgLlts
Joj:yfks lyP, t/ hgtfsf] af]nLnfO{
an k'ofpg /fhkf7 5f]8/] dw]zsf] rsf]{
3fddf k;Lgf aufPkl5 dfq pgL
/fhg]tf ag]sf x'g . pgL nvt/fg k/]/
dw]zdf ;';N] bf pgsf] xft:kz{n] klg
wGo x'g] hgtfsf] afSnf] eL8 nfu]sf]
b[io k+ltmsf/n] k6sk6s b]vs
] f 5g\ .
pgL ;Qfaflx/ /xFbf hgtfsf nflu clxn]
;]lnla|6L kf]lnl6;Log ag]sf 5g\ . pgL
hgtf;Fu ;Qf];] Q efs]sf 5g\ / dw]zdf
cjZoDefjL clgsfnnfO{ lnP/ dw]zsf
ls;fgb]lv l;Fxb/af/;DdnfO{ ttfpg
vf]hs
] f . t/ lsg l;Fxb/af/ yfgsf
b]pmtfx dw]zsf] v9]/LnfO{ x]bg{} g\ ,
;fDYo{jfg b]pmtfx lsg af]Nb}gg dw]zL
ls;fgsf b'Mv / kL8fxsf] efiff .
;/sf/n] y'kf| dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{o u5{ .
;/sf/sf] k|jtmfsf] x}l;otn] ;~rf/dGqL
/fhlszf]/ ofbjn] tL ;a} lg0f{onfO{ xFl;nf]
d'bf| df ;~rf/sdL{xnfO{ l6kfpg] u5{g\ .
t/ u/LaL kl/rokqsf nflu @%
lhNnfsf] 5gf]6 x'bF f dw]zsf tLgj6f
lhNnf dfq k5{g\ / cd]l/sfn] kL;sf]/
:jo+;j] s k7fPsf] 7fpFleq dw]z
c6fpFbg} eGg] x]Ssf dw]z g]tfxnfO{
5 } g . dw]zL g]tfn] ug]{ k/Dk/fut sfd
pgn] klg u/]sf 5g\ . cyf{t\ s]xL yfg
JoltmxnfO{ ljleGg ;~rf/dfWod jf
7fpFdf lgo'tm u/]sf 5g\ . t/ pgL la;]s
{ f
5g\, g]kfn 6]lnlehgdf pgL-pgL r}F
;~rf/dGqL ePsfn] a]nf a]nfdf
b]lvG5g\_h:t} cg'xf/ b]lvFbg} . /]l8of]

g]kfnn] d}lynL, ef]hk'/L / cjwLh:tf


efiff / l;Fuf] dw]zL e"uf]nsf nflu ;fdfGo
cf} k rfl/s\ t f dfq k' / f u5{ .
Psb'Oh
{ gfafx]s ToxfFaf6 ;'lgg] k6\ofl/nf]
jf nf]enfUbf] :j/ dw]zLsf] x'bF g} . dfgf}
dw]z dfq of] b]zdf 5, dw]zL r}F b|i6f /
;|ft] f dfq x'g\ pgL stf{ x'g] of]Uotf /fVb}gg\ .
ljleGg ;+:yfsf] af]8{ ;b:odf :jhftLo
dw]zL leq\ofpg] dGqLn] /f;;
rxfbf{rxfb}{ dw]zL kqsf/ uf]laGbf
;fxsf] uf]8f k6k6L k"m6]sf] x]g{ } rfx]gg\ .
uf]laGbfn] dfu]sf] klg w]/} xf]Og, u}/dw]zL
lgo'tm x'g;Sg] 7fpFdf cfkm\gf] lgo'ltm
dfq dfu]sf lyP . dGqLn] /]l8of] g]kfn
/ uf]vf{kqdf s]xL Joltm leq\ofP . t/
cd/]Gb| ofbj, dx]z rf}/l;ofh:tf
Joltmx ToxfF k'Ug ;Ifd Joltm x'g\ .
g]kfnL kqsfl/tfdf lqmofzLntf / Ifdtfsf]
b[li6n] 5'66\ } :yfg agfPsf oL JoltmxnfO{
Hofnfbf/Lsf] tf/]v af]ls/xg] sfdaf6 d'tm
u/fpg' dGqLsf] bfloTj xf] , t/ clxn]sf]
5fF6sfF6 t o;df pgL r'Sg] lglZrt 5 .
;sf/fTds lje]bsf] s'/fnfO{ /fHon] :jLsf/
ul/;Sbf klg r'Sg] l:ylt bb{gfs 5 .
of] n]v 5flkg] cvaf/sf ;Dkfbs
x'g\ /fh]z clx/fh . To;}n] /fh]zhLsf]
ljifodf n]Vg] sfo{ s]xL Joltmsf nflu
afWosf/L nfUg;S5 . t/ oyfy{ xf], klxn]
klg n]vs
] f] 5' . emG8} 8]9 bzscl3 d
kqsf/s} x}l;otn] dn+ujf k'Ubf
/fh]zhLsf] ;Dk"0f{ lqmof kqsfl/tfa[lQdf
;dlk{t lyof] . cfh klg 5 . 8]9
bzseGbf a9Lsf] kqsfl/tf ofqf /
dw]zjfbL kqsfl/tfsf] cf}krfl/s Gjf/fg
ug]{ /fh]z h]kL u'Ktf dGqL x'bF f klg
pk]lIft x'ge' of] cfh klg . ljifofGt/
gx'g] xf] eGg] /fh]zhLnfO{ Pshgf ldqn]
y/ km]//] -pxfF emf x'gx' G' 5_ klg ;'v gkfPsf]
kqsf/ eg]/ 76\6f ug'x{ G' 5 . dw]zsf
Pshgf emf y/s} al/i7 ;flxTosf/n]
dnfO{ g]tfxsf] dw]zk|ltsf] gZnLo
Odfgbf/Lsf] vf]hL ug'k{ g]{ atfpg'ePsf]
lyof] / d]/L >LdtL kxf8]dn" sL ePsLn]
dleq klg To:tf] gZnLo Odfgbf/L

gePsf] cf/f]k nufpg'ePsf] lyof] .


pxfFnfO{ Pp6f ;'emfj 5, /fd;kf /
;b\efjgfafx]ssf hftLo / kbLo
k|efjsf b[li6n] oL b'a} ;Gt'lnt 5g\_
dw]zjfbL bnsf s]lGb|o ;ldlt
;b:oxsf] cWoo\g ug{ . gZnLo
Odfgbf/L t xf]nf, t/ To;eGbf a9L
hflto / juL{o Odfgbf/L b]lvPsf] 5 .
ofbjsf] bn, ;fxsf] bn, yfsf] bn /
afx'gsf] bn . cem\ pkNnf] hftsf] bn
t tNnf] hftsf] bn . of] hflto
Odfgbf/Ln] ef]lnsf] dw]zdf klg lnDa'afg
/ v'Da'afg aGg] vt/f x'G5 . h;n]
dw]zdf hflto-;fd'bflos cy{df_ d'ltmsf]
;afnnfO{ sxfF k'ofpF5 . dw]zsf] s'/f
ug]{ tdnf]kf / tdnf]kf g]kfnn] lsg
k|i6 eP/ Psn hflto klxrfg;lxtsf]
;+3Lotfsf] lj/f]w ub}g{ g\ < nf]stGq,
;\3Lotf / ;dfj]zLsf] s'/f ug]{
kf6L{x ;+/rgf / cj;/df lsg
;dfj]zL x'g ;Sb}gg\ < ca hgfb]z
lng] a]nfdf o:tf k|Zgxsf] klg
n]vfhf]vf x'G5 . ;dosf] :j/nfO{ ga'em\g]
/ ultnfO{ gks8g] bn jf g]tf l6Sg
;Sb} g g\ . slknj:t' d f Pshgf
k"j;{ ef;b\n] /fd;kfsf cWoIf z/t\l;Fx
e08f/Lsf nflu s]xL zAb vlr{P . pgn]
eg], z/t\ g]kfnL /fhgLltsf xg'dfgem}+
sfnhoL kfq x'g\ . pgL ;a} tGqdf
afFr] . ;\3Lo u0ftGqdf klg pgL
afFRb}5g\, ;dfj]zLsf] ;kgf lnP/ . pgsf]
o:tf] Odfgbf/ ;kgf pgL cWoIf /x]sf]
/fd;kfsf] ljBfgaf6 d'vl/t ePsf] 5 .
kf6L{sf] ljBfgdf ;sf/fTds lje]bsf]
jsfnt ul/Psf] 5 / o;cg'k dlxnf,
cflbaf;L, hghflt, d' l :nd ,
lk58fju{nufotnfO{ ljleGg txsf
;ldltdf ;xeflutfsf nflu lglZrt
k|ltztdf cf/lIft ul/Psf] 5 . o;n]
Pp6f s'/f k|i6 5, ca Odfgbf/Lsf]
kl/If0f gZn jf hftdf xf]Og, lgotdf
ul/g' k 5{ . o;} k|Zgsf] pQ/ lbgsf
nflu g]kfnL / cem\ dw]zL hgtf
r'gfjnfO{ klv{b5
F } g\ .

