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Plant Cell/ Plant Tissue Specimens: prepared slide or free hand sections of a young herbaceous dicot stem such

as sunflowers, mayana or gulasiman, santan, adelfa (bark), bangka-bangkaan (leaf). Objective: Procedure: A. Sunflower etc. Examine prepared slide of the cross section of a young herbaceous dicot stem (e.g., sunflower, mayana, gulasiman). Under LPO and HPO, free hand sections may also be used. Under HPO, identify the ff. simple permanent tissues: 1. Epidermis- the outermost layer of cells. 2. Collenchyma- located directly beneath the epidermis and consisting a few layers of cells with unevenly thickened cell walls. 3. parenchyma- a widely distributed tissue located beneath the collenchyma between the vascular bundles (consisting of vascular tissues) and at the center of the section. Also examine a prepared slide of the cross section of the midrib of santan under LPO and HPO free hand section may be used. Under HPO, be able to identify: 4. Sclerenchyma- foun in groups or clusters among the parenchyma cells around the vascular tissues. B. Adelfa Also examine a prepared slide of the cross-section of the bark of Adelfa under LPO and HPO, Under HPO be able to identify the outermost tissue, cork consisting of several layers of cells. C. Bangka-bangkaan (Rheodiscolor) Prepare a temporary mount containing thin fresh surface sections of the uppermost and lower epidermis of Rheo discolor. Use a razor blade for making such sections. Under LPO and HPO, not the difference between the lower and upper epidermis. Be able to identify the ordinary epidermal cells, guard cells and stomatical pores. OBSERVATIONS/ DISCUSSION I. from the various specimens observed, draw under HPO six to twelve cells of each of the ff. tissues: 1. Epidermis 3. Collenchyma 5. Cork 2. Parenchyma 4. Sclerenchyma

II. Answer the following questions: 1. Is the upper epidermis of the Rheo discolor provided with stomata? How about the lower epidermis? 2. Are the ordinary epidermal cells provided with chloropalstids? 3. How may the simple permanent tissues may be classified according to function? Give at least four types. 4. What specific tissues may be included under each category?