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Cc thit b un nc nng s dng nng lng mt tri c s dng pin mt tri khng? Khng !

C hai u hp th nng lng ca mt tri, nhng hon ton khc nhau: Thit b un nc nng dng cc ng kim loi phi nng hp th nhit t mt tri, lm cho nc nng ln s dng trong sinh hot gia nh. Cc bp in nng lng mt tri hay cc my sy dng cho cc h trong nng nghip cng vy, ni chung gi l Solar Thermal System, s dng nguyn tc phi nng hp thu nhit nng. Cc h thng pin nng lng mt tri (Solar Power System) th s dng cc tm pin mt tri hp thu bc x t tia sng mt tri cho ra in nng.

Ti mun lp t in mt tri s dng cho gia nh nhng khng bit gi c n th no? Vo http://www.minhha.vn/solarhome.html xem mt s gi tham kho.

nh t vn thit k h pin nng lng mt tri, ti cn cung cp nhng thng tin g? Bc u ch cn bn thng bo chi tit 1. Cng sut (watt hoc VA) v thi gian (s gi) s dng trong ngy ca tng thit b m h thng s cung cp 2. V tr lp t trm. 3. Cc thng tin ph nh u t s dng cho gia nh, cho sn xut, cho khch hng...

Pin mt tri l g? Lm sao n c th to ta in? Pin mt tri (solar cell) c cu to bi nhng cht bn dn (semiconductor), thng thng l Silicon (Si). Trc tin cc lp bn dn ny c lm nhim tha in tch dng (gi l p-conducting semiconductor layer) c tha cc l, v lm nhim thiu in tch dng (gi l n-conducting semiconductor layer) c tha cc electron. Nu ta kp mt lp p c d in tch dng c tha l vi mt lp n b thiu in tch dng c

nhiu electron th r rng cc electron lp n s chc ch mun nhy sang lp p chim cc l. Ri th cc electron t lp n cng m qua bin gii n-p junction nhy sang lp p. Bin gii ny b mt thng bng in tch nn phn ng li bng cch to ra 1 in trng dc theo n, y cc electron sang tn mp bn kia ca lp n v y cc l sang tn mp bn kia ca lp p. Ngn cch xy ra!! Cc electron t lp n khng cn qua c cc l bn lp p c na. By gi nu ta bt cu, ni dy dn t lp n sang lp p cc electron t lp n c th nhy sang lp p? Chng qu yu di chuyn. Th ri di bc x ca nh nng mt tri, cc photon chm vo lp silicon v mang nng lng n cho chng: cc photon cung cp nng lng cc electron thot ra khi nhn to thnh cc electron di chuyn t do, t mt ngoi ca lp n, chng theo dy dn chy sang lp p bn kia gp cc l, to thnh dng in. V khi nh nng mt tri cn mang photon n th qu trnh ny li xy ra, to ra dng in lin tc ta s dng.

Hiu sut ca pin mt tri l g? l hiu sut bin i nng lng (conversion efficiency) ca pin mt tri., l t s gia lng in nng n sn xut ra vi lng nng lng n nhn c t nh sng mt tri. Khi hiu sut bin i cng cao, pin mt tri sn xut ra nhiu nng lng hn. Hiu sut bin i ca pin mt tri l do cu to ca n (xem thm mc sn phm/solar/pin mt tri) Bng y cho ta tham kho hiu sut ny

MPP l g? Cc tm pin mt tri lm t vt liu Silicon nn dng v p ca chng cng c quan h vi nhau, ch khng phi bt k. Khi pin mt tri mt in th no th n cng c mt dng in tng ng. V tt c cc cp im ny li ta c ng cong c tnh V-I ca pin mt tri. Vi mt im lm vic no ca n ta s c mt V v mt I tng ng, v cng sut n to ra s l P = VI Chc chn l P ny s thay i khi im lm vic thay i, v im no cho ta P ln nht th gi l im cng sut cc i ca tm pin mt tri (Maximum Power Point: MPP) ng cong c tnh dng in in p ca tm pin mt tri cho ta quan h V v I t xc nh c im cng sut cc i ca n c hnh dng nh hnh sau y.