/fatOfc t]u *@ hf];c nf; (^)@

g]kfndf j[4j[4f cfjf;sf] cfjZostf M Ps ljj]rgf


aL;f}+ ztfJbLsf] pQ/f4{ cyf{t
bf]>f] laZjo'4 kl5 ef}lts tyf
;fdflhs ljsf;sf] qmd;+u} ljZjJofkL
?kd} dflg;sf] cf};t cfo' qmdzM
a9\b} uPsf] 5 . pbfx/0fsf] nflu
laut %) aif{ otf o'/f]k nufot
klZrdL b]zx?df cf};t cfo' %)
aif{af6 a9]/ *) aif{ k'us
] f] 5 eg],
g]kfnLsf] cf};t cfo'klg ^$=! k'us
] f]
5 . t/, klZrdL b]zx?df %) %%
pd]/ gf3]sf ;s[o ao:s, pd]/sf]
a[l4;+u} lg/f]uL / a[4fj:yfdf nfUg;Sg]
la:d[ l t (dementia) b] l v
parkinsons disease,
cancer h:tf laleGg ulDe/
k|sl[ tsf /f]u nfu]sf a[4 a[4fsfnflu
;d]t cfjf; Joj:yfsf] lasf; ePsf]
kfOof] . To:tf cfjf; u[xdf :ofxf/
;';f/sf nflu 8fS6/, g;{b]lv
a[4fj:yf;+u} qmdzM lasl;t x'bF h
} fg]
;d:ofsf] lgbfgsfnflu laz]if1x?sf]
Joj:yfklg ul/Psf] b]lvof] . g]kfnsf]
;Gbe{df eGg'kbf{ g]kfnLx? afFRg] pd]/
a9]tfklg hfkfg nufot ljsl;t
b]zx?sf] hlt dfly k'Ug cem} bzsf}+
nfUg;S5 . o;y{, Psflt/ lasl;t
b]zx?sf] bfFhf]df g]kfnLsf] cf};t cfo'
cem}klg lgs} sd ePsf]n] g]kfnLx?
cem}klg rfF8g} } a[4 x'g] sf/0fn] g]kfnL
Ho]i7 gful/ssf] x]/rfxsf] nflu
;dod} hf]uf8 ug'k{ g]{ cfjZostf t
5Fb5
} , g]kfnLx?sf] cf};t cfo'sf]
lasf;sf] qmd;+u} >[lht b]z leq jf
aflx/ hxfF /x]klg k|lt:kwf{Tds
afWotfdf af+Rg l;Sg' kg]{ o'jf ;Gtfgsf]
km]l/bf] l+ hjg z}nLsf aLr ltgsf
a[4fj:yflt/ pGd'v cyjf a[4 e};s]sf
afa' cfdf nufot ltgdf cfl>tn]
cfkm\gf] af+sL lhjg ;xhtf k'js
{
u'hfg{sf nflu pko'Qm af6f] klxNofO
g;s]sf] cj:yf klg csf]{ 6/f{] ;To
xf] . To:tf a[4 a[4fn] o'/f]k tyf
cd]l/sfdf a;f]af; u/]sf 5f]/f
5f]/L;+u af+sL hLjg ofkg ug{
c;Dejk|foM x'g] tYok|lt klg] b]z
lab]zsf] lhjgz}nL;Fu kl/lrtx?
;hu e};s]sfx?sf] nflu cj cgf}7f]
laifo /x]sf] 5}g .
klZrdL b]zx?sf] cg'ejaf6 5f]/f
5f]/L jf ;+oQ' m kl/jf/df a:g] Ho]i7
gful/s eGbf %% ^) sf] pd]/
pk|fGt ;lqmo /xg ;s'~h]n To:t}
;lqmo -&% pd]/sf o'/f]k cd]l/sfsf
dflg;klg cfk'mnfO{ a[4 eg]/ ;Daf]wg
u/]sf] dg gk/fPsf] d}n] kfPF_ Ho]i7
gful/ssf nflu ;f]xL cg'?k / /f]uL
/ cgj/t :ofxf/sf] cfjZostf kg]s
{ f
nflu lrlsT;s, g;{ / cfjZos
pks/0f ;lxtsf cfjf; u[xsf] Joj:yf
ul/Psf] x'G5 . To:tf] :ofxf/ ;';f/
ug]{ laleGg of]Uotf, bIftf, / tflnd
k|fKt laleGg txsf hgzlQmsf] hdft

xl/ /]UdL, cd]l/sf


tof/ug]{ y'k}| ;+:yfx? tL
b]zdf ljBdfg 5g\ . oL ;a} sf/0fn]
ubf{ cfk'mnfO{ dgkg]{ cfjf;Lo ;'ljwfo'Qm
aftfj/0fdf ;'lglZrtf k'js
{ a:g] cj;/
kfPsf a[4 a[4f w]/} cjlw afFRg] dfq
ge} kl/af/sf cGo ;b:on] klg cf
cfkm\gf] k]zfdf lglZrGtfk'js
{ nfUg kfpg]
e} a[4 a[4f kfl/jfl/s af]em gaGg] tYo
k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . klZrdL b]zx?df
lglh If]qn] To;tkm{ lgs} nufgL u/L
cfo>f]t, pd]/, zfl/l/s cj:yf, tyf
/f]u cflbsf] cj:yf adf]lhdsf laleGg
;/ ;'lawfsf cfjf; 5\of;5\of;tL
b]Vg kfOG5g\ . laut bzs otf xfd|f]
l5d]sL b]z ef/tdf klg ef/tLo aLdf
lgud h:tf ;+:yf, ;xsf/L, tyf lglh
If]qsf] nufgLdf lalaw lsl;d / ;'ljwf
;lxtsf a[4 cfjf;sf] Joj:yf ug]t{ km{
lgs} nufgL e} ;~rfngdf NofOPsf]
kfOPsf] 5 .
g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;+oQ+' m kfl/jfl/s
;
+ :+ s[ltdf x'ss
{] f / a[4fj:yfsf laifodf
hfgsf/L lng] ;+ : sf/sf] cefj,
cg';Gwfgsf] sdL cflbsf sf/0fx?n]
oL laifodf of t xfdL cgle1 5f}+ of
a[4fj:yfsf ;fdfGo nIf0f ;Dem]/ a]jf:tf
ug]{ ub{5f}+ h:sf] kl/0ffd cfly{s, ef}lts,
;fdflhs tyf dfgl;s ?kn] a[4 a[4f
/ ltgsf] x]/rfxsf] ;fdflhs lhDd]jf/L
af]ss
] f cGo ;b:on] To:tf JolQmsf]
d[To' ko{Gt ef]Ug' kl//x]sf] x'G5 .
pbfx/0fsf] nlfu afa' cfdf, bfh', lbbL,
nufot kl/jf/sf slgi7 ;b:ox?dfly
cfl>t xfd|f cu|h a[4 a[4x?df pd]/
a9\b} hfFbf laleGg k|sl[ tsf nIf0f qmdzM
ljsl;t x'bF h
} fg' k|fs[lts / ;fdfGo xf] .
o;} k]zfdf laut $) aif{bl] v sfo{/t
Pshgf cd]l/sL /lhi68{ g;{ Stella
Mora Henry n] cf}N+ ofPsf] a[4fj:yfsf]
sdhf]/L -la:d[lt nufotsf_ lgDg !)
nIf0fx?sf] -h;nfO{ pgn] /ftf] em08f
cyjf Red flag sf] ;+1f lbPsL 5g\_
klxrfg u/L ;dod} pko'Qm pkfo
ckgfpg] tkm{ ;hu x'g ;Nnfx lbPsL
5g\, tL klxrfg ;fGble{s b]vs
] f]n] oxfF
pNn]v u/]sf] 5',M
-!_ :j x]/rfx k|lt nfk/jfx x'g,'
h:t} skfn gsf]g,'{ bf/L gsf6\g,' d}nf]
sk8f gkm]g,{' lahf]8f n'uf nufpg', PSn}
g'xfpgdf sl7gfO{ x'g,' a]nf s'an
] fc;do_ g'xfpg vf]Hg', lb;f lk;fadfly
lgoGq0f gx'g' .
-@_ cfkm\gf] sf]7fsf] :ofxf/ ;Def/df
a]jf:tf, h:t}M d}nf] 8;gf, l;/s, tGgf
cflb gkm]g{' jf km]g{ grfxg', efF8f sF8' f
kmf]x/ /fVg', ;/ ;kmfO{sf] sfddf c?sf]
dbt lng jf dfUg gvf]Hg' .
-#_ vfgf agfpg, / vfgk|lt
cle?rL 36g,' c?rL a9\g,' c;fdfGo
?kn] zl//sf] jhg 36 a9 x'g,' k:s]sf]

jf lbPsf] vfgf vfg]tkm{ pbfl;g x'g'


cyjf gvfO{ af;L /fVg' .
-$_ :d/0fzlQmsf] IfoLs/0f x'g,'
h:t} 3/sf jf lrg] hfg]sf dflg;sf]
gfd la;{g', Pp6} s'/f af/Daf/
bf]xf]ofpg', ;fdfg /fv]sf] 7fpF la;{g'
jf hyfefjL /fVg', tTsfnsf s'/fsf]
x]Ssf g/xg' .
-%_ ;~rf/, ;Dafbdf sl7gfO{ x'g,'
s'/f ug{ vf]Hbf pko'Qm zJb gkfpg'
cyjf pRrf/0f ug{ g;Sg', /fd|f] ;+u
cIf/ n]Vg g;Sg' jf n]vs
] f] ga'lemg]
x'bF } hfg', gofF s'/f hfGg] pT;'stf jf
cle?rL 36\b} hfg', / kfPsf ;'rgf jf
hfgsf/Lsf] ;Demgf /fVg g;Sg' .
-^_ lxF88'n ug{df sl7gfO{ / zl//
n'nf] x'g,' n/vl/P/ lxF8g', a/fa/ n8\g,'
l;F9L jf e/\of+u pSng g;Sg', zfl/l/s
;Gt'ng sfod /fVg g;Sg' .
-&_ dfgl;s lalIfKttf h:t} lagf
sfd a]cy{sf s'/fdf ems{g] / l/;fpg]
:jefjsf] lasf; x'g' cfkm\gf ;fyL,
;+uftL k|ltsf] cle?rL 36\g,' kfl/jfl/s
/dfOnf jf hd36af6 k/} a:g' jf
kG5g' .
-*_dfgl;s la:d[lt a9\b} hfg',
h:t} vfg'kg]{ cf}iflw vfg la;{g',
cf}iflwsf] dfqf vfg] ;dosf] x]Ssf g/xg',
cf}iflwsf] dfqf 36 a9 ug{,' jf l6kf]6
ug{ la;{g' .
-(_ lx;fa lstfj, n]gb]gsf s'/f
k|lt a]jf:tf ug{' st} /sd nufgL u/]sf]
;fk6L lbPsf], lkmtf{ cfPsf], a}s
+ df
art /sd, r]s sf6]sf] lems]sf] cflbsf]
;Demgf gx'g,' .
-!)_ ;jf/L ;fwg xfFSg] u/]sf] eP
utLdf lgoGq0f /fVg g;Sg', df]8g\ /
kfls{u+ ug{ sl7gfO{ x'g,' , ;jf/L lgod
a/fa/ pNn+3g ug{,' uf8L sf]l/Psf],
st} 3l;|Psf] cflb ;Demgf g/xg' cflb .
a[4fj:yf;Fu hf]l8Psf o:tf
;d:ofx? g]kfnL kl/j]zdf klg
cfw'lgstf ;} ;+oQ' m kl/jf/ k|0ffnLaf6
qmdzM ;fgf] tyf l;ldt kfl/jfl/s
9f+rf (necleus family structure)
tkm{ pGd'v xfd|f] ;dfhdf cem Wofg
lbg' kg]{ ePsf] 5 . qmdzM a'9o\ f}nLlt/
nDsb} u/]sf] g]kfnL lk+9Ln] lautdf
/fi6sf nflu u/]sf] ;]jf tyf of]ubfgsf]
sb/ ug'{ h?/L /x]sf] af]w xfnsf lbgdf
cfP/ ;fdfGo gful/s tyf ;/sf/nfO{
x'bF } uPsf] kfOPsf] 5 . tyflk, g]kfnsf]
;Gbe{df af+sL lhjg ;Ddflgt ?kdf
s;}sf] bof jf s[kfsf e/df ge} cfk\mg}
kf}/v, lglh art, lga[Qe/0f jf cGo
s'g} e/kbf]{ t/ l;ldt cfo>f]t ePsf
Ho]i7 gful/ssf nflu ;'ljwf ;DkGg
cfjf; Joj:yfsf] vfFrf] 68\sf/f] ?kdf
dx;'; e} To;tkm{ ePsf l;ldt k|of;
g]kfnsf] ;fdflhs kl/j]z, cfly{s

l:ylt, tyf ;+:s[lt cflbsf sf/0fn]


Tolt ;kmn ePsf] kfOPsf] 5}g .
xfn;Dd g]kfnL ;dfhdf a[4f>d
eGg] lalQs} laleGg sf/0fn] 5f]/f 5f]/L
jf gft]bf/af6 ckx]lnt jf 3/af6
lgisfl;t a[4 a[4fsf cf>o :ynsf]
?kdf a' l emg] ul/G5 . g] k fndf
k/Dk/fut a[4f>deGbf cln km/s
9fFrfdf k/f]ksf/ ;+:yf, lglh u'7Laf6
lgld{t tyf ;~rflnt a[4f>dx?sf
klg cfcfkm\g} Oltxf; / syf 5g\,
ltgsf] laj]rgf o; n]vsf] p2]Zo xf]Og .
o; kl/k|I] fdf g]kfn ;/sf/n] lgwf{/0f
u/]sf] cjsf;sf] pd]/ %* jf ;f]eGbf
dflysf] pd]/sf Ho]i7 gful/sn] klg
qmdzM kl/jt{g x'b+ ] uPsf] ;fdflhs
;+/rgfsf] kl/j]zdf c;'/Iff tyf
Psflskgsf] dx;'; ug'{ s'g} cgf}7f]
s'/f /x]g . o; abln+bf] kl/l:yltdf
Ho]i7 gful/s h:n] cfkm\gf] af+sL lhjg
cfly{s >f]tsf] cefjsf sf/0fn] ge}
cGo abln+bf] ef}lts / ;fdflhs
kl/j]z, lhjg z}nL cflbsf sf/0f
;'ljwfsf ;fy latfpg s7Lg x'bF } uPsf]
cj:yfaf6 /fxt lbg ;lqmo Ho]i7
gful/s cfjf; ;'ljwf b]lv pd]/ a[l4sf]
qmd;+u} cfjZos kg]{ ef}lts tyf
dfgl;s lrlsT;f ;'lawfsf] qmdzM
lj:tf/ ub]{ nUg]ul/ a[4 a[4f cfjf;
Joj:yfsf] qmd z'?ug{ lanDa eO;s]sf]
cg'ej d]/f] dfq ge} w]/h
} gf;+usf]
cGt/lqmofdf d}n] kfPsf] 5' .
Ho]i7 gful/sx?aLr cfk'mn] b]z
tyf ;dfhsf nflu cem} of]ubfg lbg
;Ifd /x]sf] cfTd laZjf; sfod /fvL
pgLx?nfO{ Psflskgfsf sf/0fn]
ljsl;t x'g ;Sg] /f]u, lrGtf, c;'/Iff
cflbaf6 d'Qm /fvL :jR5 tyf v'nf
aftfj/0fdf :j]lR5s ?kn] a;f]jf;sf]
Joj:yf ldnfpg lgtfGt h?/L e};s]sf]
kl/k|I] fdf :j:Yo tyf laleGg /f]usf]
nIf0f b]vf k/]sf jf /f]u u|l;t a[4
a[4fsf cfjZostfsf] klxrfg u/L ltgsf]
plrt :ofxf/ ;';f/ ug]{ ef}lts ;'ljwf
o'Qm cfjf;sf] lgdf{0f tyf ltgsf]
;~rfng ug{ cfjZos bIf hgzlQm
tof/ ug]t{ km{ ;/sf/, ;fdflhs ;+:yf,
lglh If]q, / ;fd'bflos g]tT[ j ju{ ;a}n]
ulDe/tfk'js
{ cfcfkm\gf] If]qaf6 ;Sbf]
of]ubfg lbP/ b]zsf a[4 a[4fn] ;;Ddfg
afFRg kfpg] aftfj/0fsf] ljsf; tyf
;Da4{g ug]t{ km{ ulDe/tfk'js
{ nfUg l9nf
e};s]sf] 5 . To:tf cfjf; ;'ljwfsf]
ljsf; / ;~rfng ubf{ pkef]ustf{x?sf]
cfly{s Ifdtf, k]zfut bIftf tyf ?rL,
cfjZostf kg]{ cfly{s tyf j:t'ut
;xfotf jf cg'bfgsf] dfq jf kl/df0fsf]
olsg u/L :yflgo ;d'bfo tyf
aftfj/0fsf] ;+/If0f tyf ljsf;df ;d]t
of]ubfg k'Ug;Sg] k|sf/sf cg';Gwfg tyf
k/LIf0fsf gd"gfsf] ljsf;nfO{ k|fyldstf
lbg' ;d]t h?/L b]lvPsf] 5 .

ljhof bzdL @)^(


sf] k'gLt pknIodf ;Dk"0f{ b]zaf;Lx?df ;'v, zflGt /
;d[l4sf] xflb{s dndo z'esfdgf JoQm ub{5f}F .
Quality Education is Our Comiment

Niraj Neupane
Managine Director

ELITE EDUCATIONAL ACADEMY


Sorhakhutte, Kathmandu
Ph: 01-4387621

b'Uw ljsf; ;+:yfgaf6 pTkflbg b"w bxL,


o", rLh, klg/, dVvgnufot b'Uw
kbfy{xsf] k|of]u ug]{ afgL a;fnf}F .

a8fbz}F @)^( sf] kfjg cj;/df xfd|f


;d:t u|fxsju{df ;'v, zflGt,
;':jf:Yo, bL3f{o' Pj+ ;kmntfsf] xflb{s
dndo z'esfdgf JoQm ub+5
{ f}F .