MPPT l g? MPPT hay Maximum Power Point Tracking l thut ton m b charge controllers s dng lm cho cc tm pin mt tri kt ni vo n hp th ti a nng lng mt tri. Khi tia nng mt tri thay i (nh khi tri rm mt hay nng ln) im MPP ca tm pin mt tri thay i theo. B charge controllers c MPPT ca Leonics c thit k vi-x-l bn trong lun theo di c quan h V-I, p tm pin mt tri phi lm vic ti im cng sut cc i, nhm lm cho cc tm pin mt tri hp th nng lng ti a. B solar charger controller loi PWM v loi b solar charger controller MPPT khc nhau nh th no? Nhim v c bn nht ca b iu khin charge l iu chnh in p ra ca PV panel thnh in p thch hp np cho acquy. lm iu ny, trc y ngi ta dung nguyn tc PWM (iu rng xung) v sau ny l MPPT (lm vic im cng sut ln nht) Nguyn tc PWM thng c dng trong cc mch n p, nu PV panel c in p 17V trong khi in p charge cho acquy ch c 13.6V, ngi ta s s dng 1 mch transistor ng ct lin tc lm n ch cp in trong 80% thi gian (17V * 80% = 13.6V). C th hiu c iu ny khi xem hnh v sau:

Tuy nhin phng php PWM trn c mt nhc im qu ln: n phung ph 20% nng lng ca pV panel trong trng hp trn. V d thy rng nu dng b charger controller loi PWM cho cc PV panel c in th cao hn 17V th mc phung ph cng tng nhiu. Trong tnh hnh gi thnh PV panel hin nay cn cao, cc solar charger controller PWM hin nay t c s dng. Cc solar charger controller hin nay thng dng phng php MPPT. Phng php ny thot ra khi quan nim iu p c k ca PWM a vo quan im khc: lm sao s dng ti u hiu sut ca PV panel. Do vy n kh phc tp v tn km. Nguyn tc ca n l dng cc mch vi-x-l theo di im lm vic c cng sut cc i ca PV panel, p PV panel lun lm vic im ny ly ti a nng lng ca PV panel (im MPP ca PV panel cng lun thay i do nh nng thay i). Sau a nng lng ny sang 1 mch charge bnh, v mch ny c lp nn c th thit k c nhiu ch charge, ti u ha vic np bnh v thi gian np v cch np ko di tui th bnh. Mt u im khc l vo ban m, khi in p ca PV panel bng khng, nng lng c d tr acquy c in th ln c khuynh hng chy ngc v panel th n cch ly ra chng ra hon ton, va bo v PV panel va bo v nng lng d tr bnh. iu ny th b PWM kh c th thc hin hon ho c. Cc solar charger controller MPPT c gi t hn nhiu so vi cc solar charger controller PWM. Tuy nhin n xng ng c dng v nu tnh trn hiu sut ca c h

thng th n li r hn nhiu so vi khi dng loi PWM c, lm mt hiu sut trn 10% hay hn th na.

Panel Generation Factor (PGF)l g? Lm sao tm ra h s PGF tnh ton cho h thng nng lng mt tri ca ti? Tham kho thm ti y Trong thit k h thng solar, s dng bao nhiu tm pin mt tri l iu trc tin phi lm. Cc tm pin mt tri hp th bc x v pht ra in nhiu hay t ty thuc vo kh hu tng vng. Nh c h s hp thu bc x ca pin mt tri (PGF) ta c th bit c vng ta th hp thu bc x ca pin mt tri l bao nhiu t tnh ra s lng tm pin mt tri cn s dng. (Xem hng dn thit k mt h solar) Di y l cc h s hp thu bc x ca pin mt tri (panel generation factor) ngi ta o c kho st ti nhiu vng trn th gii. Bn nhn chut vo bn bn di bit h s hp th bc x tng vng

h tr cc bn c c h s hp th bc x PGF thit k h solar trong nc, hy bm vo y vo chuyn mc PGF trong forum tm xem hoc post cu hi. Bn cng c th email minhhaltd@vnn.vn, bo cho chng ti cho bit kinh tuyn v v tuyn, hoc m t cho chng ti bit chnh xc v tr trm solar ca bn, chng ti s cho bn h s PGF hp th bc x ca pin mt tri.

Ti sao pin mt tri khng t nm phng ngang nhn tia sng mt tri tt hn m li t hi nghing nghing? Qu t ta khng phi l mt mt phng m l hnh cu quay xung quanh mt tri. Ch vng ng xch o thng gc vi tia sng mt tri cn cc vng khc th khng. vng xch o gc ti ca tia sng mt tri bng 0, cng x dch n cc a cu th gc ti ca tia sng mt tri cng ln. Do vy cc ni ny pin mt tri khng t nm phng ngang m li t hi nghing c gc ti bng 0, pin mt tri hp th ti a bc x mt tri.

Nu Bc bn cu, pin mt tri t nghing v pha Nam 1 gc bng v Nu Nam bn cu, pin mt tri t nghing v pha Bc 1 gc bng v