b'Uw ljsf; ;+:yfg of]hgf


n}grf]/, sf7df8f}F

g]kfn 6]lnsd kl/jf/

e"sDk Ps 8/nfUbf] b}jL k|sf]k


sNkgf bfn
k[YjLsf] leqL efudf lg/Gt/ xnrn x'g] ub{5, h;n] ubf{ k[YjLsf] aflx/L
efudf /x]sf rfgsf 7"N7"nf rfSnfx? Psfk;df sl;g uO{ ltgdf hDdf x'g
uPsf] zlQm PSsf;L aflx/ km}ngfn] k}bf x'g] sDkg g} e"Or
+{ fnf] xf] . e'ue{ leq
xnrn cfpg] b'O{ j6f sf/0fx? x'G5g\ . Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6sf sf/0f k[YjLsf]
lelq efudf /x]sf nfef / cGo t/n kbf{y jflx/ lg:sbf pQm vfnL 7fpFdf
t/n kbf{yx? ;~rf/ x'bF f pTkGg x'g] xnrnn] e"sDk hfg ;S5 . To:t} k[YjL
leq /x]sf 6]S6f]gLs Kn]6x? Ps cfk;df 7f]SsLbf sDkg pTkGg eO{ e'sDk
hfg] ub{5 . t/ g]kfndf Hjfnfd'vL lj:kmf]6sf sf/0f cfpg ;Sg] e'sDksf]
;Defjgf 5}g . e'ue{ ljb\x?sf cg';f/ g]kfnL e'ld b'Oj{ 6f 6]S6f]lgs Kn]6x?
dfyL /x]sf] 5 . ltJjtL 6]S6f]gLs Kn]6 / OlG8og 6]S6f]lgs Kn]6 hf]l8P/ /x]sf]
efudf g]kfn kb{5 / oL b'j{ 6f Kn]6x? cfk;df Ps csf{kl| t cfs{lift eO/x]sfn]
g]kfnnfO{ e'sDkLo hf]lvdo'Qm d'ns
' sf ?kdf lrq0f ul/Psf] xf] . g]kfn e'sDk
hf]lvd ePsf ljZjsf d'ns
' x? dWo] !! cf}+F / sf7df08f}+ pkTosf ljZjs}
klxnf] :yfgdf cfpg] cg';Gwfgx?n] b]vfPsf 5g\ . t/ of] hf]lvd e'sDk
cfpg ;Sg] ;Defjgf ePsfn] eGbf ;fdfGo e'sDkn] klg 7'nf] Iflt ug{ ;Sg]
dfgjlgld{t cJojl:yt ;+/rgfx?n] pTkGg u/]sf 5g\ . sf7df08f}+ pkTosfsfdf
g} s]Gb| ljGb' agfP/ e'sDk hfg ;Sg] To:tf] ;Defjgf clxn] ;Ddsf cg';Gwfgn]
b]vfPsf 5}gg\ . O{ltxf;df pNn]v eP cg';f/ sf7df08f}+ pkTosf klxnf
kfgLn] el/Psf] ljzfn vfN8f] lyof] kl5 of] kfgLnfO{ x6fP/ j:tL j;fpg
;'?jft ul/of] . To;}n] oxfFsf] hldg kl5 k'l/Psf] hldg ePsfn] ;fgf] wSsfn]
klg jl9 xNnfpg ;S5 . csf]{ sf/0f ljgfznfO{ cf+sng gu/L ljsf; lgdf{0f
sfo{ / ;x/Ls0f k|lqmof cufl8 a9fpg' klg xf] .
g]kfnsf] e'sDkLo O{ltxf;nfO{ x]bf{ lj=;+= !@%% ;fn, !#!) , !#!^, !$^#,
!&#*, !**), !*() / !(() ;fndf uPsf e'sDkx?n] 7'nf] Iflt k'ofPsf
lyP . lj=;+= !(() ;fn df3 @ ut] *=$ /]S6/ :s]n dfkg ul/Psf] e'sDkn]
g]kfndf * xhf/ eGbf jl9 dflg;sf] Hofg lnPsf] lyof] . Tof] e'sDksf] c;/
;j}eGbf jl9 sf7df08f}+ / k'jL{ t/fO{ If]qdf k/]sf] lyof] . o:t} @)@# ;fn
@)#&, @)$% ;fn / @)^* ;fndf uPsf e'sDkx? klg g]kfnsf cjL:d/0fLo
e"sDkx? x'g\ . @)$% ;fn ebf}+ % ut] uPsf] ^=& /]S6/ :s]nsf] k'jL{ t/fO{sf
em08} & xhf/ 3/x? ljgfz u/]sf] lyof] eg] & ;o dflg;sf] Hofg uPsf]
lyof] . o:t} @)^* ;fn c;f]h ! utsf] e'sDkn] klg 7'nf] ljgfz lgDTofof] .
oL k|sf]kx?df dfgj lgdf{t ;+/rgf eTsLP/ jl9 Iflt ePsf] 5 . To;}n] of]
cj:yfsf] cGTo ug{ ;~rf/sf] ;fxf/fdf cj jGg] gofF ;+/rgfx? k|sf]k hf]lvd
d'Qm jGg' kg]{ s'/f cfd hgdfg;df nfg cfjZos 5 . lj ; !(() ;fndf
uPsf] esDk *=$ /]S6/ :s]nsf] lyof] . pSt esDkdf * xhf/ % ;o !(
hgfn] Hofg udfPsf lyP . h;df sf7df8f} pkTosfsf dfq} $ xhf/ @ ;o
(^ dflg;n] Hofg udfPsf lyP . o; esDkdf ! nfv @^ xhf/ # ;o %%
ef}lts Iflt ePsf] lyof] eg] k"0f{ Iflt *) nfv * ;o (# ePsf] lyof] . pSt
;dodf ;/sf/n] k'g:{ yfgkgf vr{ @ nfv ^ xhf/ % ;o u/]sf] lyof] . esDk
k|ljlw /fli6o ;dfh g]kfn Pg;]6sf cg';f/ () ;fns} hqf] e'sDk clxn]
uPdf x'g ;Sg] Ifltsf] cfFsng lgDgfg;f/ u/]sf] 5 d[To $) xhf/, 3fO{t]
(% xhf/, ejg Iflt ^) k|ltzt, 3/af/ lalxg & nfv, Kf'n Iflt %) k|ltzt,
Aff6f] Iflt !) k|ltzt, Vffg]kflg kfOk Iflt (% k|ltzt, 6]lnkmf]g nfO{g Iflt
^) k|ltzt, laB't nfOgsf] Iflt $) k|ltzt, / laB't ;a:6];g w/} x'g]
cfFsng u/]sf] 5 .
dfyLsf b'O{ j6f tYofssf] t'ngfTds cWoog ubf{ clxn]sf] g]kfnsf]
e"sDkLo hf]lvd :ki6 x'G5 . o;n] csNklgo Ifltsf] ;Defjgf b]vfPsf] 5 .
lj= ;+= !(() ;fnsf] g]kfnL ;dfh / clxn]sf] ;dfhdf w]/} leGgtf cfO{;s]sf]
5 . Toltj]nfsf] ;/n ;dfhdf e"sDksf] Iflt 3/ eTsLP/ x'g] Iflt dfq
lyof] . t/ clxn] k|ljlw / ljsf;n] 7'nf] km8\sf] df/]sf] 5 . ;x/Ls/0f ;uF}
clxn] vfg]kfgLsf] kfO{k nfO{gx?sf] lj:tf/, ljB't ;~hfn, ;8s ;~hfn,
6]lnkmf]g nfO{gx?sf] ;+/rgf lgs} hl6n ePsf 5g\ . ltgsf] ljgfz x'bF f d'ns
'
bzsf}+ k5f8L ws]lng] ;Defjgf t 5b}5
+ lt k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t eP/ hLjg
lgjf{x ug]{ dflg;x?sf] b}lgs hglhljsfdf klg ;+s6 pTkGg x'g] lglZrt 5 .
d'ns
' df ePsf ;~rf/ k|lqmof cj?4 eO{ /fxt / k'g:{ yfkgf sfo{df ;d]t
sl7gfO{ pTkGg x'g ;S5 . ljB't k|;f/0f nfO{gx? Wj:t xFb' f cfunflusf]
;Defjgf t 5b}5
+ ljB't cefjsf sf/0f ePsf pBf]u wGbf ;d]t 7Kk x'g]
vt/f 5 . o;n] Psflt/ cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg jGb eO{ vfWofGg b]lv cGo
cTofj:os j:t'sf] cefj x'g ;S5 eg] csf{lt/ lt pBf]ux?df cf>Lt 7'nf]
hgzlQmsf] b}lgs hLljsf yk s:6s/ jGg ;S5 . vfg]kfgL / ;8s ;~hfnx?df
Iflt k'Ubf cj:yf cem} hl6n jGg] kSsf 5 .
k|fs[lts ljkb\ Go'lgs/0f tyf p4f/ / /fxt sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L jgfpg]
klxnf] bfloTj ;/sf/s} xf] . olx s'/fnfO{ dxTj lbb}+ ;/sf/n] ljleGg P]g
lgodx?sf] th'd{ f u/]sf] 5 . lj+ ;+= @)#( ;fndf NofOPsf] b}lj k|sf]k p4f/
P]g blIf0f Plzofs} klxnf] ljkb\ ;DjGwL P]g xf] . o;} u/L @)%% ;fndf hf/L
ul/Psf] :yflgo zf;g P]gn] ljkb\ hf]lvd Go'lgs/0fsf nflu :yflgo :t/dfg}
o; ;DjGwL tof/L ug{kg]{ s'/f ;d]6s
] f] 5 . ;/sf/n] ejg P]g @)%% /
/fli6o ejg ;+lxtf @)^) hf/L u/]sf] 5 . ejg P]g @)%% nfO{ ;+;f]wg ug{
jg]sf] P]g @)^$ /fhkqdf k|sflzt u/L g]kfnsf %* cf]6} gu/fkflnsfx?
/ P]g nfu' ePsf uf lj=;+= x?df /fli6o ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf @)^) sf]
clgjfo{ sfof{Gjogsf] k|fjwfg ul/Psf] 5 . o:t} ;/sf/n] lj=;+= @)^^
;fndf ljkb\ hf]lvd Joj:yfkg /fli6o /0fgLltsf] th'd{ f u/]sf] 5 . of]
/0fgLldf g]kfndf x'g ;Sg] k|fs[lts k|sf]k, o;sf sf/0f x'g ;Sg] Iflt,
Go'lgs/0fsf nflu ug{ ;lsg] kxn, /fxt, k'g:{ yfkgf / Ifltk'tL{nfO{ Jojl:yt
jgfpg] s'/fx? ;d]l6Psf] 5 . o;nfO{ P]gdf kl/0ft ug]{ kxn ;d]t eO{/x]sf]
atfOPsf] 5 . olx s'/fnfO{ Wofgdf /fVb} 3/ agfpbf clgjfo{ ?kdf gS;f
kf; ug'k{ g],{ O{lGhlgo/sf] k/fdz{ lng'kg]{ h:tf s'/fx?n] k|fyldstf kfpg
yfn]sf 5g\ . gofF ejg hf]lvd /lxt agfpg] t 5b}5
+ k'/fgf ;+/rgfsf] klg
;jnLs/0fsf] cEof; eO{/x]sf] 5 . ;x/Ls/0fnfO{ Joj:yLt jgfpgsf nflu
ejg P]g / ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf klg hf/L u/]sf] 5 . t/ oL gLlt lgodsf]
k|efjsf/L sfo{Gjog x'g g;Sbf ;d:of h:tfsf] To:t} 5 . ;/sf/n] ljkb\
Joj:yfkg /fli6o /0fgLlt @)^^ th'd{ f u/]sf] 5 . o;nfO{ P]gdf jbNg]
elgPklg Tof] ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] k'/fgf P]g lgodsf] ;+zf]wg ub}{ To;sf]
sfof{Gjogdf Wofg lbg cfj:os 5 .
g]kfndf ljkb\ hf]lvd Go'lgs/0fsfnflu w]/} ;:yfx?n] sfd ul//x]sf 5g\ .
t/ w]/} j6f ;:yfn] km/s km/s tl/sfn] sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/]sfn] lt
sfo{qmdaf6 ck]lIft nfe lng ;lsPsf] 5}g . plrt k/fd{zbftf / To;sf]
tof/Lsf nflu cfj:os l;sfO{ ;fdu|Lx?sf] cefj x'bf hf]lvd Go'lgs/0fsf]
cEof; sdhf]/ ePsf] 5 . e"sDk h:tf k|fs[lts ljkb\sf] Ifltsf] ;Defjgf
b]z} e/ eP klg o; ;DjGwL sfo{qmdx? /fhwfgL s]Gb|Lt 5g\ . ;x/L O{nfsfdf
ePsf sfo{qmdx?s} cg'kftdf ufpF txdf klg sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{
;Sg'k5{ . cfd ;r]tLs/0fsf] sfo{qmdnfO{ tNnf]tx;Dd nfg ;Sg'k5{ . hf]lvd
Go'lgs/0f sfo{ t'?Gt} ug{ ;lsg] s'/f xf]Og{ . of] sfo{ r/0fj4 ?kdf cl3
a9fpg k5{ .

/fatOfc t]u *@ hf];c nf; (^)@

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cft+s rfPsf] 5 a]lNhoddf . of] rGbf
cft+s km}lnP/ clxn] o'/f]ksf w]/}
d'ns
' df k'us
] f] 5 . g]skf dfcf]jfbLsf]
hgjlu{o ;+u7g g]kfnL hgk|ultlzn
d~rsf] clwj]zgsf nflu eg]/ d~rn]
cfgf ;+u7g ePsf ;a} b]zdf rGbf
cft+s dRrfPsf] xf] . lgx'F oxL kf/]sf
5g\, xfd|f sfd/]8x? ;+u7g la:tf/
/ clwa]zgdf cfpg nfu]sf 5g\ .
o'/f]kel/g} ;+u7g la:tf/sf nflu
cfpF5g\ . To;sf nflu rGbf rflxof] .
of] dlRrg nfu]sf] sl/a b'O{ ;ftf
cl3b]lv xf] . hgo'4 ubf{ t nf}
hgtfsf] xsclwsf/sf nflu eGb}
rGbf lnP . ;xh} glbg]nfO{ ysf{P,
ysf{pbF f klg gdfg] nf6n'6 klg kf/]
xf]nfg\ . ljb]zdf cfPkl5 klg g]kfnLn]
;'v gkfpg] < a]lNhodsf] g]kfnL
;d'bfo oltv]/ rGbf cft+sn] q:t
5 . sf]xL rGbf dfU5g\ eg]/ n'ss
] f
5g\ . sf]xL rGbfsf nflu kmf]g cfpF5
eg]/ kmf]gsf] :jLr ckm u/]sf 5g\ .
rGbf dfUg] z}nL klg pxL uf]/vfnL
kf/fs} 5 . s]xf] sfd/]8 xfd|f] cWoIf
cfpFbf klg clncln ;xof]u ug{
kb}g{ < xfdLnfO{ rflxF ;xof]u g} gug{]
s] xf] < xfdL s] rflxFbg} f}+ / < o:t}
3'dfp/f] wDsLsf] z}nL ckgfPsf
5g\ . hgk|ultzLn d~rsf sfo{stf{
oltv]/ clwj]zgdf eft v'jfpg' k5{
g]tf 3'dfpg' k5{ eGb} 3/3/} k'Ug]
u/]sf 5g\ . rGbf p7fpg cfly{s
;ldlt eGb} pgLx?sf] !)! hgfsf]
;ldlt ag]sf] 5 . ltgsf] sfd
g]kfnLsf k;nk;n hfg] / oltn]
x' G g eGb} hah{ : tL ug{ ] xf] .
Jofkf/Lx?n] ;/ d]/f] t clxn]
sdfOg} 5}g eGbfeGb} klg ltgn]
olt t lbg} k5{ eGb} hah{:tL /l;b
le8fpg] u/]sf] Jofks u'gf;f] 5 .
lsg hah{:tL lbg' x'G5 t < eg]/
;f]Wof] eg] xfdL rflxGgf}F slxNo} <
xfdLnfO{ rflxF glbg] < eg] /
ysf{p5
F g\ . s] yfxf ;/ km]l/ sf/afxL
ug{] x'g\ ls Pslbg s]lxn] o:tf]
hjfkm lbG5g\ .a]lNhodsf k;n /
g]kfnL /]:6'/G] 6x? ltgn] s'g} la/fPsf
5}g . rGbf p7fpg pgLx?n] ;;fgf
6f]nLg} agfPsf 5g\ . uf8L x'gx] ?nfO{

tkfOsf] uf8L olt lbgnfO{ rflxG5,


of] lbg of] ;fFem rflxG5, kmnfgf
kmnfgf dfG5] lng hfg] tkfO{+sf]
uf8Ldf xf], of] of] ;fdfg o;/L tkfO{s
+ f]
uf8Laf6 cf] ; g] { xf] eGb} pbL{
nufO/x]sf 5g\ . sltko t o:tf
sfo{stf{ v6fPsf 5g\ ls ltgn] xfs}
eft v'jfpg' kof] lg ;/ . Toqf]
g]tf cfPsf] a]nf vfglkgsf] Joj:yf
ug}{ kof], o;f] o'/f]k klg 3'dfOlbg}
kof] Sof/] eGb} rGbf dflu/x]sf 5g\ .
Tolt dfq} xf]Og, a]lNhodsf sltko
g]kfnLx?nfO{ pgLx?n] clwj]zgsf]
cl3Nnf] lbg / clwj]zg x'g] lbg
oxL cS6f]a/ !$ tfl/vsf lbg
sfdaf6 labf lng elg/x]sf 5g\ .
a]lNhodsf sfo{stf{x? w]/}n] To;
lbg k|r08 6f]nLnfO{ b]vfpg labf
lnP/ a;]sf 5g\ .
b] z clg0f{ o sf] aGbL, sfd/] 8 L
8k\ m kmf o' / f] k e| d 0fdf
d"ntM PsLs[t g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf]
sf/0f oltv]/ d'ns
' clg0f{osf] aGbL
ag]sf] 5 . b]zdf ;+ljwfg 5}g . cfkm}n
F ]
;+ljwfg;efsf] ;'uf /6fO{ u/]/ NofPsf]
;+ljwfg;ef e u/fP 8f afa'/fd
e6/fO{n] . Tof] klg ;'6S' s . ltg}sf]
kf6L{ cWoIf k|r08 oltv]/ o'/f]kdf
;o/ ub}{ 5g\, 3'd3fd, /dfOnf] .
nfU5, d'ns
' df s'g} sl7gfO{ g} 5}g .
d'ns
' xfO;~rf]df a;]sf] 5 . gful/s
;'vL 5g\ . bzs nfdf] o'4 ug{ hgtfsf
5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ prfn]/ cGttM pgn]
;'vsf lbg NofP / clxn] ;Gtf]ifsf]
;f; km]g{ ljb]z e|d0f lg:s]sf 5g\ .
ljb]z e|d0fdf pgL PSnf 5}gg\ .
NofPsf 5g\ kf6L{sf cGo s]lGb|o
;b:o;d]t . k|Zg p7\5, ljb]zdf
vf]lnPsf] eft[ ;+u7gsf] clwj]zgdf
s] b]zsf] d"n kf6L{sf] cWoIf;lxt s]xL
sfo{stf{sf] 6f]nL cfpg' k5{ < b]zdf
oltv]/ d'Vo kj{sf] a]nf 5 . hgtf
lrgL / lk7f];Dd ;xh tl/sfn] gkfP/
:yfgLo ?kd} lklN;Psf 5g\ . /fli6o
?kdf d'ns
' aGbL 5 . cfhs} ef]ln
sxfF s] x'g] xf] e/ 5}g . k|wfgdGqL
s'g} ljsNk gePem}F bLgb'MvLsf
6fpsfdf s6afF;sf nf7L 7f]s/] tx

nufpg pBt 5g\ . /fli6o ;/sf/sf]


xNnf rn]sf] w]/} eof] . b]zn] lgsf;
kfPsf] 5}g . hghfltsf ;d:of e'u\ f| ]
em}F k/]/ a;]sf] 5 / Tof] e'u\ f| s
] f] d"n
;d:of log} k|r08 lyP . o:tf] a]nf
pgL kf6L{ s f] hgjuL{ o ;+ u 7g
hgk|ultzLn d~rsf] clwj]zgdf
cfPsf 5g\ . of] slt;Dd ;'xfpg] s'/f]
xf] < s] ljb]zsf] Pp6f hgjuL{o
;+u7gsf] clwj]zgnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{
kf6L{ cWoIfg} cfpg' k5{ <
lsg b' V of] k| r 08sf] 6fpsf] <
k|r08 lxhf] cfpgf;fy 6fpsf]
b'Vof], Hj/f] cfof] eGb} g]kfnL b"tfjf;
a|;N] ;df cf/fd u/] . hgtfsf xhf/f}F
5f]/f5f]/Lsf] xTofsf] sf/0f pg} lyP .
b]z / hgtfsf] d'lSt ug{] eGb}
xf]ldPsf ltgsf] clxn] laNnLaf7
ePsf] 5 . d'lSt k|r08, afa'/fd /
s]xL pgsf lgs6sf] t eof] . t/
b] z emg} /;ftndf efl;of] .
hghfltx?nfO{ klxn] k"/} hflt lkR5]
/fHo lbg] eg] . kl5 cfP/ nf}
hftLo /fHo lbg gx'g] /x]5 eg]/
nf]Kjf rvfP . of] ;a} ultljlwn]
hghfltnufot w]/} hgtf lrl9Psf
5g\ . s]xL b]zaf6 k|r08l;t of]
ljifodf /:;fs:;L ug{ ] eGb}
hghfltsf g] t f, sfo{ s tf{ klg
a]lNhod k'Ub} 5g\ . g]kfnL hghflt
dxf;+3 a]lNhodn] klg k|r08sf]
jf:tljs wf/0ff / kf6L{ gLlt s] xf]
hghfltsf dfu ;DaGwdf eg]/ l;wf
/ k|:6 hjfkm dfUg 5nkmn ug]{
of]hgf agfPsf] 5 . lsgeg] k|r08
hghfltsf dfudf :ki6 5}gg\ eGg]
pgLx?sf] a'emfO{ 5 . o;n] klg
k|r08sf] 6fpsf] vfPsf] 5 . To;}ul/,
k|r08n] o'/f]k]nL kl/ifb\df g]kfnsf]
kl5Nnf] 36gfqmdaf/] ;Daf]wg ug{]
eg]sf 5g\ . o'/f]k]nL ;/sf/sf
k|ltlglwx?n] g]kfndf ;+ljwfg;ef
e ePsf], pgn] kf6L{nfO{ Ps l9Ssf
/fv]/ zflGtdfu{df Nofpg ljZjf;
lbnfpg g;s]sf], hg;]gf y'k}| aflx/
lxF8]sf], afa'/fd ;/sf/sf] ljsNk
lbg g;s]sf] nufotsf ljifodf k|Zg
p7fpg vf]h]sf 5g\ . dfgjclwsf/

pNn+3sf] ljifo klg pgLx?n] cjZo}


p7fpg] 5g\ . pgsf] 6fpsf] b'vfO{sf]
csf]{ ljifo xf], clxn]sf] hl6n
kl/l:yltsf] d'Vo sf/s k|r08nfO
b] v fpF b } s] x L a' l 4hLlj, n] v s,
kqsf/, dfgjclwsf/sdL{ x ?n]
o'/f]k]nL kl/ifbdf la/f]w kq k7fpFb}
5g\ . o;n] klg k|r08sf] 6fpsf]
vfg] 5 . rf}tkmL{ la/f]w / ;d:o}
;d:of k/]sfn] k|r08sf] 6fpsf]
vfPsf] 5 .
s;n] ltg{] hDaf] 6f]nLsf] e|d0f
vr{ <
k|r08n] cfgf] e|d0f eJo agfpg
kf6L{sf ljb]z ljefu k|d'v /fd
sfsL{nfO{ s]xL lbg cufj} o'/f]k k7fPsf
lyP . sfsL{ cfPkl5 km]l/ rf/hgf
ylkP . ljb]z ljefu x]g{] ePsf]n] /fd
sfsL{n] o'/f]kdf /x]sf cfgf hgjuL{o
;+u7gsf] lj:tf/df Wofg lbg] 5g\ .
hgk|ultzLn d~rsf sfo{stf{nfO{
a]lNhoddf Ps;/f] k|lzIf0f lbP . ca
o'/f]ksf s]xL d'ns
' df uP/ lbg] of]hgf
5 . t/ k|Zg p7\5, of] ;a} hDaf]
6f] n Lsf] vr{ s;n] Aoxf] 5 { <
a]lNhodsf] hgk|ultzLn d~rn]
Aoxf]5{ elgg] xf] eg] clwj]zgd} eft
v'jfpg' kof] eGb} rGbf cft+s
dlRrPsf] 5 . s]lxn] of] k};f ;/sf/sf
gfddf xflnG5, k| w fgdGqLn]
Aoxf]l/lbG5g\ ;/sf/sf tkm{af6
eg]sf 5g\ . of] vf]Hg] lhDdf g]kfnsf
ldl8ofx?sf] . s] eGnfg\ lab]zLn] <
b]zsf] ;/sf/ rnfpg] kf6L{sf] cWoIf .
k|wfgdGqL e};s]sf AolSt . cfk"m
/fi6klt aGg d'ns
' nfO{ b'Or
{ f/ dlxgf
a? alGbg} /fVg ;Sg] kfq . b]zs}
/fhgLltsf] d'Vo s]Gb| klg eG5g\ .
s] o:tf] AolSt cfP/ kf6L{sf] hgjuL{o
;+u7gdf /fhgLlts efif0f lbg
ldNYof] < a]lNhod h:tf] b]zdf cfP/
Tof] :t/sf] AolStn] ;Daf]wg ug{] xf] <
cfgf] d'ns
' df cfP/ o;/L /fhgLlts
efif0f lbFbf a]lNhog ;/sf/n] s]
;f]Rnf < s'g b[li6sf]0fn] x]nf{ < cfg}
d'ns
' df hgtf pg}sf sf/0fn] ubf{
t8\ l kPsf 5g\ lab] z df cfP/
/fhgLlts cfZjfzg lbg' slt plrt
xf]nf kf6L{ cWoIfn]g} <
g]kfnKn; cgnfOgaf6

g]kfn l8l:6n/Laf6 cGtz'Ns 5nL kL8LkLsf] C0f ;xof]u lkmtf{ hfg]

sf7df8f}F . cGtl/s /fh:j ljefu


afnfh' s/bftf ;]jf sfof{noaf6
vl6Psf] 6f]lnn] u/]sf] cfsl:ds
lg/LIf0fsf qmddf g]kfn l8li6n/L
sDkgLn] s/f}8f}F ?k}ofFsf] cGtz'Ns 5nL
u/]sf] v'nf;f ePsf] 5 . pSt sDkgLn]
sl/j ^ s/f]8 ?lkofF /fh:j 5nL u/]sf]
kfOPsf] 5 . cfGtl/s /fh:j ljefu
;|ft] sf cg';f/ c;f]h !& ut] ePsf]
cfsl:ds lg/LIf0fsf qmddf pSt
sDkgLn] sl/j @$ xhf/ ln6/ l:k|6
n'sfO/fv]sf] cj:yfdf e]l6Psf] 5 .
l:k|6 dlb/f agfpg k|of]u ul/G5 .
ljefu ;|ft] sf cg';f/ pSt kl/df0fsf]
l:k|6 cfoft u/]jfkt g]kfn l8li6n/Ln]
cGtz'Ns lt/]sf] kfOPsf] 5}g .
cg'udgsf qmddf To;;Fu ;DalGwt
s'g} sfuhft km]nf gk/]sf] ;|ft] sf] egfO
5 . ;|ft] sf cg';f/ ljefusf] k|f/lDes
cg';Gwfgsf qmddf pSt l:k|6sf] d"No
emG8} $ s/f]8 / To;otfsf] hl/jfgf
/ Aofh;d]t u/L em08} ^ s/f]8 ?k}ofF
k'us
] f] 5 . p;n] clxn] dfq} cGtz'Ns
5n]sf] xf] jf ljutdf klg o:tf] sfd
ePsf] lyof] To; laifodf klg 5fgljg
cfjZos b]lvPsf] ljefusf Ps
clwsf/Ln] atfP . ljefus} csf{ Ps
clwsf/Lsf cg';f/ g]kfn l8l:6n/Lsf
tkm{af6 xfn sdhf]/L n'sfpg 7"n}
rnv]n eO/x]sf] 5 . oxL rnv]nsf
sf/0f cg';Gwfg g} t'xfpg] sfd ;d]t
x'g ;Sg] ;Defjgf /x]sf] tL clwsf/Ln]
atfP . ljefusf] afnfh'l:yt s/bftf
;]jf sfof{nosf] 6f]nLn] cg'udgu/L
tTsf{ pSt kl/df0fsf] l:k|6 l;naGbL
u/]sf] lyof] . 6f]nLsf Ps ;b:o Pj+
pSt sfof{nosf cGtz'Ns clws[t
uf]ljGb cfrfo{n] cfk"mx?n] lg/LIf0f
u/]kZrft s]xL z+sf:kb ultljlw
b]lvPsf]n] To;sf] 5fgljgsf nflu

ljefusf] # gDj/ s/ sfof{nodf


k7fOPsf] atfP . cfGtl/s /fh:j
ljefucGtu{tsf] # gDa/ s/ sfof{nsf
k|dv
' /fddl0f b'jf8Ln] g]kfn l8l:6n/Ln]
l:k|6sf] cfoftdf cGtz'Ns 5nL u/]sf]
eGg] ljifodf cWoog cg';Gwfg
eO/x]sf]n] o; af/]df yk s]xL eGg
g;lsg] atfP . s/bftf ;] j f
sfof{nosf] l;kmfl/;df xfn pSt
ljifonfO{ xfdLn] x]g{ yfn]sf] xf},F pgn]
eg] -o; ljifodf yk cWoog
eO/x]sf]n] clxn] g} s]xL eGg ;lsFbg} .
pSt sfof{no ;|ft] sf cg';f/ cj}w
?kdf cfoft ul/Psf] e]l6Psf] l:k|6sf]
u'0f:t/ hfFrsf nflu eG;f/ ljefu
k7fOPsf] lyof] . ljefun] To;sf]
u'0f:t/ hfFr u/L s/ sfof{nodf
l/kf]6;{ d]t k7fO;s]sf] eP klg To;sf]
u'0f:t/sf] cj:yf s] 5 Tof] v'nfOPsf]
5}g . g]kfndf aif}b+{ l] v dlb/fsf] s/f]jf/
ub}{ cfPsf] g]kfn l8li6n/Lsf] k|jGw
lgb]z
{ s cflbTo snf]O{ / dxfk|aGws
s]= s]= r'l8jfnf b'j} ef/tLo gful/s
ePsf] a'lemPsf] 5 . cfGtl/s /fh:j
sfof{no ;|ft] sf cg';f/ g]kfn l8li6n/L
k]o kbfy{tkm{ ;a}eGbf a9L s/ ltg{]
sDkgL xf] . p;n] lnlSj8x? pTkfbg
ug]x{ ?af6 p7\g] s'n /fh:jdWo] em08}
%) k|ltzt lx:;f / afFsL %) k|ltzt
cGon] ltg{] u/]sf] ;|ft] n] atfof] .
dlb/ftkm{ ;a}eGbf 7"nf] s/bftfsf]
?kdf /x]sf] pSt sDkgLn] o;/L
cGtz'Ns g} 5nL unf{ eGg] nfu]sf]
lyPg, ljefusf Ps clwsf/Ln] eg]
t/ a9L ljZjf; ul/Ps} sf/0f p;n]
To;sf] kmfObf p7fPsf] klg x'g ;S5 .
dlb/fdf pRr?kdf cGt z'Ns / d"No
clej[l4s/ nfUg] ub{5 . oxL sf/0f
o:tf] sf/f]jf/df a]nfavt /fh:j
5nLsf 36gf bf]xf]l/g] u/]sf] 5 .

sf7df8f}F . pmhf{ ljsf; of]hgf kL8LkL_ cGtu{t x]6f}F8fe/tk'/


ab{3f6 / bdssfj]nL sl/8f]/df
k|;f/0fnfOg agfpg ljZj a}s
+ n]
g]kfnnfO{ lbPsf] sl/a ^ ca{ #)
s/f]8 ?k}ofF vr{ gePkl5 lkmtf{ hfg]
ePsf] 5 . a}+sn] k|;f/0fnfOg
agfpg of] C0f ;xof]u u/]sf] lyof] .
a}s
+ sf sG6L Dofg]h/ tl;g k|mo] bn]
cy{;lrj s[i0fxl/ afF:sf]6fnfO{ kqfrf/
u/L k';
' !^ ;Dd sfd g;lsP /sd
lkmtf{ n}hfg] hfgsf/L u/fPsf 5g\ .
6fj/ /fVg] sfd} ;'? gePsfn] afFsL
tLg dlxgfdf k|;f/0fnfOgsf ;a} sfd
;lsg] ;Defjgf 5}g . ;Demf}tfcg';f/
ab{3f6e/tk'/x]6f}F8f ! ;o $%
lsnf]ld6/ nfdf] @ ;o @) s]eL /
emfkfsf] bdsb]lv kfFry/sf]sfj]nL
!#@ s]eL Ifdtfsf] () lsnf]ld6/
nfdf] k|;f/0fnfOg agfpg] of]hgf 5 .
a}s
+ n] sfd ug{ g;s]/ /sd lkmtf{
n}hfg] ePkl5 oL cfof]hgf k|efljt
x'g] ePsf 5g\ . g]kfnaf6 of] /sd
vr{ x'g g;s]kl5 a}s
+ n] of] /sd
cGo b]zsf] cfof]hgfdf nufgL ug{5
] .
ljB't\ k|flws/0fn] x]6f}8F fe/tk'/ @@)
s]eL k|;f/0fnfOg ut cfly{s jif{ /
e/tk'/ab{3f6 oxL jif{ agfO;Sg]
nIo lnPsf] lyof] . To:t}, sfj]nL
sl/8f]/df cfufdL cfly{s jif{;Dd
k|;f/0fnfOg ;Sg] of]hgf p;sf] 5 .
oL xfn oL cfof]hgfsf k|f/lDes sfd
dfq eO/x]sf 5g\ . jg, jftfj/0f /
hUuf k|flKtdf ;d:of cfPkl5 ;dod}
k|;f/0fnfOgsf sfd g;lsPsf] ;Da4
cfof]hgf k|dv
' n] atfPsf 5g\ . cem}
hUuf k|flKtdf ;d:of /x]sfn] sfd cl3
a9fpg l9nfO ePsf] 5, e/tk'/
ab{3f6 cfof]hgf k|dv
' ;'jf;s'df/

ld>n] eg], cfof]hgfsf nflu l8hfOg


:jLs[t eO;s]sf] 5, d+l;/b]lv sfd
yfNg] of]hgf 5 . k|;f/0fnfOg agfpg
;]G6n rfOgf kfj/lu|8 skf]/{ ;
] gn]
pks/0f Nofpg yfln;s]sf] pgn]
atfP . sfj]nL sl/8f]/df klg hUuf
k|flKtsf] ;d:of ePsfn] l9nfO ePsf]
cfof]hgf k|dv
' Zofd >]i7n] atfP .
pgsf cg';f/ of] k|;f/0fnfOg agfpg
Ps jif{cl3 g} ef/tsf] hfujf/
cf]e/l;hn] 7]Ssf kfO;s]sf] 5 .
sfnLu08sL P, dWod:of{\bL /
d:of{b\ L cfof]hgfaf6 pTkfbg x'g]
lah'nL k"j{ k7fpg k|flws/0fn] ab{3f6
e/tk'/x]6f}8F f k|;f/0fnfOg agfpg
yfn]sf] xf] . e/tk'/x]6f}8+ fsf] !#@ s]eL
k|;f/0fnfOg ;fgf] ePsf sf/0f
klZrdaf6 k"js
{ f lah'nL cfk"lt{ ug{
;d:of x'bF } cfPsf] 5 . 7"nf] Ifdtfsf]
k|;f/0fnfOg cefjn] sfnLu08sL /
d:of{b\ L cfof]hgfaf6 pTkfbg x'g]
lah'nL v]/ hfg] u/]sf] 5 . k"jd{ f klg
k|;f/0fnfOgsf] ;d:of a9]kl5
k|flws/0fn] sfj]nLsf cltl/St sf];L
sl/8f]/df k|;f/0fnfOg agfpg] tof/L
u/]sf] 5 . b}lgs !^ 306f;Dd
nf]8;]l8 ePkl5 ;/sf/n] @)^% df
NofPsf] #% a'bF ] sfo{of]hgfdf tTsfn
tLg k|;f/0fnfOgsf] sfd yfNg] pNn]v
lyof] . C0f ;Demf}tf /2 eP klg
Pl8;gn kmfOgflG; zLif{saf6 of] /sd
vr{ ug{ kfOg] pmhf{ dGqfnosf Ps
clwsf/L atfpF5g\ . of] ;Demf}tf /2
geP of] /sd cGo b]z hfg] pgsf] ts{
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;+zf]wgjfb, cfw'lgs ;+zf]wgjfb,
gj;+zf]wgjfb k|ltqmflGtsf] af6f] x'bF }
k|ltlqmofjfbLsf kdf ktg x'g
k'u]sf] 5 . o;sf] hGd cfw'lgs
;dfhsf] juL{o kl/j]zdf x'G5 . of]
;+zf]wgjfb cGt/f{li6o kl/36gf
ePsfn] x/] s b] z df qmflGtsf
ljz]iftf;Fu} ;+zf]wgjfbn] cfkm\gf
ljlzi6tfx hfx] / ug{ ] ub{ 5 .
;fdflhs
/
;} 4 flGts
ljz]iftfx;lxt ;+zf]wgjfbsf] hGd
x'g] ub{5 .
;+zf]wgjfbn] dfS;{jfbsf ;+36s
c+usf] af/]df bz{g, /fhgLlts /
;dfhjfb tLgj6} ;+36s c+unfO{
;+zf]lwt Pj+ ljs[t kfb{} cfpg] sfd
u/]sf] 5 . bz{gsf If]qdf sf06jfb,
k| T oIfjfb,
cg' e jjfb,
Jojxfl/stfjfb, ;+sNkjfb, eF8'jf
ljsf;jfb / gfgfyl/sf ljrf/kGyL
;f/;+ux| jfbnfO{ cfTd;ft ub{} cfPsf]
5 . GfTds Pj+ P] l txfl;s
ef}ltsjfbsf lj?4 o;n] clwe"tjfb
/ cfbz{jfbsf] kIfkf]if0f ub{5 .
/fhgLlts cy{ z f:qsf] If] q df
k"h
F LjfbL ;+s6 tyf d"Nol;4fGtsf]
lj/f]w ug',{ ;fd|fHojfbnfO{ k|ultzLn
b]Vg', lgof]lht cy{tGqsf lj?4
c/fhs, :jtM :km"t{jfbL pTkfbs
zlQmsf] l;4fGt c+ufNg' o;sf d"ne"t
l;4fGt x'g\ . ;dfhjfbsf] If]qdf o;n]
ju{ ;+3if{, ;j{xf/f clwgfosTj /
lx+;fk"0f{ qmflGtsf] l;4fGtsf lj?4
ju{;dGjo, k"h
F LjfbL clwgfosTj /
zflGtk" 0 f{ ;+ q md0fsf] l;4fGt
cjnDag ub{ 5 / dhb" /
cfGbf]ngnfO{ ;'wf/jfbL ;+;b\jfbL
ef;df km;fpg' o;sf d" n e" t
ljz]iftf x'g\ .
dfS;{jfb Oltxf; lj1fgsf]
dxfg vf]h lyof] . ju{;3+ if{sf] ;j{xf/f
clwgfosTjdf ljsf; / ;fDojfbsf]
:yfkgf To;sf] vf]hsf] s]Gb|Lo s8L

sf= lh= k|= sf= b= g+= !^#@)^#^$


;j{xf/fju{sf] clwgfosTj lyof] . ;a}
vfn] ;+zf]wgjfbLxn] dfS;{jfb To;}
s]Gb|Lo s8Ldfly k|xf/ ub{} cfPsf
5g\ . cfw'lgs ;+zf]wgjfbsf] ;"qkft
d'VotM v'Z| rf]eaf6 eof] . p;n] ;Dk"0f{
hgtfsf] kf6L{, ;Dk"0f{ hgtfsf] /fHo
/ zflGtk"0f{ ;+qmd0fsf] l;4fGt
cjnDag ub{ } tyf ju{ ;+ 3 if{
;j{xf/fju{sf] clwgfosTj / ;z:q
;+3if{sf lj?4 eLif0f xdnf af]Nb}
?;df k"FhLjfbsf] :yfkgf uof] .
kl5Nnf] cjlwdf cfpFbf s= dfcf]n]
Psflt/ cGt/f{ l i6 o sDo' l gi6
cfGbf]ngsf] uxg cWoog / csf{l] t/
:jo+ rLgd} hl6n aGb} u/fO/x]sf]
k"FhLjfbsf] :yfkgf /f]Sgsf nflu
;j{xf/f clwgfosTjcGtu{t lg/Gt/
qmflGt hf/L /fVg] l;4fGt k|ltkfbg
u/L dxfg bz jif{] ;f+:s[lts qmflGt
;+rfng ug'{ eof] .
g]kfnL sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng klg
blIf0fkGyL ;+zf]wgjfbsf] k|efjaf6
c5' t f] /xg] s' / } ePg . o;
cfGbf]ngn] ^# jif{ kf/ ul/;s]sf]
5 . olt nfdf] P]ltxfl;s cjlwdf
o; cfGbf] n g leq ju{ ;+ 3 if{ ,
hgcfGbf]ng / cGt/ ;+3if{sf cg]sf}+
hl6n, affl6f / sxflnnfUbf
3'DtLx /x]sf 5g\ . oBlk of]
cfGbf]ng nfdf] ;do klxn]bl] v cg]sf}+
;d"xpk;d"xxdf ljeflht cjZo}
/Xof] . ctM ;f/df o; cfGbf]ng leq
qmflGtsf/L / ;+ z f] w gjfbL b' O {
k/:k/lj/f]wL wf/fs} G k|dv
' ag]/
cfof] . cfh g] k fnL sDo' l gi6
cfGbf]ngsf] blIf0fkGyL ;+zf]wgjfbL
;'wf/jfbL wf/fn] cfkm"nfO{ ljhftLo
lsQfdf ;fd]n ub{] blIf0fkGyL Pj+
cfw' l gs ;+ z f] w gjfbL tyf
gj;+zf]wgjfbL wf/fdf u'0ffTds
kdf km8\sf] xfGg k'us
] f] 5 eg]
o;sf] ljkl/t g]kfnL sDo'lgi6
cfGbf]ngsf] qmflGtsf/L wf/f cfh
dfS;{jfbL n]lggjfbLdfcf]jfbLsf
kdf u'0ffTds 9+un] ljsl;t x'g
k'usf] 5 .
PsLs[t dfcf]jfbL kf6L{sf] d'Vo
g]tT[ j ;DxfNb} cfPsf k|r08afa'/fd
gj;+zf]wgjfbsf] bnbndf g/fd|/L
km:g k'u] kl5 nfdf] ;dob]lv b'O{
nfOg ;+3if{ ;+rfng ub{} cfPsf]
kf6L{sf jl/i7 pkfWoIf df]xg a}B
ls/0fn] g]t[Tj u/]sf] qmflGtsf/L
ljrf/;d"xn] ut c;f/ $ ut]sf]
/fli6o e]nfaf6 gj;+zf]wgjfb;Fu
;DaGw ljR5] b u/] / g] s kf
dfcf] j fbLsf] k' g u{ 7 g u/] k l5
gj;+zf]wgjfb g/fd|f] k/flht x'g
k'us
] f] 5 . gj;+zf]wgjfbsf d"n kfq
k|r08 / afa'/fd x'g\ . ;+zf]wgjfbsf]
juL{o cfwf/ lgDgk"FhLjfb ePsf]n]
cfhsf] o' u df ;+ z f] w gjfb
;fd| f Hojfb;F u cleGg kdf
ufFl;Psf] 5 . cGttM ;+zf]wgjfb
eg]sf] k"FhLjfbs} Pp6f k xf] .
;}4flGts kdf eGg' kbf{ ;+zf]wgjfb
bz{g, /fhgLlts cy{zf:q / j}1flgs
;dfhjfbsf] e|i6Ls/0fdf cfwfl/t
/x]sf] x'g]5 .
k|r08afa'/fddf bz{gsf] If]qdf
Psdgfjfb, cg'ejjfb, ax'njfb,
Jojxf/jfb / ;f/;+ux| jfb kfOG5 eg]
/fhgLlts sfo{ l bzfsf] If] q df
;'wf/jfb, ;+emf}tfjfb, ;dGjojfb
kfOG5 . To:t} ;] g f;DaGwL
lg;:qLs/0f / lj36g, kf6L{
;+u7gsf If]qdf lj;h{g, juL{o tyf
/fli6 o kdf cfTd;dk{ 0 fjfb,
;+ljwfg lgdf{0fsf] If]qdf kf6L{ lg0f{osf]
kl/Tofu, cfly{s tyf ;f+:s[lts
cfr/0fsf] If]qdf ;j{xf/f juL{o
cfr/0fsf] kl/Tofu / e|i6Ls/0f tyf
ljrn k}bf eof] . of] gj ;+zf]wgjfbL
k|j[lQ xf] .
gj;+zf]wgjfbLxsf] d"n k|jl[ Q
eg]sf] dfn]dfjfbsf] vf]n cf]9/] s'/f
qmflGtsf] ug{ ] / Jojxf/df
u}/qmflGtsf/L k|ltqmflGtsf/L e"ldsf
lgjf{x ug{] / 5n5fd, if8\oGq /
lts8djfhLsf] /f]n/ vf]Ng' xf] .
k|r08afa'/fdaf6 o:t} x'Fb} cfPsf]
5 . cGt/f{li6o sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng
cfh o;/L dfS;{jfb / ;+zf]wgjfbsf]
eLif0f Gsf] aLraf6 u'h|b} cfpFbf
qmflGt / k|ltqmflGtsf hLt / xf/sf
cg]sf}+ 36gfx 3l6;s]sf 5g\ .

;f/f
;+ z f] w gjfbLxsf]
qmflGtsf/LxnfO{ pu| j fbL,
cft+sjfbL, h8;"qjfbL, nkm8fjfhL,
nDk6 ;j{xf/f cflb eg]/ jbgfd
dfq u/]sf 5}gg\ eLif0f ef}lts
xdnf;Dd ug{ k'us
] f 5g\ . jf:tjdf
gj;+ z f] w gjfbL ag{ : y6fOg,
sfpT:sL, v'Z| rf]e No" zfcf] rL eGbf
klg cem} en lu/]/ 7f8} ;+;bLo
k| h ftGq, k" F h LjfbL ;+ ; b /
ax' n jfbnfO{ cfbz{ dfGb} o" / f]
sDo'lgHdsf] ktLt\ l;4fGt;Dd
c+ u fNg k' u ] s f 5g\ / cfh
gj;+zf]wgjfb gff] k"h
F Ljfbdf ;d]t
lug{ k'u]sf] 5 .
k' g u{ l 7t g] = s=kf=
dfcf]jfbLn] g]kfnL qmflGtsf afFsL
sfo{ef/x k'/f ug]{ dxfg\ p2]Zosf
;fy b] z JofkL kdf kf6L{
;\u7gxnfO{ ;'lb|t ug]{ l;nl;nfdf
cfufdL kf}if @% ut] blv /fhwfgLdf
g} P]ltxfl;s /fli6o dxflwj]zgsf]
cfof]hgf ug]{ 3f]if0ffsf ;fy clxn]
kfl6{ ;b:otf gljs/0f / ljt/0f
hgjlu{o tyf df]rf{ ;\u7gxsf]
e]nf, ;Dd]ng ul//x]sf] 5 . d\l;/
dlxgfel/ ufpF , Pl/of, lhNnf
;Dd]ngx ul/;Sg] / kf}if !) ut]
leq ;a} /fHo :t/sf clwj]zgx
;DkGg ul/;Sg] lg0f{o ul/;s]kl5
g]kfnsf] jt{dfg sDo'lgi6 gofF t/\u
k} b f ul/lbPsf] 5 . cfufdL
dxflwj]zgn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ sfo{lbzfn]
g} g]kfnL qmflGtsf] eljiosf] lgwf{/0f
ug] { ePsf] n ] clxn] g] = s=kf=
dfcf]jfbLleq cfufdL g]kfnL qmflGtsf]
;xL, j}1flgs / qmflGtsf/L sfo{lbzf
s] x'g] eGg] ljifodf Jofks ax;
cf/De ePsf] 5 . sflQsel/df
kf6L{sf] s]Gb|Lo sldl6n] dxflwj]zgdf
k|:t't /fhg}lts k|ltj]bg tof/ u/]/
;Dk"0f{ kf6L{ ;b:oxsf] lardf
k'ofO;Sg] / To;kl5 Jofks ax;
rnfpg] lg0f{o ul/;s]sf] 5 . o;
lg0f{ o n]
kf6L{
leqsf
cfdqmflGtsf/LxnfO{ p] l nt
u/fO;s]sf] 5 . g]=s=kf=dfcf]jfbLsf]
of] a[xt tof/LnfO{ b]v]/ cft\lst
ePsf] Pdfcf] j fbL leqsf]
gj;+ z f] w gjfbL u' 6 n] cfufdL
dxflwj]zg Pstfsf] dxflwj]zg
x' g ] 5 , kf6L{ Pstf eO5f8\ 5 /
dfcf]jfbLn] klg kf6L{nfO{ lgjf{rg
cfof]udf btf{ u/fP/ xfdL h:t}
;+;bLo kf6L{ agfpFb} 5 eGg] h:tf
cgu{n k|r/afhL 5]8/] w'Tof{O{ k|:t't
ul/x]sf] 5 . oL ;a} s'/fx pgLxn]
clxn];Dd ub}{ cfPsf] hfnem]n
if8\oGqsf] /fhgLlt xf] eGg] s'/f a'em\g
/ cfkm\gf] u'dL ;s]sf] cl:tTj
arfpgsf] lglDt ul/Psf] k|k~rafx]s
s]xL x}gg\ eGg] s'/f a'em\g cfjZos
5 / qmflGt ug{sf lglDt qmflGtsf/L
ljrf/ / qmflGtsf/L kf6L{ cfjZos
kg]{ ePsf]n] g]=s=kf=dfcf]jfbL oxL
bfz{lgs dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft u/]/
gofF 9+usf] sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ lgdf{0f
ug{ afWo ePsf] s'/f a'emg cfjZos
x'G5 . oL tdfd k|sf/sf ;sf/fTds
/ gsf/fTds ljifoxbnfO{ cfd
sfdo{stf{ / hgtfsf lardf n}hfg
cfjZos 5 . of] ;fgf] n] v n]
gj;+zf]wgjfbLxsf] hfnem]n if8oGq
/ tdfd k| s f/sf k| k ~r tyf
w'TofFO{xnfO{ gf\u]emf/ kfg{ /
qmflGtsf/L dfS;{jfbsf cfwf/e"t
l;4fGtxdf cl8u /lx dxfg\ g]kfnL
qmflGtnfO{ ;DkGg ug]{ sl7g t/ dxfg\
nIosf ;fy kf6L{sf] of] k'gu{7gsf]
of] dxfg\ k|lqmofdf k|lta4tfsf ;fy
cfj4 eO/x]sf g]tfsfo{stf{xnfO{
;}4flGts tyf j}rfl/s cfwf/x
lgdf{0f ug{sf] lglDt of] ;fgf] n]v
sf]z] 9'U+ ff ;dljt x'g5
] eGg] ljZjf;
lnPsf] 5' . g]kfn qmflGt ;Dej 5
To;}n] xfdL qmflGtsf] lglDt ;dlk|t
ePsfxn] dfn]dffjfbsf] /Iff, ljsf;
/ k|of]u ug]{ ;efjndf k|ydtM
;a}vfn] ;+zf]wgjfb / ljz]iftM
gj;+ z f] w gjfbsf lj4 leif0f
j}rfl/s ;+3if{ u/]/ dfq xfdLn]
qmflGtdf xf]ldg ;S5f}+ .
n]vs g]skfdfcf]jfbLsf s]Gb|Lo
;Nnfxsf/ tyf s]lGb|o cg'zf;g
ljefu / s] G b| L o kf6L{ :s' l n\
ljefusf ;lrj x'gx' G' 5 .

/fatOfc t]u *@ hf];c nf; (^)@


bf] x f] / f] pTkL8gaf6 cfqmfGt
j}bl] zs===
cljsl;t b] z xsf qmflGtsf

pTs[i6===
lgb]z
{ s uf}td / ;lrj l;Gxfn] 5f]/L
/ >LdtLn] k/LIff lbPsf] kbsf]
pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f u/]sf] kfOPsf]
/ lgotj; g} pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f
u/]sf] eGg] cy{ ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf
/x]sf]n] pgLx?sf] k/LIff /2 ul/Psf]
cfof]un] :ki6 kf/]sf] 5 . k/LIffsf]
k|Zgkq kl/dfh{g sfo{df ;d]t l;Gxf
/ uf}tdsf] ;+nUgtf lyof] . nf]s;]jf
cfof]un] pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f u/L
k7fpg] cg'/f]w kqsf] a'bF f g+= * df
k/LIf0fstf{sf] s'g} gft]bf/n] ;f] k/LIff
lbPsf] eP l;naGbL ?kdf g}
pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f gu/L lkmtf{
ug{k' g]5
{ eGg] :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v
x'G5 . l;Gxfn] cjsfz kfO;s]sf 5g\
eg] kf]xf]/ k/LIff lgoGq0f sfof{nosf]
k/LIff lgoGqs eP/ /fd|f] u/]sf] eGb}
k'/:s[t ePsf uf}td clxn] z}lIfs
hgzlSt ljsf; s]Gb|sf sfo{sf/L
lgb]z
{ s 5g\ . pSt ljifodf nf]s;]jf
cfof] u sf pk;lrj ;" o { g fy
sf]O/fnfsf] x:tfIf/df hf/L ul/Psf]
lj1flKtsf] k"0f{ ljj/0f o; k|sf/sf]
lj=g+ =
5
cfof] u sf]
@%**@%(#)^*^(, g]kfn lzIff
;]jf, lzIff k|zf;g ;d"x, lg/LIf0f
pk;d"xsf] ljBfno lg/LIfs kbsf
k/LIffyL{ clGtdf s'df/L l;Gxf /
OlGb/f 9sfn uf}td lnlvt k/LIffaf6
pQL0f{ ePsf] ;Gbe{df 5fgljg ubf{
pQL0f{ k/LIffyL{ clGtdf s'df/L l;Gxf
/ OGbL/f 9sfn uf}tdsf cfg}
gft]bf/ qmdzM afa' /fd:j?k l;Gxf
/ klt ;"ok{ ;
| fb uf}tdaf6 nf]s;]jf
cfof]u -sfo{;~rfng_ lgb]l{ zsf, @)^&
sf] cg';r
" L !( sf] pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f
u/L k7fpg] cg'/f]w kqsf] a'bF f g+= *
df k/LIf0fstf{sf] s'g} gft]bf/n] ;f]
k/LIff lbPsf] eP l;naGbL ?kdf g}
pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f gu/L lkmtf{
ug{k' g]5
{ . eGg] :ki6 ?kdf pNn]v
ePsf] k|fjwfg ljkl/t cfg} glhssf
gft]bf/ qmdzM 5f]/L / >LdtLn] k/LIff
lbPsf] cj:yfdf ;d]t ;f] kbsf]
pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f u/]sf] b]lvFbf
lgotj; g} pQ/k'l:tsf k/LIf0f u/]sf]
eGg] cy{ ug{ ;lsg] cj:yf /x]sf] /
;f] kbsf] k/LIffsf] k|Zgkq kl/dfh{g
sfo{df ;d]t lghx? ;+nUg /x]af6
kl/l:ylthGo k| d f0faf6 ;d] t
pNn]lvt bIfx?sf] lgot ;kmf /x]sf]
eGg ;lsg] cj:yf gxFbf pNn]lvt
k/LIffyL{x?nfO{ ;3fp k'Ug] 9af6
cfof]usf] lgikIftfdf cfFr cfpg] u/L
ePsf] pNn]lvt sfo{df cfwf/df lgh
k/LIffyL{ qmdzM clGtdf s'df/L l;Gxf
/ OlGb/f 9sfn uf}tdsf] pSt k/LIff
/2 ug'{ egL nf]s;]jf cfof]uaf6 ldlt
@)^()^@$ df lg0f{o ePsf]n]
pko'S{ t b'j} k/LIffyL{x?sf] plNnlvt
k/LIff /2 ul/Psf] Joxf]/f ;DalGwt
;a}sf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu of] ;"rgf
k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 .

hg:jfod\===
e|i6frf/lj?4 b]zJofkL cleofg
rnfpg]5 . clxn];Dd o'jfxsf] k|of]u

ug{] / clGtddf wf]sf / if8\oGq x'bF }


cfPsf] 5 . xfdLn] eg] gofF 9+uaf6
hfg'k5{ eg]sf 5f}F rnfpg]n] eg] .
rnfpg]n] ;+u7gn] cw'/f qmflGt k"/f ug{]
e"ldsf v]Ng] / kl/l:ylt cfP ;+u7g
h'g;'s} e"ldsf lgjf{x tof/ x'g] atfP .

;+s6===
k|r08nfO{ ;d]t k|wfgdGqL e/fO{
k6sk6s yf\gfdf ;'tfpg ;kmn
ePsf] ljZn]ifsxsf] a'emfO 5 .
b]z / hgtf e8\vfnf]df k?g\
t/ cfk"mrflxF ;w}F ;/sf/d} /lx/x'F
eGg] k|wfgdGqL e/fO{sf] xfl83f]K6]
z}nLn] g} b]zn] lgsf; kfpg g;s]sf]
xf] . /fi6kltn] ;d]t sfdrnfp
eg]/ tf]lslbFbf;d]t cfk"m sfo{sf/L
;/sf/ ePsf] kmnfSg /lQe/
glxrlsrfpg] k|wfgdGqL e/fO{
;/sf/s} sf/0f b] z ;+ s 6sf]
bnbndf km:g k'u]sf] xf] . b]zdf
j}bl] zs x:tIf]k tLj|kdf a9L /x]sf]
5, b]zL, ljb]zL k|ltlqmofjfbLx
;nanfpF b } 5 g\ . zflGt;' / Iff
lbgk|ltlbg lau|bF f] 5 . clgoldttf,
cTofrf/, cGofo, dxFuL / e|i6frf/n]
cfsfz r'Dg nfu]sf] 5 . t/ klg
k|wfgdGqL e/fO{ b]zdf ;'zf;g sfod
5 eg]/ lgn{Hh tl/sfn] s'nL{ /x]sf
5g\ . pgsf] oxL sfo{z}nLn] b]z
;+s6u|:t aGb} uPsf] 5 . hgtf
cGofo / cTofrf/df lklN;/x]sf 5g\ .
oL ;a}sf] k|dv
' sf/s eg]sf] jt{dfg
;/sf/, k|wfgdGqL e/fO{ g} x'g eg]
cfdg]kfnLsf] a'emfO{ /x]sf] 5 .

u|gfkmffp08]
8===
cfh{g ug]{ If]qsf ?kdf xjfO{
pBf]uLn] lng] u/]sf 5g\ . a9\tf
xjfO{ ofq'sf] rfk /xg] ;f] If]qdf
lgudn] p8fg ug{] xf] eg] ofq'n]
;xh?kdf ;]jf lng ;Sg] atfOPsf]
5 . lghL If]qsf xjfO{ ;]jf k|bfosn]
ofq'nfO{ ;]jf lbg] gfddf a9\tf ef8f
lnPsf] / a9\tf /sd kfP rf6{8 p8fg
ug{] / c? ofq'nfO{ cnkq kfg]{ u/]sf]
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l;+xb/af/, sf7df8f}F kmf]gM $@!!&!)
Od]n M info@nitc.gov.np, j]a;fO6 M www.nitc.gov.np

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